Rotterdam

Rotterdam

Overview


Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam
Dam
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are...

 on the Rotte
Rotte (river)
The Rotte is a river the in Rhine-Maas-delta in the Netherlands. It rises in Moerkapelle in the so-called Green Heart. It flows past Bleiswijk and Bergschenhoek; in Rotterdam it flows into the Nieuwe Maas...

 river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre. Its strategic location at the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta
Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta
The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta is a river delta in the Netherlands and Belgium formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers. The result is a multitude of islands, branches and branch names that may at first sight look bewildering, especially as a waterway that appears to...

 on the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 and at the heart of a massive rail, road, air and inland waterway distribution system extending throughout Europe means that Rotterdam is often called the Gateway to Europe.

Located in the Province of South Holland
South Holland
South Holland is a province situated on the North Sea in the western part of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is The Hague and its largest city is Rotterdam.South Holland is one of the most densely populated and industrialised areas in the world...

, Rotterdam is in the west of the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 and at the south of the Randstad
Randstad
Image:Randstad_with_scale.png|400px|thumb|right|Clickable schematic map of the Randstadcircle 528 380 26 Schipholrect 426 356 498 436 Haarlemmermeerrect 399 166 479 245 Velsencircle 250 716 32 Delftcircle 220 642 60 The Hague...

.
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Encyclopedia


Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam
Dam
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are...

 on the Rotte
Rotte (river)
The Rotte is a river the in Rhine-Maas-delta in the Netherlands. It rises in Moerkapelle in the so-called Green Heart. It flows past Bleiswijk and Bergschenhoek; in Rotterdam it flows into the Nieuwe Maas...

 river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre. Its strategic location at the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta
Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta
The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta is a river delta in the Netherlands and Belgium formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers. The result is a multitude of islands, branches and branch names that may at first sight look bewildering, especially as a waterway that appears to...

 on the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 and at the heart of a massive rail, road, air and inland waterway distribution system extending throughout Europe means that Rotterdam is often called the Gateway to Europe.

Located in the Province of South Holland
South Holland
South Holland is a province situated on the North Sea in the western part of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is The Hague and its largest city is Rotterdam.South Holland is one of the most densely populated and industrialised areas in the world...

, Rotterdam is in the west of the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 and at the south of the Randstad
Randstad
Image:Randstad_with_scale.png|400px|thumb|right|Clickable schematic map of the Randstadcircle 528 380 26 Schipholrect 426 356 498 436 Haarlemmermeerrect 399 166 479 245 Velsencircle 250 716 32 Delftcircle 220 642 60 The Hague...

. The population of the city proper was 603,425 in March 2010. The population of the greater Rotterdam area, called "Rotterdam-Rijnmond" or just "Rijnmond
Rijnmond
Rijnmond is an official region of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. It refers to the city of Rotterdam and its surrounding suburbs and municipalities...

", is around 1.3 million people. Rotterdam is one of Europe's most vibrant and multicultural cities. It is known for its university (Erasmus), its cutting-edge architecture, its lively cultural life, its striking riverside setting, its maritime heritage and the Rotterdam Blitz
Rotterdam Blitz
The Rotterdam Blitz refers to the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the German Air Force on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II. The objective was to support the German troops fighting in the city, break Dutch resistance and force the Dutch to surrender...

.

But the essence of Rotterdam is its huge, modern port. The largest port in Europe and one of the busiest ports in the world, the port of Rotterdam
Port of Rotterdam
The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, located in the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands. From 1962 until 2004 it was the world's busiest port, now overtaken by first Shanghai and then Singapore...

 was the world's busiest port
World's busiest port
The world's busiest port is contested by several ports around the world, as there is as yet no standardised means of evaluating port performance and traffic. For the past decade, the distinction has been claimed by both the Port of Rotterdam and the Port of Singapore...

 from 1962 to 2004, at which point it was surpassed by Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

. Rotterdam's commercial and strategic importance is based on its location near the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas
Nieuwe Maas
The Nieuwe Maas distributary of the Rhine River, and a former distributary of the Maas River, in the Dutch province of South Holland. It runs from the confluence of the rivers Noord and Lek, and flows west through Rotterdam. It ends west of the city where it meets the Oude Maas , near Vlaardingen,...

 (New Meuse), one of the channels in the delta formed by the Rhine and Meuse on the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

. These rivers lead directly into the centre of Europe, including the industrial Ruhr
Ruhr
The Ruhr is a medium-size river in western Germany , a right tributary of the Rhine.-Description:The source of the Ruhr is near the town of Winterberg in the mountainous Sauerland region, at an elevation of approximately 2,200 feet...

 region.

History


Settlement at the lower end of the fen
Fen
A fen is a type of wetland fed by mineral-rich surface water or groundwater. Fens are characterised by their water chemistry, which is neutral or alkaline, with relatively high dissolved mineral levels but few other plant nutrients...

 stream Rotte
Rotte (river)
The Rotte is a river the in Rhine-Maas-delta in the Netherlands. It rises in Moerkapelle in the so-called Green Heart. It flows past Bleiswijk and Bergschenhoek; in Rotterdam it flows into the Nieuwe Maas...

(or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, 'muddy' and a, 'water', thus 'muddy water') dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large flood
Flood
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water...

s in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes
Levee
A levee, levée, dike , embankment, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels...

 and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ('Schieland’s High Sea Dike') along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte or 'Rotterdam' was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat ('High Street').

On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2000 inhabitants. Around 1350 a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local transshipment center between Holland, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 and Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, and to urbanize
Urbanization
Urbanization, urbanisation or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008....

.

The port of Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six 'chambers' of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia...

.

The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis
Witte Huis
The Witte Huis or White House is a skyscraper and National Heritage Site in Rotterdam, Netherlands, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the Art Nouveau style. The building is tall, with 10 floors, and was the tallest in Europe at the time it was built. It was also the first...

or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Chateau-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m (147.64 ft).

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance. The Dutch army was finally forced to capitulate on 14 May 1940, following Hitler's bombing Rotterdam
Rotterdam Blitz
The Rotterdam Blitz refers to the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the German Air Force on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II. The objective was to support the German troops fighting in the city, break Dutch resistance and force the Dutch to surrender...

 and threatening to bomb other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was almost completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

; 900 civilians were killed and 80,000 made homeless. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine
Ossip Zadkine
Ossip Zadkine was a Belarusian-born artist who lived in France. He is primarily known as a sculptor, but also produced paintings and lithographs.-Early years and career:...

 later strikingly captured the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad ('The Destroyed City'). The statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug
Erasmusbrug
The Erasmusbrug is a cable stayed bridge across the Nieuwe Maas river, linking the northern and southern halves of the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands....

 in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas.

Rotterdam was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through the 1970s. It remained quite wind
Wind
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space...

y and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartment
Apartment
An apartment or flat is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building...

s, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more 'livable
Quality of life
The term quality of life is used to evaluate the general well-being of individuals and societies. The term is used in a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, and politics. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of...

' city center with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business center.

Geography


'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas
Nieuwe Maas
The Nieuwe Maas distributary of the Rhine River, and a former distributary of the Maas River, in the Dutch province of South Holland. It runs from the confluence of the rivers Noord and Lek, and flows west through Rotterdam. It ends west of the city where it meets the Oude Maas , near Vlaardingen,...

, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug
Erasmusbrug
The Erasmusbrug is a cable stayed bridge across the Nieuwe Maas river, linking the northern and southern halves of the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands....

('Erasmus Bridge'); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the Willemsbrug ('Willems Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge'); and the Van Brienenoordbrug ('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former railway lift bridge
Bridge
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle...

 De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland ('North Island') and the south of Rotterdam.

The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the center to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid ('the Head of South', i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 by a swathe of predominantly harbor area.

Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam extends 6 meters below sea level, or rather below Normaal Amsterdams Peil
Normaal Amsterdams Peil
Normaal Amsterdams Peil or Amsterdam Ordnance Datum is a vertical datum in use in large parts of Western Europe. Originally created for use in the Netherlands, it was adopted by Prussia in 1879 under the name Normalnull, and in 1955 by other European countries.Mayor Johannes Hudde of Amsterdam in...

 (NAP) or 'Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The lowest point in the Netherlands (6.76 metres (22.2 ft) below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel
Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel
Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel is a town and former municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland...

.

The Rotte
Rotte (river)
The Rotte is a river the in Rhine-Maas-delta in the Netherlands. It rises in Moerkapelle in the so-called Green Heart. It flows past Bleiswijk and Bergschenhoek; in Rotterdam it flows into the Nieuwe Maas...

 river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.

Conurbations


Rotterdam is located at the southern end of the Randstad
Randstad
Image:Randstad_with_scale.png|400px|thumb|right|Clickable schematic map of the Randstadcircle 528 380 26 Schipholrect 426 356 498 436 Haarlemmermeerrect 399 166 479 245 Velsencircle 250 716 32 Delftcircle 220 642 60 The Hague...

. Having a population of 6.7 million, the Randstad
Randstad
Image:Randstad_with_scale.png|400px|thumb|right|Clickable schematic map of the Randstadcircle 528 380 26 Schipholrect 426 356 498 436 Haarlemmermeerrect 399 166 479 245 Velsencircle 250 716 32 Delftcircle 220 642 60 The Hague...

 is the sixth-largest metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 (after Moscow, London, the Ruhr Area, Istanbul, and Paris).

The southern part of the Randstad
Randstad
Image:Randstad_with_scale.png|400px|thumb|right|Clickable schematic map of the Randstadcircle 528 380 26 Schipholrect 426 356 498 436 Haarlemmermeerrect 399 166 479 245 Velsencircle 250 716 32 Delftcircle 220 642 60 The Hague...

 (i.e. the part located in the Province of South Holland
South Holland
South Holland is a province situated on the North Sea in the western part of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is The Hague and its largest city is Rotterdam.South Holland is one of the most densely populated and industrialised areas in the world...

) is called the "South Wing" (Zuidvleugel
Zuidvleugel
Zuidvleugel is a way of describing the band of cities and towns located along the southern wing of the Randstad in the Netherlands. It is that part of the Randstad that is located in the Province of South Holland. This developing conurbation extends around 60 kilometres from Dordrecht to Leiden...

). Including Leiden, The Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

, Zoetermeer
Zoetermeer
Zoetermeer is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 37.06 km² . A small village until the late 1960s, it had 6,392 inhabitants in 1950...

, Delft
Delft
Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland , the Netherlands. It is located between Rotterdam and The Hague....

, Vlaardingen
Vlaardingen
Vlaardingen is a town in South Holland in the Netherlands. It is located on the north bank of the Nieuwe Maas/Nieuwe Waterweg river at the confluence with the Oude Maas...

, Schiedam
Schiedam
Schiedam is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. It is part of the Rotterdam metropolitan area. The city is located west of Rotterdam, east of Vlaardingen and south of Delft...

, Capelle aan den IJssel
Capelle aan den IJssel
Capelle aan den IJssel is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 65,605 in 2005, and covers an area of 15.42 km² of which 1.13 km² is water...

, Spijkenisse
Spijkenisse
Spijkenisse is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 74,482 in 2006, and covers an area of 30.23 km²...

 and Dordrecht
Dordrecht
Dordrecht , colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland. It is the fourth largest city of the province, having a population of 118,601 in 2009...

, the Zuidvleugel
Zuidvleugel
Zuidvleugel is a way of describing the band of cities and towns located along the southern wing of the Randstad in the Netherlands. It is that part of the Randstad that is located in the Province of South Holland. This developing conurbation extends around 60 kilometres from Dordrecht to Leiden...

 has a population of around 3 million.

At the heart of the Zuidvleugel
Zuidvleugel
Zuidvleugel is a way of describing the band of cities and towns located along the southern wing of the Randstad in the Netherlands. It is that part of the Randstad that is located in the Province of South Holland. This developing conurbation extends around 60 kilometres from Dordrecht to Leiden...

 are the conurbations surrounding The Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

 and Rotterdam. They are close enough to be almost a single conurbation with a population of about 2.5 million. They share the Rotterdam The Hague Airport and a light rail system called RandstadRail
RandstadRail
RandstadRail network in the southern part of the Randstad conurbation in the west of the Netherlands, connecting The Hague, Zoetermeer and Rotterdam, consists of a metro-like line between The Hague and Rotterdam and two light rail lines between The Hague and Zoetermeer...

. Consideration is being given to creating a Rotterdam-The Hague metropolitan area (metropoolregio).

Demographics


Overall the demographics differ per city area. According to a recent area analysis, the city centre has a singles population of 70%, between the age of 20 and 40, considerably more than other city areas. Also the city centre has a much larger population of people with higher education and higher income. Nonetheless, 80% of the homes are rented, not owned. City centre also has a higher percentage (51% vs 45%) of foreign-born citizens (Dutch: Allochtonen). The majority (70%) of shops are also run by foreign-born citizens.

Historical population


  • 1796: 53,200 inhabitants
  • 1830: 72,300
  • 1849: 90,100
  • 1879: 148,100
  • 1899: 318,500
  • 1925: 547,900
  • 1965: 551,000
  • 1984: 555,000
  • 2005: 596,407
  • 2006: 588,576
  • 2007: 584,046
  • 2010: 603,425
  • 2011: 612,502


Composition



On 1 January 2007 (source: Statistics Netherlands
Statistics Netherlands
Statistics Netherlands, founded in 1899, is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. In Dutch it is known as the Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, often abbreviated to CBS. It is a department of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and is...

), the municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 covered an area of 319 km2 (206.44 km2 of which is land) with a population of 603,425. It is part of a larger metropolitan area with a total population (including Dordrecht
Dordrecht
Dordrecht , colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland. It is the fourth largest city of the province, having a population of 118,601 in 2009...

 and surrounding cities) of approximately 1.6 million. In 1965, the municipal
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 population of Rotterdam reached its peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result of suburbanization
Suburbanization
Suburbanization a term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities. It is one of the many causes of the increase in urban sprawl. Many residents of metropolitan regions work within the central urban area, choosing instead to live in satellite communities called suburbs...

.

Rotterdam consists of 12 submunicipalities: Charlois
Charlois
Charlois is a neighbourhood of the Dutch city of Rotterdam. It is located on the south bank of the Meuse River.Charlois used to be a separate village; the municipality Charlois existed until 1895, when it became part of Rotterdam.-References:...

 (including Heijplaat), Delfshaven
Delfshaven
Delfshaven is a borough of Rotterdam on the right bank of river Nieuwe Maas, in South Holland, the Netherlands. It was a separate municipality until 1886.The town of Delfshaven grew around the port of the city of Delft...

, Feijenoord
Feijenoord district
Feijenoord is a district in Rotterdam and is located south of the Nieuwe Maas. As of 1 January 2004 there were 72,320 citizens. The area is 6.44 km²...

, Hillegersberg-Schiebroek
Hillegersberg-Schiebroek
Hillegersberg-Schiebroek is a borough in northern Rotterdam. The borough has 40,846 inhabitants.Until the annexation by Rotterdam on August 1, 1941 were Hillegersberg and Schiebroek independent communities. In 1947 in Rotterdam, the first elected councils established, in 1948 was the first...

, Hoek van Holland, Hoogvliet
Hoogvliet
Hoogvliet is a town and separate borough within Rotterdam in the Netherlands. As of 1 January 2004, it had 36,619 inhabitants. There is also a named after the district.-History:...

, IJsselmonde
IJsselmonde (Rotterdam)
IJsselmonde is a township located in the southeastern corner of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. As of 2006 it has 58,782 inhabitants....

, Kralingen-Crooswijk
Kralingen-Crooswijk
Kralingen-Crooswijk is a township of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. It is located at the immediate east of the city's centre. As of 2005 it has about 52,379 inhabitants and has a territory of about 1,286 ha...

, Noord
Noord (Rotterdam)
Noord is a borough of Rotterdam. The municipal portion is formed by the Delfshavense Schie, the Highway 20 , the Rotte and the rails. The borough had 48,990 inhabitants in 2007.- Neighborhoods :The borough Noord consists of the neighborhoods:...

, Overschie
Overschie
Overschie is a former village in the Dutch province of South Holland, and now a neighbourhood of Rotterdam.The village of Overschie was located on the intersection of four rivers called "Schie": the Delftsche Schie, Schiedamsche Schie, Delfshavensche Schie, and Rotterdamsche Schie. It was a...

, Prins Alexander
Prins Alexander
Prins Alexander is a borough in the northeast part of Rotterdam, South Holland, the Netherlands.Prins Alexander knows 7 neighbourhoods:*Het Lage Land*Kralingseveer*Nesselande*Ommoord*Oosterflank*Prinsenland*Zevenkamp-Public transportation:...

 (the most populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants), and Rozenburg
Rozenburg
Rozenburg is a town and former municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 13,173 in 2004, and covers an area of 6.50 km² . It was the second-smallest municipality in the Netherlands in area...

. Two other areas, Centrum
Rotterdam Centrum
Rotterdam Centrum is a borough of Rotterdam since March 3, 2010. The center has 31,363 inhabitants .Rotterdam Centrum is bounded by the emplacement of the Rotterdam Centraal railway station and the Goudsesingel in the north, the Tunneltraverse of the Henegouwerlaan and 's-Gravendijkwal in the...

 ('Center') and Pernis
Pernis (Netherlands)
thumb|200px|right|Pernis in 1865.Pernis is a village and district of the municipality of Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands. The district has a population of 4,560 on a total area size of 1.60 km². Pernis is not a full submunicipality of Rotterdam, but the former independent municipality...

, do not have official submunicipality status.

The current size of the municipality of Rotterdam is the result of the amalgamation of the following former municipalities, some of which now are a submunicipality:
  • Delfshaven
    Delfshaven
    Delfshaven is a borough of Rotterdam on the right bank of river Nieuwe Maas, in South Holland, the Netherlands. It was a separate municipality until 1886.The town of Delfshaven grew around the port of the city of Delft...

     (added on 30 January 1886)
  • Charlois
    Charlois
    Charlois is a neighbourhood of the Dutch city of Rotterdam. It is located on the south bank of the Meuse River.Charlois used to be a separate village; the municipality Charlois existed until 1895, when it became part of Rotterdam.-References:...

     (added on 28 February 1895)
  • Kralingen
    Kralingen
    Kralingen is a former village in the Dutch province of South Holland, now a neighbourhood of Rotterdam. It is located about 3 kilometres east of the city centre, in the borough Kralingen-Crooswijk....

     (added on 28 February 1895)
  • Hoogvliet
    Hoogvliet
    Hoogvliet is a town and separate borough within Rotterdam in the Netherlands. As of 1 January 2004, it had 36,619 inhabitants. There is also a named after the district.-History:...

     (added on 1 May 1934)
  • Pernis
    Pernis (Netherlands)
    thumb|200px|right|Pernis in 1865.Pernis is a village and district of the municipality of Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands. The district has a population of 4,560 on a total area size of 1.60 km². Pernis is not a full submunicipality of Rotterdam, but the former independent municipality...

     (added on 1 May 1934)
  • Hillegersberg
    Hillegersberg
    Hillegersberg is a neighborhood of Rotterdam, Netherlands. It was founded as a village in the Middle Ages...

     (added on 1 August 1941)
  • IJsselmonde
    IJsselmonde (Rotterdam)
    IJsselmonde is a township located in the southeastern corner of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. As of 2006 it has 58,782 inhabitants....

     (added on 1 August 1941)
  • Overschie
    Overschie
    Overschie is a former village in the Dutch province of South Holland, and now a neighbourhood of Rotterdam.The village of Overschie was located on the intersection of four rivers called "Schie": the Delftsche Schie, Schiedamsche Schie, Delfshavensche Schie, and Rotterdamsche Schie. It was a...

     (added on 1 August 1941)
  • Schiebroek
    Schiebroek
    Schiebroek is a former village in the Dutch province of South Holland. It is now a neighbourhood of Rotterdam, and part of the borough of Hillegersberg-Schiebroek.Schiebroek was a separate municipality between 1817 and 1941, when it became part of Rotterdam....

     (added on 1 August 1941)
  • Rozenburg
    Rozenburg
    Rozenburg is a town and former municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 13,173 in 2004, and covers an area of 6.50 km² . It was the second-smallest municipality in the Netherlands in area...

     (added on 18 March 2010)

Ethnic make-up


Figures are from 2008:
  • Total: 582,949
  • Dutch
    Dutch people
    The Dutch people are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United...

    : 313,765
  • Suriname
    Suriname
    Suriname , officially the Republic of Suriname , is a country in northern South America. It borders French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west, Brazil to the south, and on the north by the Atlantic Ocean. Suriname was a former colony of the British and of the Dutch, and was previously known as...

    se: 51,885
  • Turkish
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

    : 45,699
  • Moroccan
    Morocco
    Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

    : 37,476
  • Antillean
    Netherlands Antilles
    The Netherlands Antilles , also referred to informally as the Dutch Antilles, was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, consisting of two groups of islands in the Lesser Antilles: Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao , in Leeward Antilles just off the Venezuelan coast; and Sint...

     / Aruba
    Aruba
    Aruba is a 33 km-long island of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean Sea, located 27 km north of the coast of Venezuela and 130 km east of Guajira Peninsula...

    n: 19,562
  • Other EU: 32,134
  • Other: 67,457


In the Netherlands, Rotterdam has the highest percentage of foreigners from non-industrialised nations. They form a large part of Rotterdam's multi ethnic and multicultural diversity. 46% of the population are of non Dutch origins or have at least one parent born outside the country. There are 80,000 Muslims, constituting 13% of the population. The mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb
Ahmed Aboutaleb
Ahmed Aboutaleb is a Dutch politician of the Labour Party . He has been the Mayor of Rotterdam since January 5, 2009...

, is of Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim. The city is home to the largest Dutch Antillean community. The city also has its own China Town
Chinatown
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of overseas Chinese people, although it is often generalized to include various Southeast Asian people. Chinatowns exist throughout the world, including East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. Binondo's Chinatown located in Manila,...

 at the (West-) Kruiskade, close to the central railway station.

Despite being the largest port and one of the largest cities of the country, the city's unemployment rate is 8.5%. This is twice the national average.

Commerce and industry



Rotterdam has always been one of the main centers of the shipping industry in the Netherlands. From the Rotterdam Chamber of the VOC
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia...

, the worlds first multinational, established in 1602, to the merchant shipping leader Royal Nedlloyd
Nedlloyd
Nedlloyd was a Dutch shipping company, formed in 1970 as the Nederlandsche Scheepvaart Unie in a merger of several shipping lines:*Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland *Koninklijke Rotterdamsche Lloyd...

 established in 1970, with its corporate headquarters located in the landmark building the 'Willemswerf' in 1988. In 1997 Nedlloyd merged with the British shipping industry leader P&O forming the third largest merchant shipping company in the world. The anglo-Dutch P&O Nedlloyd
P&O Nedlloyd
P&O Nedlloyd Container Line Limited was an Anglo-Dutch worldwide ocean-going container shipping line, with dual headquarters in London and Rotterdam. The company was formed in 1997 by the merger of the container-shipping interests of the leading Dutch transportation company Royal Nedlloyd and the...

 was bought by the Danish giant corporation 'AP Moller Maersk' in 2005 and its Dutch operations are still head quartered in the 'Willemswerf'. Rotterdam is also home to the Dutch half of the anglo-Dutch consumer goods giant Unilever
Unilever
Unilever is a British-Dutch multinational corporation that owns many of the world's consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products....

, and Mittal Steel Company N.V.
Mittal Steel Company
Mittal Steel Company N.V. was one of the world's largest steel producers by volume, and also one of the largests in turnover. The company is now part of ArcelorMittal....

, subsidiary of Luxembourg-based Arcelor Mittal, the world's largest steel company.

The Erasmus University has a strong focus on research and education in management and economics. The University is located on the east side of the city and is surrounded by numerous multinational firms. On Brainpark I, Brainpark II, Brainpark III and Het Rivium are located offices of major multinationals. In the center of the city are the above-mentioned Unilever
Unilever
Unilever is a British-Dutch multinational corporation that owns many of the world's consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products....

 offices, but also Robeco
Robeco
Robeco is a Dutch asset management firm founded in 1929 as the Rotterdamsch Beleggings Consortium . By year end 2009, the company had over € 130 billion of assets under management. It was acquired in 2001 by the Rabobank Groep.Robeco offers assets management services to both institutional and...

, Fortis
Fortis (finance)
Fortis N.V./S.A. was a company active in insurance, banking and investment management. In 2007 it was the 20th largest business in the world by revenue but after encountering severe problems in the financial crisis of 2008, most of the company was sold in parts, with only insurance activities...

 (including Mees Pierson and Stad Rotterdam Verzekeringen), ABN AMRO
ABN AMRO
ABN AMRO Bank N.V. is a Dutch state-owned bank with headquarters in Amsterdam. It was re-established, in its current form, in 2009 following the acquisition and break up of ABN AMRO Group by a banking consortium consisting of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, Santander and Fortis...

, ING
ING Group
The ING Group is a global financial institution offering retail banking, direct banking, commercial banking, investment banking, asset management, and insurance services. ING is the Dutch member of the Inter-Alpha Group of Banks, a cooperative consortium of 11 prominent European banks...

 (Nationale Nederlanden), the Rotterdam WTC, and the before mentioned Maersk Line who incorporates the Dutch merchant marine legacy.

The City of Rotterdam makes use of the services of semi-government companies Roteb
Roteb
Roteb is a city cleaning company which is in service of the City of Rotterdam and tries to make sure that the streets and squares of the city are kept tidy and they also offer waste management services....

 (to take care of sanitation
Sanitation
Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic...

, waste management
Waste management
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal,managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics...

 and assorted services) and the Port of Rotterdam Authority (to maintain the Port of Rotterdam
Port of Rotterdam
The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, located in the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands. From 1962 until 2004 it was the world's busiest port, now overtaken by first Shanghai and then Singapore...

). Both these companies were once municipal bodies, now they are autonomous entities, owned by the City.

Ports




Rotterdam has the largest port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland
Hinterland
The hinterland is the land or district behind a coast or the shoreline of a river. Specifically, by the doctrine of the hinterland, the word is applied to the inland region lying behind a port, claimed by the state that owns the coast. The area from which products are delivered to a port for...

 upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland
Basel
Basel or Basle In the national languages of Switzerland the city is also known as Bâle , Basilea and Basilea is Switzerland's third most populous city with about 166,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany...

 and into France. In 2004 Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

 took over as the world's busiest port
World's busiest port
The world's busiest port is contested by several ports around the world, as there is as yet no standardised means of evaluating port performance and traffic. For the past decade, the distinction has been claimed by both the Port of Rotterdam and the Port of Singapore...

. In 2006, Rotterdam was the world's seventh largest container port
Containerization
Containerization is a system of freight transport based on a range of steel intermodal containers...

 in terms of twenty-foot equivalent unit
Twenty-foot equivalent unit
The twenty-foot equivalent unit is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals...

s (TEU) handled.

The port's main activities are petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 industries and general cargo
Cargo
Cargo is goods or produce transported, generally for commercial gain, by ship, aircraft, train, van or truck. In modern times, containers are used in most intermodal long-haul cargo transport.-Marine:...

 handling and transshipment
Transshipment
Transshipment or Transhipment is the shipment of goods or containers to an intermediate destination, and then from there to yet another destination....

. The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk
Bulk material handling
Bulk material handling is an engineering field that is centered around the design of equipment used for the handling of dry materials such as ores, coal, cereals, wood chips, sand, gravel and stone in loose bulk form...

 materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the Betuweroute
Betuweroute
The Betuweroute is a double track freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany. Betuweroute is the official name, after the Betuwe area through which it passes, but the line is popularly referred to as Betuwelijn, after an older track in the same region. The Germans have named their part the...

, a new fast freight railway
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

 from Rotterdam to Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, was completed.

In 1872, the Nieuwe Waterweg
Nieuwe Waterweg
The Nieuwe Waterweg is a ship canal in the Netherlands from het Scheur west of the town of Maassluis to the North Sea at Hook of Holland...

 ('New Waterway') opened, a ship canal
Canal
Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:#Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:...

 constructed to keep the city and port of Rotterdam accessible to seafaring vessels as the natural Meuse-Rhine channels silted up. The canal proper measures approximately 6.5 kilometres (4 mi) from the western tips of its protruding dams to the Maeslantkering
Maeslantkering
The Maeslantkering is a storm surge barrier in the Nieuwe Waterweg waterway located between the towns of Hoek van Holland and Maassluis, Netherlands, , which automatically closes when needed...

 ('Maeslant Barrier'). Many maps, however, include the Scheur
Het Scheur
Het Scheur is a branch of the Rhine-Meuse delta in South Holland, Netherlands, that flows west from the confluence of the Oude Maas and Nieuwe Maas branches past the towns of Rozenburg and Maassluis...

 as part of the Nieuwe Waterweg, leading to a length of approximately 19.5 kilometres (12.1 mi).

In the first half of the twentieth century, the port's center of gravity shifted westward towards the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

. Covering 105 square kilometres (40.5 sq mi), the port of Rotterdam now stretches over a distance of 40 kilometres (24.9 mi). It consists of the city center's historic harbor area, including Delfshaven
Delfshaven
Delfshaven is a borough of Rotterdam on the right bank of river Nieuwe Maas, in South Holland, the Netherlands. It was a separate municipality until 1886.The town of Delfshaven grew around the port of the city of Delft...

; the Lloydkwartier; the Maashaven/Rijnhaven/Feijenoord
Feijenoord district
Feijenoord is a district in Rotterdam and is located south of the Nieuwe Maas. As of 1 January 2004 there were 72,320 citizens. The area is 6.44 km²...

 complex; the harbors around Nieuw-Mathenesse
Nieuw-Mathenesse
Nieuw-Mathenesse is a neighborhood of Rotterdam, The Netherlands....

; Waalhaven
Waalhaven
thumb|right|250px|Waalhaven Airport in 1932, with the [[LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin|Graf Zeppelin]] in the background.The Waalhaven is one of various harbours in the Port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands and used to be home to an airport, Vliegveld Waalhaven . It was the first civilian airport in the...

; Vondelingenplaat
Vondelingenplaat
Vondelingenplaat is a district in Rotterdam, Netherlands....

; Eemhaven; Botlek
Botlek
thumb|right|[[Satellite]] [[image]] of the [[Rhine]]-[[Meuse River|Meuse]] [[river delta|delta]] showing the Botlek .The Botlek originally was the name of a stretch of the Nieuwe Maas river, part of the Rhine-Meuse delta near the Dutch cities of Vlaardingen and Spijkenisse in the province of...

; Europoort
Europoort
Europoort is an area of the Port of Rotterdam and the adjoining industrial area in the Netherlands. Being situated at the mouth of the rivers Rhine and Meuse with the hinterland consisting of the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and partly France, Europoort is by certain measurements the world's...

, situated along the Calandkanaal, Nieuwe Waterweg
Nieuwe Waterweg
The Nieuwe Waterweg is a ship canal in the Netherlands from het Scheur west of the town of Maassluis to the North Sea at Hook of Holland...

 and Scheur
Het Scheur
Het Scheur is a branch of the Rhine-Meuse delta in South Holland, Netherlands, that flows west from the confluence of the Oude Maas and Nieuwe Maas branches past the towns of Rozenburg and Maassluis...

 (the latter two being continuations of the Nieuwe Maas); and the reclaimed Maasvlakte
Maasvlakte
The Maasvlakte is part of Europoort, a harbour and industrial area near the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands.-Creation:It was created in the 1960s by reclaiming land from the North Sea through dykes and sand suppletion. The sand for the suppletion was largely taken from the North Sea and the...

 area, which projects into the North Sea.

The construction of a second Maasvlakte received initial political approval in 2004, but was stopped by the Raad van State (the Dutch Council of State
Dutch Council of State
In the Netherlands, the Council of State is a constitutionally established advisory body to the government which consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic, or military experience...

, which advises the government and parliament on legislation and governance) in 2005, because the plans did not take enough account of environmental issues. On 10 October 2006, however, approval was acquired to start construction in 2008, aiming for the first ship to anchor in 2013.

Education



Rotterdam has one major university, the Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants, Desiderius Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus , known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, and a theologian....

. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University
Rotterdam School of Management
Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University is the international business school of the Erasmus University Rotterdam located in Rotterdam, Netherlands...

. In Financial Times'
Financial Times
The Financial Times is an international business newspaper. It is a morning daily newspaper published in London and printed in 24 cities around the world. Its primary rival is the Wall Street Journal, published in New York City....

 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2009 rankings of Masters of Management, the school reached first place with the CEMS
Global Alliance in Management Education
CEMS, the Global Alliance in Management Education is a cooperation of the world's leading business schools and universities with multinational companies and NGOs...

 Master in Management and a tenth place with its RSM Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's largest student association, STAR Study Association Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the world's largest student association, AIESEC
AIESEC
AIESEC is a global youth organisation that develops leadership capabilities through their internal leadership programmes and engaging students and graduates in international student exchange and internship programmes for profit and non-profit organisations. Its international office is in...

, has its international office in the city.

The Willem de Kooning Academy
Willem de Kooning Academy
The Willem de Kooning Academy is a Dutch Academy of art and design based in Rotterdam and named in memory of the famous Dutch artist Willem de Kooning.- Overview :...

 Rotterdam's main art school, which is part of the Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most prestigious art schools in the Netherlands and the number 1 in Advertising and Copywriting. Part of the Willem de Kooning Academy
Willem de Kooning Academy
The Willem de Kooning Academy is a Dutch Academy of art and design based in Rotterdam and named in memory of the famous Dutch artist Willem de Kooning.- Overview :...

 is the Piet Zwart Institute
Piet Zwart Institute
The Piet Zwart Institute is a post-graduate institute for study and research in art, media and design based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Named in memory of the Dutch designer Piet Zwart, it was inaugurated in 2001...

 for postgraduate studies and research in Fine Art, Media Design and Retail Design. The Piet Zwart Institute boasts a selective roster of emerging international artists.

The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the University. These are known collectively as the Erasmus Medical Center, which is ranked third worldwide for medical research, behind the Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 and Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
The Johns Hopkins University, commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins, is a private research university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United States...

. The Erasmus Medical Center ranks as the top European institution in clinical medicine according to the Times Higher Education rankings. As a combined medical treatment and research center it is particularly noted for its patient cohort studies in which large numbers of patients are followed for long periods of time.

There are also three Hogescholen
Vocational university
A vocational university is an institution of higher education and sometimes research, which provides both tertiary and sometimes quaternary education and grants academic degrees at all levels in a variety of subjects...

(Universities of applied sciences) in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a professional Bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

 and postgraduate or Master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

. The three Hogescholen are Hogeschool Rotterdam
Hogeschool Rotterdam
- About :The Hogeschool Rotterdam is a University of Applied Sciences located in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. It was created in 1988 by a large-scale merger of 19 higher education schools followed by a merger with the Hogeschool voor Economische Studies . It holds class at ten locations...

, Hogeschool INHOLLAND and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans
Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans
Havo voor Muziek en Dans is a havo music and drama school in Rotterdam, Netherlands....

 (uni for music and dance) which is also known as CodArts.

Culture



Alongside Porto, Rotterdam was European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

 in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra
Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra
The Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra is a Dutch symphony orchestra based in Rotterdam. Its primary venue is the concert hall De Doelen. The RPhO is considered one of the Netherlands' two principal orchestras of international standing, second to the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam...

 with its world famous musical director Yannick Nézet-Séguin
Yannick Nézet-Séguin
Yannick Nézet-Séguin is a French Canadian conductor. He is Music Director Designate of the Philadelphia Orchestra, and will become Music Director in 2012.-Biography:...

, a large congress and concert building called De Doelen
De Doelen
270px|thumb|De DoelenDe Doelen is a concert venue and convention centre in Rotterdam, Netherlands. It was originally built in 1934 but then destroyed in 1940 during the German bombardment of Rotterdam in May 1940 at the outset of World War II...

, plus many theatres (including the new Luxor theatre) and movie theatres. The Ahoy complex in the south of the city is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments and other activities. A major zoo
Zoo
A zoological garden, zoological park, menagerie, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred....

 called Diergaarde Blijdorp
Diergaarde Blijdorp
Diergaarde Blijdorp is a zoo in the northwestern part of Rotterdam, one of the oldest zoos in the Netherlands...

 is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the Oceanium
Oceanium
The Oceanium is an aquarium that opened in 2001 in Diergaarde Blijdorp, a zoo in Rotterdam, Netherlands.The Oceanium lies in the expansion area of the zoo, which includes a new entrance and parking area, and was the biggest project to date for the zoo...

.

The city is home to the Willem de Kooning Academy
Willem de Kooning Academy
The Willem de Kooning Academy is a Dutch Academy of art and design based in Rotterdam and named in memory of the famous Dutch artist Willem de Kooning.- Overview :...

 and Piet Zwart Institute
Piet Zwart Institute
The Piet Zwart Institute is a post-graduate institute for study and research in art, media and design based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Named in memory of the Dutch designer Piet Zwart, it was inaugurated in 2001...

.

Rotterdam is currently going through a sort of renaissance, with some urban architecture projects, a nightlife, and many summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired "Summer Carnival
Summer Carnival
The Summer Carnaval is a yearly event in the Belgian city of Kortrijk and the Dutch cities Rotterdam, Bentelo and Arnhem that mimics the Carnaval of Latin America and the Cape Verde Islands. The traditional pre-Lent Carnival falls in winter in the cool, northern European climate...

", the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World Port days. The city has a few venues for pop music
Pop music
Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

 like Rotown and Exit. The venue WORM focuses on experimental music
Experimental music
Experimental music refers, in the English-language literature, to a compositional tradition which arose in the mid-20th century, applied particularly in North America to music composed in such a way that its outcome is unforeseeable. Its most famous and influential exponent was John Cage...

 and related cutting edge
State of the art
The state of the art is the highest level of development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field, achieved at a particular time. It also refers to the level of development reached at any particular time as a result of the latest methodologies employed.- Origin :The earliest use of the term...

 subcultural music.
There are also the International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured Jefferson Airplane
Jefferson Airplane
Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band formed in San Francisco in 1965. A pioneer of the psychedelic rock movement, Jefferson Airplane was the first band from the San Francisco scene to achieve mainstream commercial and critical success....

, The Byrds
The Byrds
The Byrds were an American rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1964. The band underwent multiple line-up changes throughout its existence, with frontman Roger McGuinn remaining the sole consistent member until the group disbanded in 1973...

, Canned Heat
Canned Heat
Canned Heat is a blues-rock/boogie rock band that formed in Los Angeles, California in 1965. The group has been noted for its own interpretations of blues material as well as for efforts to promote the interest in this type of music and its original artists...

, It's a Beautiful Day
It's a Beautiful Day
It's a Beautiful Day is a band formed in San Francisco, California in 1967, the brainchild of violinist David LaFlamme.LaFlamme, a former soloist with the Utah Symphony Orchestra, had previously been in the band Orkustra, and unusually, played a five-string violin...

, and Santana
Santana (band)
Santana is a rock band based around guitarist Carlos Santana and founded in the late 1960s. It first came to public attention after their performing the song "Soul Sacrifice" at the Woodstock Festival in 1969, when their Latin rock provided a contrast to other acts on the bill...

) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam.

The self-image of the city is that of a no-nonsense workers' city. In that sense, there is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in Rotterdam, divided in The Hague and spent in Amsterdam". Another saying that reflects both the rivalry between Rotterdam and Amsterdam is "Amsterdam has it, Rotterdam doesn't need it".

Rotterdam has had a rich hiphop music
Hip hop music
Hip hop music, also called hip-hop, rap music or hip-hop music, is a musical genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted...

 scene since the early 1980s. It is also the home of Gabber
Gabber
Gabber , is a style of electronic music and a subgenre of hardcore techno. "Gabber" is a slang word of Yiddish origin that means "mate", "buddy" or "friend"....

, a type of hardcore electronic music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like Neophyte
Neophyte (band)
Neophyte is a hardcore, or gabber, group formed in 1992 in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The three original members are Jeroen Streunding , Danny Greten and Robin van Roon....

 and Rotterdam Terror Corps
Rotterdam Terror Corps
Rotterdam Terror Corps is a Dutch gabber group formed in 1993 that is known for its hard beats and is considered by many as a pioneer in the genre, for instance they created landmark songs such as, "God is a gabber", "Masters of Hardcore", "Unleash Hell" and "Rotterdam Hooligan"...

 (RTC) started in Rotterdam.

The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
The Concertgebouw is a concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The Dutch term "concertgebouw" literally translates into English as "concert building"...

 and Holland Festival
Holland Festival
The Holland Festival is The Netherlands' oldest and largest performing arts festival, and takes place every June in Amsterdam. It comprises theater, music, opera and modern dance. In recent years, multimedia, visual arts, film and architecture were added to the festival roster...

, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations published with plans for co-operation. One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands in the international context.

Museums


Rotterdam has many museums.
Well known museum
Museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

s are the Boijmans-van Beuningen
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
The Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen is the main art museum in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The museum began in 1847 with the collection of Frans Jacob Otto Boijmans . Much of the museum's original collection was destroyed in a disastrous 1864 fire...

Museum, the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute
Netherlands Architecture Institute
The Netherlands Architecture Institute is a Dutch architecture institute in Rotterdam. The NAi owns one of the world’s largest architectural collections, has a library with over 30,000 books and a museum with 3 exhibition galleries...

), the Volkenkundig Museum (foreign peoples and cultures), the Kunsthal
Kunsthal
The Kunsthal is a museum in Rotterdam, which opened its doors in 1992. The museum is situated in the Museumpark of Rotterdam next to the Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam, and in the vicinity of the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen. Entrance to the Kunsthal is from the Westzeedijk...

(design by Rem Koolhaas
Rem Koolhaas
Remment Lucas Koolhaas is a Dutch architect, architectural theorist, urbanist and "Professor in Practice of Architecture and Urban Design" at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, USA. Koolhaas studied at the Netherlands Film and Television Academy in Amsterdam, at the Architectural...

),the center for contemporary art Witte de With
Witte Corneliszoon de With
Witte Corneliszoon de With was a famous Dutch naval officer of the 17th century.- Early life and childhood :...

, the Maritime Museum
Maritime Museum Rotterdam
The Maritime Museum Rotterdam is a maritime museum in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Dedicated to naval history, it was founded in 1873 by Prince Henry of the Netherlands. One of the major attractions is the 19th-century ironclad ram ship HNLMS Buffel, which is moored outside of the museum.-External...

and the Brandweermuseum (Fire brigade museum). The Historisch Museum http://www.hmr.rotterdam.nl/(Historical museum) has two buildings: the Dubbelde Palmboom and the Schielandshuis.
Other museums include the tax museum and the nature historical museum. At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft' the reconstruction of ship of the line
Ship of the line
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside guns to bear...

 Delft
Dutch ship Delft
The Delft was a Dutch 56-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the navy of the Dutch Republic and the Batavian Republic.The order to construct the ship was given on 27 May 1782 by the Admiralty of the Meuse...

can be visited.

Architecture and skyline


In 1898, the 45 meter high-rise office building the White House (in Dutch Witte Huis
Witte Huis
The Witte Huis or White House is a skyscraper and National Heritage Site in Rotterdam, Netherlands, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the Art Nouveau style. The building is tall, with 10 floors, and was the tallest in Europe at the time it was built. It was also the first...

) was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe.
In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek
Van Nelle Factory
The former Van Nelle Factory on the Schie river in Rotterdam, is one of the most important historic industrial buildings in the Netherlands. It is a former factory currently used as an office complex for design and media firms....

 (1929) a monument of modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt
Leendert van der Vlugt
Leendert Cornelis van der Vlugt was a Dutch architect in Rotterdam.After the death of the Rotterdam architect Michiel Brinkman in 1925, his son Johannes Brinkman, a constructional engineer, took over the architectural office and made Leendert van der Vlugt co-director. The new practice was called...

, the Jugendstil
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

 clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club
Royal Maas Yacht Club
The Royal Maas Yacht Club is a Dutch yacht club located in the centre of Rotterdam.Members are able to engage in sailing and rowing and the yacht club's name, de Maas, stems from the name of the river Nieuwe Maas flowing through Rotterdam....

 designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord's football stadium De Kuip (1936) also by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt
Leendert van der Vlugt
Leendert Cornelis van der Vlugt was a Dutch architect in Rotterdam.After the death of the Rotterdam architect Michiel Brinkman in 1925, his son Johannes Brinkman, a constructional engineer, took over the architectural office and made Leendert van der Vlugt co-director. The new practice was called...

. The architect J. J. P. Oud
Jacobus Oud
Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud, commonly called J. J. P. Oud was a Dutch architect. His fame began as a follower of the De Stijl movement....

 was a famous Rotterdammer in those days.
During the early stages of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the center of Rotterdam was bombed
Rotterdam Blitz
The Rotterdam Blitz refers to the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the German Air Force on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II. The objective was to support the German troops fighting in the city, break Dutch resistance and force the Dutch to surrender...

 by the Germans, destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis re-construction the center of Rotterdam has become the site of ambitious new architecture.

Rotterdam is also famous for its Kubuswoningen or cube houses built by architect Piet Blom
Piet Blom
Piet Blom was a Dutch architect best known for his 'Kubuswoningen' built in Helmond in the mid-1970s and in Rotterdam in the early 1980s. He studied at the Amsterdam Academy of Building-Arts as a student of Aldo van Eyck.Piet Blom, Aldo van Eyck, Herman Hertzberger a.o...

 in 1984. In addition to that there are many international well known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A (Rem Koolhaas
Rem Koolhaas
Remment Lucas Koolhaas is a Dutch architect, architectural theorist, urbanist and "Professor in Practice of Architecture and Urban Design" at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, USA. Koolhaas studied at the Netherlands Film and Television Academy in Amsterdam, at the Architectural...

), MVRDV
MVRDV
MVRDV is a Rotterdam, Netherlands-based architecture and urban design practice founded in 1991. The name is an acronym for the founding members: Winy Maas , Jacob van Rijs and Nathalie de Vries...

, Neutelings & Riedijk
Neutelings Riedijk Architects
Neutelings Riedijk Architecten is an architecture firm based in Rotterdam, Netherlands, founded by Willem-Jan Neutelings and Michiel Riedijk.-Work and design philosophy:...

 and Erick van Egeraat
Erick van Egeraat
Erick van Egeraat is a Dutch architect. He is based in Rotterdam but particularly active in Germany and Russia....

 to name a few.

Rotterdam houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands.
  • The Erasmusbrug
    Erasmusbrug
    The Erasmusbrug is a cable stayed bridge across the Nieuwe Maas river, linking the northern and southern halves of the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands....

     (1996) is a 790-meter (2,600 ft) cable stayed bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held up by a 138 metres (452.8 ft) tall pylon with a characteristic bend, earning the bridge its nickname 'De Zwaan' ('the Swan').
  • Rotterdam has the tallest residential building in the Netherlands: the New Orleans Tower (158.35 metres (519.5 ft)).
  • Rotterdam is also home to the tallest office building 'Maastoren
    Maastoren
    The Maastoren is a 165 meter tall skyscraper in Rotterdam. It is the tallest skyscraper in the Netherlands.The building was designed by Dam & Partners in cooperation with Odile Decq Benoit Cornette and is 44 stories high. The building is mainly used as office space. It also contains parking space...

    ' (164.75 m (540.5 ft)) which houses Deloitte. This office tower surpassed the 'Delftse Poort' (160 m (520 ft)) which houses Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of ING Group
    ING Group
    The ING Group is a global financial institution offering retail banking, direct banking, commercial banking, investment banking, asset management, and insurance services. ING is the Dutch member of the Inter-Alpha Group of Banks, a cooperative consortium of 11 prominent European banks...

     as tallest office tower in 2009.
  • The city also houses the 186 metres (610.2 ft) tall Euromast
    Euromast
    The Euromast is a tower in Rotterdam constructed between 1958 and 1960, designed by Hugh Maaskant. It was specially built for the 1960 Floriade. It is a concrete building with an internal diameter of and a wall thickness of 30 centimetres . For stability it is built on a concrete block of...

    , which has long been a major tourist
    Tourism
    Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

     attraction. It was built in 1960, initially reaching a height of 101 metres (331.4 ft); in 1970, the Euromast was extended by 85 metres (278.9 ft) to its current height.


Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute
Netherlands Architecture Institute
The Netherlands Architecture Institute is a Dutch architecture institute in Rotterdam. The NAi owns one of the world’s largest architectural collections, has a library with over 30,000 books and a museum with 3 exhibition galleries...

), which is open to the public and has a variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues.

Rotterdam is standing in the best European SkylineTop together with Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 and Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

.
Over 30 new highrise projects are being developed at the moment.

Two architectural landmarks are located in the Lloydkwartier: the STC college building and the Schiecentrale 4b
Schiecentrale 4b
The Schiecentrale is a national monument in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The building is formed by two building blocks connected by a deck. There is a higher and a lower block. The higher block, which is 16 levels high, is the most impressive one. The higher block gives the essential feature to...

.

Sports


Rotterdam is the home of three professional football clubs; two Eredivisie
Eredivisie
The Eredivisie is the highest football league in the Netherlands. The league was founded in 1956 two years after the start of professional football in the Netherlands. It is currently ranked the ninth best league in Europe by UEFA....

 ('Honorary Division', or Dutch Premier League) football clubs, Feyenoord and Excelsior, and one Eerste Divisie
Eerste Divisie
The Eerste Divisie is the second-highest division of football in the Netherlands. It is linked with the top-level Eredivisie via a promotion/relegation system. It is also known as the Jupiler League due to sponsorship, which is the same name as the top league in Belgium...

 club, Sparta
Sparta Rotterdam
Sparta Rotterdam is the oldest professional football team in the Netherlands, established on April 1, 1888. Sparta is one of three professional football clubs from Rotterdam, the others being Excelsior and Feyenoord , the latter playing in the Eredivisie.-History:Sparta was first founded in 1887....

. Rotterdam also has three Hoofdklasse
Hoofdklasse
The Hoofdklasse is the 2nd highest league of amateur football in the Netherlands, and the fourth tier in general.-Background:The league is divided into two sections: Saturday and Sunday. This is a result of the traditional pillarisation , the segregation of Dutch society. The Saturday-clubs are by...

 (main class) clubs, SC Feijenoord (Feyenoord Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR.

Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three professional clubs, has won fourteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord won the UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary, Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup. Feyenoord also has the biggest supporter group in the Netherlands.

Seating 51,480, its 1931 stadium, called Stadion Feyenoord but popularly known as De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the country, after the Amsterdam ArenA
Amsterdam ArenA
Amsterdam Arena is a stadium in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is the largest stadium in the nation and it was built from 1993 to 1996 at a cost of €140 million, and was officially opened on 14 August 1996. It has been used for association football, American football, concerts, and other events...

. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. There are concrete plans to build a new stadium with a capacity of at least 80,000 seats.

Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any. Nowadays Rotterdam is the only city with two (sometimes even three) teams in the Eredivisie
Eredivisie
The Eredivisie is the highest football league in the Netherlands. The league was founded in 1956 two years after the start of professional football in the Netherlands. It is currently ranked the ninth best league in Europe by UEFA....

.

Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon
Rotterdam Marathon
The Rotterdam Marathon is an annual marathon that has been held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands since 1981. It has been held in April of every year since the third edition in 1984, and attracts many top athletes. It has also been ranked as one of the top 10 marathons in the world by Runner's World...

, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world record was set in Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes
Carlos Lopes
Carlos Alberto de Sousa Lopes, GCIH, is a former Portuguese long-distance athlete, winner of the marathon race at the 1984 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles. He brought home Portugal's first ever Olympic gold medal along with a new Olympic record - 2:09.21.Born in Vildemoinhos, near Viseu, Portugal,...

 and later in 1988 by Belayneh Dinsamo
Belayneh Densamo
Belayneh Densamo is a long-distance track and road running athlete from Ethiopia. He held the world record in the marathon for 10 years . This was the third longest span without the record being broken since the event was first organized at the 1896 Olympics...

. The marathon starts and ends on the Coolsingel in the heart of Rotterdam.

Since 1972, Rotterdam hosts the ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament
ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament
The ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament is a professional tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts. It is currently part of the 500 series of the ATP Tour...

, part of the ATP
Association of Tennis Professionals
The Association of Tennis Professionals or ATP was formed in 1972 by Donald Dell, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. Since 1990, the association has organized the worldwide tennis tour for men and linked the title of the tour with the...

 Tour.

Members of the student rowing club Skadi
Skadi (rowing club)
A.R.S.R. "Skadi", or Algemene Rotterdamse Studenten Roeivereniging "Skadi", is a Dutch student rowing club, located in Rotterdam.The name "Skadi" refers to the goddess Skaði from Norse mythology, while A.R.S.R. is the abbreviation for "Algemene Rotterdamse Studenten Roeivereniging"...

 were part of the 'Holland Acht', winning a gold medal at the Olympics
Rowing at the Summer Olympics
Rowing at the Summer Olympics has been part of the competition since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Rowing was on the program at the 1896 Summer Olympics but was cancelled due to bad weather. Only men were allowed to compete until the women's events were introduced at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal...

 in 1996
1996 Summer Olympics
The 1996 Summer Olympics of Atlanta, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially known as the Centennial Olympics, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States....

.

In field hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

, Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC Rotterdam
HC Rotterdam
HC Rotterdam is a Dutch field hockey club, which was founded on September 16, 1925. With a total number of 2,342 members it is the biggest hockeyclub in the Netherlands. The first teams compete on the highest level of the Dutch field hockey league, which is called "Hoofdklasse"...

, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse.
Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

 team, Neptunus Rotterdam
Neptunus
Neptunus is the baseball team of the Neptunus Sporting Club in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The title sponsor of the club is currently DOOR Training so that the official name of the team is DOOR Neptunus....

, winning the most European Cups
European Cup (baseball)
The European Cup is an annual baseball tournament, sanctioned and created by the Confederation of European Baseball . The tournament features the top teams of the professional baseball leagues in Europe....

.

Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the Rotterdam Sports Awards Election
Rotterdam Sportsman of the year
The Rotterdam Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year is an annual election, organised by the city's division for topsport named Rotterdam Topsport. The award goes to sportspeople who were born or have lived in Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland. Rotterdam was the first city in the Netherlands to honour its...

, held in December.

Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders.

Rotterdam has a long boxing tradition starting with Bep van Klaveren
Bep van Klaveren
Lambertus "Bep" van Klaveren was a Dutch boxer, who won the gold medal in the featherweight division at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. Born in Rotterdam as Lambertus Steenhorst, he adopted the name of his stepfather Pieter van Klaveren when he was eight...

 (1907–1992), aka 'The Dutch Windmill', Gold medal winner of the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics, followed by professional boxers like Regilio Tuur
Regilio Tuur
Regilio Benito Tuur is a former boxer from The Netherlands, who made his fame by knocking out reigning world champion Kelcie Banks in the first round at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul.-Amateur career:...

 and Don Diego Poeder.

Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun
Marie Braun
Maria Johanna Philipsen-Braun was a Dutch swimmer. She won the gold medal in the women's 100 meter backstroke at the 1928 Summer Olympics....

 aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world records. In later years Inge de Bruijn
Inge de Bruijn
Inge de Bruijn is a Dutch former swimmer. She was a four-time Olympic champion and a former world record holder.-Biography:De Bruijn was born in Barendrecht, South Holland, and tried several sports before settling with swimming....

 became a Rotterdam sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001.

Francisco Elson
Francisco Elson
Francisco Marinho Robby Elson is a Dutch professional basketball player. At 7' 0" and weighing 235 lbs , he most recently played for the Utah Jazz of the NBA. Elson is the seventh Dutch player in the NBA....

 is a Rotterdam born basketbalplayer who played in the NBA, recently for Utah Jazz
Utah Jazz
The Utah Jazz is a professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. They are currently a part of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association...

.

Tour De France


In November 2008 Rotterdam was chosen as the host of the Grand Départ of the 2010 Tour de France
2010 Tour de France
The 2010 Tour de France was the 97th edition of the Tour de France cycle race, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It started on with an 8.9 km prologue time trial in Rotterdam, the first start in the Netherlands since 1996...

.
Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht
Utrecht
Utrecht is a city in the Netherlands.The name may also refer to:* Utrecht , of which Utrecht is the capital* Utrecht , including the city of Utrecht* Bishopric of Utrecht* Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht...

. Germany's Düsseldorf had previously also expressed interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizer of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam because, in addition to it being another big city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a location well positioned considering the rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 event.

The start in Rotterdam was the fifth in the Netherlands. The prologue
Prologue
A prologue is an opening to a story that establishes the setting and gives background details, often some earlier story that ties into the main one, and other miscellaneous information. The Greek prologos included the modern meaning of prologue, but was of wider significance...

 was a 7 km (4.35 mi) individual time trial crossing the centre of the city. The first regular stage left the Erasmusbrug
Erasmusbrug
The Erasmusbrug is a cable stayed bridge across the Nieuwe Maas river, linking the northern and southern halves of the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands....

 and went south, towards Brussels.

Beaches


Between the summers of 2003 and 2008 an artificial beach
Beach
A beach is a geological landform along the shoreline of an ocean, sea, lake or river. It usually consists of loose particles which are often composed of rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles or cobblestones...

 was created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the Erasmus Bridge and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was limited to the height of the layer of sand
Sand
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal...

, ca. 50 cm. Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland (which is still a Rotterdam district) or one of the beaches in Zeeland
Zeeland
Zeeland , also called Zealand in English, is the westernmost province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands and a strip bordering Belgium. Its capital is Middelburg. With a population of about 380,000, its area is about...

: Renesse
Renesse
Renesse is a village in the Dutch province of Zeeland. It is a part of the municipality of Schouwen-Duiveland, and lies about 28 km west of Hellevoetsluis.Renesse is a popular tourist resort with zero-fare bus services in the area ....

 or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne
Oostvoorne
Oostvoorne is a town in the Dutch province of South Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Westvoorne, and lies about 9 km north of Hellevoetsluis....

.

Shopping


Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the shopping
Retailing
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

 center the Lijnbaan (the first set of pedestrian street
Pedestrian mall
Pedestrian malls in the United States are also known as pedestrian streets and are the most common form of pedestrian zone in large cities in the United States. It is a street lined with storefronts and closed off to most automobile traffic...

s of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ('Stock Exchange Traverse), better known by the informal name 'Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its low-lying position, crossing Rotterdam's main street Coolsingel below street level).

The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies close to Ahoy' Rotterdam, an accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium (sometimes still called by its former name Oosterhof), lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center.

Yearly events

  • January: International Film Festival Rotterdam
    International Film Festival Rotterdam
    The International Film Festival Rotterdam is an annual film festival held in various cinemas in Rotterdam, Netherlands held at the end of January. It is approximately comparable in size to other major European festivals such as Cannes, Venice, Berlin, and Locarno...

  • April–June
    • Rotterdam Marathon
      Rotterdam Marathon
      The Rotterdam Marathon is an annual marathon that has been held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands since 1981. It has been held in April of every year since the third edition in 1984, and attracts many top athletes. It has also been ranked as one of the top 10 marathons in the world by Runner's World...

    • KoninginnedagFestival
  • July
    • Zomercarnaval
  • August:
    • Bavaria City Race
    • Pleinbioscoop
  • June until September: the Rotterdam Summer festivals, including
    • North Sea Jazz Festival
      North Sea Jazz Festival
      The North Sea Jazz Festival is an annual jazz festival held each second weekend of July in the Netherlands at the Ahoy venue. It used to be in The Hague but since 2006 it has been held in Rotterdam...

       (second weekend of July)
    • Summer Carnival
      Summer Carnival
      The Summer Carnaval is a yearly event in the Belgian city of Kortrijk and the Dutch cities Rotterdam, Bentelo and Arnhem that mimics the Carnaval of Latin America and the Cape Verde Islands. The traditional pre-Lent Carnival falls in winter in the cool, northern European climate...

    • FFWD Heineken Dance Parade (technoparade
      Technoparade
      A Technoparade is a parade of vehicles equipped with strong loudspeakers and amplifiers playing techno music. It resembles a carnival parade in some respects, but the vehicles are usually less elaborately decorated. Also, a technoparade doesn't share the carnival parade tradition of bombarding...

      )
  • September:
    • World Port Days (2006: 1, 2 and 3 September)

Transport


Rotterdam is well connected by international, national, regional and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway network.

Motorways

There are several motorways which run to/from Rotterdam. The following four are part of its 'Ring' (ring road
Ring road
A ring road, orbital motorway, beltway, circumferential highway, or loop highway is a road that encircles a town or city...

):
  • A20
    A20 motorway (Netherlands)
    The A20 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands. It is approximately 39 kilometers in length.The A20 is entirely located in the Dutch province South Holland and connects the N213 road from the Westland municipality with the cities of Rotterdam and Gouda, where it connects to the A12 motorway at...

     (Ring North): Hoek van Holland – RotterdamGouda
    Gouda
    Gouda is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. Gouda, which was granted city rights in 1272, is famous for its Gouda cheese, smoking pipes, and 15th-century city hall....

  • A16
    A16 motorway (Netherlands)
    The A16 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands. It runs from the interchange Terbregseplein in the northeastern part of Rotterdam, towards the Belgian border near Breda.- Speed limit :...

     (Ring East): RotterdamBreda
    Breda
    Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. The name Breda derived from brede Aa and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa. As a fortified city, the city was of strategic military and political significance...

     (- Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

     – Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    )
  • A15
    A15 motorway (Netherlands)
    The Dutch Rijksweg 15 is a set of two motorways in the Netherlands, the A15 and the A18. The map on the right-hand side shows these two parts of this Rijksweg 15.- Connection between A15 and A18 :...

     (Ring South): Europoort
    Europoort
    Europoort is an area of the Port of Rotterdam and the adjoining industrial area in the Netherlands. Being situated at the mouth of the rivers Rhine and Meuse with the hinterland consisting of the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and partly France, Europoort is by certain measurements the world's...

     – RotterdamNijmegen
  • A4
    A4 motorway (Netherlands)
    The A4 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands from Amsterdam to the Belgian border near Zandvliet. Some parts of the motorway are still not completed. The completed route as of 2006 is divided into three parts: from Amsterdam via The Hague to Delft, from Vlaardingen to Pernis, and finally from...

     (Ring West).

The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:
  • A13
    A13 motorway (Netherlands)
    The A13 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands connecting the cities The Hague and Rotterdam.The 17 kilometer long, highly congested motorway, is the only current motorway connection between these two cities. It is a dual carriageway with three lanes in each direction. The maximum speed on the...

    , (Amsterdam
    Amsterdam
    Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

     -) The Hague
    The Hague
    The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

     – Rotterdam
  • A29
    A29 motorway (Netherlands)
    The A29 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands. It is approximately 31 kilometers in length. The A29 is located in the Dutch provinces South Holland and North Brabant.No European routes follow the A29 motorway.- Section Klaaswaal-Dinteloord :...

    , Bergen op Zoom
    Bergen op Zoom
    Bergen op Zoom is a municipality and a city located in the south of the Netherlands.-History:Bergen op Zoom was granted city status probably in 1266. In 1287 the city and its surroundings became a lordship as it was separated from the lordship of Breda. The lordship was elevated to a margraviate...

     – Rotterdam


Airport

Much smaller than the international hub Schiphol Airport, Rotterdam The Hague Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third largest airport
Airport
An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport...

 in the country, behind Schiphol Airport and Eindhoven Airport
Eindhoven Airport
-Facilities:Passenger facilities available include: Exchange office, Lost property office, Luggage lockers, Baby changing area and a Health centre. Wireless internet access is provided free of charge throughout the airport. A business lounge is available too. Major car rental companies have their...

. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier
Low-cost carrier
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline is an airline that generally has lower fares and fewer comforts...

 market. For business travelers Zestienhoven Airport offers advantages due to rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain.

Train


Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railway network, and has several international connections:
  • South direction Dordrecht
    Dordrecht
    Dordrecht , colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland. It is the fourth largest city of the province, having a population of 118,601 in 2009...

    , Breda
    Breda
    Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. The name Breda derived from brede Aa and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa. As a fortified city, the city was of strategic military and political significance...

    , Eindhoven (also international trains to Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

    /France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

    )
  • West direction Hoek van Holland
  • North-West direction The Hague
    The Hague
    The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

    , Leiden, Amsterdam
    Amsterdam
    Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

  • North direction (high-speed rail) Schiphol, Amsterdam
    Amsterdam
    Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

  • North-East direction Utrecht
    Utrecht
    Utrecht is a city in the Netherlands.The name may also refer to:* Utrecht , of which Utrecht is the capital* Utrecht , including the city of Utrecht* Bishopric of Utrecht* Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht...

     and further
  • A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the Hofplein Line
    Hofpleinlijn
    The Hofpleinlijn was one of the two railways between the Dutch cities of The Hague and Rotterdam. In 2006 it was converted to metro-like operation as RandstadRail line E.-History:...

     was converted to the light rail system Randstadrail
    RandstadRail
    RandstadRail network in the southern part of the Randstad conurbation in the west of the Netherlands, connecting The Hague, Zoetermeer and Rotterdam, consists of a metro-like line between The Hague and Rotterdam and two light rail lines between The Hague and Zoetermeer...

     in 2006.
  • The city is often publicised as the terminus of the Eurasian Land Bridge
    Eurasian Land Bridge
    The Eurasian Land Bridge, sometimes called the New Silk Road, is a term used to describe the rail transport route for moving freight and passengers overland from Pacific seaports in Siberia and China to seaports in Europe...

    .


Railway stations
  • Rotterdam Centraal
    Rotterdam Centraal railway station
    Rotterdam Centraal is the main railway station of the city Rotterdam in the Netherlands.-History:The station opened June 3, 1847 as the Delftsche Poort railway station. The station building designed by Sybold van Ravesteyn opened in 1957 and closed on September 2, 2007...

     -Rotterdam's main station
  • Rotterdam Alexander
    Rotterdam Alexander railway station
    Rotterdam Alexander is a combined metro and railway station in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. It is located on the Utrecht–Rotterdam railway. It is named after the borough Prins Alexander, and therefore indirectly after Alexander, Prince of Orange....

     – Eastern part of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Blaak
    Rotterdam Blaak railway station
    Rotterdam Blaak is a railway station and metro station in the Dutch city of Rotterdam, located on the Breda–Rotterdam railway between Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The station is located in the centre of the city, near the cube houses....

     – Close to the centre of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Lombardijen
    Rotterdam Lombardijen railway station
    Rotterdam Lombardijen is a railway station in the Dutch city of Rotterdam, located on the Breda–Rotterdam railway between Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The railway station is located in the borough of IJsselmonde. The station opened on 1st June 1964 with wooden platforms and no more than a trailer for...

     – Most Southern part of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Noord
    Rotterdam Noord railway station
    Rotterdam Noord is a railway station in the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, located on the Utrecht–Rotterdam railway. It sits at the border between the two Rotterdam municipalities Noord and Hillegersberg-Schiebroek.-History:...

     – Northern part of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Zuid
    Rotterdam Zuid railway station
    Rotterdam Zuid is a railway station in the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, located on the Breda–Rotterdam railway between Rotterdam and Dordrecht...

     –Northern part of the Southern part of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Stadion
    Rotterdam Stadion railway station
    Rotterdam Stadion is a railway station in the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, located on the railway line between Rotterdam and Dordrecht.The station is located in front of Stadion Feijenoord, venue of the football club Feyenoord...

     – A station near the De Kuip stadium, open in connection with football matches and music concerts


The main connections:
  • Direct international services to Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

     and France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     via high speed train system: Thalys
    Thalys
    Thalys is an international high-speed train operator originally built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. This track is shared with Eurostar trains that go from Paris or Brussels to London via Lille and the Channel Tunnel and with French domestic TGV trains. Thalys reaches...

  • Frequent international trains to Antwerp and Brussels
    Brussels
    Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

    , Belgium
  • Frequent services within the Netherlands:
    • Intercity line to The Hague
      The Hague
      The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

      , Leiden, Schiphol airport and Amsterdam
      Amsterdam
      Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

       (north)
    • Intercity line to Utrecht and on to Deventer
      Deventer
      Deventer is a municipality and city in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. Deventer is largely situated on the east bank of the river IJssel, but also has a small part of its territory on the west bank. In 2005 the municipality of Bathmen Deventer is a municipality and city in...

       or Enschede
      Enschede
      Enschede , also known as Eanske in the local dialect of Twents, is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel and in the Twente region...

       (the east), Leeuwarden (north-west) or Groningen (north-east)
    • Intercity line to Dordrecht
      Dordrecht
      Dordrecht , colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland. It is the fourth largest city of the province, having a population of 118,601 in 2009...

      , Roosendaal and on to Vlissingen
      Flushing, Netherlands
      Vlissingen is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren. With its strategic location between the Scheldt river and the North Sea, Vlissingen has been an important harbour for centuries. It was granted city rights in 1315. In the 17th century...

       (south west)
    • Intercity line to Dordrecht
      Dordrecht
      Dordrecht , colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland. It is the fourth largest city of the province, having a population of 118,601 in 2009...

      , Breda
      Breda
      Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. The name Breda derived from brede Aa and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa. As a fortified city, the city was of strategic military and political significance...

      , Tilburg
      Tilburg
      Tilburg is a landlocked municipality and a city in the Netherlands, located in the southern province of Noord-Brabant.Tilburg municipality also includes the villages of Berkel-Enschot and Udenhout....

      , Eindhoven and Venlo
      Venlo
      Venlo is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg.In 2001, the municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich centuries ago,...

       (south east)
    • Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to Delft, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a detour, Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services (either direct or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg, Roosendaal.
    • Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call at Rotterdam Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda.
  • Detailed information available from the site of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen
    Nederlandse Spoorwegen
    Nederlandse Spoorwegen , or NS, is the principal passenger railway operator in the Netherlands.Its trains operate over the tracks of the Dutch national railinfrastructure, operated by ProRail, which was split off from NS in 2003...

     (Dutch Railways)


In Rotterdam, public transport services are provided by these companies:
  • NS (Dutch Railways) ; Train services
  • RET (Rotterdam Elektrische Tram); Tram, city-bus, metro, randstadrail and ferry-services in Rotterdam and surrounding cities.
  • Q-buzz (company owned 51% by NS and 49% by KLM) ; Province bus services.
  • Arriva Netherlands ; Province bus services.
  • Connexxion ; Province bus services.
  • Veolia ; Province bus services.


Light rail

To bridge the gap between national train services and local public transportation the Dutch Randstad
Randstad
Image:Randstad_with_scale.png|400px|thumb|right|Clickable schematic map of the Randstadcircle 528 380 26 Schipholrect 426 356 498 436 Haarlemmermeerrect 399 166 479 245 Velsencircle 250 716 32 Delftcircle 220 642 60 The Hague...

 has developed a regional light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 system called Randstad Rail
RandstadRail
RandstadRail network in the southern part of the Randstad conurbation in the west of the Netherlands, connecting The Hague, Zoetermeer and Rotterdam, consists of a metro-like line between The Hague and Rotterdam and two light rail lines between The Hague and Zoetermeer...

. First trains ran in September 2006.

Metro

In 1968 Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system. Currently the system consists of two main lines, each of which has some variants.
  • Erasmus Line: Rotterdam Central station – Albrandswaard
    Albrandswaard
    Albrandswaard is a municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 19,607 in 2004, and covers an area of 23.75 km² of which 1.57 km² is water....

     (Rhoon, Poortugaal) – Hoogvliet – Spijkenisse
    Spijkenisse
    Spijkenisse is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 74,482 in 2006, and covers an area of 30.23 km²...

  • Caland Line: two lines from the northeast of Rotterdam (Ommoord and since September 2005 to the new constructed neighborhood Nesselande
    Nesselande
    Nesselande is a new extension on the east side of the city of Rotterdam, in South Holland, the Netherlands. It is part of the borough of Prins Alexander. Formerly Zevenhuizen-Moerkapelle, consists of three development area's: Tuinstad, Badplaats and Waterwijk...

     (before it ended at Zevenkamp
    Zevenkamp
    Zevenkamp is a neighborhood of Rotterdam, The Netherlands....

     which is one stop before Nesselande), both in Prins Alexander
    Prins Alexander
    Prins Alexander is a borough in the northeast part of Rotterdam, South Holland, the Netherlands.Prins Alexander knows 7 neighbourhoods:*Het Lage Land*Kralingseveer*Nesselande*Ommoord*Oosterflank*Prinsenland*Zevenkamp-Public transportation:...

    ) and one from Capelle aan den IJssel
    Capelle aan den IJssel
    Capelle aan den IJssel is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 65,605 in 2005, and covers an area of 15.42 km² of which 1.13 km² is water...

     join; the combined line terminated in the west of Rotterdam, but on 4 November 2002, an extension was opened: the line now connects to the main railway network at Schiedam
    Schiedam
    Schiedam is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. It is part of the Rotterdam metropolitan area. The city is located west of Rotterdam, east of Vlaardingen and south of Delft...

     railway station, has a stop in Pernis
    Pernis (Netherlands)
    thumb|200px|right|Pernis in 1865.Pernis is a village and district of the municipality of Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands. The district has a population of 4,560 on a total area size of 1.60 km². Pernis is not a full submunicipality of Rotterdam, but the former independent municipality...

     and joins the Erasmus Line in Hoogvliet; trains on the Caland Line, like those on the Erasmus Line, terminate in Spijkenisse.
The eastern parts of the Caland Line have some level crossing
Level crossing
A level crossing occurs where a railway line is intersected by a road or path onone level, without recourse to a bridge or tunnel. It is a type of at-grade intersection. The term also applies when a light rail line with separate right-of-way or reserved track crosses a road in the same fashion...

s (with priority), and could therefore be called light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 instead of metro; however, they are integrated in the system; these parts have overhead wires
Overhead lines
Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses or trains at a distance from the energy supply point...

, while the rest has a third rail
Third rail
A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. It is used typically in a mass transit or rapid transit system, which has alignments in its own corridors, fully or almost...

, the vehicles can handle both.


Tram


The Rotterdam tramway network
Trams in Rotterdam
The Rotterdam tramway network is a key element of the overall public transport arrangements in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.Opened in 1879, the network currently has 8 regular lines and 3 occasional lines. It has been operated since 1927 by Rotterdamse Elektrische Tram .-History:The RET has had two...

 offers 9 regular tram lines and 4 "special" tram lines with a total length of 93.4 kilometres. Service
Tramlines in Rotterdam as of 2010:
  • 2: (Rotterdam) Charlois – Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Groene Tuin (Drives only at the Southern part of the city)
  • 4: (Rotterdam) Molenlaan – Rotterdam CS – (Rotterdam) Marconiplein
  • 7: (Rotterdam) Woudestein – Rotterdam CS – (Rotterdam) Willemsplein
  • 8: (Rotterdam) Spangen – Rotterdam CS – (Rotterdam) Kleiweg
  • 20: Rotterdam CS – Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Thialf
  • 21: (Schiedam) Woudhoek – Station Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam CS – (Rotterdam) De Esch
  • 23: (Vlaardingen) Holy – Station Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam CS – (Rotterdam) Beverwaard
  • 25: (Rotterdam) Schiebroek – Rotterdam CS – (Barendrecht) Carnisselande


Special tram lines:
  • 10: Historical tram line, only runs in summer and throughout the whole city for tourist information. Using historical Rotterdam Trams from the year 1928.
  • 29: CS – De Kuip (English: The Tube, Feyenoord stadium) or CS – Het Kasteel (English:The Castle, Sparta Stadium). Football- tramline, drives only at big footballgames at either De Kuip or Het Kasteel.
  • Snert-tram: Historical tram, only in winter as a tourist tram to drive through Rotterdam and meanwhile providing people onboard with a cup of "Snert"; Rotterdamish dialect for the Dutch word: Erwtensoep (English: Pea-soup). Using historical Rotterdam Tram from 1968.
  • Ijsjes-tram: Summer-edition to the Snert-tram, providing tourist not with Snert but with ijsjes (English: Ice cream).

Bus

Rotterdam offers 38 city bus lines with a total length of 432.7 kilometres.

RET runs buses in the city of Rotterdam and surrounding places like Spijkenisse, Rhoon, Poortugaal, Schiedam, Vlaardingen, Delft and Cappele a/d. IJssel.
Buslines:
  • 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 61, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 and 89.


Qbuzz runs to places such as Zoetermeer, Berkel & Rodenrijs, Bergschenhoek, Pijnacker and Delft.
Buslines:
  • 96, 97, 98, 126, 137, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 170, 171, 173, 174, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188, 204 and 290.


Arriva Netherlands, Connexxion and Veolia runs busses from other cities to Rotterdam.

Water bus

Every half hour a water bus
Water taxi
A water taxi or water bus, also known as a commuter boat, is a watercraft used to provide public transport, usually but not always in an urban environment. Service may be scheduled with multiple stops, operating in a similar manner to a bus, or on demand to many locations, operating in a similar...

 (Waterbus route 1) goes from Rotterdam to Dordrecht and vice versa. The trip takes an hour, inclusive stops along the way. The ferry can carry about 130 passengers and there is space for 60 bicycle
Bicycle
A bicycle, also known as a bike, pushbike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist, or bicyclist....

s. The stops are:
  • Rotterdam Willemskade – Krimpen aan den IJssel
    Krimpen aan den IJssel
    Krimpen aan den IJssel is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 28800 in 2006, and covers an area of 8.93 km² of which 1.10 km² is water....

     Stormpolder – Ridderkerk
    Ridderkerk
    Ridderkerk is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 44,886 in 2010, and covers an area of 25.10 km² ....

     De Schans – Alblasserdam
    Alblasserdam
    Alblasserdam is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of , of which is water. Alblasserdam is officially a part of the Drechtsteden...

     Kade -Papendrecht
    Papendrecht
    Papendrecht is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, at the crossing of the River Beneden Merwede and the Noord River...

     Westeind – Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht
    Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht
    Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands. It is located in the Dutch province of South Holland, on the island of IJsselmonde, and borders with Zwijndrecht, Ridderkerk, and the Noord River. The jurisdiction of the municipality covers an area of 11.99 km² of...

     Veerweg – Zwijndrecht Veerplein – Dordrecht
    Dordrecht
    Dordrecht , colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland. It is the fourth largest city of the province, having a population of 118,601 in 2009...

     Merwekade.

Notable Rotterdammers


  • Pierre Bayle
    Pierre Bayle
    Pierre Bayle was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1695....

    , enlightenment philosopher.
  • Leo Beenhakker
    Leo Beenhakker
    Leo Beenhakker is an international Dutch football coach, who is the current Sports Director of Újpest FC.- Coaching career :...

    , football coach.
  • Giovanni van Bronckhorst
    Giovanni van Bronckhorst
    Giovanni Christiaan van Bronckhorst OON , known as Gio in Spain, is a retired Dutch footballer of Moluccan descent who served as the captain of the Dutch national team from August 2008 until his retirement....

    , former football player of Feyenoord.
  • Edsger Dijkstra, Computer Scientist.
  • Francisco Elson
    Francisco Elson
    Francisco Marinho Robby Elson is a Dutch professional basketball player. At 7' 0" and weighing 235 lbs , he most recently played for the Utah Jazz of the NBA. Elson is the seventh Dutch player in the NBA....

    , NBA
    National Basketball Association
    The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

     player for the Utah Jazz
    Utah Jazz
    The Utah Jazz is a professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. They are currently a part of the Northwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association...

    .
  • Desiderius Erasmus
    Desiderius Erasmus
    Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus , known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, and a theologian....

    , philosopher and humanist.
  • Pim Fortuyn
    Pim Fortuyn
    Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuijn, known as Pim Fortuyn was a Dutch politician, civil servant, sociologist, author and professor who formed his own party, Pim Fortuyn List ....

    , politician, assassinated in 2002.
  • Piet Heyn
    Piet Pieterszoon Hein
    Pieter Pietersen Heyn was a Dutch naval officer and folk hero during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain.-Early life:...

    , naval fleet officer.
  • Leo Fuld
    Leo Fuld
    Lazarus 'Leo' Fuld was a Dutch singer who specialised in Yiddish songs.Prior to World War II, Leo Fuld was one the most popular recording and concert artists in Europe...

    , singer.
  • Willem de Kooning
    Willem de Kooning
    Willem de Kooning was a Dutch American abstract expressionist artist who was born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands....

    , painter.
  • Rem Koolhaas
    Rem Koolhaas
    Remment Lucas Koolhaas is a Dutch architect, architectural theorist, urbanist and "Professor in Practice of Architecture and Urban Design" at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University, USA. Koolhaas studied at the Netherlands Film and Television Academy in Amsterdam, at the Architectural...

    , internationally renowned architect.
  • Suzanna Lubrano
    Suzanna Lubrano
    Suzanna Lubrano is a Cape Verdean Zouk singer based in Rotterdam. On December 6, 2003 she was awarded the Kora All African Music Award for Best Female Artist of Africa of the year 2003.-Biography:...

    , artist.
  • Fatima Moreira de Melo
    Fatima Moreira de Melo
    Fatima Moreira de Melo LL.M. is a Dutch field hockey player. She has played 191 international matches for the Dutch national team, where she has scored 30 times. Her debut match was on 21 October 1997 against Germany which ended in a 2-1 victory for The Netherlands. She plays on the position of...

    , field hockey player.
  • Coen Moulijn
    Coen Moulijn
    Coenraadt "Coen" Moulijn OON was a Dutch footballer who played for Feyenoord from 1955 to 1972 and was part of their European Cup victory in 1970.- Club career :...

    , football player of Feyenoord.
  • Johan van Oldebarnevelt, statesman of the Dutch Revolt.
  • Robin van Persie
    Robin van Persie
    Robin van Persie is a Dutch footballer who plays as a striker for Arsenal and the Dutch national team. He is a youth product of Feyenoord. Having joined Arsenal in 2004, Van Persie became the club captain on 16 August 2011...

    , Arsenal F.C. forward and Dutch international footballer.
  • Amin Abu Rashid
    Amin Abu Rashid
    Amin Abu Rashid, nicknamed "Amin Abu-Ibrahim" , is a Palestinian Dutch national. He has lived in Amsterdam and in Rotterdam, in The Netherlands....

    , Palestinian Dutch Hamas
    Hamas
    Hamas is the Palestinian Sunni Islamic or Islamist political party that governs the Gaza Strip. Hamas also has a military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades...

     leader
  • Hendrik Martenszoon Sorgh
    Hendrik Martenszoon Sorgh
    Hendrik Martenszoon Sorgh , was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre works.-Biography:He was a pupil of David Teniers the Younger and Willem Pieterszoon Buytewech. Sorgh painted mostly interiors with peasants. His kitchen interiors feature elaborate still lifes...

    , painter.
  • Sacco van der Made
    Sacco van der Made
    Gerard Johannes van der Made was a Dutch actor and voice actor. He is best known as the voice of the Dutch version of Scrooge McDuck in the television show 'Ducktales'. His last big role on TV was as 'Bert Jansen' in the comedyshow 'Het zonnetje in huis'. That was the Dutch version of Tom, Dick...

    , Dutch actor. best known as the Dutch voice of Scrooge McDuck
    Scrooge McDuck
    Scrooge McDuck is a cartoon character created in 1947 by Carl Barks and licensed by The Walt Disney Company. Scrooge is an anthropomorphic white duck with a yellow-orange bill, legs, and feet. He typically wears a red or blue frock coat, top hat, pince-nez glasses, and spats...

    .
  • Iekeliene Stange
    Iekeliene Stange
    Iekeliene Stange ; born 27 July 1984 is a Dutch fashion model.Stange was scouted in Rotterdam during her college days. At the time, Stange was a multimedia design student....

    , fashion model.
  • Marten Toonder
    Marten Toonder
    Marten Toonder was a Dutch comic creator, born in Rotterdam. He was probably the most successful comic artist in the Netherlands and had a great influence in the Dutch language by introducing new words and expressions....

    , comic writer.
  • Abraham Icek Tuschinski
    Abraham Icek Tuschinski
    Abraham Icek Tuschinski was a Dutch businessman of Jewish-Polish descent who ordered the construction of the Tuschinski Theater, a famed cinema in Amsterdam....

    , businessman and movie theatre owner.
  • Ferry Corsten
    Ferry Corsten
    Ferry Corsten, also known under the alias System F, is a Dutch producer of trance music, in addition to being a DJ and remixer. He also hosts his own weekly radio show, Corsten's Countdown. He routinely plays at events all over the world with crowds in excess of tens of thousands. In 2009 Ferry...

    , Dj, producer, remixer electronic dance music.
  • Wim Mager
    Wim Mager
    Wim Mager was a Dutch photographer who is mainly known for founding the Apenheul Primate Park near Apeldoorn of which he was the director until 1997. When he had found a successor he moved to France and started a similar primate park near Poitiers called La Vallée des Singes.Apenheul was the...

    , director of the Apenheul Primate Park.


International relations


Rotterdam has the following city and port connections throughout the world:
  • 14 Sister Cities
  • 13 Partner Cities
  • 4 Sister Ports


The British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 band The Beautiful South
The Beautiful South
The Beautiful South were an English alternative rock group formed at the end of the 1980s by two former members of Hull group The Housemartins, Paul Heaton and Dave Hemingway. The duo were initially joined by Sean Welch , Dave Stead and Dave Rotheray , all of whom stayed with the group throughout...

 recorded a song named after this region.

Twin towns – sister cities


Rotterdam is twinned with:
Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

, Germany 1958 Esch-sur-Alzette
Esch-sur-Alzette
Esch-sur-Alzette is a commune with city status, in south-western Luxembourg. It is the country's second city, and its second-most populous commune, with a population of 29,853 people...

, Luxembourg 1958 Lille
Lille
Lille is a city in northern France . It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country behind those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium...

, France 1958 Turin
Turin
Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

, Italy 1958 Liège
Liège
Liège is a major city and municipality of Belgium located in the province of Liège, of which it is the economic capital, in Wallonia, the French-speaking region of Belgium....

, Belgium 1958 Burgas
Burgas
-History:During the rule of the Ancient Romans, near Burgas, Debeltum was established as a military colony for veterans by Vespasian. In the Middle Ages, a small fortress called Pyrgos was erected where Burgas is today and was most probably used as a watchtower...

, Bulgaria 1976 Constanța
Constanta
Constanța is the oldest extant city in Romania, founded around 600 BC. The city is located in the Dobruja region of Romania, on the Black Sea coast. It is the capital of Constanța County and the largest city in the region....

, Romania 1976 Gdańsk
Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...

, Poland 1977 Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

, China 1979 Havana
Havana
Havana is the capital city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city proper has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of — making it the largest city in the Caribbean region, and the most populous...

, Cuba 1983 Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia 1966 Baltimore
Baltimore
Baltimore is the largest independent city in the United States and the largest city and cultural center of the US state of Maryland. The city is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore...

, Maryland, USA 1985 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria commonly known as Las Palmas is the political capital, jointly with Santa Cruz, the most populous city in the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands and the ninth largest city in Spain, with a population of 383,308 in 2010. Nearly half of the people of the island...

, Spain Dresden
Dresden
Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

, Germany 1988 Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Turkey 2005 Surabaya
Surabaya
Surabaya is Indonesia's second-largest city with a population of over 2.7 million , and the capital of the province of East Java...

, Indonesia Szeged
Szeged
' is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county town of Csongrád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary....

, Hungary Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

, Malaysia

Partner cities


Hull
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull , usually referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It stands on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea. Hull has a resident population of...

, United Kingdom 1936 Antwerp, Belgium 1940 Basel
Basel
Basel or Basle In the national languages of Switzerland the city is also known as Bâle , Basilea and Basilea is Switzerland's third most populous city with about 166,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany...

, Switzerland 1945 Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

, Norway 1945 Duisburg
Duisburg
- History :A legend recorded by Johannes Aventinus holds that Duisburg, was built by the eponymous Tuisto, mythical progenitor of Germans, ca. 2395 BC...

, Germany 1950 Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

, Germany 1961 Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

, Indonesia 1983 Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

, Japan 1984 Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

, Hungary 1991 Bratislava
Bratislava
Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and, with a population of about 431,000, also the country's largest city. Bratislava is in southwestern Slovakia on both banks of the Danube River. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital that borders two independent countries.Bratislava...

, Slovakia 1991 Durban
Durban
Durban is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third largest city in South Africa. It forms part of the eThekwini metropolitan municipality. Durban is famous for being the busiest port in South Africa. It is also seen as one of the major centres of tourism...

, South Africa 1991 Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, Czech Republic 1991 Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

, Argentina 1990

Sister ports

Kobe
Kobe
, pronounced , is the fifth-largest city in Japan and is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture on the southern side of the main island of Honshū, approximately west of Osaka...

, Japan 1967 Seattle, Washington USA
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 1969 Seattle List Busan
Busan
Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

, South Korea 1987 Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

, Japan 1989

See also


  • Government of Rotterdam
    Government of Rotterdam
    The Government of Rotterdam is the government of the municipality and city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Most of the inhabitants live in the city of Rotterdam, but the municipality also covers a number of small villages, and other parts of the local government, such as Rozenburg, cover an even...


" Maersk Eindhoven
Maersk Eindhoven
Maersk Eindhoven is one of the largest container ships in the world, and one of the more recent additions in the fleet of Maersk Line. The vessel was built in 2011 by Hyundai Heavy Industries in the Ulsan, South Korea ship-yard. The container ship was built according to the latest engineering and...

container ship

External links