Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company

Overview
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational
Multinational corporation
A multi national corporation or enterprise , is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation...

 automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan
Dearborn, Michigan
-Economy:Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn. In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses such as the...

, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford
Henry Ford
Henry Ford was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry...

 and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln
Lincoln (automobile)
Lincoln is an American luxury vehicle brand of the Ford Motor Company. Lincoln vehicles are sold mostly in North America.-History:The company was founded in August 1915 by Henry M. Leland, one of the founders of Cadillac . During World War I, he left Cadillac which was sold to General Motors...

 brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 in Japan and Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars, based in Gaydon, Warwickshire. The company name is derived from the name of one of the company's founders, Lionel Martin, and from the Aston Hill speed hillclimb near Aston Clinton in Buckinghamshire...

 in the UK. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover
Land Rover
Land Rover is a British car manufacturer with its headquarters in Gaydon, Warwickshire, United Kingdom which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles. It is owned by the Indian company Tata Motors, forming part of their Jaguar Land Rover group...

 were sold to Tata Motors
Tata Motors
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO...

 of India in March 2008.
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Encyclopedia
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational
Multinational corporation
A multi national corporation or enterprise , is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation...

 automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan
Dearborn, Michigan
-Economy:Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn. In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses such as the...

, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford
Henry Ford
Henry Ford was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry...

 and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln
Lincoln (automobile)
Lincoln is an American luxury vehicle brand of the Ford Motor Company. Lincoln vehicles are sold mostly in North America.-History:The company was founded in August 1915 by Henry M. Leland, one of the founders of Cadillac . During World War I, he left Cadillac which was sold to General Motors...

 brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 in Japan and Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars, based in Gaydon, Warwickshire. The company name is derived from the name of one of the company's founders, Lionel Martin, and from the Aston Hill speed hillclimb near Aston Clinton in Buckinghamshire...

 in the UK. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover
Land Rover
Land Rover is a British car manufacturer with its headquarters in Gaydon, Warwickshire, United Kingdom which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles. It is owned by the Indian company Tata Motors, forming part of their Jaguar Land Rover group...

 were sold to Tata Motors
Tata Motors
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO...

 of India in March 2008. In 2010 Ford sold Volvo
Volvo Cars
Volvo Car Corporation, or Volvo Personvagnar AB, is a Swedish automobile manufacturer founded in 1927, in Gothenburg, Sweden. It is owned by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Volvo was originally formed as a subsidiary company to the ball bearing maker SKF. When Volvo AB was introduced on the Swedish...

 to Geely Automobile
Geely Automobile
Zhejiang Geely Holding Group is a holding company and parent of Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd a private automobile manufacturer. Geely may often round out the top ten Chinese automakers....

. Ford discontinued the Mercury
Mercury (automobile)
Mercury was an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company launched in 1938 by Edsel Ford, son of Henry Ford, to market entry-level luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors' Buick brand, and Chrysler's namesake brand...

 brand after the 2011 model year.

Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly line
Assembly line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods...

s. Henry Ford
Henry Ford
Henry Ford was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry...

's methods came to be known around the world as Fordism
Fordism
Fordism, named after Henry Ford, is a modern economic and social system based on industrial mass production. The concept is used in various social theories about production and related socio-economic phenomena. It has varying but related meanings in different fields, as well as for Marxist and...

 by 1914.

Ford is the second largest automaker in the U.S. and the fifth-largest in the world based on annual vehicle sales in 2010. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe. Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks the top 500 U.S. closely held and public corporations as ranked by their gross revenue after adjustments made by Fortune to exclude the impact of excise taxes companies collect. The list includes publicly and...

 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. During the automotive crisis, Ford's worldwide unit volume dropped to 4.817 million in 2009. In 2010, Ford earned a net profit of $6.6 billion and reduced its debt from $33.6 billion to $14.5 billion lowering interest payments by $1 billion following its 2009 net profit of $2.7 billion. Starting in 2007, Ford received more initial quality survey awards from J. D. Power and Associates than any other automaker. Five of Ford's vehicles ranked at the top of their categories and fourteen vehicles ranked in the top three.

Corporate governance



Members of the board as of early 2011 are: Richard A. Gephardt, Stephen Butler, Ellen Marram, Kimberly Casiano
Kimberly Casiano
Kimberly Casiano is a Puerto Rican businesswoman. She is President and Chief Operating Officer of Casiano Communications — the largest Hispanic publisher of periodicals and magazines in the United States...

, Alan Mulally
Alan Mulally
Alan Roger Mulally is an American engineer and business executive who is currently the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Ford Motor Company...

 (President and CEO), Edsel Ford II
Edsel Ford II
Edsel Bryant Ford II is the great-grandson of Henry Ford and the son of Henry Ford II. He is currently a member of the board of directors of Ford Motor Company.-Education:...

, Homer Neal, William Clay Ford Jr. (Executive Chairman), Jorma Ollila
Jorma Ollila
Jorma Jaakko Ollila is the Chairman and former CEO of the Nokia Corporation and a Member of the Board of Directors of Ford Motor Company , UPM-Kymmene , and Otava Books and Magazines Group Ltd...

, Irvine Hockaday Jr., John L. Thornton
John L. Thornton
John Lawson Thornton is Professor and Director of Global Leadership at Tsinghua University in Beijing. He is a former President and Co-COO of Goldman Sachs. In 1983, Thornton founded and developed Goldman Sachs' European mergers and acquisitions business. He served as co-CEO of Goldman Sachs...

, and William Clay Ford, Sr.
William Clay Ford, Sr.
William Clay Ford, Sr. is the youngest of the four children of Edsel Ford and the youngest grandchild of Henry Ford.-Biography:...

 (Director Emeritus).

The main corporate officers are: Lewis Booth
Lewis Booth
Lewis Booth is Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Ford Motor Company, a position he has held since November 1, 2008. He has responsibility for the company’s financial operations, including the Controller’s Office, Treasury and Investor Relations...

 (Executive Vice President, Chairman (PAG
Premier Automotive Group
The Premier Automotive Group , was a group within the Ford Motor Company which was formed in 1999 to oversee the business operations of Ford's high-end automotive marques....

) and Ford of Europe), Mark Fields
Mark Fields (businessman)
Mark Fields is Executive Vice President, Ford Motor Company; President, The Americas and an executive of the Ford Motor Company. As head of the Americas division, Fields was tapped to develop Ford's "The Way Forward" plan, an effort to repair the ailing automaker. He reports to Alan Mulally, the...

 (Executive Vice President, President of The Americas), Donat Leclair
Donat Leclair
Donat Leclair, usually called "Don", was the chief financial officer and executive vice president of Ford Motor Company. He held the position from August 2003 until mid-2008, resigning voluntarily and being replaced by Lewis Booth.-External links:...

 (Executive Vice President and CFO), Mark A. Schulz (Executive Vice President, President of International Operations), and Michael E. Bannister (Group Vice President; Chairman & CEO Ford Motor Credit). Paul Mascarenas (Vice President of Engineering, The Americas Product Development)

Market developments


During the mid to late 1990s, Ford sold large numbers of vehicles, in a booming American economy with soaring stock market and low fuel prices. With the dawn of the new century, legacy healthcare costs, higher fuel prices, and a faltering economy led to falling market shares, declining sales, and sliding profit margins. Most of the corporate profits came from financing consumer automobile loans through Ford Motor Credit Company
Ford Motor Credit Company
Ford Motor Credit Company is the financial services arm of Ford Motor Company, and is headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan.Its business activities are concentrated primarily in the area of automobile loans in support of its parent company...

.

By 2005, corporate bond rating agencies had downgraded the bonds of both Ford and GM
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 to junk status, citing high U.S. health care costs for an aging workforce, soaring gasoline prices, eroding market share, and dependence on declining SUV
Sport utility vehicle
A sport utility vehicle is a generic marketing term for a vehicle similar to a station wagon, but built on a light-truck chassis. It is usually equipped with four-wheel drive for on- or off-road ability, and with some pretension or ability to be used as an off-road vehicle. Not all four-wheel...

 sales for revenues. Profit margins decreased on large vehicles due to increased "incentives" (in the form of rebates or low interest financing) to offset declining demand.

In the face of demand for higher fuel efficiency and falling sales of minivans, Ford moved to introduce a range of new vehicles, including "Crossover SUV
Crossover SUV
A crossover SUV is a vehicle built on a car platform and combining, in highly variable degrees, features of a sport utility vehicle with features from a passenger vehicle, especially those of a station wagon or hatchback.Using the unibody construction typical of passenger vehicles, the crossover...

s" built on unibody car platforms, rather than more body-on-frame
Body-on-frame
Body-on-frame is an automobile construction method. Mounting a separate body to a rigid frame that supports the drivetrain was the original method of building automobiles, and its use continues to this day. The original frames were made of wood , but steel ladder frames became common in the 1930s...

 chassis. In developing the hybrid electric powertrain technologies for the Ford Escape Hybrid SUV, Ford licensed similar Toyota hybrid technologies to avoid patent infringements. Ford announced that it will team up with electricity supply company Southern California Edison
Southern California Edison
Southern California Edison , the largest subsidiary of Edison International , is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California, USA. It provides 14 million people with electricity...

 (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility's electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated "in typical customer settings", according to Ford.

In December 2006, the company raised its borrowing capacity to about $25 billion, placing substantially all corporate assets as collateral to secure the line of credit. Chairman Bill Ford has stated that "bankruptcy is not an option". In order to control its skyrocketing labor costs (the most expensive in the world), the company and the United Auto Workers
United Auto Workers
The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, better known as the United Auto Workers , is a labor union which represents workers in the United States and Puerto Rico, and formerly in Canada. Founded as part of the Congress of Industrial...

, representing approximately 46,000 hourly workers in North America, agreed to a historic contract settlement in November 2007 giving the company a substantial break in terms of its ongoing retiree health care costs and other economic issues. The agreement includes the establishment of a company-funded, independently run Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association
Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association
A voluntary employees' beneficiary association is a form of trust fund permitted under American tax law whose sole purpose must be to provide employee benefits...

 (VEBA) trust to shift the burden of retiree health care from the company's books, thereby improving its balance sheet. This arrangement took effect on January 1, 2010. As a sign of its currently strong cash position, Ford contributed its entire current liability (estimated at approximately US$5.5 Billion as of December 31, 2009) to the VEBA in cash, and also pre-paid US$500 Million of its future liabilities to the fund. The agreement also gives hourly workers the job security they were seeking by having the company commit to substantial investments in most of its factories.

The automaker reported the largest annual loss in company history in 2006 of $12.7 billion, and estimated that it would not return to profitability until 2009. However, Ford surprised Wall Street
Wall Street
Wall Street refers to the financial district of New York City, named after and centered on the eight-block-long street running from Broadway to South Street on the East River in Lower Manhattan. Over time, the term has become a metonym for the financial markets of the United States as a whole, or...

 in the second quarter of 2007 by posting a $750 million profit. Despite the gains, the company finished the year with a $2.7 billion loss, largely attributed to finance restructuring at Volvo
Volvo Cars
Volvo Car Corporation, or Volvo Personvagnar AB, is a Swedish automobile manufacturer founded in 1927, in Gothenburg, Sweden. It is owned by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Volvo was originally formed as a subsidiary company to the ball bearing maker SKF. When Volvo AB was introduced on the Swedish...

.

On June 2, 2008, Ford sold its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors
Tata Motors
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO...

 for $2.3 billion.

In January 2008, Ford launched a website listing the ten Built Ford Tough rules as well as a series of webisodes that parodied the TV show COPS
COPS (TV series)
Cops is an American documentary/reality television series that follows police officers, constables, and sheriff's deputies during patrols and other police activities...

.

During November 2008, Ford, together with Chrysler and General Motors, sought financial aid at Congressional hearings in Washington, D.C. in the face of worsening conditions caused by the automotive industry crisis. The three companies presented action plans for the sustainability of the industry. The Detroit based automakers were unsuccessful at obtaining assistance through Congressional legislation. GM and Chrysler later received assistance through the Executive Branch from the T.A.R.P. funding provisions. On December 19, the cost of credit default swap
Credit default swap
A credit default swap is similar to a traditional insurance policy, in as much as it obliges the seller of the CDS to compensate the buyer in the event of loan default...

s to insure the debt of Ford was 68 percent the sum insured for five years in addition to annual payments of 5 percent. That means it costs $6.8 million paid upfront to insure $10 million in debt, in addition to payments of $500,000 per year. In January 2009, Ford announced a $14.6 billion loss in the preceding year, making 2008 its worst year in history. Still, the company claimed to have sufficient liquidity to fund its business plans and thus, did not ask for government aid. Through April 2009, Ford's strategy of debt for equity exchanges, erased $9.9 B in liabilities (28% of its total), in order to leverage its cash position. These actions yielded Ford a $2.7 billion profit in fiscal year 2009, the company's first full-year profit in four years.

"The Way Forward"



In the latter half of 2005, Chairman Bill Ford asked newly appointed Ford Americas Division President Mark Fields
Mark Fields (businessman)
Mark Fields is Executive Vice President, Ford Motor Company; President, The Americas and an executive of the Ford Motor Company. As head of the Americas division, Fields was tapped to develop Ford's "The Way Forward" plan, an effort to repair the ailing automaker. He reports to Alan Mulally, the...

 to develop a plan to return the company to profitability. Fields previewed the Plan, dubbed The Way Forward, at the December 7, 2005 board meeting of the company; and it was unveiled to the public on January 23, 2006. "The Way Forward" includes resizing the company to match current market realities, dropping some unprofitable and inefficient models, consolidating production lines, and shutting fourteen factories and cutting 30,000 jobs. These cutbacks are consistent with Ford's roughly 25% decline in U.S. automotive market share since the mid-late 1990s.

In 2010, Ford earned a net profit of $6.6 billion and reduced its debt from $33.6 billion to $14.5 billion lowering interest payments by $1 billion following its 2009 net profit of $2.7 billion. In the U.S., the F-Series is the best selling vehicle for 2010. Ford sold 528,349 F-Series trucks during the year, a 27.7% increase over 2009, out of a total sales of 1.9 million vehicles, or every one out of four vehicles Ford sold. Trucks sales accounts for a big slice of Ford's profits, according to USA Today.
Ford's realignment also includes the sale of its wholly owned subsidiary, Hertz Rent-a-Car
The Hertz Corporation
Hertz Global Holdings Inc is an American car rental company with international locations in 145 countries worldwide.-Early years:The company was founded by Walter L. Jacobs in 1918, who started a car rental operation in Chicago with a dozen Model T Ford cars. In 1923, Jacobs sold it to John D...

 to a private equity
Private equity
Private equity, in finance, is an asset class consisting of equity securities in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange....

 group for $15 billion in cash and debt acquisition. The sale was completed on December 22, 2005. A 50–50 joint venture with Mahindra & Mahindra Limited
Mahindra & Mahindra Limited
Mahindra & Mahindra Limited is the flagship company of the Mahindra Group, a multinational conglomerate based in Mumbai, India. The company was set up in 1945 in Ludhiana as Mahindra & Mohammed by brothers K.C. Mahindra and J.C. Mahindra and Malik Ghulam Mohammed...

 of India, called Mahindra Ford India, Limited (MIFL), ended with Ford buying out Mahindra's remaining stake in the company in 2005. Ford had previously upped its stake to 72% in 1998.

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Ford also became President of the company in April 2006, with the retirement of Jim Padilla
Jim Padilla
James "Jim" Padilla is an American automobile industry executive. He was born in Detroit, Michigan, attending the University of Detroit and earning bachelor's and master's degrees in chemical engineering and a master's degree in economics. He is also a Distinguished Eagle Scout.Padilla joined the...

. Five months later, in September, he stepped down as President and CEO, and naming Alan Mulally
Alan Mulally
Alan Roger Mulally is an American engineer and business executive who is currently the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Ford Motor Company...

 as his successor. Bill Ford continues as Executive Chairman, along with an executive operating committee made up of Mulally, Mark Schulz, Lewis Booth
Lewis Booth
Lewis Booth is Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Ford Motor Company, a position he has held since November 1, 2008. He has responsibility for the company’s financial operations, including the Controller’s Office, Treasury and Investor Relations...

, Don Leclair, and Mark Fields
Mark Fields (businessman)
Mark Fields is Executive Vice President, Ford Motor Company; President, The Americas and an executive of the Ford Motor Company. As head of the Americas division, Fields was tapped to develop Ford's "The Way Forward" plan, an effort to repair the ailing automaker. He reports to Alan Mulally, the...

.

The domain ford.com attracted at least 11 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com
Compete.com
Compete.com is a web traffic analysis service of Compete, Inc. which operates in the United States and publishes the approximate number of global visitors to the top 1,000,000 web sites in the world...

 survey.

Brands


Ford Motor Company manufactures automobiles under its own name and as Lincoln
Lincoln (automobile)
Lincoln is an American luxury vehicle brand of the Ford Motor Company. Lincoln vehicles are sold mostly in North America.-History:The company was founded in August 1915 by Henry M. Leland, one of the founders of Cadillac . During World War I, he left Cadillac which was sold to General Motors...

 in the United States. In 1958, Ford introduced a new brand, the Edsel
Edsel
The Edsel was an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company during the 1958, 1959, and 1960 model years. The Edsel never gained popularity with contemporary American car buyers and sold poorly. Consequently, the Ford Motor Company lost millions of dollars on the Edsel's development,...

, but poor sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. In 1985, the Merkur
Merkur
Merkur , Mercury) was an automobile brand which was briefly marketed by Ford Motor Company in the United States and Canada from 1985 to 1989...

 brand was introduced to market Fords from Europe in the United States; it met a similar fate in 1989. The Mercury
Mercury (automobile)
Mercury was an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company launched in 1938 by Edsel Ford, son of Henry Ford, to market entry-level luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors' Buick brand, and Chrysler's namesake brand...

 brand was also introduced by Ford in 1939 but poor sales also led to its discontinuation in 2011.

Ford has major manufacturing operations in Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, the People's Republic of China, and several other countries, including South Africa where, following divestment during apartheid, it once again has a wholly owned subsidiary. Ford also has a cooperative agreement with Russian automaker GAZ
GAZ
GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod , translated as Gorky Automobile Plant , started in 1932 as NAZ, a cooperation between Ford and the Soviet Union. It is one of the largest companies in the Russian automotive industry....

.

Ford acquired British sports car maker Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars, based in Gaydon, Warwickshire. The company name is derived from the name of one of the company's founders, Lionel Martin, and from the Aston Hill speed hillclimb near Aston Clinton in Buckinghamshire...

 in 1989, but sold it on March 12, 2007, retaining a small minority stake, and bought Volvo Cars
Volvo Cars
Volvo Car Corporation, or Volvo Personvagnar AB, is a Swedish automobile manufacturer founded in 1927, in Gothenburg, Sweden. It is owned by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Volvo was originally formed as a subsidiary company to the ball bearing maker SKF. When Volvo AB was introduced on the Swedish...

 of Sweden in 1999, selling it to Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2010. In November 2008 it reduced its 33.4% controlling interest
Controlling interest
Controlling interest in a corporation means to have control of a large enough block of voting stock shares in a company such that no one stock holder or coalition of stock holders can successfully oppose a motion...

 in Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 of Japan, to a 13.4% non-controlling interest. On November 18, 2010, Ford reduced their stake further to just 3%, citing the reduction of ownership would allow greater flexibility to pursue growth in emerging markets. Ford and Mazda remain strategic partners through joint ventures and exchanges of technological information.
It shares an American joint venture plant in Flat Rock, Michigan called Auto Alliance with Mazda. It has spun off its parts division under the name Visteon
Visteon
Visteon is one of the world's largest suppliers of automotive parts. The company formed in 1997 and spun off from the Ford Motor Company in 2000. In 2005, Visteon moved to new headquarters in Van Buren Township, Michigan...

.

Ford sold the United Kingdom-based Jaguar and Land Rover
Land Rover
Land Rover is a British car manufacturer with its headquarters in Gaydon, Warwickshire, United Kingdom which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles. It is owned by the Indian company Tata Motors, forming part of their Jaguar Land Rover group...

 companies and brands to Tata Motors
Tata Motors
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO...

 of India in March 2008.

Ford's FoMoCo parts division sells aftermarket parts under the Motorcraft
Motorcraft
Motorcraft is an auto parts brand of Ford Motor Company.-History:The Ford Motor Company launched this auto parts division in 1972 to provide replacement parts and original equipment parts. This brand replaced Autolite as Ford's official parts brand. Autolite is still a brand name in use today, but...

 brand name.

Ford's non-manufacturing operations include organizations such as automotive finance operation Ford Motor Credit Company
Ford Motor Credit Company
Ford Motor Credit Company is the financial services arm of Ford Motor Company, and is headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan.Its business activities are concentrated primarily in the area of automobile loans in support of its parent company...

. Ford also sponsors numerous events and sports facilities around the US, most notably Ford Center (now Chesapeake Energy Arena) in downtown Oklahoma City
Oklahoma city
Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.Oklahoma City may also refer to:*Oklahoma City metropolitan area*Downtown Oklahoma City*Uptown Oklahoma City*Oklahoma City bombing*Oklahoma City National Memorial...

 and Ford Field
Ford Field
Ford Field is an indoor American football stadium located in Detroit, Michigan, USA, that is the current home field of the NFL's Detroit Lions. It is owned by the Detroit/Wayne County Stadium Authority. It regularly seats 65,000, though it is expandable up to 70,000 for football and 80,000 for...

 in downtown Detroit.

Overall the Ford Motor Company controls the Ford and Lincoln
Lincoln (automobile)
Lincoln is an American luxury vehicle brand of the Ford Motor Company. Lincoln vehicles are sold mostly in North America.-History:The company was founded in August 1915 by Henry M. Leland, one of the founders of Cadillac . During World War I, he left Cadillac which was sold to General Motors...

 car brands.
Brands Years Used Markets
  Ford  1903–present Global
  Lincoln
Lincoln (automobile)
Lincoln is an American luxury vehicle brand of the Ford Motor Company. Lincoln vehicles are sold mostly in North America.-History:The company was founded in August 1915 by Henry M. Leland, one of the founders of Cadillac . During World War I, he left Cadillac which was sold to General Motors...

 
1922–present North America, Middle East
  Mercury
Mercury (automobile)
Mercury was an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company launched in 1938 by Edsel Ford, son of Henry Ford, to market entry-level luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors' Buick brand, and Chrysler's namesake brand...

 
1939–2011 North America

Global markets


Initially, Ford Motor Company models sold outside the U.S. were essentially versions of those sold on the home market, but later on, models specific to Europe were developed and sold. Attempts to globalize the model line have often failed, with Europe's Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

 selling poorly in the United States as the Ford Contour
Ford Contour
The Ford Contour, and its rebadged variant, the Mercury Mystique, were compact 4-door sedans marketed from model years 1995-2000 by Ford Motor Company in North America...

, while U.S. models such as the Ford Taurus
Ford Taurus
The Ford Taurus is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in the United States. Originally introduced in the 1986 model year, it has remained in near-continuous production for more than two decades, making it the fourth oldest nameplate that is currently sold in the North American...

 have fared poorly in Japan and Australia, even when produced in right hand drive. The small European model Ka
Ford Ka
The Ford Ka is a city car from the Ford Motor Company marketed in Europe and elsewhere.The current European version is produced by Fiat Auto in Tychy, Poland, while the model sold in Latin America is built in Brazil and Argentina....

, a hit in its home market, did not catch on in Japan, as it was not available as an automatic. The Mondeo was dropped by Ford Australia
Ford Australia
Ford Australia is the Australian subsidiary of Ford Motor Company and was founded in Geelong, Victoria, in 1925 as an outpost of Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited. At that time, Ford Canada was a separate company from Ford USA...

, because the segment of the market in which it competes had been in steady decline, with buyers preferring the larger local model, the Falcon
Ford Falcon (Australia)
The Ford Falcon is a full-size car which has been manufactured by Ford Australia since 1960. Each model from the XA series of 1972 onward has been designed, developed and built in Australia and/or New Zealand, following the phasing out of the American Falcon of 1960–71 which had been re-engineered...

. One recent exception is the European model of the Focus, which has sold strongly on both sides of the Atlantic.

North America

Calendar Year American sales
1999 4,163,369
2000 4,202,820
2001 3,971,364
2002 3,623,709
2003 3,483,719
2004 3,331,676
2005 3,153,875
2006 2,901,090
2007 2,507,366
2008 1,988,376
2009 1,620,888
2010 1,935,462


In the first five months of 2010, auto sales in the U.S. rose to 4.6 million cars and light trucks, an increase of 17% from a year earlier. The rise was mainly caused by the return of commercial customers that had all but stopped buying in 2009 during the recession. Sales to individual customers at dealerships have increased 13%, while fleet sales have jumped 32%. Ford reported that 37% of its sales in May came from fleet sales when it announced its sales for the month increased 23%. In the first seven months of 2010, vehicle sales of Ford increased 24%, including retail and fleet sales. Fleet sales of Ford for the same period rose 35% to 386,000 units while retail sales increase 19%. Fleet sales account for 39 percent of Chrysler's sales and 31 percent for GM's.

Europe



At first, Ford in Germany
Ford Germany
-Ford Motor Co. AG:Until 27 January 1950 all Ford's European operations other than in the USSR were run from Dagenham and owned by Ford Motor Company Limited, Dearborn's 55% owned subsidiary...

 and Ford in Britain
Ford of Britain
Ford of Britain is a British wholly owned subsidiary of Ford of Europe, a subsidiary of Ford Motor Company. Its business started in 1909 and has its registered office in Brentwood, Essex...

 built different models from one another until the late 1960s, with the Ford Escort and then the Ford Capri
Ford Capri
Ford Capri was a name used by the Ford Motor Company for three different automobile models. The Ford Consul Capri coupé was produced by Ford of Britain between 1961 and 1964. The Ford Capri coupé was produced by Ford of Europe from 1969 to 1986...

 being common to both companies. Later on, the Ford Taunus
Ford Taunus
The Ford Taunus is a family car sold by Ford in Germany and other countries. Models from 1970 onward were similar to the Ford Cortina in the United Kingdom...

 and Ford Cortina
Ford Cortina
As the 1960s dawned, BMC were revelling in the success of their new Mini – the first successful true minicar to be built in Britain in the postwar era...

 became identical, produced in left hand drive and right hand drive respectively. Rationalisation of model ranges meant that production of many models in the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, including Belgium and Spain as well as Germany. The Ford Sierra
Ford Sierra
The Ford Sierra is a large family car that was built by Ford Europe from 1982 until 1993. It was designed by Uwe Bahnsen, Robert Lutz and Patrick le Quément. The code used during development was "Project Toni"....

 replaced the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was soon given nicknames such as "Jellymould" and "The Salesman's Spaceship."

Increasingly, the Ford Motor Company has looked to Ford of Europe
Ford Europe
-History:Ford of Europe was founded in 1967 on the merger of the British and German divisions of the Ford Motor Company. The original Ford Transit range of panel vans launched in 1965, was the first formal co-operation between the two entities, simultaneously developed to replace the German Ford...

 for its "world cars", such as the Mondeo, Focus, and Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
The Ford Fiesta is a front wheel drive supermini/subcompact manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company and built in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, China, India, Thailand and South Africa...

, although sales of European-sourced Fords in the U.S. have been disappointing. The Focus has been one exception to this, which has become America's best selling compact car since its launch in 2000.

In February 2002, Ford ended car production in the UK. It was the first time in 90 years that Ford cars had not been made in Britain, although production of the Transit
Ford Transit
The Ford Transit is a range of panel vans, minibuses, and pickup trucks, produced by the Ford Motor Company in Europe.The Transit has been the best-selling light commercial vehicle in Europe for 40 years, and in some countries the term "Transit" has passed into common usage as a generic term...

 van continues at the company's Southampton
Southampton
Southampton is the largest city in the county of Hampshire on the south coast of England, and is situated south-west of London and north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is a major port and the closest city to the New Forest...

 facility, engines at Bridgend
Bridgend
Bridgend is a town in the Bridgend County Borough in Wales, west of the capital, Cardiff. The river crossed by the original bridge, which gave the town its name, is the River Ogmore but the River Ewenny also passes to the south of the town...

 and Dagenham, and transmissions at Halewood
Halewood
Halewood is in Merseyside, England and is located in the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley. The district lies near Liverpool's southeastern boundary, bordered by the suburbs of Hunts Cross and Woolton....

. Development of European Ford is broadly split between Dunton
Dunton Wayletts
Dunton Wayletts is a hamlet in the Basildon district of Essex, England. It is located alongside the A127....

 in Essex (powertrain, Fiesta/Ka, and commercial vehicles) and Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 (body, chassis, electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany. Ford also produced the Thames
Thames Trader
The Thames Trader was a range of trucks manufactured by the British arm of the Ford Motor Company built between 1957 and 1965.-Design:The distinctive cab design, which sets it apart from other British commercial vehicles, was a forward-control design and the Thames Trader model covered a much...

 range of commercial vehicles, although the use of this brand name was discontinued circa 1965.
Elsewhere in continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

 range in Genk
Genk
Genk is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg near Hasselt. The municipality only comprises the city of Genk itself...

 (Belgium), Fiesta in Valencia
Valencia (city in Spain)
Valencia or València is the capital and most populous city of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain, with a population of 809,267 in 2010. It is the 15th-most populous municipality in the European Union...

 (Spain) and Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 (Germany), Ka in Valencia, and Focus in Valencia, Saarlouis
Saarlouis
Saarlouis is a city in the Saarland, Germany, capital of the district of Saarlouis. In 2006, the town had a population of 38,327. Saarlouis, as the name implies, is located at the river Saar....

 (Germany) and Vsevolozhsk
Vsevolozhsk
Vsevolozhsk is a town and the administrative center of Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus east of St. Petersburg. Population: The town's name came from manufacturer Vsevolozhsky...

 (Russia). Transit production is in Kocaeli
Izmit
İzmit is a city in Turkey, administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as the Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 294.875...

 (Turkey), Southampton
Southampton
Southampton is the largest city in the county of Hampshire on the south coast of England, and is situated south-west of London and north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is a major port and the closest city to the New Forest...

 (UK), and Transit Connect in Kocaeli
Izmit
İzmit is a city in Turkey, administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as the Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 294.875...

.

Ford also owns a joint-venture production plant in Turkey. Ford-Otosan
Otosan
Otosan is a Turkish automotive production company, which is a joint venture between Ford Motor Company and Koç Holding...

, established in the 1970s, manufactures the Transit Connect
Ford Transit Connect
The Ford Transit Connect is a compact panel van developed by Ford Europe and designed by Peter Horbury, introduced in 2002 to replace the older Ford Escort and Fiesta-based Courier van ranges, which had ceased production in the same year....

 compact panel van as well as the "Jumbo" and long-wheelbase versions of the full-size Transit. This new production facility was set up near Kocaeli
Izmit
İzmit is a city in Turkey, administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as the Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit in the Sea of Marmara, about east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 294.875...

 in 2002, and its opening marked the end of Transit assembly in Genk.

Another joint venture plant near Setúbal
Setúbal
Setúbal is the main city in Setúbal Municipality in Portugal with a total area of 172.0 km² and a total population of 118,696 inhabitants in the municipality. The city proper has 89,303 inhabitants....

 in Portugal, set up in collaboration with Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

, formerly assembled the Galaxy
Ford Galaxy
The first Galaxy was designed as a joint venture product between Ford and the Volkswagen Group. Produced at the joint-venture AutoEuropa plant in Palmela, Portugal, the vehicle was badge-engineered to create three vehicles: the Ford Galaxy; by Volkswagen Passenger Cars as the Volkswagen Sharan;...

 people-carrier as well as its sister ships, the VW Sharan
Volkswagen Sharan
The Volkswagen Sharan is a large MPV produced by the German automaker Volkswagen since 1995.-First generation :The name Sharan is derived from a Persian word meaning "Carrier of Kings"....

 and SEAT Alhambra
SEAT Alhambra
The SEAT Alhambra is a large 7-seat MPV by the Volkswagen Group, sold under the SEAT brand.The Alhambra already spans two generations since 1996, and both of them are built at the AutoEuropa plant in Palmela, Portugal...

. With the introduction of the third generation of the Galaxy, Ford has moved the production of the people-carrier to the Genk plant, with Volkswagen taking over sole ownership of the Setúbal facility.

In 2008, Ford acquired a majority stake in Automobile Craiova
Automobile Craiova
Automobile Craiova is a Romanian car manufacturer located in Craiova, Romania. It is owned by Ford Motor Company.-The beginnings:Automobile Craiova was founded in 1976 as OLTCIT joint venture company between the Romanian government and Citroën...

, Romania. Starting 2009, Ford Transit Connect
Ford Transit Connect
The Ford Transit Connect is a compact panel van developed by Ford Europe and designed by Peter Horbury, introduced in 2002 to replace the older Ford Escort and Fiesta-based Courier van ranges, which had ceased production in the same year....

 will be Ford's first model produced in Craiova
Craiova
Craiova , Romania's 6th largest city and capital of Dolj County, is situated near the east bank of the river Jiu in central Oltenia. It is a longstanding political center, and is located at approximately equal distances from the Southern Carpathians and the River Danube . Craiova is the chief...

, followed, in 2010, by low-capacity car engines and a new small class car.

Ford Europe has broken new ground with a number of relatively futuristic car launches over the last 50 years.

Its 1959 Anglia
Ford Anglia
The 1949 model, code E494A, was a makeover of the previous model with a rather more 1940s style front-end, including the sloped, twin-lobed radiator grille. Again it was a very spartan vehicle and in 1948 was Britain's lowest priced four wheel car....

 two-door saloon was one of the most quirky-looking small family cars in Europe at the time of its launch, but buyers soon became accustomed to its looks and it was hugely popular with British buyers in particular. It was still selling well when replaced by the more practical Escort in 1967.

The third incarnation of the Ford Escort was launched in 1980 and marked the company's move from rear-wheel drive saloons to front-wheel drive hatchbacks in the small family car sector.

The fourth generation Escort was produced from 1990 until 2000, although its successor – the Focus – had been on sale since 1998. On its launch, the Focus was arguably the most dramatic-looking and fine-handling small family cars on sale, and sold in huge volumes right up to the launch of the next generation Focus at the end of 2004.

The 1982 Ford Sierra
Ford Sierra
The Ford Sierra is a large family car that was built by Ford Europe from 1982 until 1993. It was designed by Uwe Bahnsen, Robert Lutz and Patrick le Quément. The code used during development was "Project Toni"....

 – replacement for the long-running and massively popular Cortina
Ford Cortina
As the 1960s dawned, BMC were revelling in the success of their new Mini – the first successful true minicar to be built in Britain in the postwar era...

 and Taunus
Ford Taunus
The Ford Taunus is a family car sold by Ford in Germany and other countries. Models from 1970 onward were similar to the Ford Cortina in the United Kingdom...

 models – was a style-setter at the time of its launch. Its ultramodern aerodynamic design was a world away from a boxy, sharp-edged Cortina, and it was massively popular just about everywhere it was sold. A series of updates kept it looking relatively fresh until it was replaced by the front-wheel drive Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

 at the start of 1993.

The rise in popularity of small cars during the 1970s saw Ford enter the mini-car market in 1976 with its Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
The Ford Fiesta is a front wheel drive supermini/subcompact manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company and built in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, China, India, Thailand and South Africa...

 hatchback. Most of its production was concentrated at Valencia in Spain, and the Fiesta sold in huge figures from the very start. An update in 1983 and the launch of an all-new model in 1989 strengthened its position in the small car market.

Asia Pacific



In Australia and New Zealand, the popular Ford Falcon
Ford Falcon (Australia)
The Ford Falcon is a full-size car which has been manufactured by Ford Australia since 1960. Each model from the XA series of 1972 onward has been designed, developed and built in Australia and/or New Zealand, following the phasing out of the American Falcon of 1960–71 which had been re-engineered...

 has long been considered the average family car and is considerably larger than the Mondeo, Ford's largest car sold in Europe. Between 1960 and 1972, the Falcon was based on a U.S. model of the same name, but since then has been entirely designed and manufactured in Australia, occasionlly being manufactured in New Zealand. Like its General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 rival, the Holden Commodore
Holden Commodore
The Holden Commodore is an automobile manufactured since 1978 by the Holden subsidiary of General Motors in Australia, and, formerly, in New Zealand. In the mid-1970s, Holden established proposals to replace the long-serving Kingswood nameplate with a smaller, Opel-based model...

, the Falcon uses a rear wheel drive layout. High performance variants of the Falcon running locally built engines produce up to 362 hp. A ute
Coupé utility
The coupé utility automobile body style, also known colloquially as the ute in Australia and New Zealand, combines a two-door "coupé" cabin with an integral cargo bed behind the cabin—using a light-duty passenger vehicle-derived platform....

 (short for "utility", known in the US as pickup truck
Pickup truck
A pickup truck is a light motor vehicle with an open-top rear cargo area .-Definition:...

) version is also available with the same range of drivetrains. In addition, Ford Australia sells highly tuned limited-production Falcon sedans and utes
Pickup truck
A pickup truck is a light motor vehicle with an open-top rear cargo area .-Definition:...

 through its performance car division, Ford Performance Vehicles
Ford Performance Vehicles
Ford Performance Vehicles is the Melbourne-based, premium performance vehicle partner of automobile manufacturer Ford Australia. The company, which is as a joint venture between Prodrive and Ford Australia, has produced a range of Ford based models under the FPV brand name since April...

.

In Australia, the Commodore and Falcon have traditionally outsold all other cars and comprise over 20% of the new car market. In New Zealand, Ford was second in market share in the first eight months of 2006 with 14.4 per cent. More recently Ford has axed its Falcon-based LWB variant of its lineup – the Fairlane and LTD ranges, and announced that their Geelong engine manufacturing plant may be shut down from 2013. They have also announced local manufacturing of the Focus small car starting from 2011.

However, with the acquisition of a stake in Japanese manufacturer Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 in 1979, Ford began selling Mazda's Familia and Capella (also known as the 323
Mazda Familia
Mazda's automotive plans for the early sixties consisted of growing alongside the Japanese economy. To achieve this goal, they began by building an extremely cheap Kei car, the R360 in 1960, planning on introducing gradually larger and pricier cars as the Japanese customers became able to afford them...

 and 626
Mazda 626
The Mazda 626 is an automobile that was produced by Mazda for the export market. It was based on the Japan-market Mazda Capella. The 626 replaced the 616/618 and RX-2 in 1979 and was sold through 2002, when the new Mazda6 took over as Mazda's large family car...

) as the Ford Laser
Ford Laser
The 1985 KC Laser/GC Meteor was the model's first major redesign. All body styles were carried over, with the addition of a station wagon from 1986. A new "TX3" variant, which was half-way between "GL" & "Ghia" in specification level, replaced the "Sport" variant from the KB series. Unlike the...

 and Telstar
Ford Telstar
The Ford Telstar is an automobile that was sold by the Ford Motor Company in Asia, Australasia and Africa, comparable in size to the European Ford Sierra and the American Ford Tempo. It has been progressively replaced by the Ford Mondeo....

, replacing the European-sourced Escort and Cortina.

In Australia, the Laser was one of Ford Australia's most successful models, and was manufactured in Ford's Homebush
Homebush, New South Wales
Homebush is an inner western suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Homebush is located 15 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the Municipality of Strathfield. Homebush West and Homebush Bay are separate suburbs...

 plant from 1981 until the plant's closure in September 1994. It outsold the Mazda 323, despite being almost identical to it, due to the fact the Laser was manufactured in Australia and Ford was perceived as a local brand.

In New Zealand, the Ford Laser and Telstar were assembled alongside the Mazda 323 and 626 until 1997, at the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in Wiri
Wiri
Wiri is a mostly industrial-commercial focused suburb in Manukau City, located to the southwest of the city.As of 2009, Ports of Auckland is building an inland port / rail siding in Wiri, to connect road freight to the port facilities on the Waitemata Harbour further north...

, Auckland
Auckland
The Auckland metropolitan area , in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country with residents, percent of the country's population. Auckland also has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world...

. The Sierra
Ford Sierra
The Ford Sierra is a large family car that was built by Ford Europe from 1982 until 1993. It was designed by Uwe Bahnsen, Robert Lutz and Patrick le Quément. The code used during development was "Project Toni"....

 wagon was also assembled in New Zealand, owing to the popularity of station wagon
Station wagon
A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

s in that market.

Through its relationship with Mazda, Ford also acquired a stake in South Korean manufacturer Kia
Kia Motors
Kia Motors , headquartered in Seoul, is South Korea's second-largest automobile manufacturer, following the Hyundai Motor Company, with sales of over 1.4 million vehicles in 2010...

, which built the (Mazda-based) Ford Festiva
Ford Festiva
The Ford Festiva is a subcompact car that was marketed by the Ford Motor Company between 1986 and 2002. Built by Mazda in Japan and Kia Motors in South Korea, the Festiva was sold in Japan, the Americas, and Australasia...

 from 1988–1993, and the Ford Aspire
Ford Festiva
The Ford Festiva is a subcompact car that was marketed by the Ford Motor Company between 1986 and 2002. Built by Mazda in Japan and Kia Motors in South Korea, the Festiva was sold in Japan, the Americas, and Australasia...

 from 1994–1997 for export to the United States, but later sold their interest to Hyundai
Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company is a Korean multinational automaker based in Seoul, South Korea which, along with Kia, comprises the Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, the world's fourth largest automaker as of 2009. As of 2011, it is the world's fastest growing automaker for two years running...

 (which also manufactured the Ford Cortina until the 1980s). Kia continued to market the Aspire as the Kia Avella, later replaced by the Rio and once again sold in the US.

Ford's presence in Asia has traditionally been much smaller, confined to Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, and Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

, where Ford has had a joint venture with Lio Ho
Ford Lio Ho
Ford Lio Ho is an automaker based in Taiwan. It is 70% owned by Dearborn, Michigan-based Ford Motor Company. Its current passenger car range includes the Fiesta , the Focus, and the Mondeo , as well as the i-MAX and the Escape. Its commercial vehicle range consists of the Ranger and the...

 since the 1970s. Ford began assembly of cars in Thailand in 1960, but withdrew from the country in 1976, and did not return until 1995, when it formed a joint venture with Mazda called Auto Alliance.

Ford India began production in 1998 with its Ford Escort model, which was later replaced by locally produced Ford Ikon
Ford Ikon
The Ford Ikon is a sedan version of the Ford Fiesta Mark IV on the Ford B platform. It was manufactured and sold in India until 2011. A 2012 model year subcompact sedan and hatchback named Ikon is sold in Mexico. The Mexican-market hatchback is the Ford Figo imported from India...

 in 2001. It has since added Fusion, Fiesta, Mondeo and Endeavour to its product line.

On March 9, 2010, Ford Motor Co. launched its first made-for-India compact car. Starting at 349,900 ($7,690), the Figo
Ford Figo
The Ford Figo is a subcompact automobile manufactured by Ford India Private Limited in Chennai, India, the Detroit of South Asia ; based on the fourth generation Ford Fiesta hatchback to be sold in developing countries, it went on sale on 10 March 2010...

 is Ford's first car designed and priced for the mass Indian market.

On July 28, 2011 Ford India signs MoU with the State of Gujarat to build assembly and engine plant in Sanand
Sanand
Sanand is a city and a municipality in Ahmedabad district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is also referred as Auto hub or Detroit of Gujarat.-History:...

 and will invest approximately US$1 billion on a 460-acre site.

South America


In South America, Ford has had to face protectionist government measures in each country, with the result that it built different models in different countries, without particular regard to rationalization or economy of scale inherent to producing and sharing similar vehicles between the nations. In many cases, new vehicles in a country were based on those of the other manufacturers it had entered into production agreements with, or whose factories it had acquired. For example, the Corcel
Ford Corcel
The Ford Corcel is a car which was sold by the Ford Motor Company in Brazil, Chile and Venezuela.The Corcel's origins lay in the Renault 12. Willys-Overland's Brazilian operation included manufacturing the Renault Dauphine and Gordini and, when it was bought by Ford do Brasil in 1967, plans were...

 and Del Rey
Ford Del Rey
The Ford Del Rey is a midsized car produced by the Ford Motor Company in Brazil from 1981 to 1991. It was a remake from the popular Ford Corcel II. Like the Ford Corcel II, the Del Rey was designed exclusively for Brazil, but was sold in Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay as well...

 in Brazil were originally based on Renault
Renault
Renault S.A. is a French automaker producing cars, vans, and in the past, autorail vehicles, trucks, tractors, vans and also buses/coaches. Its alliance with Nissan makes it the world's third largest automaker...

 vehicles.

In 1987, Ford of Brasil
Ford do Brasil
Ford do Brasil is a subsidiary of American automaker Ford Motor Company, founded on April 24, 1919. The operation started out importing the Ford Model T cars and the Ford Model TT trucks in kit form from the US for assembly in Brazil...

 and Ford of Argentina
Ford Motor Company of Argentina
Ford Motor Argentina is a subsidiary of Ford Motor Company and was founded in Buenos Aires in 1913.Its first products were Model Ts assembled from Complete Knock Down kits provided by Ford Motor Company in 1917...

 merged its operations with those of Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

 to form a company called Autolatina
Autolatina
AutoLatina was the name of a joint venture between Volkswagen Group subsidiary Volkswagen do Brasil and Ford Motor Company subsidiary Ford do Brasil in South America...

, with which it shared models. Sales figures and profitability were disappointing, and Autolatina was dissolved in 1995. With the advent of Mercosur
Mercosur
Mercosur or Mercosul is an economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto. Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people,...

, the regional common market, Ford was finally able to rationalize its product line-ups in those countries. Consequently, the Ford Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
The Ford Fiesta is a front wheel drive supermini/subcompact manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company and built in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, China, India, Thailand and South Africa...

 and Ford EcoSport
Ford EcoSport
The Ford EcoSport is a mini SUV designed by the Ford-US Truck Vehicle Center and built in Brazil by Ford. The EcoSport is one of Ford's best-seller models in Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela and Mexico...

 are only built in Brazil, and the Ford Focus only built in Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

, with each plant exporting in large volumes to the neighboring countries. Models like the Ford Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

 from Europe could now be imported completely built up. Ford of Brazil produces a pick-up truck version of the Fiesta, the Courier
Ford Courier
- North America :This was a commercial model based on Ford's full-size stationwagon line. Its model code was designated 78A.From 1952 to 1956 access to the rear storage area was through a unique door hinged on the side. For 1957 and 1958, the rear access door was a combination of the lift gate and...

, which is also produced in South Africa as the Ford Bantam
Ford Bantam
The Ford Bantam is a "bakkie" sold by the Ford Motor Company in South Africa. It is based on the Ford Fiesta, and is a South African design as well as being produced in South Africa for the local market. The original Ford Bantam launched in 1983 was based on the Ford Escort Mk III...

 in right hand drive
Driving on the left or right
The terms right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic to keep either to the right or the left side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road. This basic rule eases...

 versions.

Africa and Middle East


In Africa, Ford's market presence has traditionally been strongest in South Africa and neighbouring countries, with only trucks being sold elsewhere on the continent. Ford in South Africa began by importing kits from Canada to be assembled at its Port Elizabeth facility. Later Ford sourced its models from the UK and Australia, with local versions of the Ford Cortina including the XR6, with a 3.0 V6 engine, and a Cortina-based 'bakkie' or pick-up
Ford P100
The Ford P100 was a pickup truck built from 1971 to 1993; initially in South Africa, and later Portugal upon the design of a medium-sized Ford car, originally the Ford Cortina and from 1988 the Ford Sierra.-Description:...

, which was exported to the UK. In the mid-1980s Ford merged with a rival company, owned by Anglo American, to form the South African Motor Corporation (Samcor
Samcor
The South African Motor Corporation, known more commonly as Samcor, was a South African car manufacturer created in 1985 through the merger of Ford's South African subsidiary and Anglo-American Motor Corporation, which produced Mazdas for the local market...

).

Following international condemnation of apartheid, Ford divested from South Africa in 1988, and sold its stake in Samcor, although it licensed the use of its brand name to the company. Samcor began to assemble Mazdas as well, which affected its product line-up, and saw the European Fords like the Escort and Sierra replaced by the Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

-based Laser and Telstar
Ford Telstar
The Ford Telstar is an automobile that was sold by the Ford Motor Company in Asia, Australasia and Africa, comparable in size to the European Ford Sierra and the American Ford Tempo. It has been progressively replaced by the Ford Mondeo....

. Ford bought a 45 per cent stake in Samcor
Samcor
The South African Motor Corporation, known more commonly as Samcor, was a South African car manufacturer created in 1985 through the merger of Ford's South African subsidiary and Anglo-American Motor Corporation, which produced Mazdas for the local market...

 following the demise of apartheid in 1994, and this later became, once again, a wholly owned subsidiary, the Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa. Ford now sells a local sedan version of the Fiesta (also built in India and Mexico), and the Focus. The Falcon model from Australia was also sold in South Africa, but was dropped in 2003, while the Mondeo, after briefly being assembled locally, was dropped in 2005.

Ford's market presence in the Middle East has traditionally been even smaller, partly due to previous Arab boycotts of companies dealing with Israel. Ford and Lincoln vehicles are currently marketed in ten countries in the region. Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, Kuwait, and the UAE are the biggest markets. Ford also established itself in Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 in 1926, but faced an uphill battle during the 1950s due to the hostile nationalist business environment. Ford's distributor in Saudi Arabia announced in February 2003 that it had sold 100,000 Ford and Lincoln vehicles since commencing sales in November 1986. Half of the Ford/Lincoln vehicles sold in that country were Ford Crown Victoria
Ford Crown Victoria
-1992–1994:Released in March 1991 as an early 1992 model, the Crown Victoria sedan was completely redesigned with a rounder, eight-window roofline . The redesign reduced the coefficient of drag from 0.42 to 0.34; the suspension setup was also heavily revised...

s. In 2004, Ford sold 30,000 units in the region, falling far short of General Motors' 88,852 units and Nissan Motors
Nissan Motors
, usually shortened to Nissan , is a multinational automaker headquartered in Japan. It was a core member of the Nissan Group, but has become more independent after its restructuring under Carlos Ghosn ....

' 75,000 units.

Environmental initiatives






Ford announced in late 2008 July that it will bring six of its more fuel-efficient European models to the U.S.

Compressed natural gas


The alternative fossil fuel vehicles, such as some versions of the Crown Victoria especially in fleet and taxi service, operate on compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

—or CNG. Some CNG vehicles have dual fuel tanks – one for gasoline, the other for CNG – the same engine can operate on either fuel via a selector switch.

Flexible fuel vehicles



Flexible fuel vehicles are designed to operate smoothly using a wide range of available ethanol fuel
Ethanol fuel
Ethanol fuel is ethanol , the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion litres...

 mixtures—from pure gasoline, to bioethanol-gasoline blends such as E85
E85
E85 is an abbreviation for an ethanol fuel blend of up to 85% denatured ethanol fuel and gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume. E85 is commonly used by flex-fuel vehicles in the US, Canada, and Europe. Some of the benefits of E85 over conventional gasoline powered vehicles include the potential...

 (85% ethanol
Ethanol fuel
Ethanol fuel is ethanol , the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion litres...

 and 15% gasoline) or E100
Common ethanol fuel mixtures
There are several common ethanol fuel mixtures in use around the world. The use of pure hydrous or anhydrous ethanol in internal combustion engines is only possible if the engine is designed or modified for that purpose...

 (neat hydrous ethanol) in Brazil. Part of the challenge of successful marketing alternative and flexible fuel vehicles in the U.S., is the general lack of establishment of sufficient fueling stations, which would be essential for these vehicles to be attractive to a wide range of consumers. Significant efforts to ramp up production and distribution of E85
E85
E85 is an abbreviation for an ethanol fuel blend of up to 85% denatured ethanol fuel and gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume. E85 is commonly used by flex-fuel vehicles in the US, Canada, and Europe. Some of the benefits of E85 over conventional gasoline powered vehicles include the potential...

 fuels are underway and expanding.

Ford is also planning to produce 250,000 E85-capable vehicles a year in the US, adding to some 1.6 million already sold in the last 10 years.

Current Ford E85 Flexible Fuel Vehicles sold in North America and Europe are:
  • Ford F-150
  • Ford Crown Victoria
    Ford Crown Victoria
    -1992–1994:Released in March 1991 as an early 1992 model, the Crown Victoria sedan was completely redesigned with a rounder, eight-window roofline . The redesign reduced the coefficient of drag from 0.42 to 0.34; the suspension setup was also heavily revised...

  • Ford Focus
  • Ford C-MAX
  • Ford Mondeo
    Ford Mondeo
    The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

  • Ford S-MAX
    Ford S-MAX
    The Ford S-Max is an MPV/saloon produced by the Ford Motor Company for the European market and by Chang'an Ford Automobile Co., Ltd for the Chinese market. Introduced at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show, the S-Max went on sale alongside the new generation Galaxy in June 2006. It is intended to be...

  • Ford Galaxy
    Ford Galaxy
    The first Galaxy was designed as a joint venture product between Ford and the Volkswagen Group. Produced at the joint-venture AutoEuropa plant in Palmela, Portugal, the vehicle was badge-engineered to create three vehicles: the Ford Galaxy; by Volkswagen Passenger Cars as the Volkswagen Sharan;...

  • Ford Taurus
    Ford Taurus
    The Ford Taurus is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in the United States. Originally introduced in the 1986 model year, it has remained in near-continuous production for more than two decades, making it the fourth oldest nameplate that is currently sold in the North American...

  • Ford Ranger
    Ford Ranger
    The Ford Ranger is a pickup truck produced by the Ford Motor Company. The "Ranger" name had previously been used for a premium styling package on the F-Series full-sized pickup trucks since 1965. The name was moved to this line of North American compact trucks for the 1983 model year.In North...

  • Ford Explorer
    Ford Explorer
    The Ford Explorer is a sport-utility vehicle sold in North America and built by the Ford Motor Company since 1990, as a replacement for the smaller but related Ford Bronco II. It is manufactured in Chicago, Illinois...

  • Ford Expedition and EL/Max
    Ford Expedition
    The Ford Expedition is a full-size SUV built by the Ford Motor Company. Introduced in 1997 as a replacement to the Ford Bronco, it was previously slotted between the smaller Ford Explorer and the larger Ford Excursion, but as of the 2005 model year, it is Ford's largest and last truck-based,...

  • Mercury Grand Marquis
    Mercury Grand Marquis
    The Mercury Grand Marquis was a full-size rear-wheel drive sedan sold by the Lincoln-Mercury division of the Ford Motor Company; the Grand Marquis was the flagship of the Mercury lineup. The nameplate itself had been in use since 1975 as the premium trim level of the Mercury Marquis; the Grand...

  • Lincoln Town Car
    Lincoln Town Car
    The Lincoln Town Car is a full-size luxury sedan that was sold by the upscale Lincoln division of Ford Motor Company; it was produced from 1981 to the 2011 model years...

  • Ford Fusion
    Ford Fusion
    Ford Fusion is a name used on two different models of cars from the Ford Motor Company.* Ford Fusion * Ford Fusion / Ford Fusion Hybrid...



Current Ford E100 Flex sold in the Brazilian market are:
  • Courier
    Ford Courier
    - North America :This was a commercial model based on Ford's full-size stationwagon line. Its model code was designated 78A.From 1952 to 1956 access to the rear storage area was through a unique door hinged on the side. For 1957 and 1958, the rear access door was a combination of the lift gate and...

  • Ford EcoSport
    Ford EcoSport
    The Ford EcoSport is a mini SUV designed by the Ford-US Truck Vehicle Center and built in Brazil by Ford. The EcoSport is one of Ford's best-seller models in Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela and Mexico...

  • Ford Fiesta
    Ford Fiesta
    The Ford Fiesta is a front wheel drive supermini/subcompact manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company and built in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, China, India, Thailand and South Africa...

  • Ford Focus
  • Ford Ka
    Ford Ka
    The Ford Ka is a city car from the Ford Motor Company marketed in Europe and elsewhere.The current European version is produced by Fiat Auto in Tychy, Poland, while the model sold in Latin America is built in Brazil and Argentina....


Electric vehicles


Ford Motor Co. expects electric vehicle
Electric vehicle
An electric vehicle , also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion...

s will represent a "major portion" of its lineup a decade from now as the automaker breaks away from a recent reliance on pickup trucks and SUVs. The stakes are high because Ford's stepped-up investment is coming at a time when the U.S. government is demanding steep increases in fuel economy and has put money forward to help automakers adopt new fuel-saving technologies.

Ford Motor Co. will partner with Coulomb Technologies
Coulomb Technologies
Coulomb Technologies is an electric vehicle infrastructure company, based in Campbell, California. Coulomb Technologies was founded in 2007 by Richard Lowenthal and Praveen Mandal....

 to provide nearly 5,000 free in-home charging station
Charging station
An electric vehicle charging station, also called EV charging station, electric recharging point, charging point and EVSE , is an element in an infrastructure that supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric-gasoline vehicles) or semi-static and mobile...

s for some of the automaker's first electric vehicle customers, under the Ford Blue Oval ChargePoint Program.

Hybrid electric vehicles



In 2004 both Ford and Toyota agreed on a patent sharing accord which granted Ford access to certain hybrid technology patented by Toyota, in exchange Ford licensed Toyota some of their own patents.

Ford did improve fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

 during 2005, with the introduction of the Hybrid-Electric Escape. With this vehicle, Ford was third to the automotive market with a hybrid electric vehicle
Hybrid vehicle
A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles , which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors.-Power:...

 and the first hybrid electric SUV
Sport utility vehicle
A sport utility vehicle is a generic marketing term for a vehicle similar to a station wagon, but built on a light-truck chassis. It is usually equipped with four-wheel drive for on- or off-road ability, and with some pretension or ability to be used as an off-road vehicle. Not all four-wheel...

 to market. This was also the first hybrid electric vehicle with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85
E85
E85 is an abbreviation for an ethanol fuel blend of up to 85% denatured ethanol fuel and gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume. E85 is commonly used by flex-fuel vehicles in the US, Canada, and Europe. Some of the benefits of E85 over conventional gasoline powered vehicles include the potential...

. The Escape's platform mate Mercury Mariner
Mercury Mariner
The Mariner Hybrid powertrain is identical to its sibling, the Ford Escape Hybrid, and it was launched to the U.S. market in 2006.Like the Ford Escape Hybrid, the Mariner Hybrid is a "full" hybrid electric system, meaning the system can switch automatically between pure electric power, pure...

 was also available with the hybrid-electric system in the 2006 model year—a full year ahead of schedule. The similar Mazda Tribute
Mazda Tribute
The Mazda Tribute is a compact SUV made by Japanese automaker Mazda since 2001. It is jointly developed with Ford Motor Company and based on the front-wheel drive Mazda 626 platform, which is in turn the basis for the similar Ford Escape on the CD2 platform...

 will also receive a hybrid-electric powertrain option, along with many other vehicles in the Ford vehicle line.

In 2005 Ford announced its goal to make 250,000 hybrids a year by 2010, but by mid-2006 announced that it would not meet that goal, due to excessively high costs and the lack of sufficient supplies of the hybrid-electric batteries and drivetrain system components. Instead, Ford has committed to accelerating development of next-generation hybrid-electric power plants in Britain, in collaboration with Volvo. This engineering study is expected to yield more than 100 new hybrid-electric vehicle models and derivatives. There are also plans for hybrid versions of the Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX.

Ford announced on 2007-07-09 that it will team up with Southern California Edison
Southern California Edison
Southern California Edison , the largest subsidiary of Edison International , is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California, USA. It provides 14 million people with electricity...

 (SCE) to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid. Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility's electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated "in typical customer settings", according to Ford.

On June 12, 2008 USDOE expanded its own fleet of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles with the addition of a Ford Escape Plug-In Hybrid Flex-Fuel Vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with a 10 kW lithium-ion battery supplied by Johnson Controls-Saft that stores enough electric energy to drive up to 30 miles (48.3 km) at speeds of up to 40 mph (17.9 m/s).

In March 2009 Ford launched to the U.S. market the Ford Fusion Hybrid
Ford Fusion Hybrid
The Ford Fusion Hybrid is a gasoline-electric hybrid powered version of the mid-size Ford Fusion sedan developed by the Ford Motor Company, and launched to the U.S. market in March 2009 as a 2010 model, together with its twin the Mercury Milan Hybrid. The Fusion Hybrid is manufactured at Ford's...

 and the Mercury Milan Hybrid, both as 2010 models.

Ford is going to introduce a plug-in hybrid to challenge the Chevy Volt by 2012 and more charge-maintaining hybrids (traditional gas-electric hybrids), beginning with one in 2011.

Current and planned Ford hybrid electric vehicles:
  • 2004– Ford Escape Hybrid
  • 2006– Mercury Mariner
    Mercury Mariner
    The Mariner Hybrid powertrain is identical to its sibling, the Ford Escape Hybrid, and it was launched to the U.S. market in 2006.Like the Ford Escape Hybrid, the Mariner Hybrid is a "full" hybrid electric system, meaning the system can switch automatically between pure electric power, pure...

  • 2009– Ford Fusion Hybrid
    Ford Fusion Hybrid
    The Ford Fusion Hybrid is a gasoline-electric hybrid powered version of the mid-size Ford Fusion sedan developed by the Ford Motor Company, and launched to the U.S. market in March 2009 as a 2010 model, together with its twin the Mercury Milan Hybrid. The Fusion Hybrid is manufactured at Ford's...

    /Mercury Milan
    Mercury Milan
    The Mercury Milan is a mid-size sedan based on the Mazda designed Ford CD3 platform built by Ford Motor Company and distributed by the Lincoln-Mercury division. It is a twin of the Ford Fusion, while being slotted below the luxury-spec Lincoln MKZ sedan...

  • 2009/10– Ford Edge
    Ford Edge
    The Ford Edge is a mid-size crossover SUV manufactured by Ford, based on the Ford CD3 platform shared with previous generation Mazda6 and marketed in rebadged form as the Lincoln MKX...

    /Lincoln MKX
    Lincoln MKX
    The Lincoln MKX is a mid-size luxury crossover from Ford's Lincoln division and a de facto successor to the Lincoln Aviator luxury SUV. It debuted as a 2007 model in December 2006 as a production version of the Lincoln Aviator Concept shown at the 2004 North American International Auto Show...


All-electric vehicles


Ford ended the Think City experiment and ordered all the cars repossessed and destroyed, even as many of the people leasing them begged to be able to buy the cars from Ford. After outcry from the lessees and activists in the US and Norway, Ford returned the cars to Norway for sale.

Bill Ford was one of the first top industry executives to make regular use of an battery electric vehicle
Battery electric vehicle
A battery electric vehicle, or BEV, is a type of electric vehicle that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of, or in addition to, internal combustion engines for propulsion.A battery-only electric vehicle or...

, a Ford Ranger EV
Ford Ranger EV
The Ford Ranger EV is a battery electric vehicle produced by Ford Motor Company. It was produced starting in the 1998 model year through 2002 and is no longer in production. It is built upon a light truck chassis used in the Ford Ranger. A few vehicles with lead-acid batteries were sold, but most...

, while the company contracted with the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the United States government responsible for providing postal service in the United States...

 to deliver electric postal vans based on the Ranger EV platform..Ford discontinued a line of electric Ranger
Ford Ranger
The Ford Ranger is a pickup truck produced by the Ford Motor Company. The "Ranger" name had previously been used for a premium styling package on the F-Series full-sized pickup trucks since 1965. The name was moved to this line of North American compact trucks for the 1983 model year.In North...

 pickup truck
Pickup truck
A pickup truck is a light motor vehicle with an open-top rear cargo area .-Definition:...

s and ordered them destroyed, though it reversed in January 2005, after environmentalist protest.

The North American Focus EV is based on next generation Focus fuel vehicle, converted to an electric propulsion system as a Production EV by Magna International, and is planned to be launched in late 2011. Ford plans to have 10,000 Focus EVs on the road beginning in late 2011 in partnership with Magna International
Magna International
Magna International Inc. , is an automotive supplier headquartered in Aurora, Ontario, Canada. It is Canada's largest automobile parts manufacturer, and one of the country's largest companies. It owns the Magna Steyr automobile production company of Austria....

 and it will be a global vehicle that will be sold in the three key markets of North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The Focus EV has a maximum range of about 160 kilometers or 100 miles, and a top speed of about 120+ kilometers or 75+ miles per hour.

Current and planned Ford electric vehicles:
  • 2010 All-electric Transit Connect
    Ford Transit Connect
    The Ford Transit Connect is a compact panel van developed by Ford Europe and designed by Peter Horbury, introduced in 2002 to replace the older Ford Escort and Fiesta-based Courier van ranges, which had ceased production in the same year....

  • 2011 All-electric small car in late 2011 (Ford Focus EV).
  • 2013 C-MAX Energi coming fall 2012


Ford battery electric vehicle
Battery electric vehicle
A battery electric vehicle, or BEV, is a type of electric vehicle that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of, or in addition to, internal combustion engines for propulsion.A battery-only electric vehicle or...

 (BEV) demonstrators are included in a British project that is part of the UK government's zero carbon vehicle fleet of Focus BEV
Ford Focus BEV
The third generation of Ford Focus debuted at the 2010 North American International Auto Show as the 2011 year model. The car shown was a 5-door hatchback, also debuting a new 2.0L direct injection I4 engine...

s. The BEV demonstrator fleet is being developed partly with public funding from the government's Technology Strategy Board
Technology Strategy Board
The Technology Strategy Board is a UK public body operating at arm's length from the Government reporting to the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills .- History :...

 (TSB), which promotes innovative industry-led projects that reduce CO2 while benefiting the UK's transport system.

Hydrogen


Ford also continues to study Fuel Cell
Fuel cell
A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used...

-powered electric powertrains, and has demonstrated hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high -pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine...

 technologies, as well as developing the next-generation hybrid-electric systems. Compared with conventional vehicles, hybrid vehicle
Hybrid vehicle
A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles , which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors.-Power:...

s and/or fuel cell
Fuel cell
A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used...

 vehicles decrease air pollution emissions as well as sound levels, with favorable impacts upon respiratory health and decrease of noise health effects
Noise health effects
Noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Elevated workplace or other noise can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, annoyance and sleep disturbance. Changes in the immune system and birth defects have been attributed to noise exposure...

.

Ford has launched the production of hydrogen-powered
Hydrogen vehicle
A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fueled space rockets, as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles...

 shuttle buses, using hydrogen instead of gasoline in a standard internal combustion engine, for use at airports and convention centers. At the 2006 Greater Los Angeles Auto Show, Ford showcased a hydrogen fuel cell version of its Explorer SUV. The Fuel cell Explorer has a combined output of 174 hp. It has a large hydrogen storage tank which is situated in the center of the car taking the original place of the conventional model's automatic transmission. The centered position of the tank assists the vehicle reach a notable range of 350 miles (563 km), the farthest for a fuel cell vehicle so far. The fuel cell Explorer the first in a series of prototypes partly funded by the United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material...

 to expand efforts to determine the feasibility of hydrogen- powered vehicles. The fuel cell Explorer is one of several vehicles with green technology being featured at the L.A. show, including the 2008 Ford Escape Hybrid, PZEV emissions compliant Fusion and Focus models and a 2008 Ford F-Series Super Duty outfitted with Ford's clean diesel technology.

Increased fuel efficiency



Ford Motor Company announced it will accelerate its plans to produce more fuel-efficient cars, changing both its North American manufacturing plans and its lineup of vehicles available in the United States. In terms of North American manufacturing, the company will convert three existing truck and sport utility vehicle (SUV) plants for small car production, with the first conversion starting in December at its Michigan Truck Plant. In addition, Ford's assembly plants near Mexico City, Mexico, and in Louisville, Kentucky, will convert from pickups and SUVs to small cars, including the Ford Fiesta, by 2011. Ford will also introduce to North America six of its European small vehicles, including two versions of the Ford Fiesta, by the end of 2012. And last but not least, Ford is stepping up its production of fuel-efficient "EcoBoost" V-6 and four-cylinder engines, while increasing its production of hybrid vehicles. See the Ford press release.

Ford of Europe developed the ECOnetic
ECOnetic
ECOnetic is a tradename for certain car models produced by Ford of Europe, currently consisting of one model in each of the Fiesta and the Focus range, with an emphasis on higher fuel efficiency and low-CO2 emissions.-Design philosophy:...

 programme to address the market and legislative need for higher fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. As opposed to the hybrid engine technology used in competitor products such as the Toyota Prius
Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation...

, ECOnetic improves existing technology. Using lower consuming Duratorq TDCi
Ford Duratorq engine
The Ford Duratorq engine, commonly referred to as Duratorq, is the marketing name of a range of Ford diesel engines first introduced in 2000 for the Ford Mondeo range of cars....

 diesel engines, and based on a combination of improved aerodynamics, lower resistance and improved efficiency, the Ford Fiesta
Ford Fiesta
The Ford Fiesta is a front wheel drive supermini/subcompact manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company and built in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela, China, India, Thailand and South Africa...

 is currently the lowest emitting mass-produced car in Europe, while the 2012 Ford Focus ECOnetic will have better fuel consumption that the Prius or the Volkswagen Golf
Volkswagen Golf
The Volkswagen Golf is a small family car manufactured by Volkswagen since 1974 and marketed worldwide across six generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada , and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico .The...

 BlueMotion
BlueMotion
BlueMotion is a tradename for certain car models from the Volkswagen Group with an emphasis on higher fuel efficiency.Volkswagen introduced the name in 2006 on the Mk4 Polo BlueMotion, and in 2007 a version based on the current Passat was released...

. ECOnetic is not presently planned to be sold in North Americam due to current perceived lower consumer demand.

Ford has challenged University teams to create a vehicle that is simple, durable, lightweight and come equipped with a base target price of only $7,000 The students from Aachen University created the "2015 Ford Model T".

In 2000, under the leadership of the current Ford chairman, William Clay Ford, the Company announced a planned 25 percent improvement in the average mileage of its light truck fleet – including its popular SUV
Sport utility vehicle
A sport utility vehicle is a generic marketing term for a vehicle similar to a station wagon, but built on a light-truck chassis. It is usually equipped with four-wheel drive for on- or off-road ability, and with some pretension or ability to be used as an off-road vehicle. Not all four-wheel...

s – to be completed by the 2005 calendar year
Calendar year
Generally speaking, a calendar year begins on the New Year's Day of the given calendar system and ends on the day before the following New Year's Day. By convention, a calendar year consists of a natural number of days. To reconcile the calendar year with an astronomical cycle , certain years...

. In 2003, Ford announced that competitive market conditions and technological and cost challenges would prevent the company from achieving this goal.

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts
This article relates to the statewide university system. For the flagship campus often referred to as "UMass", see University of Massachusetts Amherst...

 have, however, listed Ford as the seventh-worst corporate producer of air pollution, primarily because of the manganese
Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

 compounds, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene is a colorless liquid with chemical formula C9H12. It is a flammable aromatic hydrocarbon with a strong odor. It occurs naturally in coal tar and petroleum . It is nearly insoluble in water, but well-soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether, and benzene.Industrially, it is...

, and glycol ethers
Glycol Ethers
Glycol ethers are a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol commonly used in paints. These solvents typically have higher boiling point, together with the favorable solvent properties of lower molecular weight of ethers and alcohols. The word "Cellosolve" was registered in 1924...

 released from its casting, truck, and assembly plants. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has linked Ford to 54 Superfund
Superfund
Superfund is the common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 , a United States federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances...

 toxic waste sites, twelve of which have been cleaned up and deleted from the list.

For the 2007 model year, Ford had thirteen U.S. models that achieve 30 miles per gallon or better (based on the highway fuel economy estimates of the EPA and several of Ford's vehicles were recognized in the EPA and Department of Energy Fuel Economy Guide for best-in-class fuel economy. Ford claimed to have eliminated nearly three million pounds of smog-forming emissions from their U.S. cars and light trucks over the 2004 to 2006 model years.

PC Power Management


On March 2010, Ford announced its PC Power Management
PC power management
PC power management refers to the mechanism for controlling the power use of personal computer hardware. This is typically through the use of software that puts the hardware into the lowest power demand state available...

 system which it developed with NightWatchman software from 1E
1E
1E is a privately owned software company based in the United Kingdom. 1E has offices in London, New York, Frankfurt, Paris, and Noida. The company develops automated software solutions to address complexity, management costs and power consumption...

. The company is expected to save $1.2m on power cost and reduce carbon footprint by an estimated 16,000 to 25,000 metric tons annually when the system is fully implemented.

PC power management is being rolled out to all Ford computer users in US this month and it will be used in Ford operations around the world later in the year. Computers with this power profile enabled will monitor its usage patterns and decides when it can be turned off. PC user will be alerted of the approaching power down time and given the opportunity to delay it.

According to company reduction in carbon footprint and power cost will be achieved by developing 'Power Profiles' for every PC in the company.

Stock car racing



Ford is one of four manufacturers in NASCAR
NASCAR
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is a family-owned and -operated business venture that sanctions and governs multiple auto racing sports events. It was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1947–48. As of 2009, the CEO for the company is Brian France, grandson of the late Bill France Sr...

's three major series: Sprint Cup Series, Nationwide Series, and Camping World Truck Series. Major teams include Roush Fenway Racing and Yates Racing
Yates Racing
Yates Racing was an American stock car racing racing team that competed in NASCAR until the 2009 season when it merged with Richard Petty Motorsports. Previously known as Robert Yates Racing, the team was owned by Doug Yates, who has officially owned the team since his father Robert's retirement on...

 and Richard Petty Motorsports. Ford is represented by the mid-size Fusion in the Sprint Cup, the Mustang
Ford Mustang
The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a "1964½" model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A...

 in the Nationwide Series, and by the F-150 in the Camping World Truck Series. Some of the most successful NASCAR Fords were the aerodynamic fastback Ford Torino
Ford Torino
The Ford Torino is an intermediate automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company for the North American market between 1968 and 1976. The car was named after the city of Turin , which is considered the Detroit of Italy...

, Ford Torino Talladega
Ford Torino Talladega
The Ford Torino Talladega was a car produced by the Ford Motor Company during the first few weeks of 1969, only. Ford's Talladega was actually named after the Talladega Superspeedway racetrack in Alabama, which also made its debut in 1969. The Ford Talladega was a special, more aerodynamic,...

, Mercury Cyclone Spoiler II
Mercury Cyclone Spoiler II
The Mercury Cyclone Spoiler II was a car produced by the Mercury Division of Ford Motor Company during the first few weeks of 1969, only. The Mercury Cyclone Spoiler II was a special, more aerodynamic, version of the Mercury Cyclone...

, and Mercury Montego
Mercury Montego
The Mercury Montego was a mid-size vehicle in the Mercury line of Ford Motor Company from 1968 to 1976. The namplate first appeared in 1967 in Canada as part of the Mercury-derived Meteor line. After 1976, the basic design of the Montego was updated and the nameplate disappeared as the Cougar...

s, and the aero-era Ford Thunderbird
Ford Thunderbird
The Thunderbird , is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in the United States over eleven model generations from 1955 through 2005...

s. The Ford nameplate has won eight manufacturer's championships in Sprint Cup, while Mercury has won one. The Ford Fusion is also used in the ARCA Remax Series.

Formula One



Ford was heavily involved in Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 for many years, and supplied engines to a large number of teams from 1967 until 2004. These engines were designed and manufactured by Cosworth
Cosworth
Cosworth is a high performance engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in engines and electronics for automobile racing , mainstream automotive and defence industries...

, the racing division that was owned by Ford from 1998 to 2004. Ford-badged engines won 176 Grands Prix between 1967 and 2003 for teams such as Team Lotus
Team Lotus
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in many motorsport series including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar and sports car racing...

 and McLaren
McLaren
McLaren Racing Limited, trading as Vodafone McLaren Mercedes, is a British Formula One team based in Woking, Surrey, United Kingdom. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but has also competed and won in the Indianapolis 500 and Canadian-American Challenge Cup...

. Ford entered Formula One as a constructor in 2000 under the Jaguar Racing
Jaguar Racing
Jaguar Racing was a Formula One team that competed in the FIA Formula One World Championship from 2000 to 2004. It was formed from the purchase by Ford of Jackie Stewart's Stewart Grand Prix Formula One team in June 1999. Ford renamed the team Jaguar Racing as part of its global marketing...

 name, after buying the Stewart Grand Prix
Stewart Grand Prix
Stewart Grand Prix is a former Formula One constructor and racing team. The team was formed by three times Formula One champion Jackie Stewart and his son Paul Stewart in 1996. The team competed in F1, as the Ford works-supported team, for only three seasons, from 1997 to 1999...

 team which had been its primary 'works' team in the series since 1997. Jaguar achieved little success in Formula One, and after a turbulent five seasons, Ford withdrew from the category after the 2004 season
2004 Formula One season
The 2004 Formula One season was the 55th FIA Formula One World Championship season, running from March 7 to October 24, 2004. The season was dominated by Michael Schumacher and Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro...

, selling both Jaguar Racing (which became Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing is a Formula One racing team based in Milton Keynes, England which currently holds an Austrian licence. It is, along with Scuderia Toro Rosso, one of two teams owned by beverage company Red Bull GmbH. The team have won two Constructors' Championship titles, in and , becoming the...

) and Cosworth (to Gerald Forsythe
Gerald Forsythe
Gerald Forsythe is an American businessman and auto racing magnate, best known for being one of the three men that owned the Champ Car World Series...

 and Kevin Kalkhoven
Kevin Kalkhoven
Kevin Oscar Newton Kalkoven, former CEO of JDS Uniphase, is an Australian venture capitalist and auto racing magnate based in Menlo Park, California. He is a partner in the Kalkhoven, Pettit, Levin and Johnson Venture capital firm based in Menlo Park....

).

Rally


Ford has a long history in rallying
Rallying
Rallying, also known as rally racing, is a form of auto racing that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars...

 and has been active in the World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. The driver's world championship and manufacturer's world championship are separate championships, but based on the same point system. The series currently consists of 13...

 since the beginning of the world championship, the 1973 season. Ford took the 1979 manufacturers' title with Hannu Mikkola
Hannu Mikkola
Hannu Olavi Mikkola is a retired world champion rally driver. He was a seven time winner of the 1000 Lakes Rally in Finland and won the RAC Rally in Great Britain four times.- Career :...

, Björn Waldegård
Björn Waldegård
Björn Waldegård from Rimbo is a former Swedish rally driver, and the winner of the inaugural World Rally Championship for drivers in 1979...

 and Ari Vatanen
Ari Vatanen
Ari Pieti Uolevi Vatanen is a Finnish rally driver turned politician and Member of the European Parliament 1999–2009. Vatanen won the World Rally Championship drivers' title in 1981 and the Paris Dakar Rally four times....

 driving the Ford Escort RS1800. In the Group B
Group B
Group B was a set of regulations introduced in 1982 for competition vehicles in sportscar racing and rallying regulated by the FIA. The Group B regulations fostered some of the quickest, most powerful and sophisticated rally cars ever built. However, a series of major accidents, some fatal, were...

 era, Ford achieved success with Ford RS200
Ford RS200
The Ford RS200 is a mid-engined, four-wheel drive sports car produced by Ford from 1984 to 1986. The road-going RS200 was based on Ford's Group B rally car and was designed to comply with FIA homologation regulations, which required 200 road legal versions be built...

. Since the 1999 season, Ford has used various versions of the Ford Focus WRC
Ford Focus WRC
The Ford Focus RS WRC is a car built for the Ford World Rally Team by Ford and M-Sport and based on the Ford Focus Climate 2-litre production hatchback, developed to compete in the World Rally Championship. The RS stands for Rallye Sport and the WRC for World Rally Car, the car's FIA specification...

 to much success. In the 2006 season, BP-Ford World Rally Team secured Ford its second manufacturers' title, with the Focus RS WRC 06 built by M-Sport
M-Sport
M-Sport is a large and successful motorsport team based in Cockermouth, Cumbria in England. Formed in 1979 by former WRC driver Malcolm Wilson, and originally known as Malcolm Wilson Motorsport, the team has had varying success running cars in several rally championships...

 and driven by Flying Finns Marcus Grönholm
Marcus Grönholm
Marcus "Bosse" Grönholm is a Finnish former rally driver. Driving for Peugeot, he won the World Rally Championship in 2000 and 2002. After Peugeot withdrew from the World Rally Championship, Grönholm moved to Ford for the 2006 season and placed second in the drivers' world championship, losing the...

 and Mikko Hirvonen
Mikko Hirvonen
Mikko Hirvonen is a Finnish rally driver currently driving for the Citroën Total World Rally Team in the World Rally Championship. He placed third in the drivers' championship and helped Ford to the manufacturers' title in both 2006 and 2007. In 2008, 2009 and 2011, he finished runner-up to...

. Continuing with Grönholm and Hirvonen, Ford successfully defended the manufacturers' world championship in the 2007 season
2007 World Rally Championship season
The 2007 World Rally Championship season was the 35th season in the FIA World Rally Championship. The season began on January 19 with the 75ème Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo and ended on December 2 with the 63rd Wales Rally of Great Britain. Citroën's Sébastien Loeb won the drivers' world...

. Ford is the only manufacturer to score in the points for 92 consecutive races; since the 2002 season opener Monte Carlo Rally
Monte Carlo Rally
The Monte Carlo Rally or Rally Monte Carlo is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which also organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. The rally takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and...

.

Sports cars




Ford sports cars have been visible in the world of sports car racing since 1964. Most notably the GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the world's oldest sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since near the town of Le Mans, France. Commonly known as the Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency, race teams have to balance speed against the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without sustaining...

 four times in the 1960s and is the only American car to ever win overall at this prestigious event. Ford also won the 1968 International Championship for Makes with the GT40, which still stands today as one of the all-time greatest racing cars. Swiss team Matech GT Racing, in collaboration with Ford Racing, opened a new chapter with the Ford GT
Ford GT
The Ford GT is a mid-engine two-seater sports car. Ford Motor Company produced the Ford GT for the 2005 to 2006 model years. The designers drew inspiration from Ford's GT40 race cars of the 1960s.- Development :...

, winning the Teams title in the 2008 FIA GT3 European Championship
FIA GT3 European Championship
The FIA GT3 European Championship is a sports car racing series organized by the Stéphane Ratel Organisation and regulated by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . It is a championship derived from the international FIA GT1 World Championship, but meant to provide competition for more...

.
The Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a "1964½" model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A...

 has arguably been Ford's most successful sports car. Jerry Titus won the 1965 SCCA Pro B National Championship with a Mustang and the model went on to earn Ford the SCCA Trans-Am Championship title in both 1966 and 1967. Ford won the Trans-Am Championship again in 1970 with Parnelli Jones
Parnelli Jones
Rufus Parnell "Parnelli" Jones , is a retired American racing driver and racecar owner. He is most remembered for his 1963 Indianapolis 500 win, and almost winning the 1967 Indy 500 in a turbine car...

 and George Folmer driving Boss 302 Mustang
Boss 302 Mustang
The Boss 302 Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang originally produced in 1969 and 1970, but revived in the 2012 model year. It was produced for the Trans Am racing series, while the Mustang Boss 429 which was produced the same years was built around a larger engine.-First...

s for Bud Moore Engineering
Bud Moore Engineering
Bud Moore Engineering was a championship-winning NASCAR team. It was owned and operated by mechanic Bud Moore and ran out of Spartanburg, South Carolina. While the team was a dominant force in the 60s and 80s, the final years were tumultuous due to lack of sponorship and uncompetitive race cars.-...

. Ford took the 1985 and 1986 IMSA GTO Championship with Mustangs driven by John Jones
John Jones (driver)
John Jones , is a former driver in the CART Championship Car series. He raced in the 1988, 1989, 1991, and 1992 seasons with 41 career starts, including the 1989 Indianapolis 500...

 and Scott Pruett
Scott Pruett
Scott Donald Pruett is an American race car driver who has competed in NASCAR, Champ Car, IMSA, Trans-Am and Grand-Am. He and his wife Judy have three children, and are children's book authors....

 before returning to Trans-Am glory with a championship in 1989 with Dorsey Schroeder
Dorsey Schroeder
Dorsey Schroeder is a race car driver born February 5, 1953 in Kirkwood, Missouri. Dorsey currently lives in Florida with his wife Kim and daughter Carissa Schroeder from his second marriage...

. Ford dominated Trans-Am in the 1990s with Tommy Kendal winning championships in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Paul Gentilozi adding yet another title in 1999. In 2005 the Ford Mustang FR500C took the championship in the Rolex Koni Challenge Series in its first year on the circuit. In 2007 Ford added a victory in the GT4 European Championship. 2008 was the first year of the Mustang Challenge for the Miller Cup, a series which pits a full field of identical factory built Ford Mustang race cars against each other. Also in 2008, Ford won the manufacturers championship in the Koni Challenge Series and HyperSport drivers Joe Foster and Steve Maxwell won the drivers title in a Mustang GT.

Touring cars



Ford has campaigned touring cars such as the Focus, Falcon
Ford Falcon (Australia)
The Ford Falcon is a full-size car which has been manufactured by Ford Australia since 1960. Each model from the XA series of 1972 onward has been designed, developed and built in Australia and/or New Zealand, following the phasing out of the American Falcon of 1960–71 which had been re-engineered...

, and Contour
Ford Contour
The Ford Contour, and its rebadged variant, the Mercury Mystique, were compact 4-door sedans marketed from model years 1995-2000 by Ford Motor Company in North America...

/Mondeo
Ford Mondeo
The Mondeo was launched on 8 January 1993, and sales began on 22 March 1993. Available as a four-door saloon, a five-door hatchback, and a five-door estate, all models for the European market were produced at Ford's plant in the Belgian city of Genk...

 and the Sierra
Ford Sierra
The Ford Sierra is a large family car that was built by Ford Europe from 1982 until 1993. It was designed by Uwe Bahnsen, Robert Lutz and Patrick le Quément. The code used during development was "Project Toni"....

 Cosworth
Cosworth
Cosworth is a high performance engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in engines and electronics for automobile racing , mainstream automotive and defence industries...

 in many different series throughout the years. Notably, Mondeo drivers finished 1,2,3 in the 2000 British Touring Car Championship
British Touring Car Championship
The British Touring Car Championship is a touring car racing series held each year in the United Kingdom. The Championship was established in 1958 as the British Saloon Car Championship and has run to various rules over the years – "production cars", then FIA Group 1 or 2 in the late 1960s...

 and Falcon drivers placed 1,2,3 in the 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series
2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series
The 2005 V8 Supercar season was the seventh running of the V8 Supercar Championship Series. It began on 18 March 2005 in Adelaide and ended on 27 November at Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit after 13 rounds.-Teams and drivers:...

.

Other


In the Indianapolis 500
Indianapolis 500
The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, also known as the Indianapolis 500, the 500 Miles at Indianapolis, the Indy 500 or The 500, is an American automobile race, held annually, typically on the last weekend in May at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana...

, Ford powered IndyCar
American Championship Car Racing
Since 1916 there has been a recognized United States national automobile racing National Championship for drivers of professional-level, single-seat open wheel race cars. The championship has been under the auspices of several different sanctioning bodies since 1909. Since 1911, the Indianapolis...

s won 17 times between 1965 and 1996. Ford has also branched out into drifting with the introduction of the new model Mustang. Most noticeable is the Turquoise and Blue Falken Tires Mustang driven by Vaughn Gittin Jr, A.K.A. "JR". with 750 RWHP (Rear Wheel Horsepower). In drag racing
Drag racing
Drag racing is a competition in which specially prepared automobiles or motorcycles compete two at a time to be the first to cross a set finish line, from a standing start, in a straight line, over a measured distance, most commonly a ¼-mile straight track....

, John Force Racing
John Force Racing
John Force Racing is an NHRA drag racing team. In over 30 years of competition, John Force Racing has won 17 Funny Car championships. The current line-up of drivers includes John Force, Mike Neff, and Robert Hight. John Force Racing has had Castrol as their main sponsor for more than 30 years...

 drivers John Force
John Force
John Harold Force is an NHRA drag racer, a 15-time Funny Car champion driver, and a 17-time champion car owner. Force owns and drives for John Force Racing. He is one of the most dominant drag racers in the sport with 133 career victories...

, Tony Pedregon
Tony Pedregon
Tony Pedregon is a 2-time NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing Series Funny Car Champion from Torrance, California. He is also the youngest of the Pedregon brothers. His brother Cruz Pedregon is the 1992 NHRA Full Throttle Series Funny Car Champion.-Early Days:In 1993 Pedregon qualified for his first...

, and Robert Hight have piloted Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a "1964½" model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A...

 Funny Car
Funny Car
Funny Car is a drag racing car class. In the United States, other "professional" classes are Top Fuel, Pro Stock, and Pro Stock Motorcycle. Funny cars have forward-mounted engines and carbon fiber automotive bodies over the chassis, giving them an appearance vaguely approximating manufacturers'...

s to several NHRA
National Hot Rod Association
The National Hot Rod Association is a drag racing governing body, which sets rules in drag racing and host events all over the United States and Canada...

 titles in recent seasons. Teammates Tim Wilkerson and Bob Tasca III also drive Mustangs in Funny Car. Formula Ford
Formula Ford
Formula Ford is a single seater, open wheel class in motorsport which exists in some form in many countries around the world. It is an entry-level series to motor racing....

, a formula for single-seater cars without wings and originally on road tires were conceived in 1966 in the UK as an entry-level formula for racing drivers. Many of today's racing drivers started their car racing careers in this category.

Ford trucks


Ford has produced trucks since 1908. Countries where Ford commercial vehicles are or were made include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada (badged Mercury
Mercury (automobile)
Mercury was an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company launched in 1938 by Edsel Ford, son of Henry Ford, to market entry-level luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors' Buick brand, and Chrysler's namesake brand...

 too), France, Germany, India, Netherlands, Philippines, Spain (badged Ebro
Ebro trucks
Ebro trucks was a Spanish brand of light and medium trucks and buses, as well as all-wheel-drive utility vehicles and agricultural tractors, based mainly in Barcelona, Madrid, and Ávila....

 too), Turkey, UK (badged also Fordson and Thames
Thames Trader
The Thames Trader was a range of trucks manufactured by the British arm of the Ford Motor Company built between 1957 and 1965.-Design:The distinctive cab design, which sets it apart from other British commercial vehicles, was a forward-control design and the Thames Trader model covered a much...

) and USA.

From the 1940s to late 1970s Ford's Ford F-Series
Ford F-Series
The F-Series is a series of full-size pickup trucks from Ford Motor Company which has been sold continuously for over six decades. The most popular variant of the F-Series is the F-150...

 were used as the base for light trucks for the North American market.

Most of these ventures are now extinct. The European one that lasted longest was the lorries arm of Ford of Britain
Ford of Britain
Ford of Britain is a British wholly owned subsidiary of Ford of Europe, a subsidiary of Ford Motor Company. Its business started in 1909 and has its registered office in Brentwood, Essex...

, which was eventually sold to Iveco
Iveco
Iveco, an acronym for Industrial Vehicle Corporation, originally an alliance of European commercial vehicle manufacturers such as Fiat , Unic and Magirus. Iveco is now an Italian truck, bus, and diesel engine manufacturer, based in Turin...

 group in 1986, and whose last significant models were the Transcontinental
Ford Transcontinental
The Ford Transcontinental was a heavy goods vehicle tractor and rigid unit manufactured between 1975 and 1983 by Ford in the Netherlands and Britain...

 and the Cargo.

In the United States, Ford's heavy trucks division (Classes 7 and 8
Truck classification
In the United States, commercial truck classification is determined based on the vehicle's gross vehicle weight rating . The classes range from 1-8...

) was sold in 1997 to Freightliner Trucks
Freightliner Trucks
Freightliner Trucks is an American manufacturer of heavy duty trucks, chassis and semi-trailer trucks in the United States. The company was founded as Freightliner Inc in 1942 and is now a division of Daimler Trucks North America, a subsidiary of the German Daimler AG...

, which rebranded the lineup as Sterling
Sterling Trucks
Sterling Trucks, a manufacturer of heavy duty trucks, was a subsidiary of Daimler Trucks North America, based in Portland, Oregon, United States, a member of the Daimler AG Truck Group. It was originally the heavy truck division of Ford Motor Company, but was purchased and rebranded in 1997....

. Freightliner is in the process of discontinuing this line.

Line of heavy trucks made by Ford for the North American market:
  • Ford F-650
    Ford F-650
    The Ford F-650/F-750 Super Duty are medium-duty commercial trucks produced by Ford Motor Company. They were introduced by Ford in 2000, replacing the previous-generation F-600, F-700, and F-800 trucks introduced in 1980. They are made mainly for use as utilitarian trucks for towing, heavy hauling,...

     – joint venture model from 2000 to present
  • Ford L9000
    Ford L-Series Trucks
    Ford L-Series trucks was a long running series of heavy-duty trucks built by Ford Motor Company between 1970 and 1998. It was distinctively styled with a bold hexagonal grille at its introduction...

     – last model year 1999
  • Ford LNT9000
    Ford L-Series Trucks
    Ford L-Series trucks was a long running series of heavy-duty trucks built by Ford Motor Company between 1970 and 1998. It was distinctively styled with a bold hexagonal grille at its introduction...

     – short nose tandem axle from 1970s to 1997
  • Ford LT9000
    Ford L-Series Trucks
    Ford L-Series trucks was a long running series of heavy-duty trucks built by Ford Motor Company between 1970 and 1998. It was distinctively styled with a bold hexagonal grille at its introduction...

     – tandem axle with last model year 1997
  • Ford FT900
    Ford L-Series Trucks
    Ford L-Series trucks was a long running series of heavy-duty trucks built by Ford Motor Company between 1970 and 1998. It was distinctively styled with a bold hexagonal grille at its introduction...

     – until 1998
  • Ford LT8000
    Ford L-Series Trucks
    Ford L-Series trucks was a long running series of heavy-duty trucks built by Ford Motor Company between 1970 and 1998. It was distinctively styled with a bold hexagonal grille at its introduction...

     – last model year 1998
  • Ford L7000
    Ford L-Series Trucks
    Ford L-Series trucks was a long running series of heavy-duty trucks built by Ford Motor Company between 1970 and 1998. It was distinctively styled with a bold hexagonal grille at its introduction...

     – last model year 1996


Ford continues to manufacture medium duty trucks under the F-650 and F-750
Ford F-650
The Ford F-650/F-750 Super Duty are medium-duty commercial trucks produced by Ford Motor Company. They were introduced by Ford in 2000, replacing the previous-generation F-600, F-700, and F-800 trucks introduced in 1980. They are made mainly for use as utilitarian trucks for towing, heavy hauling,...

 badges. In 2001, the company entered into a joint venture with Navistar International
Navistar International
Navistar International Corporation is a United States-based holding company that owns the manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks, MaxxForce brand diesel engines, IC Bus school and commercial buses, Workhorse brand chassis for motor homes and step vans, and is a private label...

 to produce medium duty commercial trucks. The first new model from the new corporation, known as Blue Diamond Truck Company LLC, was the 2006 model year LCF, the first Ford branded cab-over-engine design in the United States since Freightliner's acquisition of the Cargo
Ford Cargo
The Ford Cargo is a cab-over-engine lightweight truck model formerly manufactured by Ford. It was originally launched in 1981 by Ford of the United Kingdom....

 in the mid-1990s.. The LCF was discontinued in 2009 and Ford's 2011 medium-duty commercial offerings are limited to the two F-Series.

In 1999 the end of the F800 meant Ford was not producing in any F-series heavy truck chassis.

In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit
Ford Transit
The Ford Transit is a range of panel vans, minibuses, and pickup trucks, produced by the Ford Motor Company in Europe.The Transit has been the best-selling light commercial vehicle in Europe for 40 years, and in some countries the term "Transit" has passed into common usage as a generic term...

 jumbo van which is classed as a Large Goods Vehicle and has a payload of up to 2,265 kg, there are options of a panel van, pickup or chassis cab. The Ford Transit is also available as a light van called the Ford Transit Connect
Ford Transit Connect
The Ford Transit Connect is a compact panel van developed by Ford Europe and designed by Peter Horbury, introduced in 2002 to replace the older Ford Escort and Fiesta-based Courier van ranges, which had ceased production in the same year....

 and the Ford Ranger
Ford Ranger
The Ford Ranger is a pickup truck produced by the Ford Motor Company. The "Ranger" name had previously been used for a premium styling package on the F-Series full-sized pickup trucks since 1965. The name was moved to this line of North American compact trucks for the 1983 model year.In North...

 pickup is available.

Bus products


Ford manufactured complete buses in the company's early history, but today the role of the company has changed to that of a second stage manufacturer
Second stage manufacturer
A second stage manufacturer, known in the industry as "bodybuilder," builds such products as bus and truck bodies, ambulances, motor homes, and other specialized vehicles....

. In North America, the E-Series
Ford E-Series
The Ford E-Series, formerly known as the Econoline or Club Wagon, is a line of full-size vans and truck chassis from the Ford Motor Company. The E-Series is related to the Ford F-Series line of pickup trucks. The line was introduced in 1961 as a compact van and its descendants are still produced...

 is still used as a chassis for small school buses and the F-650
Ford F-650
The Ford F-650/F-750 Super Duty are medium-duty commercial trucks produced by Ford Motor Company. They were introduced by Ford in 2000, replacing the previous-generation F-600, F-700, and F-800 trucks introduced in 1980. They are made mainly for use as utilitarian trucks for towing, heavy hauling,...

 is used in commercial bus markets. In the 1980s and 1990s, the medium-duty B700
Ford B-Series
The Ford B-Series was a Type C bus chassis manufactured by Ford Motor Company from 1948 to 1998 and was used primarily for school bus applications...

 was a popular chassis used by school bus body manufacturers (Thomas Built
Thomas Built Buses
Thomas Built Buses, Inc. is a bus manufacturer based in High Point, North Carolina, United States and a subsidiary of the German Daimler AG. Thomas produces school buses, activity buses/MFSAB , and commercial buses; both small and full-size buses are produced.Thomas traces its roots to 1916, when...

, Ward
Ward Body Works
Ward Body Works was a manufacturer specializing in school buses based in Conway, Arkansas. Ward filed for bankruptcy in 1980, and its successor, AmTran continued the use of the Ward brand on its school buses until 1992.-History:D. H...

, Blue Bird, etc...), but Ford lost its market share due to industry contraction and agreements between body manufacturers. Older bus models included:

Prior to 1939, For buses were based on truck bodies:
  • Model B – 1930s
  • Model T – 1920s
  • F-105 school bus


During World War II Ford manufactured Ford Transit bus
Ford Transit bus
The Ford Transit bus was a 27-passenger bus produced by the Ford Motor Corporation in the 1940s.Ford constructed the chassis, which were then fitted with bodies by constructed the Union City Body Company of Union City, Indiana...

, a series of small transit buses with bodies built by second party:
  • 09-B/19-B City transit bus – 1939–1941
  • 19-B/29-B City transit bus – 1941–1942
  • 49-B/79-B City transit bus – 1944–1947
  • 69-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 29-B City transit bus – 1946–1947
  • 72-T transit bus – 1944–1945


After 1946 the Transit City bus was sold as Universal Bus with the roof changed from fabric/wood to all metal:
  • 79-B Universal transit bus – 1946–1947


Succeeding the Ford Transit bus
Ford Transit bus
The Ford Transit bus was a 27-passenger bus produced by the Ford Motor Corporation in the 1940s.Ford constructed the chassis, which were then fitted with bodies by constructed the Union City Body Company of Union City, Indiana...

 was the Ford 8M buses:
  • 8MB transit bus – with Wayne Works 1948–?


Following World War II and from 1950s onwards Ford lost out to General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

. This led to the end of transit buses for Ford in North America.
  • B500 or B-series
    Ford B-Series
    The Ford B-Series was a Type C bus chassis manufactured by Ford Motor Company from 1948 to 1998 and was used primarily for school bus applications...

     – 1950-1990s based on Ford F-series truck chassis used by school bus body manufacturers


In Europe, Ford manufactures the Ford Transit
Ford Transit
The Ford Transit is a range of panel vans, minibuses, and pickup trucks, produced by the Ford Motor Company in Europe.The Transit has been the best-selling light commercial vehicle in Europe for 40 years, and in some countries the term "Transit" has passed into common usage as a generic term...

 Minibus
Minibus
A minibus or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the word "minibus" is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a...

 which is classed in Europe as a Passenger Carrying Vehicle and there are options of 12, 15 or 17 seaters. In the past European models included:
  • EM
  • N-138
  • D series buses (Australia)

Ford tractors



The "Henry Ford and Son Company" began making Fordson tractor
Fordson tractor
Fordson was a brand name used on a range of mass produced general-purpose tractors manufactured by Henry Ford & Son, Inc, from 1917 until 1920 when it was merged into the Ford Motor Company, which used the name until 1964...

s in Henry's hometown of Springwells (later part of Dearborn
Dearborn, Michigan
-Economy:Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn. In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses such as the...

, Michigan from 1907 to 1928, from 1919 to 1932, at Cork
Cork (city)
Cork is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland's third most populous city. It is the principal city and administrative centre of County Cork and the largest city in the province of Munster. Cork has a population of 119,418, while the addition of the suburban...

, Ireland and 1933–1964 at Dagenham, England, later transferred to Basildon
Basildon
Basildon is a town located in the Basildon District of the county of Essex, England.It lies east of Central London and south of the county town of Chelmsford...

. They were also produced in Leningrad
Leningrad
Leningrad is the former name of Saint Petersburg, Russia.Leningrad may also refer to:- Places :* Leningrad Oblast, a federal subject of Russia, around Saint Petersburg* Leningrad, Tajikistan, capital of Muminobod district in Khatlon Province...

 beginning in 1924.

In 1986, Ford expanded its tractor business when it purchased the Sperry-New Holland skid-steer loader and hay baler, hay tools and implement company from Sperry Corporation
Sperry Corporation
Sperry Corporation was a major American equipment and electronics company whose existence spanned more than seven decades of the twentieth century...

 and formed Ford-New Holland which bought out Versatile
Versatile
Versatile is a Canadian brand of agricultural equipment that has produced augers, swathers and combine harvester.In the 1970s, it was an independent operation, founded by Peter Pakosh and Roy Robinson, that had 70% of the 4WD tractor market and then was later owned by Ford and Fiat's New Holland,...

 tractors in 1988. This company was bought by Fiat
Fiat
FIAT, an acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino , is an Italian automobile manufacturer, engine manufacturer, financial, and industrial group based in Turin in the Italian region of Piedmont. Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors including Giovanni Agnelli...

 in 1993 and the name changed from Ford New Holland to New Holland. New Holland
New Holland Ag
New Holland is a full range manufacturer of agricultural machinery. New Holland agricultural products include tractors, combine harvesters, balers, haying tools, equipment used in lawn, grounds and turf care, grape harvesters....

 is now part of CNH Global
CNH Global
CNH Global N.V. is a global, full line company operating in both the agricultural and construction equipment industries. CNH's scope includes integrated engineering, manufacturing, marketing and distribution of equipment on five continents...

.

History





Henry's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company
Henry Ford Company
The Henry Ford Company was the second company for Henry Ford, founded November 3, 1901. It resulted from the reorganization of the Detroit Automobile Company, his first unsuccessful attempt at automobile manufacture a year before. In March 1902, Ford left the company following a dispute with his...

 on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902 after Ford left with the rights to his name. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John
John Francis Dodge
John Francis Dodge was an American automobile manufacturing pioneer and co-founder of Dodge Brothers Company.-Biography:...

 and Horace Dodge
Horace Elgin Dodge
Horace Elgin Dodge, Sr. was an American automobile manufacturing pioneer and co-founder of Dodge Brothers Company.-Early years and business:...

 (who would later found their own car company). During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit, Michigan
Michigan
Michigan is a U.S. state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake"....

. Groups of two or three men worked on each car from components made to order by other companies. Later Ford realized it would be better if he manufactured all of his company's automotive parts himself instead of using parts from aftermarket sources which lead to the production of the assembly line
Assembly line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods...

.

Henry Ford was 40 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, as well as being one to survive the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

. As one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 100 years.

See also


  • Detroit Automobile Company
    Detroit Automobile Company
    The Detroit Automobile Company was an early American automobile manufacturer founded on August 5, 1899, in Detroit, Michigan. It was the first venture of its kind in Detroit. Automotive mechanic Henry Ford attracted the financial backing of three investors; Detroit Mayor William Maybury, William...

  • Dodge v. Ford Motor Company
    Dodge v. Ford Motor Company
    Dodge v. Ford Motor Company, 204 Mich. 459, 170 N.W. 668. , is a case in which the Michigan Supreme Court held that Henry Ford owed a duty to the shareholders of the Ford Motor Company to operate his business to profit his shareholders, rather than the community as a whole or employees...

  • Firestone and Ford tire controversy
    Firestone and Ford tire controversy
    The Firestone and Ford tire controversy was a period of unusually high tire failures on some Ford vehicles.-Problem detection:In May 2000, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration contacted Ford and Firestone about the high incidence of tire failure on Ford Explorers, Mercury...

  • Ford F-Series
    Ford F-Series
    The F-Series is a series of full-size pickup trucks from Ford Motor Company which has been sold continuously for over six decades. The most popular variant of the F-Series is the F-150...

  • Ford Mustang
    Ford Mustang
    The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a "1964½" model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A...

  • Ford Racing
    Ford Racing
    Ford Racing is the Ford Motor Company's racing division and the multinational name used for its motorsport activity.-History:* 1896 - Henry Ford reached a top speed of 20 mph in his first car, Quadricycle....

  • Ford V-8
  • Fordson tractor
    Fordson tractor
    Fordson was a brand name used on a range of mass produced general-purpose tractors manufactured by Henry Ford & Son, Inc, from 1917 until 1920 when it was merged into the Ford Motor Company, which used the name until 1964...

  • The Henry Ford
    The Henry Ford
    The Henry Ford, a National Historic Landmark, , in the Metro Detroit suburb of Dearborn, Michigan, USA, is a large indoor and outdoor history museum complex...

  • Henry Ford Company
    Henry Ford Company
    The Henry Ford Company was the second company for Henry Ford, founded November 3, 1901. It resulted from the reorganization of the Detroit Automobile Company, his first unsuccessful attempt at automobile manufacture a year before. In March 1902, Ford left the company following a dispute with his...

  • History of Ford Motor Company
    History of Ford Motor Company
    Ford Motor Company is an American automaker and the world's fifth largest automaker based on worldwide vehicle sales. Based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, the automaker was founded by Henry Ford, and incorporated on June 16, 1903...

  • List of Ford vehicles
  • List of Ford factories
  • List of Ford engines
  • List of Ford platforms
  • List of Ford VIN codes
  • List of CEOs of Ford Motor Company
  • Pay on production
    Pay on production
    Pay on production is a special build-operate-transfer model, where payment is made to a supplier by the original equipment manufacturer per piece produced on the supplier’s own equipment by the OEM’s employees.- Description :...

  • Plug-in hybrid
  • Smith Electric Vehicles
    Smith Electric Vehicles
    Smith Electric Vehicles is the world's leading manufacturers of electric commercial vehicles; battery-powered vans, and trucks Smith Electric Vehicles has always focused on the commercial vehicle market – it does not produce electric cars and has never done so.In 2011 after its United States...

  • Southern California Edison
    Southern California Edison
    Southern California Edison , the largest subsidiary of Edison International , is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California, USA. It provides 14 million people with electricity...

  • Soybean Car
    Soybean Car
    The Soybean car was a plastic car made by the Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan, introduced to the public on August 13, 1941. It was the first car bodied entirely in plastic. Anzovin, p. 189 The first plastic car was manufactured by the Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Mi, USA, in August 1941...

  • Special Vehicle Team (SVT)
    Special Vehicle Team
    Special Vehicle Team, also known as SVT, is an arm of Ford Motor Company responsible for the development of the company's highest-performance vehicles, much like Mercedes-AMG, BMW M, Chrysler's SRT division and GM's Performance Division. SVT is the successor to the SVO division.The current SVT...

  • Special Vehicle Operations (SVO)
    Special Vehicle Operations
    In 1981, Ford formed the Special Vehicle Operations group to design and develop performance parts and accessories related to the company's racing programs....

  • United States Council for Automotive Research
    United States Council for Automotive Research
    United States Council for Automotive Research LLC is an umbrella organization for collaborative research that comprises Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors Corporation. Its goal is to further strengthen the technology base of the U.S...


Ford Motor Company

  • Bak, Richard. Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire (2003)
  • Bardou; Jean-Pierre, Jean-Jacques Chanaron, Patrick Fridenson, and James M. Laux. The Automobile Revolution: The Impact of an Industry University of North Carolina Press, 1982
  • Batchelor, Ray. Henry Ford: Mass Production, Modernism and Design Manchester U. Press, 1994
  • Bonin, Huber et al. Ford, 1902–2003: The European History 2 vol Paris 2003. ISBN 2-914369-06-9 scholarly essays in English on Ford operations in Europe; reviewed in Len Holden, Len. "Fording the Atlantic: Ford and Fordism in Europe" in Business History Volume 47, #January 1, 2005 pp 122–127
  • Bowman, Timothy J. Spirituality at Work: An Exploratory Sociological Investigation of the Ford Motor Company. London School of Economics and Political Science, 2004
  • Brinkley, Douglas G. Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress (2003)
  • Brinkley, Douglas. "Prime Mover". American Heritage 2003 54(3): 44–53. on Model T
  • Bryan, Ford R. Henry's Lieutenants, 1993; ISBN 0-8143-2428-2
  • Bucci, Federico. Albert Kahn: Architect of Ford Princeton Architectural Press, 1993
  • Cabadas, Joseph P. River Rouge: Ford's Industrial Colossus (2004), heavily illustrated
  • Dempsey, Mary A. "Fordlandia' Michigan History 1994 78(4): 24–33. Ford's rubber plantation in Brazil
  • Flink, James. America Adopts the Automobile, 1895–1910 MIT Press, 1970
  • Foster, Mark S. "The Model T, The Hard Sell, and Los Angeles Urban Growth: The Decentralization of Los Angeles During the 1920s." Pacific Historical Review 44.4 (November 1975): 459–84
  • David Halberstam, The Reckoning (1986) detailed reporting on the crises of 1973-mid 1980s
  • Iacocca, Lee and William Novak. Iacocca: An Autobiography (1984)
  • Jacobson, D. S. "The Political Economy of Industrial Location: the Ford Motor Company at Cork 1912–26." Irish Economic and Social History [Ireland] 1977 4: 36–55. Ford and Irish politics
  • Lacey, Robert "Ford: The Men and the Machine" (Heinnemann, London) 0 414 401027 (1986)
  • Levinson, William A. Henry Ford's Lean Vision: Enduring Principles from the First Ford Motor Plant, 2002; ISBN 1-56327-260-1
  • Kuhn, Arthur J. GM Passes Ford, 1918–1938: Designing the General Motors Performance-Control System. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1986
  • Magee, David. Ford Tough: Bill Ford and the Battle to Rebuild America's Automaker (2004)
  • Maxton, Graeme P. and John Wormald, Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automotive Industry (2004)
  • May, George S. A Most Unique Machine: The Michigan Origins of the American Automobile Industry Eerdman's, 1975
  • Maynard, Micheline. The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car Market (2003)
  • McIntyre, Stephen L. "The Failure of Fordism: Reform of the Automobile Repair Industry, 1913–1940: Technology and Culture 2000 41(2): 269–299. repair shops rejected flat rates
  • Rubenstein; James M. The Changing U.S. Auto Industry: A Geographical Analysis Routledge, 1992
  • Shiomi, Haruhito and Kazuo Wada. Fordism Transformed: The Development of Production Methods in the Automobile Industry Oxford University Press, 1995
  • Studer-Noguez; Isabel. Ford and the Global Strategies of Multinationals: The North American Auto Industry Routledge, 2002
  • Tedlow, Richard S. "The Struggle for Dominance in the Automobile Market: the Early Years of Ford and General Motors" Business and Economic History 1988 17: 49–62. Ford stressed low price based on efficient factories but GM did better in oligopolistic competition by including investment in manufacturing, marketing, and management
  • Thomas, Robert Paul. "The Automobile Industry and its Tycoon" Explorations in Entrepreneurial History 1969 6(2): 139–157. argues Ford did NOT have much influence on US industry
  • Watts, Steven. The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century (2005)
  • Wik, Reynold M. Henry Ford and Grass-Roots America. University of Michigan Press, 1972. impact on farmers
  • Wilkins, Mira and Frank Ernest Hill, American Business Abroad: Ford on Six Continents Wayne State University Press, 1964
  • Williams, Karel, Colin Haslam and John Williams, "Ford versus 'Fordism': The Beginning of Mass Production?" Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, 517–555 (1992), stress on Ford's flexibility and commitment to continuous improvements.


External links