Hiroshima

Hiroshima

Overview
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region on Honshu island. The capital is the city of Hiroshima.- History :The area around Hiroshima was formerly divided into Bingo Province and Aki Province. This location has been a center of trade and culture since the beginning of Japan's recorded...

, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

, the largest island of Japan. It became best known as the first city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

 when the United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
The United States Army Air Forces was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II, and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force....

 (USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the first on August 6, 1945, and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.For six months...

 on it at 8:15 A.M. on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

Hiroshima gained city status on April 1, 1889. On April 1, 1980, Hiroshima became a designated city. The city's current mayor since April 2011 is Kazumi Matsui
Kazumi Matsui
is the mayor of Hiroshima, Japan.Matsui was born in Hiroshima, son to a Hibakusha father.He won the mayoral election held in the unified local elections on April 10, 2011. In his bid for the Mayoral position, he was supported by the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito.-External links:* *...

.


Hiroshima was founded on the river delta coastline of the Seto Inland Sea in 1589 by the powerful warlord Mōri Terumoto
Mori Terumoto
Mōri Terumoto , son of Mōri Takamoto and grandson and successor of the great warlord Mōri Motonari, fought against Toyotomi Hideyoshi but was eventually overcome, participated in the Kyūshū campaign on Hideyoshi's side and built Hiroshima Castle, thus essentially founding Hiroshima.Terumoto was a...

, who made it his capital after leaving Koriyama Castle in Aki Province
Aki Province
or Geishū was a province in the Chūgoku Region of western Honshū, comprising the western part of what is today Hiroshima Prefecture.When Emperor Shōmu ordered two official temples for each province , two temples were founded in Aki Province...

.
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Encyclopedia
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region on Honshu island. The capital is the city of Hiroshima.- History :The area around Hiroshima was formerly divided into Bingo Province and Aki Province. This location has been a center of trade and culture since the beginning of Japan's recorded...

, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

, the largest island of Japan. It became best known as the first city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

 when the United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
The United States Army Air Forces was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II, and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force....

 (USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the first on August 6, 1945, and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.For six months...

 on it at 8:15 A.M. on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

Hiroshima gained city status on April 1, 1889. On April 1, 1980, Hiroshima became a designated city. The city's current mayor since April 2011 is Kazumi Matsui
Kazumi Matsui
is the mayor of Hiroshima, Japan.Matsui was born in Hiroshima, son to a Hibakusha father.He won the mayoral election held in the unified local elections on April 10, 2011. In his bid for the Mayoral position, he was supported by the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito.-External links:* *...

.

Sengoku period



Hiroshima was founded on the river delta coastline of the Seto Inland Sea in 1589 by the powerful warlord Mōri Terumoto
Mori Terumoto
Mōri Terumoto , son of Mōri Takamoto and grandson and successor of the great warlord Mōri Motonari, fought against Toyotomi Hideyoshi but was eventually overcome, participated in the Kyūshū campaign on Hideyoshi's side and built Hiroshima Castle, thus essentially founding Hiroshima.Terumoto was a...

, who made it his capital after leaving Koriyama Castle in Aki Province
Aki Province
or Geishū was a province in the Chūgoku Region of western Honshū, comprising the western part of what is today Hiroshima Prefecture.When Emperor Shōmu ordered two official temples for each province , two temples were founded in Aki Province...

. Hiroshima Castle
Hiroshima Castle
', sometimes called ' is a castle in Hiroshima, Japan which was the home of the daimyō of the Hiroshima han . Originally constructed in the 1590s, the castle was destroyed in the atomic bombing in 1945...

 was quickly built, and Terumoto moved in in 1593. Terumoto was on the losing side at the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
The , popularly known as the , was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 which cleared the path to the Shogunate for Tokugawa Ieyasu...

. The winner, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
 was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan , which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara  in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but...

, deprived Mori Terumoto of most of his fiefs including Hiroshima and gave Aki province
Aki Province
or Geishū was a province in the Chūgoku Region of western Honshū, comprising the western part of what is today Hiroshima Prefecture.When Emperor Shōmu ordered two official temples for each province , two temples were founded in Aki Province...

 to Masanori Fukushima
Fukushima Masanori
was a Japanese daimyo of the late Sengoku Period to early Edo Period who served as lord of the Hiroshima Domain. A retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he fought in the battle of Shizugatake in 1583, and soon became known as one of Seven Spears of Shizugatake which also included Katō Kiyomasa and...

, a daimyo
Daimyo
is a generic term referring to the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings...

 who had supported Tokugawa.

Tokugawa period


The castle passed to Asano Nagaakira
Asano Nagaakira
was a Japanese samurai of the early Edo period who served as daimyō of the Wakayama domain, and was later transferred to the Hiroshima Domain.Born Asano Iwamatsu, he was the son of Asano Nagamasa, who was a senior retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. In 1594, Nagaakira was made a retainer of Toyotomi...

 in 1619, and Asano was appointed the daimyo of this area. Under Asano rule, the city prospered, developed, and expanded, with few military conflicts or disturbances. Asano's descendants continued to rule until the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
The , also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868...

 in 1868. Hiroshima served as the capital of Hiroshima Domain
Hiroshima Domain
Hiroshima Domain was a han, or feudal domain, of Edo period Japan. Based at Hiroshima castle in the city of Hiroshima, the domain encompassed Aki province and parts of neighboring Bingo province....

 during the Tokugawa period
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

.

Imperial period



After the han was abolished in 1871, the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region on Honshu island. The capital is the city of Hiroshima.- History :The area around Hiroshima was formerly divided into Bingo Province and Aki Province. This location has been a center of trade and culture since the beginning of Japan's recorded...

. Hiroshima became a major urban center during the imperial period
Empire of Japan
The Empire of Japan is the name of the state of Japan that existed from the Meiji Restoration on 3 January 1868 to the enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of...

 as the Japanese economy shifted from primarily rural to urban industries.

During 1870s, one of the seven government-sponsored English language schools was established in Hiroshima.
Ujina Harbor was constructed through the efforts of Hiroshima Governor Sadaaki Senda
Sadaaki Senda
was the governor of Hiroshima Prefecture from 1880 to 1889. His most ambitious project was the construction of Ujina port , which was completed in November 1889....

 in the 1880s, allowing Hiroshima to become an important port city.

The Sanyo Railway
Sanyo Railway
The was established in 1887 and served as a major railroad company during the Meiji period in Japan. The railroad was headquartered in Kobe, and Nakamigawa Hikojirō served as head of the railroad.-Rail lines:...

 was extended to Hiroshima in 1894, and a rail line from the main station to the harbor was constructed for military transportation during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

. During that war, the Japanese government moved temporarily to Hiroshima, and Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
The or was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 3 February 1867 until his death...

 maintained his headquarters at Hiroshima Castle
Hiroshima Castle
', sometimes called ' is a castle in Hiroshima, Japan which was the home of the daimyō of the Hiroshima han . Originally constructed in the 1590s, the castle was destroyed in the atomic bombing in 1945...

 from September 15, 1894 to April 27, 1895. The significance of Hiroshima for the Japanese government can be discerned from the fact that the first round of talks between Chinese and Japanese representatives to end the Sino-Japanese War was held in Hiroshima from February 1 to February 4, 1895. New industrial plants, including cotton mill
Cotton mill
A cotton mill is a factory that houses spinning and weaving machinery. Typically built between 1775 and 1930, mills spun cotton which was an important product during the Industrial Revolution....

s, were established in Hiroshima in the late 19th century. Further industrialization in Hiroshima was stimulated during the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

 in 1904, which required development and production of military supplies. The Hiroshima Prefectural Commercial Exhibition Hall was constructed in 1915 as a center for trade and exhibition of new products. Later, its name was changed to Hiroshima Prefectural Product Exhibition Hall, and again to Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall.

During the First World War, Hiroshima became a focal point of military activity, as the Japanese government entered the war on the Allied side. About 500 German prisoners of war were held in Ninoshima Island in Hiroshima Bay.

The growth of Hiroshima as a city continued after the First World War, as the city now attracted the attention of the Catholic Church, and on May 4, 1923, an Apostolic Vicar was appointed for that city.

World War II and Atomic Bombing



During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the Second Army and Chugoku Regional Army were headquartered in Hiroshima, and the Army Marine Headquarters was located at Ujina port. The city also had large depots of military supplies, and was a key center for shipping.

The bombing of Tokyo and other cities in Japan during World War II caused widespread destruction and hundreds of thousands of deaths, nearly all civilians, predominantly women and children. For example, Toyama
Toyama, Toyama
is the capital city of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, located on the coast of the Sea of Japan in the Chūbu region on central Honshū, about 200 km north of the city of Nagoya and 300 km northwest of Tokyo....

, an urban area of 128,000, was nearly fully destroyed, and incendiary attacks on Tokyo are believed to have claimed 90,000 lives. There were no such air raids
Air raids on Japan
During World War II the Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan which caused extensive destruction to the country's cities and killed over 300,000 people. These attacks began with the Doolittle Raid in mid-April 1942, but did not resume until June 1944 when United States Army Air Forces ...

 in Hiroshima. However, the threat was certainly there and to protect against potential firebombings in Hiroshima, students (between 11–14 years) were mobilized to demolish houses and create firebreak
Firebreak
A firebreak is a gap in vegetation or other combustible material that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire or wildfire. A firebreak may occur naturally where there is a lack of vegetation or "fuel", such as a river, lake or canyon...

s.

On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 AM, the Atomic Bomb "Little Boy
Little Boy
"Little Boy" was the codename of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets of the 393rd Bombardment Squadron, Heavy, of the United States Army Air Forces. It was the first atomic bomb to be used as a weapon...

" was dropped on Hiroshima by an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay
Enola Gay
Enola Gay is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, mother of the pilot, then-Colonel Paul Tibbets. On August 6, 1945, during the final stages of World War II, it became the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb as a weapon of war...

, directly killing an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought total casualties to 90,000–140,000. Approximately 69% of the city's buildings were completely destroyed, and about 7% severely damaged.

Research about the effects of the attack was restricted during the occupation of Japan
Occupied Japan
At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, India, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. This foreign presence marked the first time in its history that the island nation had been occupied by a foreign power...

, and information censored until the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951, restoring control to the Japanese.

The oleander
Oleander
Nerium oleander is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts. It is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. It is most commonly known as oleander, from its superficial resemblance to the unrelated olive Olea, but has many other...

 is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima because it was the first to bloom again after the explosion of the atomic bomb in 1945.

Postwar period


On September 17, 1945, Hiroshima was struck by the Makurazaki Typhoon (Typhoon Ida). Hiroshima prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region on Honshu island. The capital is the city of Hiroshima.- History :The area around Hiroshima was formerly divided into Bingo Province and Aki Province. This location has been a center of trade and culture since the beginning of Japan's recorded...

 suffered more than 3,000 deaths and injuries, about half the national total. More than half the bridges in the city were destroyed, along with heavy damage to roads and railroads, further devastating the city.

Hiroshima was rebuilt after the war, with the help from the national government through the Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law passed in 1949. It provided financial assistance for reconstruction, along with land donated that was previously owned by the national government and used for military purposes.

In 1949, a design was selected for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
is a memorial park in the center of Hiroshima, Japan. It is dedicated to the legacy of Hiroshima as the first city in the world to suffer a nuclear attack, and to the memories of the bomb's direct and indirect victims ....

. Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb's detonation, was designated the Genbaku Dome (原爆ドーム) or "Atomic Dome"
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial, commonly called the Atomic Bomb Dome or , in Hiroshima, Japan, is part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The ruin serves as a memorial to the people who were killed in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6,...

, a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
is a memorial park in the center of Hiroshima, Japan. It is dedicated to the legacy of Hiroshima as the first city in the world to suffer a nuclear attack, and to the memories of the bomb's direct and indirect victims ....

. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum is located in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, in central Hiroshima, Japan.It was established in August 1955 with the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Hall ....

 was opened in 1955 in the Peace Park.

Hiroshima was proclaimed a City of Peace by the Japanese parliament in 1949, at the initiative of its mayor, Shinzo Hamai
Shinzo Hamai
was the first popularly elected Mayor of Hiroshima . He created Hiroshima's image as a city of peace.-Life and career:...

 (1905–1968). As a result, the city of Hiroshima received more international attention as a desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. As part of that effort, the Hiroshima Interpreters' and Guide's Association (HIGA) was established in 1992 in order to facilitate interpretation for conferences, and the Hiroshima Peace Institute was established in 1998 within the Hiroshima University
Hiroshima University
, located in the Japanese cities of Higashihiroshima and Hiroshima, was established 1949 by the merger of a number of national educational institutions.-History:Under the National School Establishment Law, Hiroshima University was established on May 31, 1949...

. The city government continues to advocate the abolition of all nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

s and the Mayor of Hiroshima is the president of Mayors for Peace, an international mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020 Mayors for Peace
Mayors for Peace
Mayors for Peace is an international organization of cities, dedicated for the promotion of peace that was established in 1982 at the initiative of then mayor of Hiroshima Takeshi Araki....

 2020 Vision Campaign
2020 Vision Campaign
The 2020 Vision Campaign is an international campaign pushing for a nuclear-weapon-free world by the year 2020. It was initiated on a provisional basis by the Executive Cities of Mayors for Peace at their meeting in Manchester, UK, in October 2003...

.

Geography


Hiroshima has eight wards
Wards of Japan
A is a subdivision of one of the cities of Japan that is large enough to have been designated by government ordinance. Wards are used to subdivide each city designated by government ordinance...

 (ku):
Ward Population Area (km²) Density
(per km²)
Map
Aki-ku
Aki-ku, Hiroshima
is one of the eight wards of the city of Hiroshima, Japan.As of November 1, 2005, the ward has an estimated population of 76,858 and a density of 817.55 persons per km². The total area is 94.01 km²....

78,176 94.01 832
Asakita-ku
Asakita-ku, Hiroshima
is one of the eight wards of the city of Hiroshima, located in the North of Asa-gun and the South of Takata-gun: now-defunct districts .Asa-gun was consisted of Kabe-cho, Kōyō-cho, Asa-cho. Takata-gun was including Shiraki-cho...

156,368 353.35 443
Asaminami-ku
Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima
is one of the eight wards of the city of Hiroshima, located in the south of the former district of Asa.Asa-gun consisted of Gion-cho, Yasufuruichi-cho, Sato-cho, Numata-cho. After being merged with Hiroshima in 1973, this ward was named Asaminami-ku....

220,351 117.19 1,880
Higashi-ku
Higashi-ku, Hiroshima
is one of the eight wards located in Hiroshima, Japan. It is located on the uppermost delta of the Ōta River.Within Higashi-ku is the Fudoin Temple in Ushita-shinmachi. Fudoin dates back to the 14th century and was built by Shogun Takauji Ashikaga as one of 60 Ankoku-ji temples which were...

122,045 39.38 3,099
Minami-ku
Minami-ku, Hiroshima
is one of the eight wards of the city of Hiroshima, Japan....

138,138 26.09 5,295
Naka-ku
Naka-ku, Hiroshima
is the heart of Hiroshima, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Naka-ku is home to Hiroshima's central business district and Peace Memorial Park. Major attractions include the Hondori shopping arcade, a covered mall-like street of shops extending east from the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park to Hacchobori...


(administrative center)
125,208 15.34 8,162
Nishi-ku
Nishi-ku, Hiroshima
is one of the eight wards of the city of Hiroshima, Japan. The Hiroshima-Nishi Airport is located in Nishi-ku....

184,881 35.67 5,183
Saeki-ku
Saeki-ku, Hiroshima
is one of the eight wards of the city of Hiroshima, Japan.The Hiroshima Branch of the Japan Mint is located here.The ward added the former town of Yuki from Saeki District on April 25, 2005....

135,789 223.98 606
Population as of October 31, 2006

Demographics



As of 2006, the city has an estimated population
Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals...

 of 1,154,391, while the total population for the metropolitan area was estimated as 2,043,788 in 2000. The total area of the city is 905.08 km², with a density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 of 1275.4 persons per km².

The population around 1910 was 143,000. Before World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Hiroshima's population had grown to 360,000, and peaked at 419,182 in 1942. Following the atomic bombing in 1945, the population dropped to 137,197. By 1955, the city's population had returned to pre-war levels.

Economy


Hiroshima is the center of industry for the Chūgoku-Shikoku
Shikoku
is the smallest and least populous of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshū and east of the island of Kyūshū. Its ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima , Iyo-shima , and Futana-shima...

 region, and is by and large centered along the coastal areas. Hiroshima has long been a port city and Hiroshima port or Hiroshima International Airport
Hiroshima Airport
is an airport in the city of Mihara, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Located east of Hiroshima, it is the largest airport in the Chūgoku region.-History:...

 can be used for the transportation of goods.
Its largest industry is the manufacturing industry with core industries being the production of Mazda cars, car parts and industrial equipment. Mazda Motor Corporation
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 is by far Hiroshima's dominant company. Mazda accounts for 32% of Hiroshima's GDP. Mazda makes many models in Hiroshima for worldwide export, including the popular MX-5/Miata, Mazda Demio
Mazda Demio
The Mazda Demio is a subcompact car manufactured by Mazda introduced in 1996, now in its third generation, marketed globally also as the Mazda2 — and previously marketed under nameplates including Mazda 121, Mazda Metro and Ford Festiva Mini Wagon.The third generation Demio earned the 2008...

 (Mazda2), Mazda CX-9
Mazda CX-9
The Mazda CX-9 is a full-size crossover SUV manufactured by Mazda at their Ujina 1 plant in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.The CX-9 is built on the Ford CD3 Platform shared with the Ford Edge, and it uses the same 3.7L V6 engine used in the Ford lineup. Although outwardly similar, the CX-9 and Mazda...

 and Mazda RX-8
Mazda RX-8
The Mazda RX-8 is a sports car manufactured by Mazda Motor Corporation. It first appeared in 2001 at the North American International Auto Show. It is the successor to the RX-7 and, like its predecessors in the RX range, it is powered by a Wankel engine. The RX-8 began North American sales in the...

. The Mazda CX-7
Mazda CX-7
The CX-7 is a mid-size crossover SUV model from Mazda, the production version of the MX-Crossport concept car. The CX-7 is built in Hiroshima, Japan, starting in early 2006. The CX-7 was shown publicly for the first time at the 2006 Los Angeles Auto Show in January. Production officially began on...

 has been built there since early 2006. Other Mazda factories are in Hofu
Hofu, Yamaguchi
is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan.-History:Hōfu means "the capital of Suō Province".The eastern part of Yamaguchi prefecture was formerly called Suō Province.The city was founded on August 25, 1936...

 and Flat Rock, Michigan
Flat Rock, Michigan
- Racial makeup :As of the census of 2000, there were 8,488 people, 3,181 households, and 2,306 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,266.9 per square mile . There were 3,291 housing units at an average density of 491.2 per square mile...

.

General machinery and equipment also account for a large portion of exports. Because these industries require research and design capabilities, it has also had the offshoot that Hiroshima has many innovative companies actively engaged in new growth fields (for example, Hiroshima Vehicle Engineering Company (HIVEC). Many of these companies hold the top market shares in Japan and the world, or are alone in their particular field. Tertiary industries in the wholesale and retail areas are also very developed.
Another result of the concentration of industry is an accumulation of skilled personnel and fundamental technologies. This is considered by business to be a major reason for location in Hiroshima. Business setup costs are also much lower than other large cities in the country and there is a comprehensive system of tax breaks, etc. on offer for businesses which locate in Hiroshima. This is especially true of two projects: the Hiroshima Station Urban Development District and the Seifu Shinto area which offer capital installments (up to 501 million yen over 5 years), tax breaks and employee subsidies. Seifu Shinto, which translates as West Wind, New Town is the largest construction project in the region and is an attempt to build "a city within a city." It is attempting to design from the ground up a place to work, play, relax and live.

One important industry in Hiroshima is the steel industry. The Japan Steel Works (formerly Nihon Seiko, established in 1907) has one of its plants in Hiroshima out of total of three plants (the other two are at Muroran and Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

).

Hiroshima recently made it onto Lonely Planet's list of the top cities in the world. Commuting times rank amongst the shortest in Japan and the cost of living is lower than other large cities in Japan such as Tokyo, Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

, Kyoto
Kyoto
is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan, it is now the capital of Kyoto Prefecture, as well as a major part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.-History:...

, or Fukuoka
Fukuoka, Fukuoka
is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture and is situated on the northern shore of the island of Kyushu in Japan.Voted number 14 in a 2010 poll of the World's Most Livable Cities, Fukuoka is praised for its green spaces in a metropolitan setting. It is the most populous city in Kyushu, followed by...

.

Culture



Hiroshima has a professional symphony orchestra, which has performed at Wel City Hiroshima since 1963. There are also many museums in Hiroshima, including the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum is located in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, in central Hiroshima, Japan.It was established in August 1955 with the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Hall ....

, along with several art museums. The Hiroshima Museum of Art
Hiroshima Museum of Art
The Hiroshima Museum of Art is an art museum founded in 1978. It is located in the Hiroshima Central Park in Hiroshima City, Japan.-Gallery 1:*From Romanticism to Impressionism-Gallery 2:*Neo-Impressionists and Post-Impressionists...

, which has a large collection of French renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 art, opened in 1978. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum
Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum
The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum is an art museum founded in 1968. It was reconstructed in 1996. It is located near Shukkei-en in the Hiroshima City, Japan.-Access:*Hiroden Shukkeien-mae Station*JR Hiroshima Station-See also:...

 opened in 1968, and is located near Shukkei-en
Shukkei-en
is a historic Japanese garden in the city of Hiroshima, Japan. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum is located adjacent to the garden.-Overview:Construction began in 1620 during the Edo period at the order of Asano Nagaakira, daimyo of the Hiroshima han...

 gardens. The Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art
Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art
The Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art is an art museum founded in 1989. It is in Hijiyama Park in the Hiroshima City, Japan. The building was designed by architect Kisho Kurokawa.-Representative collections:-External links:*...

, which opened in 1989, is located near Hijiyama Park. Festivals include Hiroshima Flower Festival
Hiroshima Flower Festival
The is a flower festival held annually in Hiroshima, Japan.-Overview:The Hiroshima Flower Festival has been held every year since 1977 during Golden Week, from 3 May to 5 May.More than one million people take part in the festival each year....

 and Hiroshima International Animation Festival
Hiroshima International Animation Festival
The International Animation Festival Hiroshima is a biannual animation festival hosted in Hiroshima, Japan.The festival was found in 1985 by Association International du Film d'Animation or ASIFA as International Animation Festival for the World Peace...

.

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park
is a memorial park in the center of Hiroshima, Japan. It is dedicated to the legacy of Hiroshima as the first city in the world to suffer a nuclear attack, and to the memories of the bomb's direct and indirect victims ....

, which includes the Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Peace Memorial, commonly called the Atomic Bomb Dome or , in Hiroshima, Japan, is part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The ruin serves as a memorial to the people who were killed in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6,...

, draws many visitors from around the world, especially for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony is an annual Japanese vigil.Every August 6, "A-Bomb Day", the city of Hiroshima holds the Peace Memorial Ceremony to console the victims of the atomic bombs and to pray for the realization of lasting world peace. The ceremony is held in front of the Memorial...

, an annual commemoration held on the date of the atomic bombing. The park also contains a large collection of monuments, including the Children's Peace Monument
Children's Peace Monument
The is a monument for peace to commemorate Sadako Sasaki and the thousands of child victims of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima-Overview:The monument is located in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, itself in the city of Hiroshima...

, the Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims
Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims
Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims is one of the National Memorial Halls in Hiroshima, Japan.-Overview:The Hall was founded by the Japanese national government to mourn the atomic bomb victims in 2002 and designed by Kenzo Tange.There is another National Peace...

 and many others.

Hiroshima's rebuilt castle
Hiroshima Castle
', sometimes called ' is a castle in Hiroshima, Japan which was the home of the daimyō of the Hiroshima han . Originally constructed in the 1590s, the castle was destroyed in the atomic bombing in 1945...

 (nicknamed Rijō, meaning Koi
Koi
or more specifically , are ornamental varieties of domesticated common carp that are kept for decorative purposes in outdoor koi ponds or water gardens....

 Castle
) houses a museum
Museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

 of life in the Edo period
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

. Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine
Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine
is a Japanese Shinto Shrine in Hiroshima, Japan.-Overview:The original shrine was founded in 1868, the first year of the Meiji period, in Hiroshima...

 is within the walls of the castle. Other attractions in Hiroshima include Shukkei-en
Shukkei-en
is a historic Japanese garden in the city of Hiroshima, Japan. The Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum is located adjacent to the garden.-Overview:Construction began in 1620 during the Edo period at the order of Asano Nagaakira, daimyo of the Hiroshima han...

, Fudōin, Mitaki-dera
Mitaki-dera
is a historic Japanese temple in the city of Hiroshima, Japan.-Overview:Mitaki-dera was founded in the year 809 during the Daidō era.Mitaki-dera is familiar with the name of ....

, and Hijiyama Park.

Cuisine



Hiroshima is known for okonomiyaki
Okonomiyaki
is a Japanese dish containing a variety of ingredients. The name is derived from the word okonomi, meaning "what you like" or "what you want", and yaki meaning "grilled" or "cooked" . Okonomiyaki is mainly associated with Kansai or Hiroshima areas of Japan, but is widely available throughout the...

, cooked on a hot-plate (usually right in front of the customer). It is cooked with various ingredients, which are layered rather than mixed together as done with the Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

 version of okonomiyaki. The layers are typically egg, cabbage, bean sprouts (moyashi
Moyashi
or is Japanese for "sprout." It is most commonly used in referring to mung bean or black matpe bean, but can also be used for the larger soybean sprout as well.Moyashi is a common ingredient in many Japanese dishes such as stir fries and soups....

), sliced pork/bacon with optional items (mayonnaise, fried squid, octopus, cheese, mochi
Mochi
Mochi is a Japanese rice cake made of glutinous rice pounded into paste and molded into shape. In Japan it is traditionally made in a ceremony called mochitsuki. While also eaten year-round, mochi is a traditional food for the Japanese New Year and is commonly sold and eaten during that time...

, kimchi
Kimchi
Kimchi , also spelled gimchi, kimchee, or kim chee, is a traditional fermented Korean dish made of vegetables with varied seasonings. There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made with a main vegetable ingredient such as napa cabbage, radish, green onions or cucumber. It is the most common...

, etc.), and noodles (soba
Soba
is the Japanese name for buckwheat. It is synonymous with a type of thin noodle made from buckwheat flour, and in Japan can refer to any thin noodle . Soba noodles are served either chilled with a dipping sauce, or in hot broth as a noodle soup...

, udon
Udon
is a type of thick wheat-flour noodle of Japanese cuisine.Udon is usually served hot as noodle soup in its simplest form as kake udon, in a mildly flavoured broth called kakejiru which is made of dashi, soy sauce , and mirin. It is usually topped with thinly chopped scallions...

) topped with another layer of egg and a generous dollop of okonomiyaki sauce (Carp and Otafuku are two popular brands). The amount of cabbage used is usually 3 - 4 times the amount used in the Osaka style, therefore arguably a healthier version. It starts out piled very high and is generally pushed down as the cabbage cooks. The order of the layers may vary slightly depending on the chef's style and preference, and ingredients will vary depending on the preference of the customer.

Media


The Chugoku Shimbun
Chugoku Shimbun
The is a Japanese local daily newspaper based in Hiroshima. It serves the Chūgoku region of Japan with a market share in Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Shimane, Okayama and Tottori Prefectures. The newspaper publishes morning paper and evening editions. The morning paper has a daily circulation of 646,908...

 is the local newspaper serving Hiroshima. It publishes both morning paper and evening editions. Television stations include Hiroshima Home TV
Hiroshima Home TV
Hiroshima Home Television Co.,Ltd. is a TV station in Hiroshima. It is a network TV station of ANN. It is broadcast in Hiroshima Prefecture.-External links:*...

, Hiroshima TV
Hiroshima TV
Hiroshima Telecasting Co.,Ltd. is a TV station in Hiroshima. It is affiliated with NNN) ans NNS. It is broadcast in Hiroshima Prefecture.-External links:*...

, TV Shinhiroshima
TV Shinhiroshima
Shinhiroshima Telecasting Co., Ltd. is a TV station in Hiroshima. It is a network TV station of Fuji News Network and Fuji Network System...

, and the RCC Broadcasting Company
RCC Broadcasting Company
RCC Broadcasting Company is a Japanese broadcaster which serves the Hiroshima region.- TV :*Analog** Hiroshima JOER-TV 4CH** Onomichi JOEE-TV 10CH** Fukuyama 7CH** Miyoshi, Kure, Higashihiroshima-Saijo 9CH...

. Radio stations include Hiroshima FM
Hiroshima FM
Hiroshima FM is an FM and Teletext radio station in Hiroshima for around Seto Inland area.The station was found on February 27, 1982 and went on the air on December 5, 1982....

, Chugoku Communication Network
Chugoku Communication Network
Chugoku Communication Network is a Japanese local FM radio station in Naka-ku, Hiroshima.The station was found on May 20, 1987 and went on the air on May 1, 2000....

, FM Fukuyama
FM Fukuyama
FM Fukuyama is a Japanese local FM radio station in Fukuyama.The station was founded on January 9, 1996 and went on the air on August 8, 1996....

, FM Nanami
FM Nanami
Itsukaichi Community Broadcast was a Japanese community FM radio station in Saeki-ku, Hiroshima.The station was founded on November 7, 2003 and went on the air on April 18, 2004....

, and Onomichi FM
Onomichi FM
Onomichi FM is a Japanese community FM radio station in Onomichi, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.The station was founded on April 19, 1999 and went on the air on June 1, 1999....

. Hiroshima is also served by NHK
NHK
NHK is Japan's national public broadcasting organization. NHK, which has always identified itself to its audiences by the English pronunciation of its initials, is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee....

, Japan's public broadcaster, with television and radio broadcasting.

Sports



Hiroshima is home to several professional and non-professional sports teams. Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

 fans immediately recognize the city as the home of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp
Hiroshima Toyo Carp
The are a professional baseball team in Japan's Central League. The team is primarily owned by the Matsuda family, led by , who is a descendant of Mazda founder Jujiro Matsuda. Mazda is the largest single shareholder , which is less than the portion owned by the Matsuda family . Because of that,...

. Six-time champions of Japan's Central League
Central League
The or is one the two professional baseball leagues that constitute Nippon Professional Baseball in Japan. The winner of the league championship plays against the winner of the Pacific League in the annual Japan Series. It currently consists of six teams from around the country,The Central League...

, the team has gone on to win the Japan Series
Japan Series
, or is the annual championship series in Nippon Professional Baseball, the top baseball league in Japan. It is a seven-game series between the winning clubs of the league's two circuits, the Central League and the Pacific League....

 three times. Kohei Matsuda, owner of Toyo Kogyo
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

, was primary owner of the team from the 1970s until his death in 2002. The team is now owned by members of the Matsuda family, while Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 has minority ownership of the team. Hiroshima Municipal Stadium
Hiroshima Municipal Stadium
is a stadium in Hiroshima, Japan. It is primarily used for baseball, and was the home field of the Hiroshima Toyo Carp. It opened in 1957 and holds 31,984 people....

, which was built in 1957, was the home of the Hiroshima Carp from the time it was built until the end of the 2008 season. The stadium is located in central Hiroshima, across from the A-Bomb Dome. The city is building a new baseball stadium near the JR Hiroshima Station, to be ready for the 2009 season. Sanfrecce Hiroshima
Sanfrecce Hiroshima
is a Japanese association football club in the J. League Division 1.-Club name:The club name is a portmanteau of the Japanese numeral for three, San and an Italian word frecce or 'arrows'...

 is the city's professional
J. League
The or is the top division of and is the top professional association football league in Japan. It is one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football and the only league given top class 'A' ranking by the AFC. Currently, J. League Division 1 is the first level of the Japanese...

 football
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 team; they won the Japanese league championship five times in the late 1960s and have remained one of Japan's traditionally strong football clubs. In 1994, the city of Hiroshima hosted the Asian Games
Asian Games
The Asian Games, officially known as Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation from the first Games in New Delhi, India, until the 1978 Games. Since the 1982 Games they have been organised by the...

.
Club Sport League Venue Established
Hiroshima Toyo Carp
Hiroshima Toyo Carp
The are a professional baseball team in Japan's Central League. The team is primarily owned by the Matsuda family, led by , who is a descendant of Mazda founder Jujiro Matsuda. Mazda is the largest single shareholder , which is less than the portion owned by the Matsuda family . Because of that,...

Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

Central League
Central League
The or is one the two professional baseball leagues that constitute Nippon Professional Baseball in Japan. The winner of the league championship plays against the winner of the Pacific League in the annual Japan Series. It currently consists of six teams from around the country,The Central League...

Mazda Stadium 1949
Sanfrecce Hiroshima
Sanfrecce Hiroshima
is a Japanese association football club in the J. League Division 1.-Club name:The club name is a portmanteau of the Japanese numeral for three, San and an Italian word frecce or 'arrows'...

Soccer
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

J. League
J. League
The or is the top division of and is the top professional association football league in Japan. It is one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football and the only league given top class 'A' ranking by the AFC. Currently, J. League Division 1 is the first level of the Japanese...

Hiroshima Big Arch
Hiroshima Big Arch
is a multi-purpose stadium in Hiroshima, Japan. It is the home ground of J. League club Sanfrecce Hiroshima. It has a capacity of 50,000. It is an all-seater.-History:Hiroshima Big Arch was opened in 1992, as the venue of 1992 AFC Asian Cup...

1938
JT Thunders
JT Thunders
JT Thunders is a men's volleyball team based in Hiroshima city, Hiroshima, Japan. It plays in V.Premier League. The owner of the club is Japan Tobacco.-History:...

Volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

V.League
V.League (Japan)
The V.Premier League is the top-level volleyball league for both men and women in Japan. The league started in 1994.The competitions are organized by the Japan Volleyball Association....

Nekota Kinen Taiikukan
Nekoda Memorial Gymnasium
is a gymnasium located in Hiroshima, Japan.-Overview:The gymnasium was built for the great undertaking of Katsutoshi Nekoda, the Japanese volleyball setter in 1989.It is the home gymnasium of JT Thunders, Japanese men's volleyball team in Hiroshima....

1931
Hiroshima Maple Reds
Hiroshima Maple Reds
HIROSHIMA MAPLE REDS is a women's handball team based in Hiroshima, Japan.It plays in Japan Handball League.The club was founded in 1994 and belonged to IZUMI, a supermarket company in Hiroshima...

Handball
Team handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

Japan Handball League
Japan Handball League
The , is the top non-professional handball league in Japan.-Clubs for men:-Clubs for women:...

Hirogin no mori Taiikukan 1994

Education



Hiroshima University
Hiroshima University
, located in the Japanese cities of Higashihiroshima and Hiroshima, was established 1949 by the merger of a number of national educational institutions.-History:Under the National School Establishment Law, Hiroshima University was established on May 31, 1949...

 was established in 1949, as part of a national restructuring of the education system. One national university was set up in each prefecture
Prefecture
A prefecture is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.-Antiquity:...

, including Hiroshima University, which combined eight existing institutions (Hiroshima University of Literature and Science, Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education, Hiroshima Women's School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education for Youth, Hiroshima Higher School, Hiroshima Higher Technical School, and Hiroshima Municipal Higher Technical School), with the Hiroshima Prefectural Medical College added in 1953.

Transportation


Local public transportation in Hiroshima is provided by a Tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 system, operated by Hiroshima Electric Railway called for short. Hiroden also operates bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

es in and around Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region on Honshu island. The capital is the city of Hiroshima.- History :The area around Hiroshima was formerly divided into Bingo Province and Aki Province. This location has been a center of trade and culture since the beginning of Japan's recorded...

. Hiroshima Electric Railway was established on June 18, 1910, in Hiroshima. While many other Japanese cities abandoned the streetcar system by the 1980s, Hiroshima retained it because the construction of a subway system was too expensive for the city to afford, as it is located on a delta. During the 1960s, Hiroshima Electric Railway
Hiroshima Electric Railway
is a Japanese transportation company established on June 18, 1910, that operates streetcars and buses in and around Hiroshima Prefecture. It is known as for short....

, or Hiroden, bought extra trams from other Japanese cities. Although trams in Hiroshima are now being replaced by newer models, most retain their original appearance. Thus, the tram system is sometimes called a "Moving Museum" by railroad buffs. Of the four trams that survived the war, two are still in operation as of July 2006 (Hiroden Numbers 651 and 652). There are seven tram lines
Hiroden Streetcar Lines and Routes
This is a list of lines and routes on the Hiroshima Electric Railway's railway and streetcar systems in and around Hiroshima.-Lines:Currently there are seven streetcar lines.*Main Line*Ujina Line*Eba Line*Hakushima Line...

, many of which terminate at Hiroshima Station
Hiroshima Station
is a JR West railway station located in Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan. Hiroshima Station is the terminal station for several lines, and all Sanyō Shinkansen trains stop here.-History:...

.


The Astram Line
Astram Line
The is a new transit system operated by Hiroshima Rapid Transit in Hiroshima, Japan.-History:*August 8, 1994 - Opened for the 1994 Asian Games in Hiroshima...

 opened for the 1994 Asian Games
1994 Asian Games
The 1994 Asian Games also known as XII Asiad were held from October 2 to October 16, 1994 in Hiroshima, Japan. The main theme of this edition was to promote peace and harmony among Asian nations. It was emphasized by the host because the venue was the site of the first atomic bomb attack in...

 in Hiroshima, with one line from central Hiroshima to Seifu Shinto and Hiroshima Big Arch
Hiroshima Big Arch
is a multi-purpose stadium in Hiroshima, Japan. It is the home ground of J. League club Sanfrecce Hiroshima. It has a capacity of 50,000. It is an all-seater.-History:Hiroshima Big Arch was opened in 1992, as the venue of 1992 AFC Asian Cup...

, the main stadium
Stadium
A modern stadium is a place or venue for outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.)Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event...

 of the Asian Games
Asian Games
The Asian Games, officially known as Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation from the first Games in New Delhi, India, until the 1978 Games. Since the 1982 Games they have been organised by the...

. Astram uses rubber-tyred metro
Rubber-tyred metro
A rubber-tyred metro is a form of rapid transit system that uses a mix of road and rail technology. The vehicles have wheels with rubber tyres which run on rolling pads inside guide bars for traction, as well as traditional railway steel wheels with deep flanges on steel tracks for guidance through...

 cars, and provides service to areas towards the suburbs that are not served by Hiroden streetcars. The Skyrail Midorizaka Line
Skyrail Midorizaka Line
The is a monorail line, or a people mover line, operated by Skyrail Service. The line runs between Midoriguchi and Midori-Chūō, all within the new town called Skyrail Town Midorizaka, Aki, Hiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan. The line is officially called...

 is a monorail
Monorail
A monorail is a rail-based transportation system based on a single rail, which acts as its sole support and its guideway. The term is also used variously to describe the beam of the system, or the vehicles traveling on such a beam or track...

 that operates between Midoriguchi and Midori-Chūō, serving three stops.

The JR West
West Japan Railway Company
, also referred to as , is one of the Japan Railways Group companies and operates in western Honshū. It has its headquarters in Kita-ku, Osaka.-History:...

 Hiroshima Station offers inter-city rail
Inter-city rail
Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains.There is no precise definition of inter-city rail. Its meaning may vary from country to country...

 service, including Sanyō Shinkansen
Sanyō Shinkansen
The is a line of the Japanese Shinkansen high-speed rail network, connecting Shin-Ōsaka in Osaka with Hakata Station in Fukuoka, the two largest cities in western Japan...

 which provides high speed service between Shin-Ōsaka
Shin-Osaka Station
is a train station in Yodogawa-ku, Osaka, Japan. It is the western terminus of the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, and the eastern terminus of the Sanyō Shinkansen. The lines are physically joined, and many trains offer through service....

 and Fukuoka
Fukuoka, Fukuoka
is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture and is situated on the northern shore of the island of Kyushu in Japan.Voted number 14 in a 2010 poll of the World's Most Livable Cities, Fukuoka is praised for its green spaces in a metropolitan setting. It is the most populous city in Kyushu, followed by...

. Sanyō Shinkansen began providing service to Hiroshima in 1975, when the Osaka-Hakata extension opened. Other rail service includes the Sanyō Main Line, Kabe Line
Kabe Line
The is a rail line operated by JR West within the city of Hiroshima, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. It begins at Hiroshima Station and terminates at Kabe Station in Asakita-ku. It is one of the commuter lines to Hiroshima. Prior to December 1, 2003, the line was connected to Sandankyō Station from...

, Geibi Line
Geibi Line
The is a railway line operated by West Japan Railway Company in the mountainous area of the Chūgoku region. It begins at Bitchū Kōjiro Station on the west side of Niimi, Okayama Prefecture, connecting through Miyoshi Station in Miyoshi, Hiroshima Prefecture, and terminating at Hiroshima Station...

, and Kure Line
Kure Line
The is a rail line operated by JR West within Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. It begins at Mihara Station in Mihara and terminates at Kaitaichi Station in Kaita. It's one of the main lines of JR West. The section between Mihara Station to Hiro Station is nicknamed "Setouchi Sazanami Line" as the...

.

Ferries are operated by JR Miyajima Ferry
JR Miyajima Ferry
is the ferry route between Miyajimaguchi, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima and Miyajima .JR Miyajima Ferries are operated by , a wholly owned subsidiary of West Japan Railway Company ....

 and Miyajima Matsudai Kisen
Miyajima Matsudai Kisen
is a Japanese ferry company based in Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima, Japan.Miyajima Matsudai Kisen operates the ferries between Miyajimaguchi, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima and Miyajima...

 to Miyajima
Itsukushima
is an island in the western part of the Inland Sea of Japan, located in the northwest of Hiroshima Bay. It is popularly known as , the Shrine Island. The island is one of . Itsukushima is part of the city of Hatsukaichi in Hiroshima Prefecture...

. Hiroden provides service to Miyajimaguchi Station
Miyajimaguchi Station
Miyajimaguchi Station is a JR station on JR Sanyō Main Line in Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima.From the pier near the station there are ferry services for Miyajima by JR Miyajima Ferry and Miyajima Matsudai Kisen.-Platforms:-JR:█ Sanyō Main Line...

, which is located near the ferry terminal for service to Miyajima. Hiroshima Port is the main passenger ferry terminal for Hiroshima, with service to Etajima
Etajima
Etajima is an island in Hiroshima Bay located in southwestern Hiroshima Prefecture.From the city of Hiroshima the island is about 7km out at sea. The island is about 6km from the city of Kure. It is connected to Kure by two bridges....

, Matsuyama, and other destinations. There is also an international ferry terminal which has service to Busan
Busan
Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

 and Ulsan
Ulsan
Ulsan , officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million. It is located in the south-east of the country, neighboring Busan to the south and facing Gyeongju to the north and the Sea of Japan to the east.Ulsan is the...

 in South Korea, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

, Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

, Qingdao
Qingdao
' also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the...

 and Ningbo
Ningbo
Ningbo is a seaport city of northeastern Zhejiang province, Eastern China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, the municipality has a population of 7,605,700 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 3,089,180 in the built up area made of 6 urban districts. It lies south of the Hangzhou Bay,...

 in China, Keelung
Keelung
Keelung City is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan. It borders New Taipei and forms the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area, along with the Taipei and New Taipei. Nicknamed the Rainy Port for its frequent rain and maritime role, the city is Taiwan's second largest seaport...

 and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung is a city located in southwestern Taiwan, facing the Taiwan Strait on the west. Kaohsiung, officially named Kaohsiung City, is divided into thirty-eight districts. The city is one of five special municipalities of the Republic of China...

 in Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

, as well as Hong Kong.
There is also a boat taxi service that runs along the ota-gawa channels into the city center.

Hiroshima Airport
Hiroshima Airport
is an airport in the city of Mihara, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Located east of Hiroshima, it is the largest airport in the Chūgoku region.-History:...

, located nearby in the city of Mihara
Mihara, Hiroshima
is a city located in Hiroshima, Japan.The city was founded on November 15, 1936.On March 22, 2005 the town of Daiwa, from Kamo District, the town of Kui, from Mitsugi District, and the town of Hongō, from Toyota District, merged with the old city of Mihara to form the new city of Mihara.As of March...

, provides air service within Japan to Tokyo, Sapporo, Okinawa, and Sendai. International air service is provided to Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

, Guam
Guam
Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is one of five U.S. territories with an established civilian government. Guam is listed as one of 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories by the Special Committee on Decolonization of the United...

, Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

, Taipei
Taipei
Taipei City is the capital of the Republic of China and the central city of the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Situated at the northern tip of the island, Taipei is located on the Tamsui River, and is about 25 km southwest of Keelung, its port on the Pacific Ocean...

, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

, Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, and Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

. Commuter air service is also available at Hiroshima-Nishi Airport
Hiroshima-Nishi Airport
is an airport in Nishi Ward, located southwest of Hiroshima City, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.-History:Hiroshima's first airport opened in Naka-ku, Hiroshima in 1940, but was destroyed during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in 1945...

.

Twin towns — Sister cities


Hiroshima has six overseas sister cities:
Honolulu, United States (1959) Volgograd
Volgograd
Volgograd , formerly called Tsaritsyn and Stalingrad is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River...

, Russia (1972) Hannover, Germany (1983) Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

, People's Republic of China (1986) Daegu
Daegu
Daegu , also known as Taegu, and officially the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth largest after Seoul, Busan, and Incheon, and the third largest metropolitan area in the country with over 2.5 million residents. The city is the capital and principal city of the...

, South Korea (1997) Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

, Canada (1998)

Within Japan, Hiroshima has a similar relationship with Nagasaki
Nagasaki
is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village, formerly part of Nishisonogi District...

.

Further reading

  • Pacific War Research Society, Japan's Longest Day (Kodansha, 2002, ISBN 4-7700-2887-3), the internal Japanese account of the surrender and how it was almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Richard B. Frank
    Richard B. Frank
    Richard B. Frank is an American lawyer and military historian.Frank graduated from the University of Missouri in 1969, after which he served four years in the United States Army. During the Vietnam War, he served a tour of duty as a platoon leader in the 101st Airborne Division...

    , Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0-14-100146-1)
  • Robert Jungk
    Robert Jungk
    Robert Jungk , also known as Robert Baum and Robert Baum-Jungk, was an Austrian writer and journalist who wrote mostly on issues relating to nuclear weapons....

    , Children of the Ashes, 1st Eng. ed. 1961
  • Gar Alperovitz
    Gar Alperovitz
    Gar Alperovitz is Lionel R. Bauman Professor of Political Economy at the University of Maryland, College Park Department of Government and Politics. He is a former Fellow of King's College, Cambridge; a founding Fellow of Harvard’s Institute of Politics; a Fellow at the Institute for Policy...

    , The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, ISBN 0-679-76285-X
  • John Hersey
    John Hersey
    John Richard Hersey was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American writer and journalist considered one of the earliest practitioners of the so-called New Journalism, in which storytelling devices of the novel are fused with non-fiction reportage...

    , Hiroshima, ISBN 0-679-72103-7
  • Michihiko Hachiya
    Michihiko Hachiya
    was a Japanese medical practitioner who survived the Hiroshima bombing in 1945 and kept a diary of his experience. He was Director of the Hiroshima Communications Hospital and lived near the hospital, about a mile from the explosion's centre...

    , Hiroshima Diary: The Journal of a Japanese Physician, August 6 - September 30, 1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press
    University of North Carolina Press
    The University of North Carolina Press , founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina....

    , 1955), since reprinted.
  • Masuji Ibuse
    Masuji Ibuse
    was a Japanese author.-Life and work:Ibuse was born in 1898 to a landowning family in the village of Kamo which is now part of Fukuyama, Hiroshima.At the age of 19 he started studying at Waseda University in Tokyo...

    , Black Rain, ISBN 0-87011-364-X
  • Hara Tamiki
    Hara Tamiki
    was a Japanese author and survivor of the bombing of Hiroshima, known for his works of Atomic bomb literature.-Biography:Hara was born in Hiroshima in 1905. Hara was a survivor of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. While he was a middle school student, Hara became familiar with Russian literature,...

    , Summer Flowers ISBN 0-691-00837-X
  • Robert Jay Lifton
    Robert Jay Lifton
    Robert Jay Lifton is an American psychiatrist and author, chiefly known for his studies of the psychological causes and effects of war and political violence and for his theory of thought reform...

     Death in life: The survivors of Hiroshima, Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1st edition (1968) ISBN 0297764667

See also


  • Barefoot Gen
    Barefoot Gen
    is a Japanese manga series by Keiji Nakazawa. Loosely based on Nakazawa's own experiences as a Hiroshima survivor, the series begins in 1945 in and around Hiroshima, Japan, where the six-year-old boy Gen lives with his family...

  • Kokura
    Kokura
    is an ancient castle town and the center of Kitakyūshū, Japan, guarding, via its suburb Moji, the Straits of Shimonoseki between Honshū and Kyūshū. Kokura is also the name of the penultimate station on the southbound Sanyo Shinkansen line, which is owned by JR Kyūshū and an important part of the...

  • Masaharu Morimoto
    Masaharu Morimoto
    is a well-known Japanese chef, best known as the third Iron Chef on the Japanese TV cooking show Iron Chef, and an Iron Chef on its spinoff, Iron Chef America. He is also known for his unique style of presenting food....

    , celebrity chef born and raised in Hiroshima and perhaps the city's most famous former resident by way of the popular show Iron Chef
    Iron Chef
    is a Japanese television cooking show produced by Fuji Television. The series, which premiered on October 10, 1992, is a stylized cook-off featuring guest chefs challenging one of the show's resident "Iron Chefs" in a timed cooking battle built around a specific theme ingredient. The series ended...

  • Nagasaki
    Nagasaki
    is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village, formerly part of Nishisonogi District...

  • Yōko Ōta
    Yōko Ōta
    was a Japanese author of Atomic bomb literature.-Biography:Ōta was born as Fukuda, Hatsuko in Hiroshima city, her parents divorced when she was eight and she moved to live with the Fukuda family. As a young girl she read Takuboku Ishikawa and Shusei Tokuda, as well as Goethe and Heine. She also...

    , author of several works of Atomic Bomb Literature
    Atomic bomb literature
    is a literary genre in Japanese literature used to describe writing about the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This can include diaries, testimonial or documentary accounts, poetry, drama or fictional works based around the bombings....

  • Perfume
    Perfume (group)
    Perfume is a Japanese all-girl trio from Hiroshima, Japan, consisting of Ayano Ōmoto, Yuka Kashino, and Ayaka Nishiwaki. They debuted locally in 2001 and made their transition to a major label in 2005, focusing more on electropop...

    , a pop group from Hiroshima
  • Sadako Kurihara
    Sadako Kurihara
    was a Japanese poet who lived in Hiroshima and survived the atomic bombing during World War II. She is best known for her poem Umashimenkana .-Biography:...

  • Sadako Sasaki
    Sadako Sasaki
    was a Japanese girl who was two years old when the atomic bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945, near her home by Misasa Bridge in Hiroshima, Japan. Sadako is remembered through the story of attempting to fold a thousand origami cranes before her death, a wish which was memorialized in popular...

     (1943–1955)
  • Town of Evening Calm, Country of Cherry Blossoms
    Town of Evening Calm, Country of Cherry Blossoms
    is a one-volume manga written and illustrated by Fumiyo Kōno. The two connected stories were first published in Japan by Futabasha in Weekly Manga Action in 2003 and 2004, then collected in a single tankōbon volume in 2004. The stories about a family of survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima...

  • Yoshito Matsushige
    Yoshito Matsushige
    was a Japanese photojournalist who survived the dropping of the atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 and took five photographs on the day of the bombing in Hiroshima, the only photographs taken that day within Hiroshima that are known....


External links