Chongqing

Chongqing

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Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China
Southwest China
Southwest China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the municipality of Chongqing, the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou, and the Tibet Autonomous Region.-Provinces:-Municipalities:...

 and one of the five national central cities
National Central City
National central city was a concept proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China in 2005 as a first step in reforming urbanization in China. National central cities are described as a group of cities in charge of leading, developing, performing...

 of China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities
Direct-controlled municipality
A direct-controlled municipality is the highest level classification for cities used by unitary state, with status equal to that of the provinces in the respective countries...

 (the other three are Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

 and Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

), and the only such municipality in inland China.

The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

 administration that was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 Province. As of November 2010, the municipality had a population of 28,846,200. It has jurisdiction over 19 districts, 15 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. With an area of 82,401 km² (31,800 mi²), it is the largest direct-controlled municipality, larger even than one province and an autonomous region, as well as Taiwan
Taiwan Province
Taiwan Province is one of the two administrative divisions referred to as provinces and is controlled by the Republic of China . The province covers approximately 73% of the territory controlled by the Republic of China...

. It is possibly the world's largest municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 by population and one of the largest by area.

The official abbreviation, (Yú), was approved by the State Council
State Council of the People's Republic of China
The State Council of the People's Republic of China , which is largely synonymous with the Central People's Government after 1954, is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the Premier and includes the heads of each governmental department and agency...

 on 18 April 1997. Chongqing was also a municipality of the Republic of China
Republic of China (1912–1949)
In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism...

 administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

 (1937–1945). Its abbreviated name is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River
Jialing River
The Jialing River is a tributary of the Yangtze River with its source in Gansu province. It gets its name from its crossing the Jialing Vale in Feng County of Shaanxi. It was once known as Langshui or Yushui .-Overview:...

 that runs through Chongqing and feeds the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

.

Chongqing is one of the most notable cities for history and culture in China (历史文化名城), and serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze area. It is the major manufacturing centre and a transportation hub for Southwest China.

History


Tradition associates Chongqing with the semi-legendary State of Ba
Ba (state)
Ba was an ancient state in eastern Sichuan, China. Its original capital was Yicheng , Hubei. Ba was conquered by Qin in 316 BC. The modern ethnic minority Tujia people trace some of their origins back to the Ba people....

 that the Ba people supposedly established during the eleventh century BCE. By 316 BCE, however, it had been overrun by the State of Qin. The Qin emperor ordered a new city to be constructed, which was called Jiang (江州) and Chu Prefecture (楚州).

Chongqing was subsequently renamed in 581 CE (Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty was a powerful, but short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it ended nearly four centuries of division between rival regimes. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty....

) and later 1102, to Yu Prefecture (渝州) and then Gong Prefecture (恭州). It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song Dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" . Hence, Yu Prefecture became Chongqing subprefecture
Subprefecture
Subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.-Albania:There are twelve Albanian counties or prefectures, each of which is subdivided into several districts, sometimes translated as subprefectures.-Brazil:...

 to mark the occasion.

In 1362, (Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebelling leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (大夏) at Chongqing for a short time.

In 1621 (Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang
Daliang
Daliang may refer to the following locations in China:*Kaifeng, formerly known as Daliang , prefecture-level city of Henan*Daliang Subdistrict, Foshan , in Shunde District, Foshan, Guangdong...

(大梁) was established by She Chongming (奢崇明) with Chongqing as its capital.

Between 1627–1645, with the fall of the Ming Dynasty, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan, were captured by the Revolts who overthrew the Ming Dynasty across the nation. Later during the Qing Dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of Qing emperor.

Open to the world

In 1890, the Consulate General of UK was open in Chongqing
In 1891, Chongqing became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners.
In 1896, the French Consulate General was open in Chongqing
In 1896, the Japanese Consulate General was open in Chongqing
In 1896, the US Consulate General was open in Chongqing
In 1904, the German Consulate General was open in Chongqing

Provisional Capital of the Republic of China


From 1929, Chongqing became a municipality of the Republic of China
Republic of China (1912–1949)
In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism...

. During the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

 (1937–1945), it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

's provisional capital. More than 50 embassies moved to Chongqing with the KMT government at that time, and by now, some of which are still well protected. At that time, the Allies set up the Chinese Anti-fascist headquarters in Chongqing, which was responsible for directing the allied army of China, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma,and Malaysia and was under the direction of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 and General Joseph Stilwell
Joseph Stilwell
General Joseph Warren Stilwell was a United States Army four-star General known for service in the China Burma India Theater. His caustic personality was reflected in the nickname "Vinegar Joe"...

. The Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese Air Force
Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
The , was the land-based aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army. As with the IJA itself, the IJAAF was developed along the lines of Imperial German Army Aviation so its primary mission was to provide tactical close air support for ground troops while maintaining a limited air interdiction...

 bombed it heavily
Bombing of Chongqing
The bombing of Chongqing was part of a terror bombing operation conducted by Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service on the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing, authorized by the Imperial General Headquarters.A conservative estimate places the...

. Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. And because of the brave people, their contribution and sacrifice during WWII, Chongqing is also called a City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were moved from eastern China to Chongqing during WWII, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city.
A letter from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Chongqing in 1945:

In the name of the people of the United States of America. I present this scroll to the city of Chungking as a symbol of our admiration for its brave men, women and children. Under blasts of terror from the air, even in the days before the world at large had known this horror. Chungking and its people held our firm and unconquered. They proved gloriously that terrorism cannot destroy the spirit of a people determined to be free. Their fidelity to the cause of freedom will inspire the hearts of all future generations.

In 1949, when the Peoples' Republic of China was established, Chongqing was still a municipality

In 1954, the municipality was demoted to a sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

 within Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 Province of the People's Republic of China.

Became a Municipality again


On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress
National People's Congress
The National People's Congress , abbreviated NPC , is the highest state body and the only legislative house in the People's Republic of China. The National People's Congress is held in the Great Hall of the People, Beijing, capital of the People's Republic of China; with 2,987 members, it is the...

 decided to merge the city with the neighbouring Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefecture-level districts that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division was the Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang, in Hubei province, China...

 project. Its first official ceremony took place on 18 June 1997.

On 8 February 2010, Chongqing became one of the five National Central/Core cities, the other four are Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Tianjin.

On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, which is one of the 3 National New Areas, the formmer 2 are Pudong new area in Shanghai and Binhai new area in Tianjin.

Geography


All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city.

Geographic coordinates : Latitude 28° 10' to 32° 13' N, Longitude 105° 17' to 110° 11' E.
Annual average : 18.2 °C (64.8 °F)
January average : 7.8 °C (46 °F)
August average : 28.5 °C (83.3 °F)
Historical Temperature range : −3.0 °C
Total annual hours of sunshine : 1055
Annual precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 : ~ 1140 millimetres (45 in)
Neighbouring provinces : Hubei
Hubei
' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

 (east), Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 (southeast), Guizhou
Guizhou
' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

 (south), Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 (west), Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

 (north)

Located at the northern end of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the eastern limits of the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan basin
The Sichuan Basin is a lowland region in southwestern China. Despite its historical name, it is not only synonymous to Sichuan province, comprising its central and eastern portions as well as part of Chongqing Municipality...

, Chongqing is intersected by the Jialing River
Jialing River
The Jialing River is a tributary of the Yangtze River with its source in Gansu province. It gets its name from its crossing the Jialing Vale in Feng County of Shaanxi. It was once known as Langshui or Yushui .-Overview:...

 and the upper reaches of the Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

. It contains the Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains, or Dabashan is a mountain range in Central China, north of the Yangtze River.-Geography:The Daba Mountains run in the general west-northwest to east-southeast direction, along the border between, on the one side Sichuan and Chongqing, and on the other side Shaanxi and Hubei...

 in the north, the Wu Mountains
Wu Gorge
Wu Gorge , sometimes called Great Gorge , is the second gorge of the Three Gorges system on the Yangtze River, People's Republic of China. Formed by the Wu River, it stretches from Wushan to Guandukou, and is located downstream of Qutang Gorge and upstream of Xiling Gorge...

 in the east, the Wuling Mountains
Wuling Mountains
The Wuling Mountains is a mountain range located in Central China, running from Chongqing Municipality and East Guizhou to West Hunan.The Wulingyuan Scenic Area in the east is a World Heritage Site, noted for its high mountains, strangely-shaped crags, clear waters, deep valleys, and mountain...

 in the southeast, and the Dalou Mountains
Dalou Mountains
The Dalou Mountains in Nanchuan District, Chongqing is the highest peak in a range that is also the watershed between the Wu and Chiahui rivers.-References:...

 in the south.

The city is very hilly and as a result is unusual in China for its lack of significant numbers of bicycles.

Administrative divisions


Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao
Shuangqiao District, Chongqing
Shuangqiao District is a former district of Chongqing municipality, China. In October 2011 it was merged into Dazu County to form the new Dazu District.-References:...

 districts were abolished in October 2011), consisting of 19 districts, 15 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

), and much of its administrative area, which spans over 80000 sqkm, is rural.
EWLINE
Districts
Pinyin
Pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

 name
Hanzi association
Banan  巴南区 Chongqing
Beibei
Beibei District
Beibei District is a district in the Chongqing municipality, People's Republic of China. A satellite town in the north of central Chongqing, Beibei got its name because of the huge rock that extends to the middle of Jialing River, and is known for its historical culture in the period of the...

 
北碚区
Changshou
Changshou District
Changshou is one of districts in Chongqing, China, located by Yangtze river, with a history spanning several thousands years. Changshou is 80 km away from Yuzhong of Chongqing city.-Administration:...

 
长寿区
Dadukou
Dadukou District
Dadukou District a district of Chongqing municipality.Dadukou is an industrialised district where the Chongqing Iron & Steel Company Limited is based. Most of the facilities, including school, hospitals, shopping-malls, etc. are organised around Chong Gang.-References:...

 
大渡口区
Fuling
Fuling District
Fuling District is a district in the middle of Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China. Its name means "Fu Cemetery" because some rulers of the State of Ba were originally buried there....

 
涪陵区 Fuling
Hechuan  合川区 Chongqing
Jiangbei
Jiangbei District, Chongqing
Jiangbei District Jiangbei District Jiangbei District ( is a district of Chongqing municipality which is currently undergoing much development....

 
江北区
Jiangjin
Jiangjin District
Jiangjin is one of districts of Southwest Chongqing, China, located by the upper reaches of Yangtze River, with a history of 1500 years. The district covers 3200 square kilometres with a population of 1,460,000...

 
江津区
Jiulongpo
Jiulongpo District
Jiulongpo is a district belonging to Chongqing. Its total population is around 675,000, while its urban city population is nearly 650,000 .-Location:...

 
九龙坡区
Nan'an
Nan'an District
Nan'an District , is one of the six central districts of Chongqing municipality. It expands an area of 265 square kilometers with 44 square km covered with forests and woods. It has an estimated population of 600,000 as of the year 2006.-Geography:...

 
南岸区
Nanchuan
Nanchuan District
Nanchuan District is a district of Chongqing municipality....

 
南川区 Fuling
Qianjiang
Qianjiang District
Qianjiang District is a district in the southeastern part of Chongqing Municipality of the People's Republic of China. The Miao and Tujia constitute 50.03% of the Qianjiang population, the other half being mostly Han...

 
黔江区 Qianjiang
Shapingba
Shapingba District
Shapingba is a district of Chongqing, People's Republic of China, it was once known as Shaci Qu during the Sino-Japanese War. It is one of the most important parts of Chongqing, which covered around 396 square kilometers, 13 Jiedao, 11 towns,and it's also a famous sci-edu-culture district...

 
沙坪坝区 Chongqing
Dazu  大足区
Qijiang  綦江区
Wanzhou
Wanzhou District
Wanzhou District , formerly Wanxian or Wan County is a district of Chongqing Municipality of the People's Republic of China. The urban area of Wanzhou, located in the northern part of the district and on the upper reaches of the Three Gorges on the Yangtze River, is 228 km away from downtown...

 
万州区 Wanxian
Yubei
Yubei District
Yubei District , literally means the north of Yu , is a district of Chongqing municipality. Lianglu, which is a town administered by Yubei District, is where the Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is located....

 
渝北区 Chongqing
Yongchuan
Yongchuan District
Yongchuan is a district of Chongqing, China, located by the north side of upper reach of Yangtze river,with a history of 1200 years. Yongchuan is 63 km away from Yuzhong of Chongqing city and 276 km from Chengdu.-Administration:...

 
永川区
Yuzhong
Yuzhong District
Yuzhong District is the central district and heart of Chongqing municipality. It is the capital of the municipality and is also the political, economical, and entertainment center of the city of Chongqing...

 
渝中区
EWLINE
Counties
Pinyin
Pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

 name
Hanzi association
Bishan
Bishan County
Bishan County is one of the counties in the west of Chongqing, China, with a history of over 2000 years. Bishan is 23 km away from Chenjiaping of Chongqing city.-Administration:...

 
璧山县 Chongqing
Chengkou
Chengkou County
Chengkou County is a county in Chongqing municipality, China.-Administrative divisions:Chengkou County has 7 towns and 17 townships:* Towns : Gecheng , Xincheng , Xiuqi , Gaoguan , Miaoba , Bashan , Pingba , Mingtong ....

 
城口县 Wanxian
Dianjiang
Dianjiang County
Dianjiang County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China....

 
垫江县 Fuling
Fengdu  丰都县
Fengjie  奉节县 Wanxian
Kai
Kai County
Kai County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China.-External links:*...

 
开县
Liangping
Liangping County
Liangping County , formerly Liangshan County , is a county in the north of Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China.-Climate:...

 
梁平县
Rongchang
Rongchang County
Rongchang County is a county of Chongqing Municipality, China.The county, with a population of 800,000, is located in the west of Chongqing .-External links:*...

 
荣昌县 Chongqing
Tongliang
Tongliang County
Tongliang County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China.-External links:*...

 
铜梁县
Tongnan
Tongnan County
Tongnan County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China....

 
潼南县
Wulong
Wulong County
Wulong County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China. It is the location of Wulong Karst which is part of the South China Karst UNESCO World Heritage Site....

 
武隆县 Fuling
Wushan  巫山县 Wanxian
Wuxi
Wuxi County
Wuxi County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China. The population of Wuxi is 514,200,it covers 4030 square kilometers, its GDP per capita is $3500 in year 2010 and urban population is 43,000 according to 2010 census....

 
巫溪县
Yunyang
Yunyang County
Yunyang County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China. It is a poor and mountainous region. There is little sign of the coal mining which makes its neighbor Fengjie County to the east relatively prosperous. The main crops are corn and rapeseed...

 
云阳县
Zhong
Zhong County
Zhong County , formerly named Linjiang is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China.The Shibaozhai Temple, which is endangered by the rising waters caused by the Three Gorges Dam, is located there.-External links:*...

 
忠县
Autonomous counties
Pinyin
Pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

 name
Hanzi association
Pengshui Miao and Tujia 彭水苗族土家族自治县 Qianjiang
Shizhu Tujia
Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County
Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County, or Shizhu County for short is located in southeastern Chongqing, China...

石柱土家族自治县
Xiushan Tujia and Miao 秀山土家族苗族自治县
Youyang Tujia and Miao
Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County
Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County, or Youyang County for short is located in southeastern Chongqing Municipality, China.* Area: 5,173 km²* Population: 760,000...

酉阳土家族苗族自治县

The urban area
Urban area
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.Urban areas are created and further...

 of Chongqing Municipality (重庆主城区市区) includes the following districts:
  • Yuzhong District
    Yuzhong District
    Yuzhong District is the central district and heart of Chongqing municipality. It is the capital of the municipality and is also the political, economical, and entertainment center of the city of Chongqing...

     (渝中区, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government and international business offices are located.
  • Jiangbei District (江北区, located in the north of Jialing River)
  • Shapingba District
    Shapingba District
    Shapingba is a district of Chongqing, People's Republic of China, it was once known as Shaci Qu during the Sino-Japanese War. It is one of the most important parts of Chongqing, which covered around 396 square kilometers, 13 Jiedao, 11 towns,and it's also a famous sci-edu-culture district...

     (沙坪坝区)
  • Jiulongpo District
    Jiulongpo District
    Jiulongpo is a district belonging to Chongqing. Its total population is around 675,000, while its urban city population is nearly 650,000 .-Location:...

     (九龙坡区)
  • Banan District  (巴南区)
  • Dadukou District
    Dadukou District
    Dadukou District a district of Chongqing municipality.Dadukou is an industrialised district where the Chongqing Iron & Steel Company Limited is based. Most of the facilities, including school, hospitals, shopping-malls, etc. are organised around Chong Gang.-References:...

     (大渡口区)
  • Yubei District
    Yubei District
    Yubei District , literally means the north of Yu , is a district of Chongqing municipality. Lianglu, which is a town administered by Yubei District, is where the Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is located....

     (渝北区, or "Northern Chongqing District")
  • Beibei District
    Beibei District
    Beibei District is a district in the Chongqing municipality, People's Republic of China. A satellite town in the north of central Chongqing, Beibei got its name because of the huge rock that extends to the middle of Jialing River, and is known for its historical culture in the period of the...

     (北碚区)
  • Nan'an District
    Nan'an District
    Nan'an District , is one of the six central districts of Chongqing municipality. It expands an area of 265 square kilometers with 44 square km covered with forests and woods. It has an estimated population of 600,000 as of the year 2006.-Geography:...

     (南岸区, or "Southern Bank District")

Climate


Chongqing has a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

-influenced humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa), and for most of the year experiences very humid conditions. Known as one of the "Three Furnaces
Three Furnaces
The term Three Furnaces refers to the especially hot and oppressively humid summer weather in several major cities in the Yangtze River Valley, within China. It was coined during the Republican period of China, and refers to the following cities:*Chongqing...

" of the Yangtze River, along with Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

 and Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of 33 to 34 °C (91.4 to 93.2 °F) in July and August in the urban area. Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan basin
The Sichuan Basin is a lowland region in southwestern China. Despite its historical name, it is not only synonymous to Sichuan province, comprising its central and eastern portions as well as part of Chongqing Municipality...

 causes it to have one of the lowest sunshine totals annually in China, at only 1055 hours.

Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year, is also known as the "Fog City" (雾都), and a thick layer of fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn. During the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

, this special weather protected the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
-Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

. In recent years, the strong industrial development has degraded the air quality further, and the municipal government has been aggressively trying to improve the city's air quality in recent years. The so-called "blue sky days" (days with air quality within or better than slight pollution) number have been on the rise.

Conditions are cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.

Cityscape



Demographics



According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.

This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.

The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.

It terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0-14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15-64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.

Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 2-person, 3,190,000 3-person, 1,790,000 4-person, 783,000 5-person, 270,000 6-person, 89,000 7-person, 28,000 8-person, 6,000 9-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.

Politics



The politics of Chongqing is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the People's Republic of China.

The Mayor of Chongqing is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Chongqing. Since Chongqing is a centrally administered municipality, the mayor occupies the same level in the order of precedence as provincial governors. However, in the city's dual party-government governing system, the mayor has less power than the Chongqing Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

 Municipal Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Chongqing CPC Party Chief".

Chongqing also has the distinction of having been the wartime capital of China during the Second Sino-Japanese war
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

, and, for a brief period, being the seat of administration for the Republic of China government before its departure to Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

.

Military


Chongqing is headquarters of the 13th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

, one of the two group armies that comprise the Chengdu Military Region responsible for the defence of China's southwestern borders with India and Myanmar, as well as security in Tibet.

Five Chongqing city developing program


Five Chongqing city developing program, which contains "Healthy Chongqing program", "Safe Chongqing Program", "Livable Chongqing Program", "Accessible Chongqing Program" and "Forest Chongqing Program" was first raised on 20th, August, 2008 and becoming the goal of the development of this city.Chongqing government is trying its best to achieve this goal in the coming years

Economy



Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right in March 1997 in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development
China Western Development
China Western Development , also China's Western Development, Western China Development, Great Western Development Strategy, or the Open Up the West Program is a policy adopted by the People's Republic of China to boost its less developed western regions.The policy covers 6 provinces , 5 autonomous...

 strategy). An important industrial area in western China, Chongqing is also rapidly urbanising
Urbanization
Urbanization, urbanisation or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008....

. For instance, statistics suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 square meters (1.5 million square feet) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy.

Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing and neighbouring Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 have been important military bases in weapons research and development. Chongqing's industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, autos, chemicals, textiles, machinery and electronics are common.

Chongqing is China's third largest centre for motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million automobiles and 8.6 million motorcycles. Leading makers of cars and motor bikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp
Chang'an Motors
Chang'an Automobile Co Ltd is an automobile manufacturer in Chongqing, China, and a state-owned enterprise with China Weaponry Equipment as parent....

 and Lifan Hongda Enterprise. The municipality is also one of the nine largest iron and steel centres in China and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company
Chongqing Iron and Steel Company
Chongqing Iron and Steel Company Limited , or CISC is an iron and steel manufacturing state-owned enterprise in Chongqing of the People's Republic of China....

 and South West Aluminium which is Asia's largest aluminum plant. Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits (especially oranges) are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium
Strontium
Strontium is a chemical element with the symbol Sr and the atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. The metal turns yellow when exposed to air. It occurs naturally in the minerals celestine and...

 and manganese
Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

, although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily-polluting, and unsafe. Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC
China National Petroleum Corporation
China National Petroleum Corporation is a state-owned fuel-producing corporation and the largest integrated oil and gas company in the People's Republic of China...

 (parent company of PetroChina
PetroChina
PetroChina Company Limited is a Chinese oil company and is the listed arm of state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation , headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing. It is China's biggest oil producer, and was the world's most valuable company by market value as of September 28th 2010...

) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe
Sittwe
-Economy:In February 2007, India announced a plan to develop the port, which would enable ocean access from Indian Northeastern states, so called "Seven sisters", like Mizoram, via the Kaladan River....

 (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming
Kunming
' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

 in Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 province before reaching Chongqing and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, and Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain
Value chain
The value chain, is a concept from business management that was first described and popularized by Michael Porter in his 1985 best-seller, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance.-Firm Level:...

 by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ). Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its auto industry and account for 25% of its exports.

The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment. The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical
Logistics
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet the requirements of customers or corporations. Logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, and packaging, and...

 costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang, in Hubei province, China...

 which is the world's largest, will not only supply Chongqing with power once completed but also allows ocean going ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 port. These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from auto
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 to finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

 and retailing
Retailing
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

; such as Ford
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

, Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

, HSBC
HSBC
HSBC Holdings plc is a global banking and financial services company headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, United Kingdom. it is the world's second-largest banking and financial services group and second-largest public company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine...

, Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered PLC is a multinational financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom with operations in more than seventy countries...

, Citibank
Citibank
Citibank, a major international bank, is the consumer banking arm of financial services giant Citigroup. Citibank was founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York...

, Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank AG is a global financial service company with its headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the emerging markets...

, ANZ Bank
ANZ Bank
The Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited , commonly called ANZ, is the fourth largest bank in Australia, after the Commonwealth Bank, Westpac Banking Corporation and the National Australia Bank. Australian operations make up the largest part of ANZ's business, with commercial and retail...

, Scotiabank
Scotiabank
The Bank of Nova Scotia , commonly known as Scotiabank , is the third largest bank in Canada by deposits and market capitalization. It serves some 18.6 million customers in more than 50 countries around the world and offers a broad range of products and services including personal, commercial,...

, Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. , branded as Walmart since 2008 and Wal-Mart before then, is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000...

, Metro AG
Metro AG
Metro AG is a diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Düsseldorf, Germany. It has the largest market share in its home market, and is one of the most globalised retail and wholesale corporations. It is the fourth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues . In English...

 and Carrefour
Carrefour
Carrefour S.A. is an international hypermarket chain headquartered in Levallois-Perret, France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world...

 among other multinational corporations.

Chongqing's nominal GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 in 2009 reached 652.8 billion yuan (US$95.5 billion) while registering an annual growth of 14.3%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government support to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.

Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
The Economist Intelligence Unit is part of the Economist Group.It is a research and advisory company providing country, industry and management analysis worldwide and incorporates the former Business International Corporation, a U.S. company acquired by the parent organization in 1986...

 in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS
CHAMPS
CHAMPS is an acronym that represents the top 20 emerging cities in China. It was coined in October 2010 by Stephen Joske, Director, China Forecasting, for the Economist Intelligence Unit...

 (Chongqing, Hefei
Hefei
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan
Pingdingshan
Pingdingshan , also known as the Eagle City, with approximately 5.2 million inhabitants is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province, People's Republic of China.-Geography:...

 and Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.

Organised crime



In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for organised crime
Organized crime
Organized crime or criminal organizations are transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals for the purpose of engaging in illegal activity, most commonly for monetary profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist organizations, are...

 and corruption
Political corruption
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...

. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-enforcement and justice systems. In 2009, city authorities under the auspices of municipal Communist Party secretary Bo Xilai
Bo Xilai
Bo Xilai is the Communist Party of China Chongqing Committee Secretary, first-in-charge of the Western interior municipality and a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China...

 undertook a massive crackdown
Chongqing gang trials
The Chongqing gang trials were a series of triad-busting trials in the city of Chongqing that began in October 2009 and is ongoing as of July 2010...

, arresting 4,893 suspected gangsters, 'outlaws' and corrupt cadres, leading to optimism that the period of gangsterism was over.

However, local media later highlighted the apparent reliance by the authorities on torture to extract confessions upon which convictions were based. In December 2009, one defence lawyer was controversially arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for "coaching his client to make false claims of torture" and in July 2010, another lawyer released videotapes of his client describing the torture in detail.

Economic and technological development zones


The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:
  • Chongqing Chemical Industrial Park
  • Chongqing Economic & Technological Development Zone
  • Chongqing Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone
  • Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ)
  • Chongqing Export Processing Zone
  • Jianqiao Industrial Park (located in Dadukou District)

Transport


Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing is a major transportation hub in southwestern China. The municipality now has 25 bridges across the Yangtze River including half a dozen in the city's urban core.

River port


Chongqing is the biggest inland river port in western China. Historically, most of its transportation, especially to eastern China, is via the Yangtze River. In recent years the amount of trading has increased because of the huge reserviour created behind The Three Gorges Dam.

Railways


Chongqing is a major rail hub in south central China.
  • Chongqing-Chengdu
    Chengdu-Chongqing Railway
    Chengdu-Chongqing Railway or Chengyu Railway , also known as the Chengyu Line, is a single-track, electrified, railroad in the Sichuan Basin of Southwest China between the cities of Chengdu and Chongqing. Chongqing's short form name is Yu and the railway is named after the two cities...

      (Sichuan
    Sichuan
    ' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

     province) railway
  • Chengdu-Chongqing High-speed Railway  (under construction)
  • Chongqing-Guiyang (Guizhou
    Guizhou
    ' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

     province) railway
  • Chongqing-Xiangfan
    Xiangyu Railway
    The Xiangyang-Chongqing Railway or Xiangyu Railway , also known as the Xiangfan-Chongqing Railway and Xiangyu Line , is a single-track electrified railroad in central China between the cities of Xiangyang, formerly known as Xiangfan, and Chongqing. The short form name for Chongqing is Yu and the...

      (Hubei
    Hubei
    ' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

     province) railway
  • Chongqing-Huaihua (Hunan
    Hunan
    ' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

     province) railway
  • Chongqing-Suining (Sichuan province) express railway
  • Chongqing-Lichuan Railway (Yuli Railway), providing access to the Yichang-Wanzhou Railway in Hubei
    Hubei
    ' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

     (under construction)
  • Chongqing-Lanzhou (Gansu
    Gansu
    ' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

     province) railway (under construction)

Highways

  • Chongqing-Chengdu Expressway
  • Chongqing-Chengdu 2nd Expressway (under construction)
  • Chongqing-Wanzhou-Yichang highway (Wanzhou-Yichang section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Guiyang highway
  • Chongqing-Changsha Expressway (Xiushan-Changsha section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi'a highway (Dazhou-Xi'an section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Suining Express way
  • Chongqing-Nanchong Express way
  • China National Highway 210
    China National Highway 210
    China National Highway 210 runs from Baotou, Inner Mongolia to Nanning, Guangxi Province. It is 3,097 kilometres in length and runs south from Baotou towards Shaanxi Province, Sichuan Province, Chongqing, Guizhou Province, and ends in Guangxi Province.- Route and distance:-References:*...

  • China National Highway 212
    China National Highway 212
    China National Highway 212 runs from Lanzhou in Gansu to Chongqing. It is 1302 kilometres in length.The section from Lanzhou to Lintao has been converted into an expressway, designated G75 . From Lanzhou to the junction at Huichuan Town , G212 also doubles as China National Highway 316.-Route and...


Airport


Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport
Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport
Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is an airport located in the Yubei District of Chongqing, People's Republic of China offering a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East and Europe...

, located in Yubei district, north of Chongqing city, provides links to all parts of China, many South East Asian countries and soon the Middle East (November 2011) and Europe (March 2012). In year 2010, the airport reported close to 16 million people in passenger volume, which ranked it as the 10th in importance in China. Currently, it's the only airport in central and western China which has railway (lite-rail) city transportation access under construction, (CRT Line 3
Line 3, Chongqing Rail Transit
Line 3, Chongqing Rail TransitChongqing Rail Transit Line 3 runs from north to south, linking the districts separated by Chongqing's two main rivers, the Yangtze and Jialing rivers. The first phase of the line began construction on 5 April 2007, and as of late September 2011 is currently under...

) and two runways in normal use.

Public transport


The three main forms of public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 in Chongqing are CRT metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

, intercity railway, and the ubiquitous bus system.

According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is going to invest 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 lines with light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 (heavy monorail
Monorail
A monorail is a rail-based transportation system based on a single rail, which acts as its sole support and its guideway. The term is also used variously to describe the beam of the system, or the vehicles traveling on such a beam or track...

). By 2020 this network will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line; Line 1 and Line 6 will be underground metro while Lines 2 and 3 will be High Capacity light rail. These improvements will add 363.5 kilometers of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.

two metro lines, the 14 km long CRT Line 1, a conventional subway
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

, and the 19 km long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), had been opened. Total track mileage is 35.55 km. Line 3, a new heavy monorail currently in trials is expected to open later in 2011. A new subway, Line 6, is under construction and is expected to open in 2012.

By 2050 Chongqing was planned to have ten railway lines, totaling 513 kilometres, with 270 stations., although more recent reports have now indicated as many as 18 lines are planned or proposed.

Language


The language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin , also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin , is a primary branch of Mandarin Chinese spoken by Han Chinese people throughout many regions of central and southwestern China, such as Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Guizhou, most parts of Hubei, the western part of Hunan, the northern...

. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan
Xiushan
Xiushan Tujia and Miao Autonomous County, or Xiushan County for short is located in southeastern Chongqing Municipality, China.* Area: 2,450 km²* Population: 620,000 - External links :*...

, speak Sichuanese
Sichuanese Mandarin
Sichuanese Mandarin , commonly known as Sichuanese, Szechuanese or Szechwanese , is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and...

, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect
Chengdu-Chongqing dialect
Chengdu-Chongqing dialect , named after the two largest cities in Sichuan: Chengdu and Chongqing, is the most widely-used branch of Sichuanese with about 90 million speakers...

 and Minjiang dialect
Minjiang dialect
Minjiang dialect , is a branch of Sichuanese, spoken mainly in the Minjiang River valley or along the Yangtze River in the southern and western parts of the Sichuan Basin...

 spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang. There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region (湖广填四川) during the Ming
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 and Qing Dynasties
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao
Miao language
Miao refers to the various languages of the Miao peoples of China. The Miao languages are part of the Hmong–Mien language family. It is written with Chinese characters or the Latin alphabet...

 and Tujia language
Tujia language
The Tujia language is a language spoken natively by the Tujia ethnicity in central China. It is unclassified within the Tibeto-Burman language family, due to pervasive influence from neighboring languages. There are two dialects, one Northern and one Southern. Both dialects are tonal languages...

s are also used by some Miao
Miao people
The Miao or ม้ง ; ) is an ethnic group recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China as one of the 55 official minority groups. Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component nations of people, which include Hmong, Hmu, A Hmao, and Kho Xiong...

 and Tujia people.

Tourism


As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies. Chongqing has many historical World War II buildings or sites (some of which have since been destroyed):
  • The People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city used to be the highest building in the area but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China for that purpose. Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city.
  • Chongqing Museum
  • General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum
    General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum
    The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum is located in the Yuzhong District of Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China.-Background:...

     dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell
    Joseph Stilwell
    General Joseph Warren Stilwell was a United States Army four-star General known for service in the China Burma India Theater. His caustic personality was reflected in the nickname "Vinegar Joe"...

    .
  • Great Hall of the People (Chongqing), based on the Great Hall of the People
    Great Hall of the People
    The Great Hall of the People is located at the western edge of Tiananmen Square, Beijing, People's Republic of China, and is used for legislative and ceremonial activities by the People's Republic of China and the Communist Party of China. It functions as the People's Republic of China's...

     in Beijing. This is one of the largest public assembly buildings in China which, though built in modern times, emulates traditional architectural styles. It is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways.
  • Renmin Hotel
  • Luohan Si, Ming Dynasty
    Ming Dynasty
    The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

     temple
  • The air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945);
  • The former sites for embassies of major countries during the 1940s. As the capital at that time, Chongqing had many residential and other buildings for these officials.
  • Red Rock Village Museum, a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai
    Zhou Enlai
    Zhou Enlai was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976...

     during World War II. It is where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang
    Kuomintang
    The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

    .


Besides these historical sites, Chongqing also has the following attractions:

  • Wuxi County
    Wuxi County
    Wuxi County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China. The population of Wuxi is 514,200,it covers 4030 square kilometers, its GDP per capita is $3500 in year 2010 and urban population is 43,000 according to 2010 census....

     is noted as a majour tourism area of Chongqing.
  • The Dazu Rock Carvings
    Dazu Rock Carvings
    The Dazu Rock Carvings are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century AD, depicting and influenced by Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist beliefs. Listed as a World Heritage Site, the Dazu Rock Carvings are made up of 75 protected sites containing some...

    , in Dazu county, are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century A.D., depicting and influenced by Buddhist
    Buddhism
    Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

    , Confucian
    Confucianism
    Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

     and Taoist
    Taoism
    Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

     beliefs. Listed as a UNESCO
    UNESCO
    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

     World Heritage Site
    World Heritage Site
    A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

    , the Dazu Rock Carvings are made up of 75 protected sites containing some 50,000 statues, with over 100,000 Chinese characters forming inscriptions and epigraphs.
  • The Three Natural Bridges
    Three Natural Bridges
    The Three Natural Bridges are a series of natural limestone bridges located in Xiannüshan Town , Wulong County, Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China. They lie within the Wulong Karst National Geology Park, itself a part of the South China Karst-Wulong Karst UNESCO World Heritage Site...

     and Furong Cave
    Furong Cave
    Furong Cave is a karst cave located on the banks of the Furong River, from Wulong County town, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.-History:First discovered by local farmers in 1993 the cave was opened to tourists in 1994...

     in Wulong Karst National Geology Park
    Wulong Karst
    The Wulong Karst is a natural karst landscape located within the borders of Wulong County, Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China. It is divided into three areas containing the Three Natural Bridges, the Qingkou Tiankeng and Furong Cave respectively...

    , Wulong County
    Wulong County
    Wulong County is a county of Chongqing Municipality in China. It is the location of Wulong Karst which is part of the South China Karst UNESCO World Heritage Site....

     are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the South China Karst
    South China Karst
    The South China Karst , a UNESCO World Heritage Site since June 2007, spans China's southern provinces of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The region of south China is particularly noted for its karst features and landscapes as well as rich biodiversity. The site comprises three clusters: Libo...

    ).
  • Ciqikou is a 1000-year-old town in the Shapingba District
    Shapingba District
    Shapingba is a district of Chongqing, People's Republic of China, it was once known as Shaci Qu during the Sino-Japanese War. It is one of the most important parts of Chongqing, which covered around 396 square kilometers, 13 Jiedao, 11 towns,and it's also a famous sci-edu-culture district...

     of Chongqing. It is also known as Little Chongqing. The town, located next to the lower reaches of the Jialing River
    Jialing River
    The Jialing River is a tributary of the Yangtze River with its source in Gansu province. It gets its name from its crossing the Jialing Vale in Feng County of Shaanxi. It was once known as Langshui or Yushui .-Overview:...

    , was at one time an important source of chinawares and used to be a busy commercial dock during the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    Qing Dynasty
    The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

    .

  • Fishing Town
    Fishing town
    Fishing Town or Fishing City , is one of the three great ancient battlefields of China. It is famous for its resistance to the Mongol armies in the latter half of the Song Dynasty...

     or Fishing City, also called the “Oriental Mecca” and “the Place That Broke God's Whip”, is one of the three great ancient battlefields of China. It is noted for its resistance to the Mongol armies during the Southern Song Dynasty
    Song Dynasty
    The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

     (1127–1279) and the location where the Mongol leader Möngke Khan
    Möngke Khan
    Möngke Khan , born Möngke, , was the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire from July 1, 1251 – August 11, 1259. He was the first Great Khan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign...

     died in 1259.
  • Xueyu Cave
    Xueyu Cave
    Xueyu Cave is a National Three Gorges Scenic Area and a National 4A Scenic Area located in Fengdu County, Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China.-Description:...

     in Fengdu County is the only example of a pure-white, jade-like karst
    KARST
    Kilometer-square Area Radio Synthesis Telescope is a Chinese telescope project to which FAST is a forerunner. KARST is a set of large spherical reflectors on karst landforms, which are bowlshaped limestone sinkholes named after the Kras region in Slovenia and Northern Italy. It will consist of...

     cave in China.
  • A modern and well stocked zoo exhibits many national and regional animals, including the Giant Panda
    Giant Panda
    The giant panda, or panda is a bear native to central-western and south western China. It is easily recognized by its large, distinctive black patches around the eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. Though it belongs to the order Carnivora, the panda's diet is 99% bamboo...

     and the extremely rare South China Tiger
    South China Tiger
    The South China tiger is a tiger subspecies that originated in southern China and northern Indochina and has been classified as critically endangered by IUCN since 1996 as it is possibly extinct in the wild....

    .

Media


Chongqing is served by the Chongqing People's Broadcast Station as the largest radio station. The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV station, claimed to be the 4th largest television station. Chongqing Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one website.

Cuisine


One distinct trait of Chongqing cuisine is that it is spicy and numbing (麻辣), as opposed to the spicy and fragrant (香辣) flavours of Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 cuisine.
  • Hot pot
    Hot pot
    Hot pot , less commonly Chinese fondue or steamboat, refers to several East Asian varieties of stew, consisting of a simmering metal pot of stock at the center of the dining table. While the hot pot is kept simmering, ingredients are placed into the pot and are cooked at the table...

     is Chongqing's local culinary specialty. Tables in hotpot restaurants usually have a central vat (or pot) where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a spicy broth. As well as beef, pork, lotus and other vegetables, items such as pig's kidney, brain, duck's bowels, and cow's stomach are often consumed.

Sports


Professional sports teams in Chongqing include:
  • Chinese Football Association Super League
    • Chongqing Lifan
      Chongqing Lifan
      Chongqing Lifan, are a professional Chinese football club who currently plays in the Chinese League One division. They play their home games at the 58,680 seater Chongqing Olympic Sports Center in Chongqing and are owned by the Chongqing based Lifan Group, which manufactures motorcycles, cars and...


Religion


Arhat Temple is a Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 temple, which includes monks. The Dazu Rock Carvings
Dazu Rock Carvings
The Dazu Rock Carvings are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century AD, depicting and influenced by Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist beliefs. Listed as a World Heritage Site, the Dazu Rock Carvings are made up of 75 protected sites containing some...

 are religious sculptures, which present a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

. A large Buddha sculpture is outside Shuangjiang. Laitan has a Buddha Temple. Though the Christian
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 population is small, a Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chongqing exists. Persecution of Christians
Persecution of Christians
Persecution of Christians as a consequence of professing their faith can be traced both historically and in the current era. Early Christians were persecuted for their faith, at the hands of both Jews from whose religion Christianity arose, and the Roman Empire which controlled much of the land...

 takes place in Chongqing.

Middle and high schools

  • Chongqing Nankai Middle School
    Chongqing Nankai Middle School
    Chongqing Nankai Secondary School is one of the best secondary schools in Chongqing, China. It is located in Chenjiawan, Shapingba District.-History:...

     (重庆南开中学) founded in 1935
  • Bashu Middle School (巴蜀中学) founded in 1933
  • Chongqing No. 1 Middle School (重庆第一中学)
  • Chongqing No. 8 Middle School (重庆第八中学)
  • Chongqing Foreign Languages School (重庆外国语学校) founded in 1963

International schools


Consulates

Consulate Date Consular District
Consulate Chongqing 05.1998 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Consulate General Chongqing 03.2000 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Consulate General Chongqing 12.2004 Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi
Consulate General Chongqing 01.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Consulate Chongqing 07.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Consulate General Chongqing 12.2008 Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan
Consulate General Chongqing 02.2010 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

Consulate General Chongqing 11.2011 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

Twin towns — sister cities


Chongqing is twinned with:

Asia

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan. It became best known as the first city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 A.M...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 Mito, Ibaraki
Mito, Ibaraki
is the capital of Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan and has a central location, moderately offset towards the coast in that prefecture. As of 2005, the city has an estimated population of 263,748 and a total area is 217.45 km², giving a population density of 1,212.91 persons per km²...

, Japan Bangkok, Thailand Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin is the capital of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is located on a delta island near the junction of the Barito and Martapura rivers. As a result, Banjarmasin is sometimes called the "River City"...

, Indonesia Shiraz
Shiraz
Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

, Iran

Europe

Toulouse
Toulouse
Toulouse is a city in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern FranceIt lies on the banks of the River Garonne, 590 km away from Paris and half-way between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea...

, France Leicester
Leicester
Leicester is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire. The city lies on the River Soar and at the edge of the National Forest...

, England, United Kingdom Wales
Wales
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

, United Kingdom Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

, Germany Trikala
Trikala
Trikala is a city in northwestern Thessaly, Greece. It is the capital of the Trikala peripheral unit, and is located NW of Athens, NW, of Karditsa, E of Ioannina and Metsovo, S of Grevena, SW of Thessaloniki, and W of Larissa...

, Greece Vladimir
Vladimir
Vladimir is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow along the M7 motorway. Population:...

, Russia Voronezh
Voronezh
Voronezh is a city in southwestern Russia, the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast. It is located on both sides of the Voronezh River, away from where it flows into the Don. It is an operating center of the Southeastern Railway , as well as the center of the Don Highway...

, Russia Sør-Trøndelag
Sør-Trøndelag
- References :...

, Norway Zaporizhia
Zaporizhia
Zaporizhia or Zaporozhye [formerly Alexandrovsk ] is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative center of the Zaporizhia Oblast...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...


||

North America

Seattle, United States Vacaville, California
Vacaville, California
Vacaville, California is a city located in the northeastern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area in Solano County. The city is nearly half way between Sacramento and San Francisco on I-80. It sits approximately from Sacramento, and from San Francisco...

, United States Detroit, United States Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, Canada Waterloo, Ontario
Waterloo, Ontario
Waterloo is a city in Southern Ontario, Canada. It is the smallest of the three cities in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, and is adjacent to the city of Kitchener....

, Canada

South America

Córdoba, Argentina
Córdoba, Argentina
Córdoba is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about northwest of Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province. Córdoba is the second-largest city in Argentina after the federal capital Buenos Aires, with...



In June 2007, a twinning agreement between Chongqing and Sør-Trøndelag
Sør-Trøndelag
- References :...

 was signed.

External links