South Carolina

South Carolina

Overview
South Carolina is a state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 in the Deep South
Deep South
The Deep South is a descriptive category of the cultural and geographic subregions in the American South. Historically, it is differentiated from the "Upper South" as being the states which were most dependent on plantation type agriculture during the pre-Civil War period...

 of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 that borders Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

 to the south, North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

 to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina
Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina, originally chartered in 1629, was an English and later British colony of North America. Because the original Heath charter was unrealized and was ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, in 1663...

, the Province of South Carolina
Province of South Carolina
The South Carolina Colony, or Province of South Carolina, was originally part of the Province of Carolina, which was chartered in 1663. The colony later became the U.S. state of South Carolina....

 was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence from the British Crown during the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

. The colony was originally named by King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 in honor of his father Charles I
Charles I of England
Charles I was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles...

, as Carolus is Latin for Charles
Charles
Charles is a given name for males and is borrowed from the French form of the Latin Carolus Charles is a given name for males and is borrowed from the French form of the Latin Carolus...

. South Carolina was the first state to vote to secede from the Union
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and was the founding state of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

.
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Timeline

1776   South Carolina becomes the first American colony to declare its independence from Great Britain and set up its own government.

1778   South Carolina becomes the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation.

1780   American Revolutionary War: Battle of Kings Mountain American Patriot militia defeat Loyalist irregulars led by British colonel Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina.

1788   South Carolina ratifies the Constitution as the 8th American state.

1832   President Andrew Jackson writes to Vice President Martin Van Buren expressing his opposition to South Carolina's defiance of federal authority in the Nullification Crisis.

1856   Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina beats Senator Charles Sumner with a cane in the hall of the United States Senate for a speech Sumner had made attacking Southerners who sympathized with the pro-slavery violence in Kansas ("Bleeding Kansas").

1860   South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the United States.

1861   American Civil War: Georgia joins South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, and Alabama in seceding from the United States.

1863   American Civil War: Confederates evacuate Battery Wagner and Morris Island in South Carolina.

1870   Joseph H. Rainey of South Carolina becomes the first black U.S. congressman.

 
Encyclopedia
South Carolina is a state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 in the Deep South
Deep South
The Deep South is a descriptive category of the cultural and geographic subregions in the American South. Historically, it is differentiated from the "Upper South" as being the states which were most dependent on plantation type agriculture during the pre-Civil War period...

 of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 that borders Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

 to the south, North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

 to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina
Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina, originally chartered in 1629, was an English and later British colony of North America. Because the original Heath charter was unrealized and was ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, in 1663...

, the Province of South Carolina
Province of South Carolina
The South Carolina Colony, or Province of South Carolina, was originally part of the Province of Carolina, which was chartered in 1663. The colony later became the U.S. state of South Carolina....

 was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence from the British Crown during the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

. The colony was originally named by King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 in honor of his father Charles I
Charles I of England
Charles I was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles...

, as Carolus is Latin for Charles
Charles
Charles is a given name for males and is borrowed from the French form of the Latin Carolus Charles is a given name for males and is borrowed from the French form of the Latin Carolus...

. South Carolina was the first state to vote to secede from the Union
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and was the founding state of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

. According to the 2010 United States Census, the state is ranked 24th among the U.S. states by population, at 4,625,384 people. South Carolina contains 46 counties and its capital is Columbia
Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 129,272 according to the 2010 census. Columbia is the county seat of Richland County, but a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County. The city is the center of a metropolitan...

.

Geography


South Carolina is bordered to the north by North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

; to the south and west by Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

, located across the Savannah River
Savannah River
The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. Two tributaries of the Savannah, the Tugaloo River and the Chattooga River, form the northernmost part of the border...

; and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean.

South Carolina is composed of five geographic areas, or physiographic provinces
Physiographic regions of the world
The physiographic regions of the world are a means of defining the Earth's landforms into distinct regions based upon classic 1916 three-tiered approach defining divisions, provinces, and sections...

, whose boundaries roughly parallel the Atlantic coastline. In the southeast part of the state is the Coastal Plain
Atlantic Coastal Plain
The Atlantic coastal plain has both low elevation and low relief, but it is also a relatively flat landform extending from the New York Bight southward to a Georgia/Florida section of the Eastern Continental Divide, which demarcates the plain from the ACF River Basin in the Gulf Coastal Plain to...

, which can be divided into the Outer and Inner Coastal Plains. From north to south the coast is divided into three separate areas, the Grand Strand
Grand Strand
The Grand Strand refers to a large stretch of beaches on the East Coast of the United States extending from Little River to Georgetown in the U.S. State of South Carolina. It consists of 60+ miles along an essentially uninterrupted arc of beach land, beginning around the Little River and...

, the Santee River
Santee River
The Santee River is a river in South Carolina in the United States, long. The Santee and its tributaries provide the principal drainage and navigation for the central coastal plain of South Carolina, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean approximately from its farthest headwater on the Catawba River...

 Delta, and the Sea Islands
Sea Islands
The Sea Islands are a chain of tidal and barrier islands on the Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States. They number over 100, and are located between the mouths of the Santee and St. Johns Rivers along the coast of the U.S...

. Further inland are the Sandhills
Sandhills (Carolina)
The Sandhills is a region in the interior of the U.S. states of North Carolina and South Carolina. It is a strip of ancient beach dunes which generally divides the Piedmont from the coastal plain, and is the evidence of a former coastline when the ocean level was higher, or the land lower. The...

, ancient dunes from what used to be South Carolina's coast millions of years ago. The Fall Line
Fall line
A fall line is a geomorphologic unconformity between an upland region of relatively hard crystalline basement rock and a coastal plain of softer sedimentary rock. A fall line is typically prominent when crossed by a river, for there will often be rapids or waterfalls...

, which marks the limit of navigable rivers, runs along the boundary of the Sandhills and the Piedmont
Piedmont (United States)
The Piedmont is a plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching from New Jersey in the north to central Alabama in the south. The Piedmont province is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division...

, which has rolling hills and clay soils. In the northwest corner of the state are the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. This province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, starting at its southern-most...

, the smallest geographical region in the state.

The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown
Georgetown, South Carolina
Georgetown is the third oldest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina and the county seat of Georgetown County, in the Low Country. Located on Winyah Bay at the confluence of the Great Pee Dee River, Waccamaw River, and Sampit River, Georgetown is the second largest seaport in South Carolina,...

 and Charleston
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded. The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location from a location on the west bank of the...

. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain. One prominent, but incorrect, theory says that they were created by a meteor shower. The bays tend to be oval, lining up in a northwest to southeast orientation. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed entirely of recent sediments such as sand, silt, and clay. Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland, though some land is swampy. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests
Middle Atlantic coastal forests
The Middle Atlantic coastal forests are a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of the United States.-Setting:The Middle Atlantic coastal forests stretch along the Atlantic coast of the United States from the Delmarva Peninsula south to the Georgia coast...

 ecoregion
Ecoregion
An ecoregion , sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than an ecozone and larger than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural...

.
Palmetto State
State Symbols
State Capital: Columbia
Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 129,272 according to the 2010 census. Columbia is the county seat of Richland County, but a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County. The city is the center of a metropolitan...

State Mottos: Dum spiro spero
Dum spiro spero
Dum spiro spero means "While I breathe, I hope" in Latin and is generally attributed to Cicero.It is a motto of various places and families.-States and Towns:*The notable origin of the motto is St Andrews, Fife, Scotland...

 
(While I breathe, I hope)
and Animis opibusque parati 
(Prepared in Mind and Resources)
State Slogan: Smiling Faces Beautiful Places
State Songs: "Carolina
Carolina (song)
"Carolina" is the official state song of South Carolina since 1911. In 1984, it was joined by "South Carolina On My Mind".- History :The lyrics of the song are based on a poem by Henry Timrod. This poem was edited by G.R. Goodwin and was set to music by Anne Curtis Burgess...

" and
"South Carolina On My Mind
South Carolina on My Mind
South Carolina On My Mind is a song written and recorded by native South Carolinians Hank Martin and Buzz Arledge. It was adopted by South Carolina as a second state song1 on March 8, 1984.2 It joins "Carolina," which has been a state song since 1911....

"
State Tree: Sabal palmetto
Sabal palmetto
Sabal palmetto, also known as cabbage palm, palmetto, cabbage palmetto, palmetto palm, blue palmetto, Carolina palmetto, common palmetto, swamp cabbage and sabal palm, is one of 15 species of palmetto palm . It is native to the southeastern United States, Cuba, and the Bahamas...

State Flower: South Carolina Yellow jessamine
State Bird: Carolina Wren
Carolina Wren
The Carolina Wren is a common species of wren, resident in the eastern half of the USA, the extreme south of Ontario, Canada, and the extreme northeast of Mexico...

State Wild Game Bird: Wild Turkey
Wild Turkey
The Wild Turkey is native to North America and is the heaviest member of the Galliformes. It is the same species as the domestic turkey, which derives from the South Mexican subspecies of wild turkey .Adult wild turkeys have long reddish-yellow to grayish-green...

State Heritage Horse: Carolina Marsh Tacky
Carolina Marsh Tacky
The Carolina Marsh Tacky or Marsh Tacky is a rare breed of horse, native to South Carolina. It is a member of the Colonial Spanish group of horse breeds, which also include the Florida Cracker Horse and the Banker horse of North Carolina. It is a small horse, well adapted for use in the lowland...

State Dog: Boykin Spaniel
Boykin Spaniel
Discovered and further developed by South Carolina hunters for hunters in the 1900s, the Boykin Spaniel is a medium-sized breed of dog, a Spaniel bred for hunting wild turkeys and ducks in the Wateree River Swamp of South Carolina, in the United States...

State Animal: White-tailed deer
White-tailed Deer
The white-tailed deer , also known as the Virginia deer or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States , Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru...

State Reptile: Loggerhead Sea Turtle
Loggerhead Sea Turtle
The loggerhead sea turtle , or loggerhead, is an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world. It is a marine reptile, belonging to the family Cheloniidae. The average loggerhead measures around long when fully grown, although larger specimens of up to have been discovered...

State Amphibian: Salamander
Salamander
Salamander is a common name of approximately 500 species of amphibians. They are typically characterized by a superficially lizard-like appearance, with their slender bodies, short noses, and long tails. All known fossils and extinct species fall under the order Caudata, while sometimes the extant...

State Fish: Striped bass
Striped bass
The striped bass is the state fish of Maryland, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and the state saltwater fish of New York, Virginia, and New Hampshire...

State Insect: Carolina Mantis
Carolina mantis
The Carolina mantis is a praying mantis native to the Southern United States and one of six species found in North America. It grows to approximately in length....

State Butterfly: Eastern tiger swallowtail
Eastern tiger swallowtail
The Eastern Tiger Swallowtail is a species of swallowtail butterfly native to North America. It is one of the most familiar butterflies in the eastern United States, where it is common in many different habitats. It flies from spring to fall, during which it produces two to three broods...

State Fruit: Peach
Peach
The peach tree is a deciduous tree growing to tall and 6 in. in diameter, belonging to the subfamily Prunoideae of the family Rosaceae. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach...

State Beverage: Milk
Milk
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many...

State Hospitality
Beverage
:
Tea
Tea
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

State Gemstone: Amethyst
Amethyst
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry. The name comes from the Ancient Greek ἀ a- and μέθυστος methustos , a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness; the ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst and made drinking vessels of it in the belief...

State Stone: Blue
Blue
Blue is a colour, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 440–490 nm. It is considered one of the additive primary colours. On the HSV Colour Wheel, the complement of blue is yellow; that is, a colour corresponding to an equal...

 granite
Granite
Granite is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granite usually has a medium- to coarse-grained texture. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a porphyritic...

State Popular Music: Beach music
Beach music
Beach music, also known as Carolina beach music, is a regional genre which developed from various musical styles of the forties, fifties and sixties. These styles ranged from big band swing instrumentals to the more raucous sounds of blues/jump blues, jazz, doo-wop, boogie, rhythm and blues,...

State Dance: Shag
Carolina shag
Carolina Shag is a six-count partner dance done mostly to moderate tempo music . During the dance the upper body and hips hardly move as the legs do convoluted kicks and fancy footwork. The lead is the center of attention, and the follow's steps either mirror the lead's or mark time while the lead...

State Snack: Boiled peanuts
Boiled peanuts
Boiled peanuts are popular in some places where peanuts are common. Fully mature peanuts do not make good quality boiled peanuts; rather raw or "green" ones are used. "Raw" denotes peanuts in a semi-mature state, having achieved full size, but not being fully dried, as would be needed for roasting...

State Craft: Sweetgrass
Muhlenbergia filipes
Muhlenbergia filipes, gulf hairawn muhly or sweetgrass, and syn. Muhlenbergia capillaris , is a species of grass in the Poaceae family. It is native to the Southeastern United States.-Seminole Basketry:...

 Basket weaving
Basket weaving
Basket weaving is the process of weaving unspun vegetable fibres into a basket or other similar form. People and artists who weave baskets are called basketmakers and basket weavers.Basketry is made from a variety of fibrous or pliable materials•anything that will bend and form a shape...

State Quarter
50 State Quarters
The 50 State Quarters program is the release of a series of circulating commemorative coins by the United States Mint. Between 1999 and 2008, it featured each of the 50 U.S. states on unique designs for the reverse of the quarter....



Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region. The Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher.

The Piedmont (Upstate) region contains the roots of an ancient, eroded mountain chain. It is generally hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, and contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed, with little success. It is now reforested. These forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests
Southeastern mixed forests
The Southeastern mixed forests are a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of the United States.-Setting:This ecoregion covers the Piedmont of the eastern United States, stretching in a broad arc from Maryland southwest to Mississippi. It is distinguished from neighboring ecoregions by elevation...

 ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line
Fall line
A fall line is a geomorphologic unconformity between an upland region of relatively hard crystalline basement rock and a coastal plain of softer sedimentary rock. A fall line is typically prominent when crossed by a river, for there will often be rapids or waterfalls...

, where rivers drop to the coastal plain. The fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia
Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 129,272 according to the 2010 census. Columbia is the county seat of Richland County, but a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County. The city is the center of a metropolitan...

. The larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line, providing a trade route for mill towns.

The northwestern part of the Piedmont is also known as the Foothills. The Cherokee Parkway
South Carolina Highway 11
The Cherokee Foothills National Scenic Highway winds its way through Upstate South Carolina. Following the southernmost peaks of the Blue Ridge Mountains, the route is surrounded with peach orchards, quaint villages, and parks...

 is a scenic driving route through this area. This is where Table Rock State Park
Table Rock State Park (South Carolina)
Table Rock State Park is a park at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains in northern Pickens County, South Carolina. The park includes Pinnacle Mountain, the tallest mountain totally within the state.-Park Features:...

 is located.


Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment
Escarpment
An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that occurs from erosion or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations.-Description and variants:...

 of the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. This province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, starting at its southern-most...

, which continue into North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

 and Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

, as part of the southern Appalachian
Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains #Whether the stressed vowel is or ,#Whether the "ch" is pronounced as a fricative or an affricate , and#Whether the final vowel is the monophthong or the diphthong .), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians...

 chain. Sassafras Mountain
Sassafras Mountain
Sassafras Mountain is the highest point in the state of South Carolina, USA.-Height:Its summit elevation is 3564 feet above mean sea level. It is also part of the Appalachian Mountains.-Location:...

, South Carolina's highest point at 3560 feet (1,085.1 m) is located in this area. Also located in this area is Caesars Head State Park
Caesars Head State Park
Caesars Head State Park is located in northern Greenville County, SC, only three miles from the North Carolina border. Along with Jones Gap State Park, the park forms the Mountain Bridge Wilderness Area....

. The environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests
Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests
The Appalachian-Blue Ridge Forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion of the Eastern United States, delineated by the World Wide Fund for Nature.-Setting:...

 ecoregion
Ecoregion
An ecoregion , sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than an ecozone and larger than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural...

. The Chattooga River
Chattooga River
The Chattooga River is the main tributary of the Tugaloo River. Its headwaters are located southwest of Cashiers, North Carolina, and it stretches to where it has its confluence with the Tallulah River within Lake Tugalo, held back by the Tugalo Dam...

, located on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination.

Lakes


South Carolina has several major lake
Lake
A lake is a body of relatively still fresh or salt water of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land. Lakes are inland and not part of the ocean and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are larger and deeper than ponds. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams,...

s covering over 683 square miles (1,769 km²), or 437672 acres (1,771.2 km²). The following are the lakes listed by size.
  • Lake Marion
    Lake Marion (South Carolina)
    Lake Marion is the largest lake in South Carolina, centrally located and with territory within five counties. The lake is referred to as South Carolina's inland sea. It has a shoreline and covers nearly 110,000 acres of rolling farmlands, former marshes, and river valley landscape...

     110000 acres (445.2 km²)
  • Lake Strom Thurmond
    Lake Strom Thurmond
    Lake Strom Thurmond, known in Georgia as Clarks Hill Lake, is a reservoir at the border between Georgia and South Carolina in the Savannah River Basin. It was created by the J. Strom Thurmond Dam during 1951 and 1952 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers near the confluence of the "Little River" and...

     (also known as Clarks Hill Lake) 71100 acres (287.7 km²)
  • Lake Moultrie
    Lake Moultrie
    Lake Moultrie is the third largest lake in South Carolina covering over .-Location:Lake Moultrie is located in Berkeley County, South Carolina, is fed by Lake Marion through a diversion canal. Nearby towns include Moncks Corner, Bonneau and St. Stephen....

     60000 acres (242.8 km²)
  • Lake Hartwell
    Lake Hartwell
    Lake Hartwell is a reservoir bordering Georgia and South Carolina on the Savannah, Tugaloo, and Seneca Rivers. The lake is created by Hartwell Dam located on the Savannah River seven miles below the point at which the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers join to form the Savannah...

     56000 acres (226.6 km²)
  • Lake Murray
    Lake Murray (South Carolina)
    Lake Murray is a reservoir in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It is approximately 50,000 acres in size, and has roughly 500 miles of shoreline. It was impounded in the late 1920s to provide hydroelectric power to the state of South Carolina. Lake Murray is fed by the Saluda River, which flows...

     50000 acres (202.3 km²)
  • Russell Lake
    Richard B. Russell Lake
    -Overview:Richard B. Russell Lake is a reservoir created by the construction of Richard B. Russell Dam on the Savannah River bordering Elbert County, Georgia and Abbeville and Anderson counties in South Carolina...

     26650 acres (107.8 km²)
  • Lake Keowee
    Lake Keowee
    Lake Keowee is a man–made reservoir in the United States in the state of South Carolina shaped somewhat like a Christmas tree. It is notable for having been created to serve the needs of a power utility called the Duke Energy company as well as public recreational purposes...

     18372 acres (74.3 km²)
  • Lake Wylie
    Lake Wylie
    Lake Wylie is a reservoir, or man-made lake in the U.S. states of both South Carolina and North Carolina. The lake has a surface area of and features of shore line.-History:...

     13400 acres (54.2 km²)
  • Lake Wateree
    Lake Wateree
    Lake Wateree is a reservoir in Kershaw, Fairfield, and Lancaster counties, South Carolina, in the United States. It is one of South Carolina's oldest man-made lakes. It has of shoreline and includes Lake Wateree State Recreation Area, a bird refuge, and Shaw Air Force Base Recreation center...

     13250 acres (53.6 km²)
  • Lake Greenwood
    Lake Greenwood (South Carolina)
    Lake Greenwood is formed by a hydroelectric dam across the Saluda River. The lake has of shoreline and . The Reedy River joins the Saluda at Lake Greenwood. Lake Greenwood is used for recreational boating and fishing....

     11400 acres (46.1 km²)
  • Lake Jocassee
    Lake Jocassee
    Lake Jocassee is a , deep reservoir located in northwest South Carolina created by the state in partnership with Duke Power in 1973. The lake is commonly known for the clean and cold Appalachian mountain rivers that feed the lake to keep its waters cool and clear water visibilities year-round. ...

     7500 acres (30.4 km²)

Earthquakes


Earthquakes do occur in South Carolina. The greatest frequency is along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area. South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3 (FEMA). The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to ever hit the Southeastern United States. This 7.2 magnitude earthquake killed 60 people and destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries.

Climate


South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa), although high elevation areas in the "Upstate" or "Upcountry" area have less subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F (30–33.9 C) in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–74 °F (21.1–23.3 C) on the coast and from 66–73 °F (18.9–22.8 C) inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have very mild winters with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F (15.6 °C) and overnight lows in the 40s°F (5–8 °C). Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F (0 °C) in Columbia and temperatures well below freezing in the Upstate. While precipitation is abundant the entire year in almost the entire state, the coast tends to have a slightly wetter summer, while inland, March tends to be the wettest month and winter being the driest season, with November being the driest month. The highest recorded temperature is 111 °F (43.9 °C) at Camden
Camden, South Carolina
Camden is the fourth oldest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina and is also the county seat of Kershaw County, South Carolina, United States. The population was an estimated 7,103 in 2009...

 on June 28, 1954 and the lowest recorded temperature is -19 F at Caesars Head
Caesars Head, South Carolina
Caesars Head is a mountain within Caesars Head State Park in northern Greenville County, South Carolina. The summit has an elevation of . The radio tower for TV station WYFF is nearby....

 on January 21, 1985.

Snowfall in South Carolina is somewhat common in most of the state, while coastal areas receive less than an inch (2.5 cm) annually on average. It is not uncommon for areas along the coast (especially the southern coast) to receive no recordable snowfall in a given year. The interior receives a little more snow, although nowhere in the state averages more than 12 inches (30.5 cm) of snow annually. The mountains of extreme northwestern South Carolina tend to have the most substantial snow accumulation. Freezing rain and ice tend to be more common than snow and even rain in many areas of the state. Road bridges in South Carolina are commonly marked, "Bridge ices before road."
The state is occasionally affected by tropical cyclones. This is an annual concern during hurricane season, which lasts from June 1 to November 30. The peak time of vulnerability for the southeast Atlantic coast is from early August to early October, during the Cape Verde
Cape Verde
The Republic of Cape Verde is an island country, spanning an archipelago of 10 islands located in the central Atlantic Ocean, 570 kilometres off the coast of Western Africa...

 hurricane season. Memorable hurricanes to hit South Carolina include Hazel
Hurricane Hazel
Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm killed as many as 1,000 people in Haiti before striking the United States near the border between North and South Carolina, as a Category 4 hurricane...

 (1954), a Category 4 hurricane, and Hugo
Hurricane Hugo
Hurricane Hugo was a classical, destructive and rare Cape Verde-type hurricane which struck the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe, Montserrat, St. Croix, Puerto Rico and the USA mainland in South Carolina as a Category 4 hurricane during September of the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season...

 (1989), a Category 5 hurricane. South Carolina averages around 50 days of thunderstorm
Thunderstorm
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, a lightning storm, thundershower or simply a storm is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere known as thunder. The meteorologically assigned cloud type associated with the...

 activity a year. This is less than some of the states further south, and it is slightly less vulnerable to tornado
Tornado
A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider...

es than the states which border on the Gulf of Mexico. Some notable tornadoes have struck South Carolina and the state averages around 14 tornadoes annually. Hail is common with many of the thunderstorms in the state as there is often a marked contrast in temperature of warmer ground conditions compared to the cold air aloft.
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various South Carolina Cities In °Fahrenheit
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Charleston 59/37 62/39 69/46 76/52 83/61 88/68 91/72 89/72 85/67 77/55 70/46 62/39
Columbia 57/35 60/36 67/44 76/51 83/60 89/68 92/72 90/71 85/65 76/52 67/43 60/36
Greenville 50/31 55/34 63/40 71/47 78/56 85/64 89/69 87/68 81/62 71/50 61/41 53/34
'


Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various South Carolina Cities In °Celsius (rounded)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Charleston 15/3 17/4 21/8 23/11 28/16 31/20 33/22 32/22 29/19 25/13 21/8 17/4
Columbia 13/1 16/2 19/7 24/11 28/16 32/20 33/22 32/22 29/18 24/11 19/6 14/2
Greenville 10/-1 13/1 17/4 22/8 26/13 30/18 32/21 31/20 27/17 22/10 16/5 12/1
'

Early years



The colony of Carolina was settled by English settlers, mostly from Barbados
Barbados
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles. It is in length and as much as in width, amounting to . It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 kilometres east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; therein, it is about east of the islands of Saint...

. King Charles gave eight aristocrats a royal charter to settle Carolina (Carolina is Latin for "Charles land") because earlier they had helped him regain his throne. Parts of Carolina (mostly the coastal areas) were colonized earlier by Spain (see Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. Established in what is now Jacksonville, Florida, on June 22, 1564, under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière, it was intended as a refuge for the Huguenots. It lasted one year before being obliterated by the...

), but battles between the Spanish and the Native Americans caused the Spanish people to retreat to Florida, Cuba, Mexico, and Central and South America. Carolina was settled to make profit from trade and also by selling land. John Locke
John Locke
John Locke FRS , widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social...

, an English philosopher, wrote a constitution for the colony that covered topics such as land divisions and social rankings. In the early years, not many people bought land there, so the proprietors lowered the price on some portions.

Carolina did not develop as planned. It split into northern and southern Carolina, creating two different colonies. It separated because of political reasons as the settlers wanted political power. In 1719 settlers in southern Carolina seized control from its proprietors. Then, in 1729, Carolina became two royal colonies- North Carolina and South Carolina. Farmers from inland Virginia settled northern Carolina. They grew tobacco
Tobacco
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

, and sold timber and tar, both categories of naval supplies needed by England. The northern Carolina coast lacked a good harbor, so many of the farmers used Virginia's ports to conduct their trade.

Southern Carolina prospered from the fertility of the Low Country and the harbors, such as that at Charles Town (later Charleston). Settlements spread, and trade in deerskin, lumber, and beef thrived. Rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

 cultivation was developed on a large scale with the help of skills and techniques of slaves imported from rice-growing regions of Africa. They created the large earthworks
Earthworks (archaeology)
In archaeology, earthwork is a general term to describe artificial changes in land level. Earthworks are often known colloquially as 'lumps and bumps'. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features or they can show features beneath the surface...

 of dams and canals required to irrigate the rice fields. In addition, indigo became a commodity crop, also developed with the skills of African slaves. The cultivation and processing of indigo
Indigo
Indigo is a color named after the purple dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species. The color is placed on the electromagnetic spectrum between about 420 and 450 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet...

, a blue flowering plant, was developed here by a young English woman, Eliza Lucas
Eliza Lucas
Eliza Lucas Pinckney changed agriculture in colonial South Carolina, where she developed indigo as one of its most important cash crops. Its cultivation and processing as dye produced one-third the total value of the colony's exports before the Revolutionary War. Manager of three plantations at...

, a planter's daughter who had come with her father, also a military officer, from the Caribbean. She took over managing the plantation when he was assigned elsewhere. Indigo became an important commodity crop for the dying of textiles. Slave labor was integral to making the cultivation of rice and indigo profitable as commodity crops. In South Carolina, the number of slaves exceeded those of Anglo-European colonists by the time of the Revolution, a characteristic of the state through the Civil War
Civil war
A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic, or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly-united nation state....

.

The American Revolution


On March 26, 1776, the colony set up its own provisional government under the leadership of South Carolina President John Rutledge
John Rutledge
John Rutledge was an American statesman and judge. He was the first Governor of South Carolina following the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the 31st overall...

. On February 5, 1778, South Carolina became the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution...

, the initial governing document of the United States. However, in 1780, South Carolinian loyalists to the British crown helped British troops recapture South Carolina from the previously successful rebels. On January 17, 1781, the Battle of Cowpens
Battle of Cowpens
The Battle of Cowpens was a decisive victory by Patriot Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War...

 won by the American forces, marked the beginning of the decline in British fortunes. In 1782 they decided to evacuate their troops by the end of the year. Thousands of Loyalists and slaves left with them.

The current United States Constitution
United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

 was proposed for adoption by the States on September 17, 1787, and South Carolina was the 8th state to ratify it, on May 23, 1788.

The American Revolution caused a shock to slavery in the South. Many thousands of slaves fled to British authorities to obtain freedom; and many of those left with the British in the last days of the war. Others secured their freedom by escaping to perceived friendlier locations during the turmoil. Estimates are that 25,000 slaves (30% of those in South Carolina) fled, migrated or died during the disruption of the war.


The Federal Period


South Carolina politics between 1783 and 1795 were marred by rivalry between a Federalist elite supporting the central government in Philadelphia and a large proportion of common people. The latter were often members of 'Republican Societies', and they supported the Republican-Democrats, headed by Jefferson and Madison. This party wanted more democracy in the US, especially in South Carolina.

Most people supported the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

 (1789–1795), as the French had been allies and they were proud of their own revolution. Charleston was one of the most French-influenced cities in the USA. Leading South Carolina figures, such as governors Charles Pinckney
Charles Pinckney (governor)
Charles Pinckney was an American politician who was a signer of the United States Constitution, the 37th Governor of South Carolina, a Senator and a member of the House of Representatives...

 and William Moultrie
William Moultrie
William Moultrie was a general from South Carolina in the American Revolutionary War.He was born in Charleston, South Carolina. He fought in the Anglo-Cherokee War and served in the colonial assembly before the advent of the American Revolution....

, backed with money and actions the French plans to further their political, strategic, and commercial goals in North America. This pro-French stance and attitude of South Carolina ended soon because of the XYZ Affair
XYZ Affair
The XYZ Affair was a 1798 diplomatic episode during the administration of John Adams that Americans interpreted as an insult from France. It led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War, which raged at sea from 1798 to 1800...

.

Antebellum



Antebellum South Carolina did more to advance nullification
Nullification Crisis
The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariff of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within...

 and secession
Secession in the United States
Secession in the United States can refer to secession of a state from the United States, secession of part of a state from that state to form a new state, or secession of an area from a city or county....

 than any other Southern state. In 1832, a South Carolina state convention passed the Ordinance of Nullification
Ordinance of Nullification
The Ordinance of Nullification declared the Tariff of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state borders of South Carolina. It began the Nullification Crisis...

, declaring the Federal tariff
Tariff
A tariff may be either tax on imports or exports , or a list or schedule of prices for such things as rail service, bus routes, and electrical usage ....

 laws of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional, null and not to be enforced in the state of South Carolina after February 1, 1833. This led to the Nullification Crisis
Nullification Crisis
The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariff of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within...

, in which U.S. President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States . Based in frontier Tennessee, Jackson was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend , and the British at the Battle of New Orleans...

 received congressional authorization, through the Force Bill
Force Bill
The United States Force Bill, formally titled "An Act further to provide for the collection of duties on imports", 4 Stat. 632 , enacted by the 22nd U.S. Congress, consists of eight sections expanding Presidential power...

, to use whatever military force necessary to enforce Federal law in the state. This was the first U.S. legislation denying individual states the right to secede. As a result of Jackson's threat of force, the South Carolina state convention was re-convened and repealed the Ordinance of Nullification in March.

Anti-abolitionist feelings ran strong in South Carolina. In 1856, South Carolina congressman Preston Brooks
Preston Brooks
Preston Smith Brooks was a Democratic Congressman from South Carolina. Brooks is primarily remembered for his severe beating of Senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate with a gutta-percha cane, delivered in response to an anti-slavery speech in which Sumner compared Brooks'...

 entered the United States Senate chamber and, with a metal-tipped cane, beat Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. An academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War and Reconstruction,...

. He drew blood and injured Sumner badly enough that the latter was unable to serve for several months. Brooks was retaliating for a speech Sumner had just given in which he attacked slavery and insulted South Carolinians. Brooks resigned his seat but received a hero's welcome on returning home.

The Civil War


On December 20, 1860, when it became clear that Lincoln would be the next president, South Carolina became the first state to declare its secession from the Union
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty free states and five border slave states. It was opposed by 11 southern slave states that had declared a secession to join together to form the...

. On April 12, 1861, Confederate batteries began shelling Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, and the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 began. The Union Navy effectively blockaded Charleston and seized the Sea Islands
Sea Islands
The Sea Islands are a chain of tidal and barrier islands on the Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States. They number over 100, and are located between the mouths of the Santee and St. Johns Rivers along the coast of the U.S...

. Planters had taken their families (and sometimes slaves) to points inland for refuge.

The Union Army set up an experiment in freedom for the ex-slaves, in which they started education and farmed land for themselves. South Carolina troops participated in major Confederate campaigns, but no major battles were fought inland. General William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. He served as a General in the Union Army during the American Civil War , for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched...

 marched through the state in early 1865, destroying numerous plantations, and captured the state capital of Columbia
Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 129,272 according to the 2010 census. Columbia is the county seat of Richland County, but a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County. The city is the center of a metropolitan...

 on February 17. Fires began that night and by next morning, most of the central city was destroyed.

Reconstruction


After the war, South Carolina was restored to the United States during Reconstruction. Under presidential Reconstruction (1865–66), freedmen (former slaves) were given limited rights. Under Radical reconstruction (1867–1877), a Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags was in control, supported by Union Army forces. The withdrawal of Union soldiers as part of the Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877
The Compromise of 1877, also known as the Corrupt Bargain, refers to a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election and ended Congressional Reconstruction. Through it, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J...

 ended Reconstruction. White Democrats used paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts to intimidate and terrorize black voters. They regained political control of the state under conservative white "Redeemers
Redeemers
In United States history, "Redeemers" and "Redemption" were terms used by white Southerners to describe a political coalition in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era which followed the American Civil War...

" and pro-business Bourbon Democrats.

Until the 1868 presidential election
United States presidential election, 1868
The United States presidential election of 1868 was the first presidential election to take place after the American Civil War, during the period referred to as Reconstruction...

, South Carolina's legislature, not the voters, chose the state's electors for the presidential election. South Carolina was the last state to choose its electors in this manner.

Populist and Agrarian movements


The state became a hotbed of racial and economic tensions during the Populist and Agrarian movements of the 1890s. Passage of the new conservative constitution of 1895 meant that almost all blacks and many poor whites were effectively disfranchised by new requirements for poll taxes, residency and literacy tests. By 1896, only 5,500 black voters remained on the registration rolls. The 1900 census demonstrated the extent of disfranchisement: African Americans comprised more than 58% of the state's population, but their total of 782,509 citizens was essentially without any political representation. "Pitchfork Ben Tillman" controlled state politics from the 1890s to 1910 with a base among poor white farmers.

Women's Suffrage


South Carolina was one of several states that initially rejected the Nineteenth Amendment
Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920....

. The South Carolina legislature later ratified the amendment on July 1, 1969.

20th century and beyond


Early in the 20th century, South Carolina developed a thriving textile industry. The state also converted its agricultural base from cotton to more profitable crops, attracted large military bases, and created tourism industries.

Of extended controversy has been the state's display of the flags of the Confederate States of America
Flags of the Confederate States of America
There were only three flag designs adopted, with later, minor variants made to those designs, that served as the official national flags of the Confederate States of America and used during its existence from 1861 to 1865...

, which was raised on the state capitol in 1962. The state capital is located directly next to the University of South Carolina campus, a move seen as a protest against the court-ordered desegregation of the schools. A lawsuit calling for the flag to be removed was filed in 1994. On July 1, 2000, South Carolina became the last state to remove the Confederate flag, placed there in 1962, during Democratic Governor Fritz Hollings
Ernest Hollings
Ernest Frederick "Fritz" Hollings served as a Democratic United States Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to 2005, as well as the 106th Governor of South Carolina and Lt. Governor . He served 38 years and 55 days in the Senate, which makes him the 8th-longest-serving Senator in history...

 term in office, from over its statehouse. The state Senate had approved a bill for its removal on April 12, 2000, by a margin of 36 to 7; the bill had specified that a Confederate flag be flown in front of the Capitol next to a monument honoring fallen Confederate soldiers. Debate was more heated in the state House of Representatives, which passed the bill on May 18, 2000, by a margin of only 66 to 43, after including a measure's ensuring that the Confederate flag by the monument be 30 feet (9.1 m) high.
The flag by the monument continues to fuel a cause for controversy, by the NAACP. The NAACP maintains an economic boycott of the state of South Carolina. The NCAA refuses to allow South Carolina to host NCAA athletic events whose locations are determined in advance.
On July 6, 2009, the Atlantic Coast Conference
Atlantic Coast Conference
The Atlantic Coast Conference is a collegiate athletic league in the United States. Founded in 1953 in Greensboro, North Carolina, the ACC sanctions competition in twenty-five sports in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association for its twelve member universities...

 announced a decision to move three future baseball tournaments out of South Carolina, citing concerns by the NAACP over the continuing state-sponsored display of the Confederate flag.

Demographics



According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2009, South Carolina had an estimated population of 4,561,242, which is an increase of 57,962 from the prior year and an increase of 549,230, or 13.6%, since the year 2000. Immigration
Immigration to the United States
Immigration to the United States has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants,...

 from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 36,401 people, and migration
Human migration
Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. Historically this movement was nomadic, often causing significant conflict with the indigenous population and their displacement or cultural assimilation. Only a few nomadic...

 within the country produced a net increase of 115,084 people. According to the University of South Carolina
University of South Carolina
The University of South Carolina is a public, co-educational research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with 7 surrounding satellite campuses. Its historic campus covers over in downtown Columbia not far from the South Carolina State House...

's Arnold School of Public Health, Consortium for Latino Immigration Studies, South Carolina's foreign-born population grew faster than any other state between 2000 and 2005.

Economy


According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
The Bureau of Economic Analysis is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides important economic statistics including the gross domestic product of the United States. Its stated mission is to "promote a better understanding of the U.S...

, South Carolina's gross state product
Gross state product
Gross state product is a measurement of the economic output of a state or province...

 in current dollars was $97 billion in 1997, and $153 billion in 2007. Its per-capita real gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 (GDP) in chained 2000 dollars
Chained dollars
Chained dollars is a method of adjusting real dollar amounts for inflation over time, so as to allow comparison of figures from different years. The U.S. Department of Commerce introduced the chained-dollar measure in 1996...

 was $26,772 in 1997, and $28,894 in 2007; that represents 85% of the $31,619 per-capita real GDP for the United States overall in 1997, and 76% of the $38,020 for the U.S. in 2007.

Major agricultural outputs of the state are: tobacco, poultry, cattle, dairy products, soybeans, rice and hogs. Industrial outputs include: textile goods, chemical products, paper products, machinery, automobiles and automotive products and tourism.

Major highways



Major interstate highways passing through include: I-20
Interstate 20 in South Carolina
Interstate 20 is a major thoroughfare cutting across the state of South Carolina, linking the state with important transportation and business hubs to the north, west and south, including Atlanta, Georgia, Charlotte, North Carolina , Savannah, Georgia and Washington, D.C...

 which runs from Florence in the east through Columbia to the southwestern border near Aiken; I-26
Interstate 26 in South Carolina
Interstate 26 is a South Carolina Interstate highway running generally east–west to U.S. Route 17 in the Atlantic Coast at Charleston, South Carolina to Landrum in Spartanburg County.-Route description:...

 which runs from Charleston in the southeast through Columbia to Spartanburg and the northern border in Spartanburg County; I-77
Interstate 77 in South Carolina
Interstate 77 is a north - south interstate highway, extending in the state of South Carolina, extending from the national southern terminus at an interchange with Interstate 26 near Columbia, north to the North Carolina state line near Rock Hill and Charlotte, NC.-Route description:Interstate 77...

 which runs from York County in the north to Columbia; I-85
Interstate 85 in South Carolina
In the U.S. state of South Carolina, Interstate 85 runs northeast-southwest through Greenville and Spartanburg. It follows the general corridor of U.S. Route 29...

 which runs from Cherokee County in the north through Spartanburg and Greenville to the southwestern border in Oconee County; I-385
Interstate 385
Interstate 385 starts where it meets the Interstate 26, near Clinton and heads in a northwest direction where it ends with exit 42, near downtown Greenville. After exit 42, I-385 turns into Business Spur 385 that then promptly ends at U.S. 29 near the Bi-Lo Center in downtown Greenville. It is one...

 which runs from Greenville and intersects with I-26
Interstate 26
Interstate 26 is a nominally east–west main route of the Interstate Highway System in the Southeastern United States. I-26 runs from the junction of U.S. Route 11W and U.S. Route 23 in Kingsport, Tennessee, generally southeastward to U.S. Route 17 in Charleston, South Carolina...

 near Clinton; and I-95
Interstate 95 in South Carolina
Interstate 95 is a major Interstate Highway, running along the East Coast of the United States from Florida to Maine. In South Carolina, I-95 runs approximately parallel to the Atlantic Ocean shore although about inland, from Hardeeville in the south to Dillon in the northeast.-Route...

 which runs from the northeastern border in Dillon County to Florence and on to the southern border in Jasper County.
  • Interstate 20
    Interstate 20 in South Carolina
    Interstate 20 is a major thoroughfare cutting across the state of South Carolina, linking the state with important transportation and business hubs to the north, west and south, including Atlanta, Georgia, Charlotte, North Carolina , Savannah, Georgia and Washington, D.C...

  • Interstate 26
    Interstate 26 in South Carolina
    Interstate 26 is a South Carolina Interstate highway running generally east–west to U.S. Route 17 in the Atlantic Coast at Charleston, South Carolina to Landrum in Spartanburg County.-Route description:...

  • Interstate 73
    Interstate 73
    Interstate 73 is a main route of the Interstate Highway System, currently located entirely within the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is part of a longer planned corridor, defined by various Federal laws to run from Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, to Grayling, Michigan, but only the part south of...

     (Future)
  • Interstate 74
    Interstate 74
    Interstate 74 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Its western end is at an intersection with Interstate 80 in Davenport, Iowa; the eastern end of its Midwest segment is at an intersection with Interstate 75 in Cincinnati, Ohio...

     (Future)
  • Interstate 77
    Interstate 77 in South Carolina
    Interstate 77 is a north - south interstate highway, extending in the state of South Carolina, extending from the national southern terminus at an interchange with Interstate 26 near Columbia, north to the North Carolina state line near Rock Hill and Charlotte, NC.-Route description:Interstate 77...

  • Interstate 85
    Interstate 85 in South Carolina
    In the U.S. state of South Carolina, Interstate 85 runs northeast-southwest through Greenville and Spartanburg. It follows the general corridor of U.S. Route 29...

  • Interstate 95
    Interstate 95 in South Carolina
    Interstate 95 is a major Interstate Highway, running along the East Coast of the United States from Florida to Maine. In South Carolina, I-95 runs approximately parallel to the Atlantic Ocean shore although about inland, from Hardeeville in the south to Dillon in the northeast.-Route...

  • Interstate 126
    Interstate 126
    Interstate 126 is a spur route of Interstate 26, almost entirely within the city limits of Columbia, South Carolina in the United States. It runs 3.1 miles from I-26 just south of the junction with Interstate 20, eastward across the Broad River , and into downtown Columbia terminating at US 21/US...

  • Interstate 185
    Interstate 185 (South Carolina)
    Interstate 185 is located in the city of Greenville, South Carolina. The northern portion, which ends just shy of the Greenville city limits, was opened in the 1960s and is cosigned with U.S. 29. The southern portion, which connects the I-85/I-185 interchange with the I-385/U.S. 276 interchange ,...

  • Interstate 385
    Interstate 385
    Interstate 385 starts where it meets the Interstate 26, near Clinton and heads in a northwest direction where it ends with exit 42, near downtown Greenville. After exit 42, I-385 turns into Business Spur 385 that then promptly ends at U.S. 29 near the Bi-Lo Center in downtown Greenville. It is one...

  • Interstate 520
    Interstate 520
    Interstate 520 is a auxiliary Interstate Highway that encircles Augusta, Georgia and North Augusta, South Carolina as a three quarter beltway around the western, southern and eastern parts of the Augusta area. It begins at Interstate 20 in the northwest part of Augusta, and ends at Interstate 20...

  • Interstate 526
    Interstate 526
    Interstate 526 or the Mark Clark Expressway is a beltway, Interstate Highway of Interstate 26 in Berkeley and Charleston counties in South Carolina, USA.-Route description:...

  • U.S. Route 1
    U.S. Route 1 in South Carolina
    U.S. Route 1 traverses the state of South Carolina completely from southwest to north, passing through such cities as Columbia and Aiken. For much of its length through Richland County, US 1 is called Two Notch Road...

  • U.S. Route 17
    U.S. Route 17 in South Carolina
    In the U.S. state of South Carolina, U.S. Route 17 is a north–south highway located near the Atlantic Ocean. The route enters the state from Georgia at the Savannah River and serves Charleston and Myrtle Beach before entering North Carolina near Calabash.-Route description:US 17 enters into...

  • U.S. Route 21
    U.S. Route 21
    U.S. Route 21 is a north–south United States highway of , from Hunting Island State Park, South Carolina to Wytheville, Virginia.-South Carolina:...

  • U.S. Route 25
  • U.S. Route 29
  • U.S. Route 52
    U.S. Route 52 in South Carolina
    U.S. Route 52 is a North–South U.S. Highway that runs from Charleston to the North Carolina state line near Cheraw. It serves as a strategic highway through the central South Carolina.-Route description:U.S. 52 enters South Carolina northeast of Cheraw...

  • U.S. Route 76
    U.S. Route 76
    U.S. Route 76 is an east–west United States highway that runs for from Chattanooga, Tennessee to Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina.-Tennessee:...

  • U.S. Route 178
    U.S. Route 178
    U.S. Highway 178 is a spur of U.S. Highway 78. It currently runs for 237 miles from Dorchester, South Carolina at U.S. Highway 78 to Rosman, North Carolina at U.S. Highway 64. It passes through the states of South Carolina and North Carolina...

  • U.S. Route 221
  • U.S. Route 278
    U.S. Route 278 in South Carolina
    U.S. Route 278 runs east–west from Hilton Head to N. Augusta.-Route description:After crossing the Savannah River, U.S. 278 bypasses North Augusta, South Carolina en route to Beech Island and Johnson Crossroads. It then winds through a corner of the Savannah River Site...

  • U.S. Route 321
    U.S. Route 321
    U.S. Route 321 is a spur of U.S. Route 21. It runs for 526 miles from South Carolina to Tennessee. The northern terminus of U.S. 321 is between Lenoir City and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, at Interstate 40 exit 364, which is about 4 miles west of Interstate 40's junction with Interstate 75...

  • U.S. Route 378
    U.S. Route 378
    U.S. Route 378 is a spur of U.S. Route 78. It currently runs for 234 miles from Conway, South Carolina at U.S. Route 501 to Washington, Georgia at U.S. Route 78.-Route description:...



  • In March 2008, "The American State Litter Scorecard," presented at the American Society for Public Administration
    American Society for Public Administration
    The American Society for Public Administration is a membership association in the United States sponsoring conferences and providing professional services primarily to those who study the implementation of government policy, public administration, and, to a lesser degree, programs of civil society...

     conference, rated South Carolina a nationally "Worst" state for removing litter from public properties such as highways. The state has an extremely high fatality rate from litter/debris-related vehicle accidents, according to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government, part of the Department of Transportation...

     data.

    Passenger


    Amtrak
    Amtrak
    The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

     operates four passenger routes in South Carolina: the Crescent
    Crescent (Amtrak)
    The Crescent is a passenger train operated by Amtrak in the eastern part of the United States. It runs daily from Pennsylvania Station in New York City to New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal in New Orleans, Louisiana as train 19 and returns, on the same route, as train 20. Most of the route of...

    , the Palmetto
    Palmetto (Amtrak)
    The Palmetto is a passenger train service operated by Amtrak over the from New York City south to Savannah, Georgia via the Northeast Corridor to Washington, DC, then via Richmond, Virginia, Fayetteville, North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina...

    , the Silver Meteor
    Silver Meteor
    The Silver Meteor is a 1389-mile passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the Silver Service brand, running from New York City, New York, south to Miami, Florida, via the Northeast Corridor to Washington, D.C., thence via Richmond, Virginia; Fayetteville, North Carolina; North Charleston, South...

    , and the Silver Star. The Crescent route serves the Upstate cities, the Silver Star serves the Midlands cities, and the Palmetto and Silver Meteor routes serve the Lowcountry cities.

    Station Stops

    Station Connections
    Camden
    Camden (Amtrak station)
    The Seaboard Air Line Railroad Depot is an Amtrak train station in Camden, South Carolina. It is located on 1100 West DeKalb Street , although some give the address as being at 1060 West DeKalb Street. Either way, it was named to the National Register of Historic Places in 2000...

    North Charleston
    Charleston, South Carolina (Amtrak station)
    The Charleston Amtrak station is a train station located in North Charleston, South Carolina, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system...

    Columbia
    Columbia (Amtrak station)
    The Columbia Amtrak station, located in Columbia, South Carolina, is a passenger rail station served by an Amtrak passenger train, the Silver Star. The street address is 850 Pulaski Street, about three miles southeast of the downtown area...

    Clemson
    Clemson (Amtrak station)
    The Clemson Amtrak Station, located in Clemson, South Carolina, is served by the Crescent passenger train. The station sits on the corner of Calhoun Memorial Highway and College Avenue, in the heart of downtown Clemson. The station was originally erected by the Southern Railway in 1916. In the...

    Denmark
    Denmark (Amtrak station)
    The Denmark Amtrak station is a train station in Denmark, South Carolina, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system...

    Dillon
    Dillon (Amtrak station)
    The Dillon Amtrak station is a train station in Dillon, South Carolina, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system. It was originally built by the Florence Railroad in 1893, but only as a freight station. Once the railroad was consolidated into the Atlantic Coast Line...

    Florence
    Florence (Amtrak station)
    The Florence Amtrak station is a train station in Florence, South Carolina, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system. Florence is served by Amtrak's Palmetto and Silver Meteor routes and is a service stop for the Auto Train...

    Greenville
    Greenville (Amtrak station)
    The Greenville Amtrak Station, located in Greenville, South Carolina, is served by the passenger train. The street address is 69 Thornbridge Drive, just outside downtown Birley School. It is also located next to a Norfolk Southern Freight Depot...

    Kingstree
    Kingstree (Amtrak station)
    The Kingstree Amtrak station is a train station in Kingstree, South Carolina, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system. It was originally built by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in 1909, and is currently part of the Kingstree Historic District.The two tracks at...

    Spartanburg
    Spartanburg (Amtrak station)
    The Spartanburg Amtrak Station, located in Spartanburg, South Carolina, is served by the Crescent passenger train. The street address is 290 Magnolia Street. The station is within walking distance of Wofford College, the Spartanburg County government administration building, and the Donald S....

    Yemassee
    Yemassee (Amtrak station)
    The Yemassee Amtrak station is an Amtrak station in Yemassee, South Carolina. Located at 15 Wall Street , the station consists of a covered platform on the northwest side of the northeast-southwest tracks, a small parking lot, and a building...


    Freight


    South Carolina is served by many freight carriers, but the most common carriers are CSX Transportation (CSXT)
    CSX Transportation
    CSX Transportation operates a Class I railroad in the United States known as the CSX Railroad. It is the main subsidiary of the CSX Corporation. The company is headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, and owns approximately 21,000 route miles...

     and The Norfolk Southern Railway (NS).

    Major and regional airports



    There are seven significant airports in South Carolina, all of which act as regional airport hubs. The busiest by passenger volume is Charleston International Airport. Just across the border in North Carolina is Charlotte/Douglas International Airport
    Charlotte/Douglas International Airport
    Charlotte Douglas International Airport is a joint civil-military public international airport located in Charlotte, North Carolina. Established in 1935 as Charlotte Municipal Airport, in 1954 the airport was renamed Douglas Municipal Airport after former Charlotte mayor Ben Elbert Douglas, Sr...

    , the 30th busiest airport in the world, in terms of passengers.

    • Columbia Metropolitan Airport
      Columbia Metropolitan Airport
      Columbia Metropolitan Airport is the main airport for Columbia, South Carolina. The airport lies five miles southwest of Columbia's central business district, in Lexington County.-Airlines and destinations:...

       – Columbia
    • Charleston International Airport
      Charleston International Airport
      Charleston International Airport is a joint civil-military airport located in the city of North Charleston, Charleston County, South Carolina, USA. The airport serves the needs of the entire South Carolina Lowcountry. The airport has two runways and is operated under a joint-use agreement with...

       – Charleston/North Charleston
    • Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport
      Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport
      Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport , also known as GSP International Airport or Roger Milliken Field, is a public airport located in unincorporated Greenville and Spartanburg counties in South Carolina, United States, 3 miles south of central Greer; the airport serves Greenville and...

       – Greenville/Spartanburg
    • Florence Regional Airport
      Florence Regional Airport
      -History:The airport began with the purchase of of land in 1928. During World War II, the United States Army Air Forces Third Air Force used the airport as a training base and added...

       – Florence
    • Myrtle Beach International Airport
      Myrtle Beach International Airport
      Myrtle Beach International Airport is a county-owned public-use airport located three nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Myrtle Beach, in Horry County, South Carolina, United States...

       – Myrtle Beach
    • Hilton Head Airport
      Hilton Head Airport
      Hilton Head Airport , also known as Hilton Head Island Airport, is a county and town-owned, public-use airport located in northeastern Hilton Head Island in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. It is mostly used for general aviation but is also served by a commercial airline and one...

       – Hilton Head Island/Beaufort
    • Rock Hill/York County Airport
      Rock Hill/York County Airport
      Rock Hill/York County Airport , also known as Rock Hill Municipal Airport and Rock Hill Regional Airport, is a public municipal airport and a Reliever airport of Charlotte-Douglas International Airport located 5 miles from the central business district of Rock Hill, in York County, South Carolina,...

       – Rock Hill


    Government and politics



    South Carolina's state government
    State governments of the United States
    State governments in the United States are those republics formed by citizens in the jurisdiction thereof as provided by the United States Constitution; with the original 13 States forming the first Articles of Confederation, and later the aforementioned Constitution. Within the U.S...

     consists of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches. Also relevant are the state constitution, law enforcement agencies, federal representation, state finances, and state taxes.

    Education


    South Carolina is one of just three states that have not agreed to using competitive international math and language
    Language
    Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication...

     standards.

    Institutions of higher education


    (In order of foundation date)

    South Carolina hosts a diverse cohort of institutions of higher education, from large state-funded research universities to small colleges that cultivate a liberal arts, religious or military tradition.

    Founded in 1770 and chartered in 1785, the College of Charleston
    College of Charleston
    The College of Charleston is a public, sea-grant and space-grant university located in historic downtown Charleston, South Carolina, United States...

     is the oldest institution of higher learning in South Carolina, the 13th oldest in the United States, and the first municipal college
    Municipal college
    A municipal college is a city-supported institution of higher learning.The oldest municipal college in the United States is the College of Charleston located in historic Charleston, South Carolina. The College of Charleston is also the thirteenth oldest institution of higher education in the country...

     in the country. The College is in company with the Colonial Colleges
    Colonial colleges
    The Colonial Colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the American Colonies before the United States of America became a sovereign nation after the American Revolution. These nine have long been considered together, notably in the survey of their origins in the 1907 The...

     as one the original and foundational institutions of higher education in the United States. Its founders include three signers of the United States Declaration of Independence
    United States Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. John Adams put forth a...

     and three signers of the United States Constitution
    United States Constitution
    The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

    . The College's historic campus, which is listed on the U.S. Department of the Interior's National Register of Historic Places
    National Register of Historic Places
    The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

    , forms an integral part of Charleston's colonial-era urban center. As one of the leading institutions of higher education in its class in the Southeastern United States
    Southeastern United States
    The Southeastern United States, colloquially referred to as the Southeast, is the eastern portion of the Southern United States. It is one of the most populous regions in the United States of America....

    , the College of Charleston is celebrated nationally for its focus on undergraduate education with strengths in Marine Biology, Classics, Art History and Historic Preservation. The Graduate School of the College of Charleston, offers a number of degree programs and coordinates support for its nationally recognized faculty research efforts. According to the Princeton Review, C of C is one of the nation's best institutions for undergraduate education and U.S. News and World Report regularly ranks C of C among the best masters level universities in the South. C of C presently enrolls approximately 10,000 undergraduates and 2,000 graduate students.

    The University of South Carolina
    University of South Carolina
    The University of South Carolina is a public, co-educational research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with 7 surrounding satellite campuses. Its historic campus covers over in downtown Columbia not far from the South Carolina State House...

     is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia. The University's campus covers over 359 acres (1.5 km²) in the urban core less than one city block from the South Carolina State House
    South Carolina State House
    The South Carolina State House is the building housing the government of the U.S. state of South Carolina. The building houses the South Carolina General Assembly and the offices of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina. Until 1971, it also housed the Supreme Court...

    . The University of South Carolina maintains an enrollment of over 27,000 students on the Columbia campus. The institution was founded in 1801 as South Carolina College in an effort to promote harmony between the Lowcountry
    South Carolina Low Country
    The Lowcountry is a geographic and cultural region located along South Carolina's coast. The region includes the South Carolina Sea Islands...

     and the Upstate
    The Upstate
    The Upstate is the region in northwestern South Carolina, United States, also known as The Upcountry, which is the historical term. Although loosely defined among locals, the general definition includes the 10 counties of the commerce-rich I-85 corridor in the northwest corner of South Carolina. ...

    . The College became a symbol of the South in the antebellum period as its graduates were on the forefront of secession from the Union. From the Civil War
    American Civil War
    The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

     to World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    , the institution lacked a clear direction and was constantly reorganized to meet the needs of the political power in office. In 1957, the University expanded its reach through the University of South Carolina System
    University of South Carolina System
    The University of South Carolina System is a state university system of eight campuses set up in 1957 to expand the educational opportunities of the citizens of South Carolina as well as extend the reach of the University of South Carolina throughout the state...

    .

    Furman University
    Furman University
    Furman University is a selective, private, coeducational, liberal arts college in Greenville, South Carolina, United States. Furman is one of the oldest, and more selective private institutions in South Carolina...

     is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian, liberal arts university in Greenville
    Greenville, South Carolina
    -Law and government:The city of Greenville adopted the Council-Manager form of municipal government in 1976.-History:The area was part of the Cherokee Nation's protected grounds after the Treaty of 1763, which ended the French and Indian War. No White man was allowed to enter, though some families...

    . Founded in 1826, Furman enrolls approximately 2,600 undergraduate and 500 graduate students. Furman is the largest private institution in South Carolina. The university is primarily focused on undergraduate education (only two departments, education and chemistry, offer graduate degrees).

    The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston. Founded in 1842, the college is best known for its undergraduate Corps of Cadets military program for men and women, which combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline. In addition to the cadet program, civilian programs are offered through The Citadel Graduate College with its evening certificate, undergraduate and graduate programs. The Citadel enrolls almost 2,000 undergraduate cadets in its residential military program and 1,200 civilian students in the evening programs.

    Wofford College
    Wofford College
    Established in 1854 and related to the United Methodist Church, Wofford College is an independent, Phi Beta Kappa liberal arts college of 1,525 students located in downtown Spartanburg, South Carolina, United States. The historic campus is recognized as a national arboretum and features “The...

     is a small liberal arts college located in Spartanburg
    Spartanburg, South Carolina
    thgSpartanburg is the largest city in and the county seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United States. It is the second-largest city of the three primary cities in the Upstate region of South Carolina, and is located northwest of Columbia, west of Charlotte, and about northeast of...

    . Wofford was founded in 1854 with a bequest of $100,000 from the Rev. Benjamin Wofford (1780–1850), a Methodist minister and Spartanburg native who sought to create a college for "literary, classical, and scientific education in my native district of Spartanburg." Wofford is one of the few four-year institutions in the southeastern United States founded before the American Civil War
    American Civil War
    The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

     and still operating on its original campus.

    Presbyterian College
    Presbyterian College
    Presbyterian College is a private liberal arts college in Clinton, South Carolina, USA. Presbyterian College, or PC, is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church USA. PC was founded in 1880 by William Plumer Jacobs, a prominent Presbyterian minister who also founded the nearby Thornwell Home and...

     (PC) is a private liberal arts college founded in 1880 in Clinton. Presbyterian College is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church USA, and enrolls around 1300 undergraduate students. In 2007, Washington Monthly ranked PC as the #1 Liberal Arts College in the nation.

    Winthrop University
    Winthrop University
    Winthrop University is a public, four-year liberal arts university in Rock Hill, South Carolina, USA. In 2006-07, Winthrop University had an enrollment of 6,292 students. The University has been recognized as South Carolina's top-rated university according to evaluations conducted by the South...

    , founded in 1886 as an all-female teaching school in Rock Hill
    Rock Hill, South Carolina
    Rock Hill is the largest city in York County, South Carolina and the fourth-largest city in the state. It is also the third-largest city of the Charlotte metropolitan area, behind Charlotte and Concord, North Carolina. The population was 71,459 as of . Rock Hill has undergone rapid growth between...

    , became a co-ed institution in 1974. Winthrop is now a public university that has an enrollment of just over 6,000 students. It is currently one of the fastest growing universities in the state, with several new academic and recreational buildings being added to the main campus in the past five years, as well as several more planned for the near future. The Richard W. Riley College of Education is still the school's most well-known area of study.

    Clemson University
    Clemson University
    Clemson University is an American public, coeducational, land-grant, sea-grant, research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States....

    , founded in 1889, is a public, coeducational, land-grant
    Land-grant university
    Land-grant universities are institutions of higher education in the United States designated by each state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890....

     research university located in Clemson
    Clemson, South Carolina
    Clemson is a college town located in Pickens County in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 11,939 at the 2000 census and center of an urban cluster with a total population of 42,199...

    . Clemson The University currently enrolls more than 18,000 students from all 50 states and from more than 70 countries. Clemson is currently in the process of expanding, by adding the CU-ICAR, or the Center for Automotive Research, in partnership with BMW
    BMW
    Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini marque, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands...

     and Michelin
    Michelin
    Michelin is a tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France. It is one of the two largest tyre manufacturers in the world along with Bridgestone. In addition to the Michelin brand, it also owns the BFGoodrich, Kleber, Riken, Kormoran and Uniroyal tyre brands...

    . The facility will offer an M.S. and Ph. D in Automotive Engineering. Clemson is also the home to the South Carolina Botanical Garden
    South Carolina Botanical Garden
    The South Carolina Botanical Garden is located in Clemson, South Carolina on the campus of Clemson University. This garden has nature trails, pathways, ponds, streams, woodlands, trial gardens, the Bob Campbell Geology Museum, and the Fran Hanson Discovery Center, which has exhibits by local...

    .

    South Carolina State University
    South Carolina State University
    South Carolina State University is a historically black university located in Orangeburg, South Carolina, United States. It is the only state funded, historically black land-grant institution in South Carolina and is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund.- Colleges, departments,...

    , founded in 1896, is a historically Black university located in Orangeburg. It is the only state-supported land grant institution in the state of South Carolina. SCSU has a current enrollment of nearly 5,000, and offers undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate degrees. SCSU boasts the only Doctor of Education program in the state.

    Charleston Southern University
    Charleston Southern University
    Charleston Southern University, founded in 1964 as Baptist College, is an independent comprehensive university located in North Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston Southern enrolls a maximum of 3,200 students. Affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention, the university's mission is...

    , founded in 1969, is a liberal arts university, and is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention. Charleston Southern (CSU) is one of South Carolina’s largest accredited, independent universities, enrolling approximately 3,200 students. CSU has been named to America’s 100 Best College Buys, Military Friendly Schools, America’s Best Christian Colleges, VA Yellow Ribbon Program and The President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll. Situated on 300 acres, formerly the site of a rice and indigo plantation, Charleston Southern University is in the center of the Charleston metropolitan area. Charleston Southern's Vison is to be a Christian University nationally recognized for integrating faith in learning, leading and serving.

    Anderson University
    Anderson University (South Carolina)
    Anderson University is a private comprehensive university located in Anderson, South Carolina, offering bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees in approximately 60 areas of study. Anderson is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention and is accredited as a Level V institution by the...

    , founded in 1911, is a selective comprehensive university located in Anderson
    Anderson, South Carolina
    Anderson is a city in and the county seat of Anderson County, South Carolina, United States. The population was estimated at 26,242 in 2006, and the city was the center of an urbanized area of 70,530...

    , offering bachelors and masters degrees in approximately 50 areas of study. Anderson University currently enrolls around 2,300 students.

    Bob Jones University
    Bob Jones University
    Bob Jones University is a private, for-profit, non-denominational Protestant university in Greenville, South Carolina.The university was founded in 1927 by Bob Jones, Sr. , an evangelist and contemporary of Billy Sunday...

    , founded in 1927, is a non-denominational University founded on fundamental Christian beliefs (e.g., inspiration and inerrancy of the Scriptures, the creation of man by the direct act of God, the fall of man, the "young earth" and flood geology, and man's need for personal faith in the finished work of the Lord Jesus Christ). Originally based in Florida, after a move to Tennessee, the school finally settled in South Carolina. With 4000 students from all 50 states and more than 100 countries the school is larger than Wofford, Furman and Presbyterian College. BJU also offers over 60 undergraduate majors and has over 70 graduate programs.

    Coastal Carolina University
    Coastal Carolina University
    Coastal Carolina University is an independent, state-supported, liberal arts university in Conway, South Carolina, USA, located eight miles west of Myrtle Beach. Founded in 1954, Coastal became an independent university in 1993. The University enrolls approximately 8,300 students on its campus...

    , founded in 1954, Coastal became an independent university in 1993. The University enrolls approximately 8,300 students on its 307-acre (1.24 km2) campus. Baccalaureate programs are offered in 51 major fields of study, along with graduate programs in education, business administration (MBA) and coastal marine and wetland studies.

    Universities and Colleges ranked by endowment

    Conference Rank National Rank Institution Location Public or Private Endowment Funds Percentage Change YOY
    1 129 Furman University
    Furman University
    Furman University is a selective, private, coeducational, liberal arts college in Greenville, South Carolina, United States. Furman is one of the oldest, and more selective private institutions in South Carolina...

    Greenville, South Carolina
    Greenville, South Carolina
    -Law and government:The city of Greenville adopted the Council-Manager form of municipal government in 1976.-History:The area was part of the Cherokee Nation's protected grounds after the Treaty of 1763, which ended the French and Indian War. No White man was allowed to enter, though some families...

    Private $498,282,000 12.2%
    2 145 University of South Carolina
    University of South Carolina
    The University of South Carolina is a public, co-educational research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with 7 surrounding satellite campuses. Its historic campus covers over in downtown Columbia not far from the South Carolina State House...

    Columbia, South Carolina
    Columbia, South Carolina
    Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 129,272 according to the 2010 census. Columbia is the county seat of Richland County, but a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County. The city is the center of a metropolitan...

    Public $414,002,000 5.8%
    3 153 Clemson University
    Clemson University
    Clemson University is an American public, coeducational, land-grant, sea-grant, research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States....

    Clemson, South Carolina
    Clemson, South Carolina
    Clemson is a college town located in Pickens County in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 11,939 at the 2000 census and center of an urban cluster with a total population of 42,199...

    Public $382,189,000 15.4%
    4 253 Medical University of South Carolina
    Medical University of South Carolina
    The Medical University of South Carolina opened in Charleston, South Carolina in 1824 as a small private college for the training of physicians. It is one of the oldest continually operating school of medicine in the United States and the oldest in the Deep South...

    Charleston, South Carolina
    Charleston, South Carolina
    Charleston is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded. The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location from a location on the west bank of the...

    Public $181,554,000 24.6%
    5 259 The Citadel
    The Citadel
    -Places:*The Citadel , a 201 m skyscraper in the United Arab Emirates*The Citadel , the old fortified city of Gozo, Malta*The Citadel , a shopping mall in Colorado*The Citadel , a diving spot in Martinique...

    Charleston, South Carolina
    Charleston, South Carolina
    Charleston is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded. The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location from a location on the west bank of the...

    Public $179,289,000 7.5%
    6 308 Wofford College
    Wofford College
    Established in 1854 and related to the United Methodist Church, Wofford College is an independent, Phi Beta Kappa liberal arts college of 1,525 students located in downtown Spartanburg, South Carolina, United States. The historic campus is recognized as a national arboretum and features “The...

    Spartanburg, South Carolina
    Spartanburg, South Carolina
    thgSpartanburg is the largest city in and the county seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United States. It is the second-largest city of the three primary cities in the Upstate region of South Carolina, and is located northwest of Columbia, west of Charlotte, and about northeast of...

    Private $138,211,000 9.4%
    7 442 Presbyterian College
    Presbyterian College
    Presbyterian College is a private liberal arts college in Clinton, South Carolina, USA. Presbyterian College, or PC, is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church USA. PC was founded in 1880 by William Plumer Jacobs, a prominent Presbyterian minister who also founded the nearby Thornwell Home and...

    Clinton, South Carolina
    Clinton, South Carolina
    Clinton is a city in Laurens County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 8,091 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Greenville–Mauldin–Easley Metropolitan Statistical Area. Clinton was first settled by Scots-Irish immigrants two decades before the American Revolutionary...

    Private $69,892,000 12.0%
    8 507 Converse College
    Converse College
    Converse College is a liberal arts women's college in Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA. It was established by a group of Spartanburg citizens and named after Dexter Edgar Converse.-History:...

    Spartanburg, South Carolina
    Spartanburg, South Carolina
    thgSpartanburg is the largest city in and the county seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United States. It is the second-largest city of the three primary cities in the Upstate region of South Carolina, and is located northwest of Columbia, west of Charlotte, and about northeast of...

    Private $57,586,000 11.8%
    9 762 Spartanburg Methodist College
    Spartanburg Methodist College
    Spartanburg Methodist College is a private, two-year institution of higher learning, or junior college, located in Spartanburg, South Carolina. It is the only independent, regionally-accredited, residential two-year college in South Carolina....

    Spartanburg, South Carolina
    Spartanburg, South Carolina
    thgSpartanburg is the largest city in and the county seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United States. It is the second-largest city of the three primary cities in the Upstate region of South Carolina, and is located northwest of Columbia, west of Charlotte, and about northeast of...

    Private $15,384,000 9.1%
    10 782 Tri-County Technical College Pendleton, South Carolina
    Pendleton, South Carolina
    Pendleton is a town in Anderson County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 2,966 at the 2000 census. It is a sister city of Stornoway in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland....

    Public $12,954,000 8.7%
    11 847 Midlands Technical College
    Midlands Technical College
    Midlands Technical College, is a comprehensive, multi-campus, public, two-year college serving the primary region of Richland, Lexington and Fairfield counties of South Carolina....

    Columbia, South Carolina
    Columbia, South Carolina
    Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 129,272 according to the 2010 census. Columbia is the county seat of Richland County, but a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County. The city is the center of a metropolitan...

    Public $4,717,000 13.1%

    Health care


    For overall health care, South Carolina is ranked 33rd out of the 50 states, according to the Commonwealth Fund
    Commonwealth Fund
    The Commonwealth Fund is a private U.S. foundation whose stated purpose is to promote a high-performing health care system that achieves better access, improved quality, and greater efficiency, especially for society's most vulnerable.-History:...

    , a private health foundation working to improve the health care system. The state’s teen birth rate was 53 births per 1000 teens, compared to the average of 41.9 births for the US, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation
    Kaiser Family Foundation
    The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation , or just Kaiser Family Foundation, is a U.S.-based non-profit, private operating foundation headquartered in Menlo Park, California. It focuses on the major health care issues facing the nation, as well as the U.S. role in global health policy...

    . The state’s infant mortality rate was 9.4 deaths per 1000 births compared to the US average of 6.9 deaths. There were 2.6 physicians per 1000 people compared to the US average of 3.2 physicians. There was $5114 spent on health expenses per capita in the state, compared to the US average of $5283. There were 26 percent of children and 13 percent of elderly living in poverty
    Poverty
    Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

     in the state, compared to 23 percent and 13 percent, respectively, doing so in the US. And, 34 percent of children were overweight
    Overweight
    Overweight is generally defined as having more body fat than is optimally healthy. Being overweight is a common condition, especially where food supplies are plentiful and lifestyles are sedentary...

     or obese, compared to the US average of 32 percent.

    Sports



    Although no professional franchises are actually based in South Carolina, the state is represented by North Carolina professional teams. However, the Carolina Panthers
    Carolina Panthers
    The Carolina Panthers are a professional American football team based in Charlotte, North Carolina. They are currently members of the South Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League . The Panthers, along with the Jacksonville Jaguars, joined the NFL as expansion...

     do have training facilities in this state. The state does have numerous minor league teams. College teams represent their particular South Carolina institution.

    Federal Lands in South Carolina



    • Charles Pinckney National Historic Site
      Charles Pinckney National Historic Site
      Charles Pinckney National Historic Site preserves a portion of Charles Pinckney's Snee Farm. The site is located at 1254 Long Point Road, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina....

       at Mt. Pleasant
    • Congaree National Park
      Congaree National Park
      Congaree National Park preserves the largest tract of old growth bottomland hardwood forest left in the United States. Located in South Carolina, the 26,546-acre national park received that designation in 2003 as the culmination of a grassroots campaign which had started in 1969...

       in Hopkins
      Hopkins, South Carolina
      Hopkins is an unincorporated community in Richland County, South Carolina, United States that was founded in circa 1836 named after John Hopkins...

    • Cowpens National Battlefield
      Cowpens National Battlefield
      Cowpens National Battlefield or Cowpens National Battlefield Park is a unit of the National Park Service just east of Chesnee, South Carolina, not far from the North Carolina state line....

       near Chesnee
      Chesnee, South Carolina
      Chesnee is a city in Cherokee and Spartanburg counties in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The population was 868 as of the 2010 census.-Geography:Chesnee is located at ....

    • Fort Moultrie National Monument
      Fort Moultrie National Monument
      Fort Moultrie is the name of a series of citadels on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, built to protect the city of Charleston, South Carolina. The first fort, built of palmetto logs, inspired the flag and nickname of South Carolina...

       at Sullivan's Island
      Sullivan's Island, South Carolina
      Sullivan's Island is a town in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States, on a similarly named island at the entrance to Charleston Harbor. The population was 1,911 at the 2000 census. It is also the site of a major battle of the American Revolution at Fort Sullivan on June 28, 1776. As...

    • Fort Sumter National Monument in Charleston Harbor
      Charleston, South Carolina
      Charleston is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded. The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location from a location on the west bank of the...

    • Kings Mountain National Military Park
      Kings Mountain National Military Park
      Kings Mountain National Military Park is a National Military Park near Blacksburg, South Carolina, along the North Carolina/South Carolina border...

       at Blacksburg
      Blacksburg, South Carolina
      Blacksburg is a town in Cherokee County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 1,848 at the 2010 census. The communities of Cherokee Falls, Kings Creek, Cashion Crossroads, Buffalo, and Mt...

    • Ninety Six National Historic Site
      Ninety Six National Historic Site
      Ninety Six National Historic Site, also known as Old Ninety Six and Star Fort, is a United States National Historic Site located about 60 miles south of Greenville, South Carolina...

       in Ninety Six
      Ninety Six, South Carolina
      Ninety Six is a town in Greenwood County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 1,936 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Ninety Six is located at ....

    • Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail
      Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail
      The Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail is part of the U.S. National Trails System. It recognizes the Revolutionary War Overmountain Men, Patriots from what is now East Tennessee who crossed the Great Smoky Mountains and then fought in the Battle of Kings Mountain in South...


    Famous people from South Carolina



    Some of the most influential individuals in American life are from South Carolina. Please see main article: List of people from South Carolina

    Alcohol laws



    The alcohol laws of South Carolina are part of the state's history. Voters endorsed prohibition in 1892 but instead were given the "Dispensary System" of state-owned liquor stores. Currently, certain counties may enforce time restrictions for beer and wine sales in stores, although there are no dry counties in South Carolina.

    Indoor smoking laws


    See Main article at: Indoor smoking laws of South Carolina
    • No statewide smoking ban. On March 31, 2008, the South Carolina Supreme Court
      South Carolina Supreme Court
      The South Carolina Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of South Carolina. The court is composed of a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices.-Selection of Justices:...

       ruled that cities, counties, and towns may enact smoking bans which are more stringent than state law. As of May 2009, there are four South Carolina counties and 22 cities and towns with smoke-free laws. Please see main article linked above.

    South Carolina singularities

    • Adjutant general: The head of the state's national guard, the adjutant general, is a statewide elected official.
    • Driving Under the Influence: South Carolina is the only state in the nation with mandatory videotaping by the arresting officer of the DUI arrest and breath test.
    • Fire Safety Regulations: South Carolina is the only state that allows fire officials to sidestep a federal regulation requiring that for every employee doing hazardous work inside a building, one must be outside.
    • School Buses: South Carolina is the only state in the nation that owns and operates its own school bus fleet.
    • Strokes: South Carolina has the highest rate of stroke deaths in the nation.
    • Outdoor Sculpture: South Carolina is home to the world's largest collection of outdoor sculpture located at Brookgreen Gardens.
    • Landscaped Gardens: South Carolina is home to the oldest landscaped gardens in the United States, at Middleton Place
      Middleton Place
      Middleton Place is a plantation in Dorchester County, directly across the Ashley River from North Charleston and about northwest of Charleston, in the U.S. state of South Carolina...

       near Charleston.
    • First indigo planted, 1671 by Moses Lindo, a Portuguese Jew fleeing the Inquisition
    • First time a Jew was elected to public office in America, 1774. Francis Salvador
      Francis Salvador
      Francis Salvador was the first American Jew to be killed in the American Revolution, fighting on the South Carolina frontier...

       was elected to the General Assembly

    See also


    • Atlantic Ocean
      Atlantic Ocean
      The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

    • List of National Register of Historic Places in South Carolina
    • List of people from South Carolina

    • U.S. state
      U.S. state
      A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...



    Further reading


    Textbooks and surveys

    Scholarly secondary studies
    • Bass, Jack and Marilyn W. Thompson. Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond,. Longstreet Press, 1998.
    • Busick, Sean R. A Sober Desire for History: William Gilmore Simms as Historian., 2005. ISBN 1-57003-565-2.
    • Clarke, Erskine. Our Southern Zion: A History of Calvinism in the South Carolina Low Country, 1690–1990 (1996)
    • Channing, Steven. Crisis of Fear: Secession in South Carolina (1970)
    • Cohodas, Nadine. Strom Thurmond and the Politics of Southern Change,. Simon & Schuster, 1993.
    • Coit, Margaret L. John C. Calhoun: American Portrait (1950)
    • Crane, Verner W. The Southern Frontier, 1670–1732 (1956)
    • Ford Jr., Lacy K. Origins of Southern Radicalism: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1800–1860 (1991)
    • Hindus, Michael S. Prison and Plantation: Crime, Justice, and Authority in Massachusetts and South Carolina, 1767–1878 (1980)
    • Johnson Jr., George Lloyd. The Frontier in the Colonial South: South Carolina Backcountry, 1736–1800 (1997)
    • Jordan, Jr., Frank E. The Primary State – A History of the Democratic Party in South Carolina, 1876–1962, Columbia, SC, 1967
    • Keyserling, Harriet. Against the Tide: One Woman's Political Struggle. University of South Carolina Press, 1998.
    • Kantrowitz, Stephen. Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (2002)
    • Lau, Peter F. Democracy Rising: South Carolina And the Fight for Black Equality Since 1865 (2006)
    • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States; (1974)
    • Rogers, George C. Evolution of a Federalist: William Loughton Smith of Charleston (1758–1812) (1962)
    • Schultz Harold S. Nationalism and Sectionalism in South Carolina, 1852–1860 (1950)
    • Simon, Bryant. A Fabric of Defeat: The Politics of South Carolina Millhands, 1910–1948 (1998)
    • Simkins, Francis Butler. The Tillman Movement in South Carolina (1926)
    • Simkins, Francis Butler. Pitchfork Ben Tillman: South Carolinian (1944)
    • Simkins, Francis Butler, and Robert Hilliard Woody. South Carolina during Reconstruction (1932).
    • Sinha, Manisha. The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina (2000)
    • Smith, Warren B. White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina (1961)
    • Tullos, Allen Habits of Industry: White Culture and the Transformation of the Carolina Piedmont (1989)
    • Williamson Joel R. After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction, 1861–1877 (1965)
    • Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion (1996)


    Local studies
    • Bass, Jack and Jack Nelson.The Orangeburg Massacre,. Mercer University Press, 1992.
    • Burton, Orville Vernon. In My Father's House Are Many Mansions: Family and Community in Edgefield, South Carolina (1985), social history
    • Carlton, David L. Mill and Town in South Carolina, 1880–1920 (1982)
    • Clarke, Erskine. Dwelling Place: A Plantation Epic (2005)
    • Danielson, Michael N. Profits and Politics in Paradise: The Development of Hilton Head Island,. University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
    • Doyle, Don H. New Men, New Cities, New South: Atlanta, Nashville, Charleston, Mobile, 1860–1910 (1990)
    • Huff, Jr., Archie Vernon. Greenville: The History of the City and County in the South Carolina Piedmont, University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
    • Moore, John Hammond. Columbia and Richland County: A South Carolina Community, 1740–1990, University of South Carolina Press, 1993.
    • Moredock, Will. Banana Republic: A Year in the Heart of Myrtle Beach,. Frontline Press, 2003.
    • Pease, William H. and Jane H. Pease. The Web of Progress: Private Values and Public Styles in Boston and Charleston, 1828–1843 (1985),
    • Robertson, Ben. Red Hills and Cotton,. USC Press (reprint), 1991.
    • Rose, Willie Lee. Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment (1964)


    Political science
    • Carter, Luther F. and David Mann, eds. Government in the Palmetto State: Toward the 21st century,. University of South Carolina, 1993.ISBN 0-917069-01-3
    • Graham, Cole Blease and William V. Moore. South Carolina Politics and Government. Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8032-7043-7
    • Tyer, Charlie. ed. South Carolina Government: An Introduction,. USC Institute for Public Affairs, 2002. ISBN 0-917069-12-9


    Primary documents
    • Salley, Alexander S. ed. Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650–1708 (1911) ISBN 0-7812-6298-4
    • Woodmason Charles. The Carolina Backcountry on the Eve of the Revolution Edited by Richard J. Hooker. (1953), a missionary reports ISBN 0-8078-4035-1


    External links




    Related information