Tianjin

Tianjin

Overview
is a metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 in northern China
North China
thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

 and one of the five national central cities
National Central City
National central city was a concept proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China in 2005 as a first step in reforming urbanization in China. National central cities are described as a group of cities in charge of leading, developing, performing...

 of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality
Direct-controlled municipality of China
Municipality also translated as Direct-controlled municipality or municipality directly under the central government is the highest level classification for cities used by People's Republic of China.-History:...

, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government
Central People's Government
The Central People's Government is the central government of the People's Republic of China in Beijing. According to the 1982 Constitution, "Central People's Government" is synonymous with the State Council.-History:...

. Tianjin borders Hebei Province
Hebei
' is a province of the People's Republic of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" , named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei...

 and Beijing Municipality
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

.

As a dual-core city, Tianjin is divided into the old city and the Binhai New Area
Binhai New Area
Binhai New Area ,short for Binhai is a major economic development zone within the jurisdiction of Tianjin municipality in China. Binhai New Area locates on the east coast of Tianjin and center of Circum-Bohai-Sea Region.Binhai New Area is a new growth pole in china, and maintain an annual growth...

. Binhai New Area is a new growth pole in China, and it maintains an annual growth rate of nearly 30% of the GDP.
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Encyclopedia
is a metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 in northern China
North China
thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

 and one of the five national central cities
National Central City
National central city was a concept proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China in 2005 as a first step in reforming urbanization in China. National central cities are described as a group of cities in charge of leading, developing, performing...

 of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality
Direct-controlled municipality of China
Municipality also translated as Direct-controlled municipality or municipality directly under the central government is the highest level classification for cities used by People's Republic of China.-History:...

, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government
Central People's Government
The Central People's Government is the central government of the People's Republic of China in Beijing. According to the 1982 Constitution, "Central People's Government" is synonymous with the State Council.-History:...

. Tianjin borders Hebei Province
Hebei
' is a province of the People's Republic of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" , named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei...

 and Beijing Municipality
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

.

As a dual-core city, Tianjin is divided into the old city and the Binhai New Area
Binhai New Area
Binhai New Area ,short for Binhai is a major economic development zone within the jurisdiction of Tianjin municipality in China. Binhai New Area locates on the east coast of Tianjin and center of Circum-Bohai-Sea Region.Binhai New Area is a new growth pole in china, and maintain an annual growth...

. Binhai New Area is a new growth pole in China, and it maintains an annual growth rate of nearly 30% of the GDP. As of the end of 2010, 285 Fortune Global 500 companies have established branch offices in Binhai. It is a base of China's advanced industry, financial reform, and innovation.

In terms of urban population, it is the sixth-largest city of the People's Republic of China, and its urban land area (Binhai New Area is not included) ranks fifth in the nation after Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

, and Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

. Tianjin's urban area is located along the Hai River
Hai River
The Hai River , previously called Bai He , is a river in the People's Republic of China which flows through Beijing and Tianjin before emptying into the Yellow Sea at the Bohai Gulf.The Hai River at Tianjin is formed by the confluence of five rivers, the Southern Canal, Ziya...

, which connects to the Yellow
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

 and Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 Rivers via the Grand Canal in Tianjin. Tianjin was once home to foreign concessions
Concessions in Tianjin
The Concessions in Tianjin were concession territories ceded by the Chinese imperial Qing Dynasty to the great powers in Tianjin, also known as Tientsin or Tien-Tsin.-General context:...

 in the late Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 and early Kuomintang
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 (KMT) era. The municipality incorporates the coastal region of Tanggu, home to the Binhai New Area
Binhai New Area
Binhai New Area ,short for Binhai is a major economic development zone within the jurisdiction of Tianjin municipality in China. Binhai New Area locates on the east coast of Tianjin and center of Circum-Bohai-Sea Region.Binhai New Area is a new growth pole in china, and maintain an annual growth...

 and the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area
Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area
Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area , commonly abbreviated as TEDA is the main free market zone in Tanggu District in Tianjin, China. It was formed in late 1984 and currently has more foreign businesses in it than all of Shanghai....

 (TEDA).

History



The land where Tianjin lies today was created in historical times by sediment
Sediment
Sediment is naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of fluids such as wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particle itself....

ation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

, which entered the sea in this area at one point.

The opening of the Grand Canal of China
Grand Canal of China
The Grand Canal in China, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is the longest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou...

 during the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty was a powerful, but short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it ended nearly four centuries of division between rival regimes. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty....

 prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. Until 1404, Tianjin was called "Zhigu" (直沽), or "Straight Port". In that year, the Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
The Yongle Emperor , born Zhu Di , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. His Chinese era name Yongle means "Perpetual Happiness".He was the Prince of Yan , possessing a heavy military base in Beiping...

 renamed the city Tianjin, means "the Heavenly Ford", to indicate that the Emperor
Emperor of China
The Emperor of China refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning between the founding of Qin Dynasty of China, united by the King of Qin in 221 BCE, and the fall of Yuan Shikai's Empire of China in 1916. When referred to as the Son of Heaven , a title that predates the Qin unification, the...

 (son of heaven) forded the river at that point. This is because he had indeed forded the river in Tianjin while on a campaign to scramble for the throne from his nephew. Later on, a fort was established in Tianjin, known as "Tianjin Wei" (天津卫), the Fort of Tianjin.

Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture
Zhou (political division)
Zhou were historical political divisions of China. Formally established during the Han Dynasty, zhou continued to exist until the establishment of the Republic of China — a period of over 2000 years...

 in 1725. Tianjin County was established under the prefecture in 1731.
In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts
Taku Forts
The Dagu Forts , also called the Peiho Forts are forts located by the Hai River estuary, in Tanggu District, Tianjin municipality, in northeastern China. They are located 60 km southeast of the Tianjin urban center.-History:The first fort was built during the reign of the Ming Jiajing...

 (大沽砲台) near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

 in June of the same year, the Treaties of Tianjin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Emperor of China
Emperor of China
The Emperor of China refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning between the founding of Qin Dynasty of China, united by the King of Qin in 221 BCE, and the fall of Yuan Shikai's Empire of China in 1916. When referred to as the Son of Heaven , a title that predates the Qin unification, the...

 in 1860, and Tianjin (known as Tientsin) was formally opened to Great Britain and France, so to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, and even by countries without other Chinese concession
Concession (territory)
In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it. This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.Usually, it is conceded, that...

s such as Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

, Italy and Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin
Concessions in Tianjin
The Concessions in Tianjin were concession territories ceded by the Chinese imperial Qing Dynasty to the great powers in Tianjin, also known as Tientsin or Tien-Tsin.-General context:...

, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals. These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. Today those villas provide an exotic flavour to Tianjin.

The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to take place was the Tianjin Church Incident (天津教案). In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (望海楼教堂), Our Lady of Victories, in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate
Magistrate
A magistrate is an officer of the state; in modern usage the term usually refers to a judge or prosecutor. This was not always the case; in ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest government officers and possessed both judicial and executive powers. Today, in common law systems, a...

 of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, and merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.

In June 1900, the Boxers
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

 were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, European defense forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang
Langfang
Langfang , Hebei province, China, is a prefecture-level city located approximately midway between Beijing and Tianjin with a total population of 3.85 million and an urban area population of 763,700. Its total area is around 6,429 km²...

, and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions also came under siege for several weeks.

In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance
Eight-Nation Alliance
The Eight-Nation Alliance was an alliance of Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States whose military forces intervened in China to suppress the anti-foreign Boxers and relieve the siege of the diplomatic legations in Beijing .- Events :The...

 recaptured Tianjin. They soon established the Tianjin Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). The city was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai was an important Chinese general and politician famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor of China, his autocratic rule as the second President of the Republic of China , and his short-lived...

 headed efforts to remake Tianjin into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force here. In 1907, Yuan supervised China's first modern democratic elections for a county council.

Tianjin was established as a municipality of China (直辖市) in 1927.

Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Peking. The British maintained a brigade of two battalions there, and the Italians, French, Japanese, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians maintained understrength regiments; the United States did not initially participate. During World War I, the German and Austro-Hungarian garrisons were captured and held as Prisoners of War by Allied Forces while the Bolshevik government withdrew the Russian garrison in 1918. In 1920, the remaining participating nations asked the United States to join them, and the US then sent the 15th Infantry Regiment, less one battalion, to Tientsin from the Philippines.

Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C Marshall
George Marshall
George Catlett Marshall was an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense...

, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tientsin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps contingent from the Embassy Guard at Peking.

On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

, but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions
Concessions in Tianjin
The Concessions in Tianjin were concession territories ceded by the Chinese imperial Qing Dynasty to the great powers in Tianjin, also known as Tientsin or Tien-Tsin.-General context:...

 until 1941, when the American and British concessions
Concessions in Tianjin
The Concessions in Tianjin were concession territories ceded by the Chinese imperial Qing Dynasty to the great powers in Tianjin, also known as Tientsin or Tien-Tsin.-General context:...

 were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident
Tientsin Incident
was an international incident created by a blockade by the Imperial Japanese Army's Japanese Northern China Area Army of the British settlements in the north China treaty port of Tianjin in June 1939...

. On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
-Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

 surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
Arthur Neville Chamberlain FRS was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his appeasement foreign policy, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the...

 was advised by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state
Puppet state
A puppet state is a nominal sovereign of a state who is de facto controlled by a foreign power. The term refers to a government controlled by the government of another country like a puppeteer controls the strings of a marionette...

 based in Beijing.

On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 unit stationed in Tianjin was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy
Vichy France
Vichy France, Vichy Regime, or Vichy Government, are common terms used to describe the government of France that collaborated with the Axis powers from July 1940 to August 1944. This government succeeded the Third Republic and preceded the Provisional Government of the French Republic...

) were allowed to remain by the Japanese. Japanese occupation lasted until August 15, 1945, the surrender of Japan marking the end of World War II.

Tianjin holds the annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
The World Economic Forum is a Swiss non-profit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, best known for its annual meeting in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland....

 (also called Summer Davos) from 2008.

In October 2010, the UN Climate Change Conference convened in Tianjin.

Geography


Tianjin is located in Northern China along the coast of the Bohai Gulf, with latitude ranging from 38° 15' to 40° 14' N, and longitude ranging from 116° 43' to 118° 03' E. Surrounded by Hebei on all directions except for the sea and is bordered by Beijing to the northwest, it lies at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China
Grand Canal of China
The Grand Canal in China, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is the longest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou...

, which connects with the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

 and Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

. The municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yan Mountains
Yan Mountains
The Yanshan or Yan Mountains are a major mountain range north of the North China Plain, in northern Hebei Province.The range rises between the Chaobai River on the west and the famous Shanhai Pass on the east. It is made up mostly of limestone, granite and basalt. Its altitude ranges from 400 to...

 intrude into northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiushanding Peak on the northern border with Hebei
Hebei
' is a province of the People's Republic of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" , named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei...

, at an altitude of 1078 m.

The Hai River
Hai River
The Hai River , previously called Bai He , is a river in the People's Republic of China which flows through Beijing and Tianjin before emptying into the Yellow Sea at the Bohai Gulf.The Hai River at Tianjin is formed by the confluence of five rivers, the Southern Canal, Ziya...

 forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River(子牙河), Daqing River(大清河), Yongding River
Yongding River
The Yongding River is a river in northern China. It is one of the main tributaries in the Hai River system and is best known as the largest river to flow through Beijing Municipality.-Geography:...

, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality as well, in Tanggu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District
Dagang District
The area that was formerly known as Dagang District lies at the southeast of Tianjin municipality area. It had a population of 440,000 and occupied 1113.83 km² in size, with a coast line stretching approximately 25 km on the eastern side....

) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north (in Ji County
Ji County, Tianjin
Ji County is a county in the far north of Tianjin municipality, China of cultural and historical significance . The administration of the county was transferred from Hebei province to Tianjin in 1973...

).

Climate


Tianjin features a four season, monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

-influenced climate
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

, typical of East Asia, with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms
Dust storm
A dust / sand storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions. Dust storms arise when a gust front or other strong wind blows loose sand and dirt from a dry surface. Particles are transported by saltation and suspension, causing soil to move from one place and deposition...

 blowing in from the Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
The Gobi is a large desert region in Asia. It covers parts of northern and northwestern China, and of southern Mongolia. The desert basins of the Gobi are bounded by the Altai Mountains and the grasslands and steppes of Mongolia on the north, by the Hexi Corridor and Tibetan Plateau to the...

, capable of lasting for several days. Monthly mean temperatures range from −3.5 °C from January to July, with an annual average of 12.7 °C (54.9 °F). With precipitation being generous only during the summer months, and a low annual total of 540 millimetres (21.3 in), the city lies within the humid continental zone, with parts of the municipality being semi-arid
Semi-arid
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate describes climatic regions that receive precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dwa/BSk, respectively)

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.9 C.

Administrative divisions



Tianjin is divided into 16 county-level divisions, including 13 districts and 3 counties.
Urban districts
  • Heping District
    Heping District, Tianjin
    Heping District is a district in the center of Tianjin, in northeastern China.The district has a long history. It comprises an area of 9.97 km²...

  • Hedong District
    Hedong District, Tianjin
    Hedong District is located at the heart of the city of Tianjin, China. As the district lies east of the Hai River, its name literally means "District east of the river". Parts of the district were once part of the Russian Concession during the colonial period in the early 20th Century...

  • Hexi District
    Hexi District, Tianjin
    Hexi District River") is a district in the south-western corner of urban Tianjin, China. It is bordered by Heping District in the north-west, Hedong District to the north-east and Nankai District to the west...

  • Nankai District
    Nankai District
    Nankai District is a district located in Tianjin, China. Nankai District borders the Haihe River in the east and Chentangzhuang Railway in the west and south....

  • Hebei District
    Hebei District
    Hebei District is a district under the administration of Tianjin city in the People's Republic of China. Its name literally means "District north of the River", as the district is located on the northern shore of the of the Hai River, part of the Grand Canal. Tianjin's famous Zhongshan Park lies...

  • Hongqiao District
    Hongqiao District
    Hongqiao District is a district in the city of Tianjin, China. The name of the district derives from the name of a bridge - Dahong Bridge - on the Ziya River, a tributary of Hai River.- External links :*...

  • Binhai New Area
    Binhai New Area
    Binhai New Area ,short for Binhai is a major economic development zone within the jurisdiction of Tianjin municipality in China. Binhai New Area locates on the east coast of Tianjin and center of Circum-Bohai-Sea Region.Binhai New Area is a new growth pole in china, and maintain an annual growth...



Suburban districts
  • Jinnan District
    Jinnan District
    Jinnan District is a district of Tianjin, China. The name of the district literally means "South Tianjin" or "South of Tianjin", explained by its location relative to the urban core of Tianjin....

  • Dongli District
    Dongli District, Tianjin
    Dongli District is a district direct of Tianjin Municipality , China....

  • Xiqing District
    Xiqing District
    -History:Xiqing District is located in the southwest of Tianjin City, on the east bordering Hongqiao District, Nankai District, Hexi District, and Jinnan District, to the south across the Duliujian River facing Jinghai District, on the west bordering Wuqing District and Bazhou, Hebei Province, to...

  • Beichen District
    Beichen District
    Beichen District was originally a suburban district of Tianjin city. Before June 1992, the district was named Beijiao District which means North Suburb. As the city expanded, it was generally regarded as a new metropolitan area. Hence the change of name.The district occupies approximately 478.5...



Two rural districts and three rural counties
  • Baodi District
    Baodi District
    Baodi District is a district of Tianjin, China....

  • Wuqing District
    Wuqing District
    Wuqing District is a district of Tianjin, China....

  • Ji County
    Ji County, Tianjin
    Ji County is a county in the far north of Tianjin municipality, China of cultural and historical significance . The administration of the county was transferred from Hebei province to Tianjin in 1973...

  • Jinghai County
    Jinghai County
    ' is a county of Tianjin, China, located in the southwest portion of the municipality, not too far from the border with Hebei Province. Birth place of Chinese hero: Huo Yuanjia...

  • Ninghe County
    Ninghe County
    ' is a county of Tianjin, China, located in the rural northeast part of the municipality....


In addition, the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district.
These districts and counties are further subdivided, as of December 31, 2004, into 240 township-level divisions, including 120 towns, 18 townships, 2 ethnic townships and 100 subdistrict
Subdistrict
Subdistrict is a low level administrative division of a country. In Thailand it may refer to the King Amphoe or to the Tambon. In England and Wales it was part of a Registration district....

s.

Politics



The politics of Tianjin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

.

The Mayor of Tianjin is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Tianjin. Since Tianjin is a municipality, the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

 Municipal Committee Secretary is colloquially termed the "Tianjin CPC Party chief".

Economy



The nominal GDP for Tianjin was 750 billion yuan (US$110 billion) in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 16.5%.

In 2009, per capita GDP was 62,403 yuan (US$9,136). The manufacturing sector
Secondary sector of industry
The secondary sector of the economy or industrial sector includes those economic sectors that create a finished, tangible product: production and construction.-Function:...

 was the largest (54.8%) and fastest-growing (18.2%) sector of Tianjin's economy. Urban disposable income
Disposable income
Disposable income is total personal income minus personal current taxes. In national accounts definitions, personal income, minus personal current taxes equals disposable personal income...

 per capita was 21,430 yuan, a real increase of 10.3% from the previous year. Rural pure income per capita was 10,675 yuan, a real increase of 10.4% from the previous year.

Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops. Fishing is important along the coast. Tianjin is also an important industrial base. Major industries include petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking
Metalworking
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills,...

.

Tianjin Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonne
Tonne
The tonne, known as the metric ton in the US , often put pleonastically as "metric tonne" to avoid confusion with ton, is a metric system unit of mass equal to 1000 kilograms. The tonne is not an International System of Units unit, but is accepted for use with the SI...

s of petroleum, with Dagang District
Dagang District
The area that was formerly known as Dagang District lies at the southeast of Tianjin municipality area. It had a population of 440,000 and occupied 1113.83 km² in size, with a coast line stretching approximately 25 km on the eastern side....

 containing important oilfields. Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese
Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

 and boron
Boron
Boron is the chemical element with atomic number 5 and the chemical symbol B. Boron is a metalloid. Because boron is not produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust. However, boron is concentrated on Earth by the...

 under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.

EADS Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

 has already opened an assembly plant for its A320 series
Airbus A320
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

 airliners, operational since 2009. AVIC I and AVIC II will be EADS' local partners for the site, to which subassemblies will be sent from plants around the world.

Binhai New Area

  • Tianjin Airport Industrial Park
  • Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone

Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone is jointly invested by Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone and Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It is located inside the airfreight area of Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It has domestic and foreign excellent airfreight logistics enterprises engaged in sorting, warehousing, distribution, processing, exhibition. It is in the process of constructing the largest airfreight base in northern China.
  • Tianjin Baodi Economic and Technological Development Area
  • Tianjin Economic & Technological Development Area
    Teda
    The Teda are a Toubou people who live mostly in northern Chad, but is present also in Libya, Niger and Nigeria. They speak Tedaga, a Nilo-Saharan language, and are very close ethnically and culturally with the Daza. They likely number more than 50,000, and are Muslims....

     (Also mentioned as TEDA
    Teda
    The Teda are a Toubou people who live mostly in northern Chad, but is present also in Libya, Niger and Nigeria. They speak Tedaga, a Nilo-Saharan language, and are very close ethnically and culturally with the Daza. They likely number more than 50,000, and are Muslims....

    )
  • Tianjin Export Processing Zone

Located in the northeastern part of Tianjin Economy Development Area, Tianjin Export Processing Zone (TEPZ) has a planned area of 2.54 square kilometers, and the development area in Phase I is a square kilometer. The zone enjoys a convenient transport network, and it is located 40 km to Tianjin, 145 km to Beijing and 5 km to Tianjin Port.
  • Tianjin High-tech Industry Park
  • Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone

Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone is the largest free trade zone in northern China as well as the only free trade zone in northern China and north-western China. The zone was approved to be established in 1991 by State Council. It is 30 km from Tianjin city proper, less than 1 km away from the wharf and only 38 km away from Tianjin Binhai International Airport.
  • Tianjin Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area

Tianjin Tanggu Marine High-Tech Development Area was established in 1992, and was upgraded to the national-level high-tech development area by the State Council in 1995, it is the only national-level high-tech development area specializing in developing the marine Hi-Tech industry. By the end of 2008, the zone has 2068 corporations and has 5 industries there including new materials, oil manufacturing, modern machinery manufacturing, and electronic information.
  • Huayuan Area
    Huayuan Area
    Huayuan is a town of Nankai District, Tianjin, China, which has a population of 70,000.-External links:*...

     Industrial Development Park
  • Wuqing Development Area

National Supercomputing Center


The current second fastest supercomputer
Supercomputer
A supercomputer is a computer at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation.Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems including quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modeling A supercomputer is a...

 in the world, Tianhe-1A
Tianhe-I
Tianhe-I, Tianhe-1, or TH-1 , in English, "Milky Way Number One", is a supercomputer capable of an Rmax of 2.566 petaFLOPS...

, is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin.

Demographics



At the end of 2009, the population of Tianjin Municipality was 12.28 million, of which 9.8 million were residential holders of Tianjin hukou (permanent residence). Among Tianjin permanent residents, 5.99 million were urban, and 3.81 million were rural. The population will grow to 14 million. (out of which 11,5 million will be urban population)

The majority of Tianjin residents are Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

. There are also 51 out of the 55 minor Chinese ethnic groups living in Tianjin. Major minorities include Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

, Koreans, Manchus, and Mongols
Mongols
Mongols ) are a Central-East Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in the countries of Mongolia, China, and Russia. In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia...

.

Ethnic groups in Tianjin, 2000 census
Ethnicity  Population Percentage
Han
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 
9,581,775 97.29%
Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

 
172,357 1.75%
Manchu  56,548 0.57%
Mongols
Mongols
Mongols ) are a Central-East Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in the countries of Mongolia, China, and Russia. In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia...

 
11,331 0.12%
Korean
Korean people
The Korean people are an ethnic group originating in the Korean peninsula and Manchuria. Koreans are one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogeneous groups in the world.-Names:...

 
11,041 0.11%
Zhuang  4,055 0.041%
Tujia  3,677 0.037%


Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 in active service.

Media


Tianjin People's Broadcasting Station is the major radio station in Tianjin. Broadcasting in nine channels, it serves most of North China, part of East
East China
East China is a geographical and a loosely-defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.Although an intangible and loosely defined concept, for administrative and governmental purposes, the region is defined by the government of the People's Republic of China to include...

 and Northeast China, reaching an audience of over 100 million.
Tianjin Television
Tianjin Television
Tianjin Television is a television network in Tianjin, China. Its official website is called Tian Shi Wang...

, the local television station, broadcasts in nine channels. It also boasts a paid digital
Digital television
Digital television is the transmission of audio and video by digital signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV...

 channel, featuring home improvement
Home improvement
Home improvement, home renovation or remodeling is the process of renovating or making additions to one's home.-Types of home improvement:...

 programs. Both the radio and television stations are now branches of the Tianjin Film, Radio and Television Group, established in October 2002.

Major local newspapers include the Tianjin Daily and Jin Wan Bao (literally, tonight newspaper), which are the flagship papers of Tianjin Daily Newspaper Group and Jinwan Mass Media Group, respectively. There are also three English-language magazines: Jin, Tianjin Plus and Business Tianjin, mostly directed at ex-pats resident in the city.

Culture



People from urban Tianjin speak Tianjin dialect
Tianjin dialect
Tianjin dialect is a Mandarin dialect spoken in the urban area of Tianjin, China. It is comprehensible to speakers of other Mandarin dialects, though its greatest deviation from the others lies in its individual tones, and the lack of retroflex consonants...

, which comes under the Mandarin subdivision of spoken Chinese. Despite its proximity to Beijing, Tianjin dialect
Tianjin dialect
Tianjin dialect is a Mandarin dialect spoken in the urban area of Tianjin, China. It is comprehensible to speakers of other Mandarin dialects, though its greatest deviation from the others lies in its individual tones, and the lack of retroflex consonants...

 sounds quite different from Beijing dialect
Beijing dialect
Beijing dialect, or Pekingese , is the dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China. It is the phonological basis of Standard Chinese, which is used by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China , and Singapore....

, which provides the basis for Putonghua, the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China.

Tianjin cuisine
Tianjin cuisine
Tianjin cuisine is derived from the native cooking styles of the Tianjin region in China, and it is heavily influenced by Beijing cuisine, due to the proximity of the two megalopolises...

 places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (八大碗), a combination of eight mainly meat dishes. It can be further classified into several varieties, including the rough (粗), smooth (S: 细 / T: 細), and high (高). The Four Great Stews (四大扒) actually refers to a very large number of stews, including chicken, duck, seafood, beef, and mutton.

Tianjin also has several famous snack
Snack
A snack is a small portion of food eaten between meals. The food might be snack food—items like potato chips or baby carrots—but could also simply be a smaller amount of any food item.-Snacks and health:...

 items. Goubuli
Goubuli
Goubuli is a famous brand of baozi from Tianjin, China. Founded in 1858, it is one of China's longest established brands.Several explanations have been offered for its unusual name; perhaps the most common is that it comes from a childhood nickname of the founder, Gao Gui You 高贵友, given to...

 (狗不理包子) is a famous and traditional brand of baozi
Baozi
A bāozi or simply known as bao, bau, humbow, nunu, bausak, pow or pau is a type of steamed, filled bun or bread-like item in various Chinese cuisines, as there is much variation as to the fillings and the preparations...

 (steamed buns with filling) that is famous throughout China. Guifaxiang (桂发祥麻花) is a traditional brand of mahua (twisted dough sticks). Erduoyan (耳朵眼炸糕) is a traditional brand of fried rice cakes.

Tianjin is a respected home base of Beijing opera
Beijing opera
Peking opera or Beijing opera is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics. It arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century. The form was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty court...

, one of the most prestigious forms of Chinese opera
Chinese opera
Chinese opera is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back as far as the third century CE...

.

Tianjin is famous for its stand up [comedy] and comedians including Guo Degang
Guo Degang
- Biography :Guo Degang was born in Tianjin. He began to learn pingshu when he was 8 years old.Guo went to Beijing in 1995 and established Deyun She , a xiangsheng performance theater, in 1996...

 and Ma Sanli
Ma Sanli
Ma Sanli was a China comedian in the traditional Xiangsheng or "crosstalker" style.-Biography:Ma was born in Beijing; he was a Hui, and the son and grandson of practitioners of Xiangsheng. He was apprenticed to Zhou Deshan in 1929....

. Ma Sanli
Ma Sanli
Ma Sanli was a China comedian in the traditional Xiangsheng or "crosstalker" style.-Biography:Ma was born in Beijing; he was a Hui, and the son and grandson of practitioners of Xiangsheng. He was apprenticed to Zhou Deshan in 1929....

 (马三立) (1914–2003), an ethnic Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

 and longtime resident of Tianjin, is renowned for his xiangsheng
Xiangsheng
Xiangsheng , sometimes translated as crosstalk, is a traditional Chinese comedic performance in the form of a dialogue between two performers, or, much less often, a solo monologue or, even less frequently, a multi-player talk show. The language, rich in puns and allusions, is delivered in a rapid,...

 (相声), a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment similar to comedy. Ma Sanli delivered some of his xiangsheng in the Tianjin dialect
Tianjin dialect
Tianjin dialect is a Mandarin dialect spoken in the urban area of Tianjin, China. It is comprehensible to speakers of other Mandarin dialects, though its greatest deviation from the others lies in its individual tones, and the lack of retroflex consonants...

. Tianjin, along with Beijing, is a center for the art of xiangsheng.

Yangliuqing
Yangliuqing
Yangliuqing is a market town located in the western suburbs of the municipality of Tianjin, People's Republic of China. Despite its relatively small size, it has been named since 2006 in the "famous historical and cultural market towns in China"....

 (Green Willows), a town about 15 km west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Tianjin's Xiqing District
Xiqing District
-History:Xiqing District is located in the southwest of Tianjin City, on the east bordering Hongqiao District, Nankai District, Hexi District, and Jinnan District, to the south across the Duliujian River facing Jinghai District, on the west bordering Wuqing District and Bazhou, Hebei Province, to...

, is famous for its popular Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year – often called Chinese Lunar New Year although it actually is lunisolar – is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It is an all East and South-East-Asia celebration...

-themed, traditional-style, colourful wash paintings (杨柳青年画). Tianjin is also famous for Zhang's clay figurine
Clay Figure Zhang
Clay Figure Zhang is a famous folk art in Tianjin, China's second biggest city. It was initiated by Zhang Mingshan , a folk artist of Tianjin, during Daoguang period in Qing Dynasty...

s (泥人张) which are a type of colourful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters, and Tianjin's Wei's kites (风筝魏), which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes, are noted for portability.

Transport


The Tianjin tram network was awarded to a Belgian company in 1904 and opened in 1906. It was the first city-wide tramway system in China. There were 402 bus lines in the city as of 2004.

Construction work on the Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro is a rapid transit system in the city of Tianjin, China, which was the second city in China to operate a subway system. Founded in 1984, it now includes 22 stations. The system currently consists of a single northwest-east line...

 started on July 4, 1970. It was the second metro to be built in China and commenced service in 1984. The total length of track is 7.4 kilometers. The metro service was suspended on October 9, 2001 for reconstruction. This new metro is now called Line 1
Line 1, Tianjin Metro
Line 1 of the Tianjin Metro runs 26.2 km from the north-west to the south-east of Tianjin and serves 22 stations. The central part of the line basically consists of the original Tianjin Metro line, put into service in 1984. However, the line was considerably extended and modernized in 2005....

. It was re-opened to the public in June 2006. The track was extended to 26.188 kilometers and there will be a total of 22 stations. Previously, there were 8 stations. Several new metro lines are planned. Construction work on Line 2 and Line 3 are ongoing.

There is also a light railway line in the city, the Binhai Mass Transit
Binhai Mass Transit
The Binhai Mass Transit is one of two rapid transit systems in Tianjin, the other being the Tianjin Metro. Binhai Mass Transit is a rapid transit line that serves the Binhai New Area and TEDA...

 line. The line runs between downtown Tianjin and TEDA
Teda
The Teda are a Toubou people who live mostly in northern Chad, but is present also in Libya, Niger and Nigeria. They speak Tedaga, a Nilo-Saharan language, and are very close ethnically and culturally with the Daza. They likely number more than 50,000, and are Muslims....

 (Tianjin Economic Development Area) in the seaside region. The eastern part of the line began service on March 28, 2004. The western part of the line is scheduled to be completed in 2006.

There is also a guided rail tram system in TEDA, called TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram
TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram
TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is a Translohr Light Rail system in Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area. It is a modern, high speed rubber tired tram system, both first in China & Asia....

.

Rapid transit


The municipality consists of two rapid transit systems, Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro is a rapid transit system in the city of Tianjin, China, which was the second city in China to operate a subway system. Founded in 1984, it now includes 22 stations. The system currently consists of a single northwest-east line...

 and Binhai Mass Transit
Binhai Mass Transit
The Binhai Mass Transit is one of two rapid transit systems in Tianjin, the other being the Tianjin Metro. Binhai Mass Transit is a rapid transit line that serves the Binhai New Area and TEDA...

. They are currently under heavy expansion from three to nine lines. Four lines are currently operating both in the City and the Binhai area.

As of October 2009, the entire network of Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro is a rapid transit system in the city of Tianjin, China, which was the second city in China to operate a subway system. Founded in 1984, it now includes 22 stations. The system currently consists of a single northwest-east line...

 and Binhai Mass Transit
Binhai Mass Transit
The Binhai Mass Transit is one of two rapid transit systems in Tianjin, the other being the Tianjin Metro. Binhai Mass Transit is a rapid transit line that serves the Binhai New Area and TEDA...

 has 50 stations and 4 lines.

There are two rapid transit operators in Tianjin:
  • Tianjin Metro
    Tianjin Metro
    Tianjin Metro is a rapid transit system in the city of Tianjin, China, which was the second city in China to operate a subway system. Founded in 1984, it now includes 22 stations. The system currently consists of a single northwest-east line...

    . Presently operating 26 stations and two lines.

Number & Name Terminals Interchange Opening Year
1 Line 1
Line 1, Tianjin Metro
Line 1 of the Tianjin Metro runs 26.2 km from the north-west to the south-east of Tianjin and serves 22 stations. The central part of the line basically consists of the original Tianjin Metro line, put into service in 1984. However, the line was considerably extended and modernized in 2005....

Shuanglin – Liuyuan 1970
9 Line 9 Zhongshanmen – Xinlizhen B1 2004

  • Binhai Mass Transit
    Binhai Mass Transit
    The Binhai Mass Transit is one of two rapid transit systems in Tianjin, the other being the Tianjin Metro. Binhai Mass Transit is a rapid transit line that serves the Binhai New Area and TEDA...

     (BMT). Currently operates 24 stations in two lines.

Number & Name Terminals Interchange Opening Year
B1 Line B1 Xinlizhen – Donghai Lu 9, T 2004
T TEDA MGRT
TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram
TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is a Translohr Light Rail system in Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area. It is a modern, high speed rubber tired tram system, both first in China & Asia....

TEDA – North of College District B1 2007

Current map of Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit


Rail



There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin Railway Station
Tianjin Railway Station
The Tianjin Railway Station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was built in 1888, was rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008....

 being the principal one. It was built in 1888. The station was initially located at Wangdaozhuang (S: 旺道庄 / T: 旺道莊). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (S: 老龙头 / T: 老龍頭) on the banks of the Hai He River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station. The station was rebuilt from scratch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988. The Tianjin Railway Station is also locally called the 'East Station', due to its geographical position. In January 2007, the station began another long-term restructuring project to modernize the facility and as part of the larger Tianjin transport hub project involving Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro is a rapid transit system in the city of Tianjin, China, which was the second city in China to operate a subway system. Founded in 1984, it now includes 22 stations. The system currently consists of a single northwest-east line...

 lines 2, 3, and 9 as well as the Tianjin-Beijing High-speed rail.

Tianjin West Railway Station and Tianjin North Railway Station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu Railway Station is located in the important port area of Tanggu District, and TEDA Railway Station located in TEDA
Teda
The Teda are a Toubou people who live mostly in northern Chad, but is present also in Libya, Niger and Nigeria. They speak Tedaga, a Nilo-Saharan language, and are very close ethnically and culturally with the Daza. They likely number more than 50,000, and are Muslims....

, to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city that do not handle passenger traffic.

Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005 and was completed by August 2008.

The following rail lines
Rail transport in the People's Republic of China
Rail transport is the most commonly used mode of long-distance transportation in the People's Republic of China. Almost all rail operations are handled by the Ministry of Railways, which is part of the State Council of the People's Republic of China...

 go through Tianjin:
  • Jingshan Railway, from Beijing to Shanhai Pass
    Shanhai Pass
    Shanhai Pass , or Shanhaiguan, along with Jiayu Pass and Juyong Pass, is one of the major passes of the Great Wall of China It is located in Shanhaiguan District, Qinhuangdao, Hebei. In 1961, Shanhaiguan became a site of China First Class National Cultural Site.It is a popular tourist destination,...

  • Jinpu Railway
    Jinpu railway
    The Tianjin–Pukou or Jinpu Railway runs from Tianjin to Pukou outside Nanjing in Jiangsu province.In September 1898 at a conference in London, British and German capitalists decided to build a railway from Tianjin to Zhenjiang. In May 1899, the Qing government agreed to the financing of the...

    , from Tianjin to Pukou District
    Pukou District
    Pukou , Jiangsu, China a district in the City of Nanjing which lies northwest across the Yangtze River from downtown Nanjing.The district was formerly the southern terminus of the Tianjin-Pukou Railway; railcars had to be ferried across the river until it was bridged in 1968.-Geography:Pukou...

    , Nanjing
    Nanjing
    ' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

  • Jinji Railway, from Tianjin urban area to Ji County
    Ji County, Tianjin
    Ji County is a county in the far north of Tianjin municipality, China of cultural and historical significance . The administration of the county was transferred from Hebei province to Tianjin in 1973...

    , Tianjin
  • Jinba Railway, from Tianjin to Bazhou, Hebei


Starting from Aug. 1, 2008, all trains stopping at the previous Tianjin Temporary Passenger Station will now instead use the newly completed Tianjin Railway Station
Tianjin Railway Station
The Tianjin Railway Station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was built in 1888, was rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008....

.

Also, the inter-city trains between Beijing and Tianjin will adopt a new numbering system: Cxxxx (C stands for interCity.). The train numbers range between C2001~C2298:
  • C2001~C2198: From Beijing South Station to Tianjin, non-stop.
  • C2201~C2268: From Beijing South Station to Tianjin, with stops at Wuqing Station (武清站) or Yizhuang Station (亦庄站);
  • C2271~C2298: From Beijing South Station to Tanggu Station of Tianjin.


The new C trains take only 30 min between Beijing and Tianjin, cutting the previous D train time by more than a half. The ticket price as of Aug. 15, 08 is 69 RMB for the first-class seat and 58 RMB for the second-class seat.

Roads and expressways


Some spots in Tianjin, including roads and bridges, have names from Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

's Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People
The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, or collectively San-min Doctrine, is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation...

 (for example, Minquan Gate on Zhonghuan Road). Names harkening back to the era of the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 on the mainland also appear (e.g. Beiyang Road). Many roads in Tianjin are named after a Chinese province or city. Also, Tianjin is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four compass
Compass
A compass is a navigational instrument that shows directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions – north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined...

 directions.

Tianjin has three ring roads. Unlike Beijing, the Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic and sometimes more than chaotic.
  • Inner Ring Road (neihuan)
    Inner Ring Road (Tianjin)
    The Inner Ring Road of Tianjin is a system of roads incircling the downtown of Tianjin. It is not an expressway in any way as the road user has to turn to get on to the next road and not exit...

  • Middle Ring Road (zhonghuan)
    Middle Ring Road (Tianjin)
    The Middle Ring Road is a system of roads incircling the core of Tianjin. It is inside the Outer Ring Road, and incircles the Inner Ring Road. The road is not divided and has many traffic lights, but has interchanges at major roads. The road is very busy, having over 2 lanes in each direction with...

  • Outer Ring Road (waihuan)
    Outer Ring Road (Tianjin)
    The Outer Ring Road in Tianjin, China is a city express road, 71.322 kilometres in length, which encircles Tianjin municipality.Although its distance markers indicate its status as an expressway-grade road, it is not, strictly speaking, an expressway, as it has at-grade crossings, a low speed limit...



Tianjin's roads often finish in dao (道 avenue), xian (S: 线 / T: 線) line, more used for highways and through routes) and lu (路 road). Jie (街 street) is rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, jing (S: 经 / T: 經) roads and wei (S: 纬 / T: 緯) roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north-south and east-west, respectively.

The following seven expressways of China
Expressways of China
The Expressway Network of the People's Republic of China is one of the longest in the world. The network is also known as National Trunk Highway System . The total length of China's expressways was at the end of 2010, the world's second longest only after the United States and slightly longer...

 run in or through Tianjin:
  • Jingjintang Expressway
    Jingjintang Expressway
    Opened in September 1993, the Jingjintang Expressway , also known as the Jingtang Expressway, links Beijing via central Tianjin to the Tanggu District in eastern Tianjin...

    , from Beijing, through Tianjin's urban area, to Tanggu District / TEDA
  • Jinghu Expressway
    Jinghu Expressway
    The Beijing–Shanghai Expressway or Jinghu Expressway is a major road system of China, linking the capital Beijing in the north to Shanghai on the central coast. It extends over 1000 kilometres in length, and was opened in the early 2000s...

    , from Jinjing Gonglu Bridge to Shanghai (together with Jingjintang Expressway
    Jingjintang Expressway
    Opened in September 1993, the Jingjintang Expressway , also known as the Jingtang Expressway, links Beijing via central Tianjin to the Tanggu District in eastern Tianjin...

    , this is the expressway from Beijing to Shanghai)
  • Jingshen Expressway, through Baodi District
    Baodi District
    Baodi District is a district of Tianjin, China....

     on its way from Beijing to Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

  • Tangjin Expressway
    Tangjin Expressway
    The Tangjin Expressway is an expressway in China which links Tangshan in Hebei province to Tianjin.It links Tangshan to Tianjin.The Tangjin Expressway gets its name by the combination of two one-character Chinese abbreviations of both Tangshan and Tianjin .-Route:The Tangjin Expressway passes...

    , from Tanggu District, Tianjin, to Tangshan
    Tangshan
    "唐山"redirects here. For an alternative name of China, see Names of China#TangTangshan is a largely industrial prefecture-level city in Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It has become known for the 1976 Tangshan earthquake which measured 7.8 on the Richter scale and killed at least...

    , Hebei—known in Tianjin as the Jintang Expressway
  • Baojin Expressway
    Baojin Expressway
    The Baojin Expressway is a highway in north China, linking Baoding in Hebei province with Tianjin municipality.The expressway was first built in 1995 and opened to the general motoring public in mid-December 1999...

    , from Beichen District
    Beichen District
    Beichen District was originally a suburban district of Tianjin city. Before June 1992, the district was named Beijiao District which means North Suburb. As the city expanded, it was generally regarded as a new metropolitan area. Hence the change of name.The district occupies approximately 478.5...

    , Tianjin, to Baoding
    Baoding
    -Administrative divisions:Baoding prefecture-level city consists of 3 municipal districts, 4 county-level cities, 18 counties:-Demographics:The Baoding urban area has a population of around 1,006,000 . The population of the Baoding administrative area is 10,890,000. The considerable majority are...

    , Hebei—known in Tianjin as the Jinbao Expressway
  • Jinbin Expressway
    Jinbin Expressway
    The Jinbin expressway is a direct expressway link from central Tianjin to Tanggu and TEDA. It is 33.54 km in length, 28.54 of which exists as an expressway, and 5 km as a city express road.-Route:...

    , from Zhangguizhuang Bridge to Hujiayuan Bridge, both within Tianjin
  • Jinji Expressway
    Jinji Expressway
    Opened in late September 2003, just days before October 1 - China's National Day holiday - the Jinji Expressway runs entirely within Tianjin, and links Tianjin city in the south with Ji County in the north. Hence the name Tianjin - Ji County - Jinji Expressway. The expressway runs for 104...

    , from central Tianjin to Jixian County
    Jixian County
    Jixian County is a county of eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Shuangyashan....



The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:
  • China National Highway 102
    China National Highway 102
    China National Highway 102 is a major trunk route in China, which connects Beijing to Harbin, Heilongjiang. In Beijing it is known as Jingha Road for connecting Beijing to Harbin....

    , through Ji County, Tianjin
    Ji County, Tianjin
    Ji County is a county in the far north of Tianjin municipality, China of cultural and historical significance . The administration of the county was transferred from Hebei province to Tianjin in 1973...

     on its way from Beijing to Harbin
    Harbin
    Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

  • China National Highway 103
    China National Highway 103
    China National Highway 103 is the main traffic corridor between Beijing and Tianjin. It goes from Beijing to Tongzhou, Tianjin and then to the coastal area of Tanggu on the outskirts of Tianjin, and runs to approximately 150 km....

    , from Beijing, through Tianjin's urban area, to Tanggu District
  • China National Highway 104
    China National Highway 104
    China National Highway 104 runs from Beijing to Fuzhou via Jinan, Xuzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Taizhou.It runs to approximately 2,390 km, and, on a map, runs southeast towards Nanjing and Hangzhou before turning south-southwest at Taizhou....

    , from Beijing, through Tianjin Municipality, to Fuzhou
    Fuzhou
    Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

  • China National Highway 105
    China National Highway 105
    China National Highway 105 runs from Beijing to Zhuhai, via Langfang, Chuangzhou, Dezhou, Donge, Jining, Shuangyou, Fuyang, Liuan, Jiujiang, Nanchang, Ji'an and Guangzhou...

    , from Beijing, through Tianjin Municipality, to Macau
    Macau
    Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

  • China National Highway 112
    China National Highway 112
    China National Highway 112 is a 1228 km ring road which runs outside of Beijing .- Route and distance:- See also :* China National Highways...

    , circular highway around Beijing, passes through Tianjin Municipality
  • China National Highway 205
    China National Highway 205
    China National Highway 205 runs from Shanhaiguan, Hebei Province to Shenzhen, Guangdong. It is 3,160 kilometres in length and runs south from Shanhaiguan towards Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, and ends in Guangdong Province.- Route and distance:...

    , from Shanhaiguan
    Shanhaiguan District
    Shanhaiguan District is a district of the city of Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, People's Republic of China, named after the pass of the Great Wall within the district, Shanhai Pass...

    , Hebei, through Tianjin Municipality, to Guangzhou
    Guangzhou
    Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...



The expressways are sometimes closed due to dense fog particularly in the Autumn and Spring.

Airport


Tianjin Binhai International Airport
Tianjin Binhai International Airport
Tianjin Binhai International Airport is an airport located east of Tianjin, in Dongli District. It is one of the major air cargo centers in the People's Republic of China....

 (ZBTJ) is located in the east of the urban area, in Dongli District. The city will also be served by the new Beijing Daxing International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport is a planned new airport serving Beijing, People's Republic of China.The airport is to be built in Daxing, a rural area about 50km south west of Beijing city centre....

 in Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, currently under construction and to be completed by 2017.

Religion


Tianjin has a Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 Temple of Great Compassion
Temple of Great Compassion
The Temple of Great Compassion is a Zen Buddhist temple in Tianjin City, China...

, a
Catholic St. Joseph’s Cathedral (Laoxikai Church), a Catholic Our Lady of Victory Church (Wanghailou Church)  and a
Tianjin Jewish Synagoge. A Roman Catholic Diocese of Tianjin exists. Official treatment of house churches is harsh.

Main attractions




  • Luzutang (Boxer Rebellion
    Boxer Rebellion
    The Boxer Rebellion, also called the Boxer Uprising by some historians or the Righteous Harmony Society Movement in northern China, was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" , or "Righteous Fists of Harmony" or "Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" , in China between...

     Museum)
  • Guwenhua Jie
    Guwenhua Jie
    Guwenhua Jie is a cultural tourist attraction on the west bank of the Haihe River in Nankai District, Tianjin, China....

    , Ancient culture street
  • Tianjin Wen Miao (文庙) (An important Temple of Confucius
    Temple of Confucius
    A Temple of Confucius or Confucian temple is a temple devoted to the memory of Confucius and the sages and philosophers of Confucianism.- History :...

    )
  • Yuhuangge Taoist Temple (玉皇阁)
  • Temple of Great Compassion
    Temple of Great Compassion
    The Temple of Great Compassion is a Zen Buddhist temple in Tianjin City, China...

     Zen
    Zen
    Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism founded by the Buddhist monk Bodhidharma. The word Zen is from the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese word Chán , which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna, which can be approximately translated as "meditation" or "meditative state."Zen...

     Buddhist Temple
  • Tianhou Palace (天后宫), Temple dedicated to the goddess Mazu and biggest in the North China region
  • Former Concessions in Tianjin
    Concessions in Tianjin
    The Concessions in Tianjin were concession territories ceded by the Chinese imperial Qing Dynasty to the great powers in Tianjin, also known as Tientsin or Tien-Tsin.-General context:...

  • Astor Hotel
    Astor Hotel
    The Hotel Astor was a hotel located in the Times Square area of Manhattan, in operation from 1904 through 1967. The former site of the hotel, the block bounded by Broadway, Astor Plaza, West 44th Street, and West 45th Street, is now occupied by the high-rise 54-story office tower One Astor Plaza.-...

     and its Museum 利顺德大酒店及利顺德博物馆
  • Tianjin Radio and Television Tower
    Tianjin Radio and Television Tower
    The Tianjin Radio and Television Tower is a 415.2 m tower in Tianjin, China used primarily for communication. It was built in 1991 at a cost of $45 million. Approximately two-thirds up the tower is an observation pod with floor space 253m...

  • Tianjin Eye
    Tianjin Eye
    Tianjin Eye is a tall giant Ferris wheel built above the Yongle Bridge , over the Hai River in Tianjin, China. It is claimed to be the only such wheel to have been constructed over a bridge....

    , the world's only Ferris wheel
    Ferris wheel
    A Ferris wheel is a nonbuilding structure consisting of a rotating upright wheel with passenger cars attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, the cars are kept upright, usually by gravity.Some of the largest and most modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on...

     built over a bridge and the world's 6th tallest overall
  • Tianjin World Financial Center  (336.9 metres (1,105.3 ft)) tall
  • Tianjin Water Park
    Tianjin Water Park
    The Tianjin Water Park is the largest urban park and recreation area in Tianjin, China. The park was formally established in 1951, covering an area of 126.71 hectares. The park is one of Tianjin's leading tourist attractions, which was officially acknowledged when it was listed in the National...

    , the largest urban park and recreation area in Tianjin
  • Tianjin Zoo
    Tianjin Zoo
    The Tianjin Zoo is located in Nankai District, Tianjin, China, as the south-most part of the Water Park complex. It covers an area of , which includes about of lakes. Construction began in 1975 and it was opened to the public on January 1st, 1980...

    , home to approximately 3,000 animals of 200 species
  • Tianjin Museum
    Tianjin Museum
    Tianjin Museum is the largest museum in Tianjin, China, exhibiting a range of cultural and historical relics significant to Tianjin. The museum lies in Yinhe Plaza in the Hexi District of Tianjin and covers an area of about 50,000 sq metres...

    , the largest museum in Tianjin
  • Hai River
    Hai River
    The Hai River , previously called Bai He , is a river in the People's Republic of China which flows through Beijing and Tianjin before emptying into the Yellow Sea at the Bohai Gulf.The Hai River at Tianjin is formed by the confluence of five rivers, the Southern Canal, Ziya...

     Park (海河公园)
  • Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, also known as "The Water Drop"
  • Five Main Avenues  (五大道)
  • Italian Town (意式风情区)
  • Shijia Dayuan 杨柳青:石家大院 Shi Family Residence
  • Memorial to Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao
  • The Century Clock of Tianjin 天津世纪钟 (Tianjin Shijizhong)


Sights outside the Tianjin urban area, but within the municipality, including the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area
Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area
Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area , commonly abbreviated as TEDA is the main free market zone in Tanggu District in Tianjin, China. It was formed in late 1984 and currently has more foreign businesses in it than all of Shanghai....

:
  • Soviet aircraft carrier Kiev Theme Park (前苏联航空母舰主题公园)
  • Polar marine animals theme park in Tianjin(天津极地海洋动物世界)
  • TEDA Football Stadium
    TEDA Football Stadium
    TEDA Football Stadium is a professional football stadium in Tianjin, China. It is the home of Tianjin Teda F.C. The stadium holds 37,450 people and was built in 2004...

    , Home stadium of Chinese Super League
    Chinese Super League
    The Chinese Football Association Super League , commonly known as Chinese Super League or CSL, currently known as the Pirelli Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest tier of professional association football in China, operating under the auspices of the...

     team Tianjin Teda F.C.
  • Taku Forts
    Taku Forts
    The Dagu Forts , also called the Peiho Forts are forts located by the Hai River estuary, in Tanggu District, Tianjin municipality, in northeastern China. They are located 60 km southeast of the Tianjin urban center.-History:The first fort was built during the reign of the Ming Jiajing...

    , Qing Dynasty
    Qing Dynasty
    The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

     cannon emplacement
  • Huangya Pass
    Huangyaguan
    Huangyaguan or Huangya Pass is a small section of the Great Wall of China located in the north of Ji County, Tianjin municipality, approximately north of urban Tianjin city. The site lies on a steep and abrupt mountain ridge....

    , a section of the Great Wall of China
    Great Wall of China
    The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China, built originally to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire against intrusions by various nomadic groups...

  • Mount Panshan
  • Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city
    Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city
    The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city is the result of a collaborative agreement between the governments of China and Singapore to jointly develop a socially harmonious, environmentally friendly and resource-conserving city in China...

    , a collaborative venture between the governments of China and Singapore
    Singapore
    Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...


Sports teams



Sports teams based in Tianjin include:

Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League
The Chinese Football Association Super League , commonly known as Chinese Super League or CSL, currently known as the Pirelli Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest tier of professional association football in China, operating under the auspices of the...

  • Tianjin Teda F.C. (天津泰达俱乐部)

Chinese Yi League
  • Tianjin Songjiang (天津松江)

China Baseball League
China Baseball League
The China Baseball League or Chinese Baseball League or CBL is a professional baseball league under the administration of Chinese Baseball Association, founded in 2002.-Teams:...

  • Tianjin Lions
    Tianjin Lions
    The Tianjin Lions or Tianjing Fierce Lions are a team in the China Baseball League that began play in 2002. Their home field is Tian Ti Dodger Stadium in Tianjin....


China Women Volleyball League
  • Tianjin Bridgestone Women Volleyball Team

Colleges and universities



Under the National Ministry of Education:
  • Nankai University
    Nankai University
    Nankai University , commonly known as Nankai, is a public research university based in Tianjin on mainland China. Founded in 1919 by educators Zhang Boling and Yan Fansun , Nankai University is a member of the Nankai serial schools. It is the alma mater of former Chinese Premier and key historical...

     (南开大学) (founded 1919,one of the most prestigious universities in China)
  • Tianjin University
    Tianjin University
    Tianjin University is a national university under the direct administration of the Ministry of Education of China. It is the first university in modern Chinese education history. It was part of Peiyang University in 1895...

     (天津大学) (founded 1895, oldest university in China)

Under the national Civil Aviation Authority:
  • Civil Aviation University of China
    Civil Aviation University of China
    Civil Aviation University of China is a national university in Tianjin, China under the Civil Aviation Administration of China. The university was established in 1951 to provide civil aviation tertiary education and training for new pilots in China. It is next to the Tianjin Binhai International...

     (中国民航大学)


Under the government of Hebei Province:
  • Hebei University of Technology
    Hebei University of Technology
    Hebei University of Technology is a public university whose main campus lies in the Guangrong Dao neighborhood of the Hongqiao District in Tianjin, China. It is the first institute of technology in modern Chinese education history. It is among the first group of institutions of higher learning in...

     (河北工业大学) (founded 1903, the earliest institute of technology in China)

Under the municipal government:
  • Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts
    Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts
    Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government.itis one of the top 8 academy of fine arts in china. there are master educations, and one prof in chinese painting is called PUZUO.ai xin jueluo, he is the one memerber of the royalty of Qing Dynasty....

     (天津美术学院)
  • Tianjin Agricultural College
    Tianjin Agricultural College
    Tianjin Agricultural College is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government....

     (天津农学院)
  • Tianjin Conservatory of Music
    Tianjin Conservatory of Music
    The Tianjin Conservatory of Music is a university in Tianjin, China, under the municipal government.-Notable alumni:* Liu Xiaoying, for her outstanding contribution to music education...

     (天津音乐学院)
  • Tianjin Foreign Studies University
    Tianjin Foreign Studies University
    Tianjin Foreign Studies University is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government. The institution, one of eight of its kind in China, specializes in teaching foreign languages and cultures to Chinese students. Language concentrations include Portuguese, English, Japanese,...

     (天津外国语大学)
  • Tianjin Institute of Physical Education
    Tianjin Institute of Physical Education
    Tianjin Institute of Physical Education is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government.The university was first founded in August 1958. Now it is renamed as Tianjin University of Sport. The school was established to meet the needs of PE teachers mostly in northern part of China...

     (天津体育学院)
  • Tianjin Medical University
    Tianjin Medical University
    Tianjin Medical University was founded in 1951; was the first medical institution approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. Hsien-I Chu, a renowned endocrinologist, was the first president of the university...

     (天津医科大学)
  • Tianjin Normal University
    Tianjin Normal University
    Tianjin Normal University is a university in Tianjin, China.-History:Tianjin Normal University was established August 1, 1958. Originally called Tianjin Normal College 天津师范学院, it was renamed in 1982. April 8, 1999 Tianjin Municipal Committee, City Hall and Ministry of Education agreed to establish...

     (天津师范大学)
  • Tianjin Polytechnic University
    Tianjin Polytechnic University
    Tianjin Polytechnic University is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government. It is also referred to as TJPU. The university was founded in 1921 and currently has fourteen colleges on two campuses in the city...

     (天津理工大学)
  • Tianjin University of Commerce (天津商业大学)
  • Tianjin University of Finance & Economics
    Tianjin University of Finance & Economics
    Tianjin University of Finance and Economics is a university in Tianjin, China.Tianjin University of Finance and Economics was founded in 1958, is one of the earliest universities offering applied economics and business administration in P.R.China...

     (天津财经大学)
  • Tianjin University of Science & Technology
    Tianjin University of Science & Technology
    Tianjin University of Science & Technology is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government....

     (天津科技大学)
  • Tianjin University of Technology
    Tianjin University of Technology
    Tianjin University of Technology is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government.-References:...

     (天津工业大学)
  • Tianjin University of Technology and Education
    Tianjin University of Technology and Education
    Tianjin University of Technology and Education is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government....

     (天津职业技术师范学院)
  • Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
    Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
    Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine is the name of a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government. As the name implies, it specializes in traditional Chinese medicine....

     (天津中医药大学)
  • Tianjin Urban Construction Institute
    Tianjin Urban Construction Institute
    Tianjin Urban Construction Institute is a university in Tianjin, China under the municipal government. It is Locate Xiqing district 地址:天津市津静公路26号 邮编:300384-External links:*...

     (天津城市建设学院)


Foreign institutions:
  • The Florida International University
    Florida International University
    Florida International University is an American public research university in metropolitan Miami, Florida, in the United States, with its main campus in University Park...

     Tianjin Center
    Florida International University Tianjin Center
    The Florida International University Tianjin Center is a campus of Miami, Florida-based Florida International University located in Tianjin, in the People's Republic of China, from which a branch of FIU's School of Hospitality & Tourism Management operates...

    , opened in 2006 as a cooperative venture between the municipal government and the Miami-based university.
  • The Great Wall MBA Program Oklahoma City University
    Oklahoma City University
    Oklahoma City University, often referred to as OCU, is a coeducational, urban, private university historically affiliated with the United Methodist Church...

     Meinders School of Business
    Meinders School of Business
    The Meinders School of Business is the business school for undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education students at the Oklahoma City University. The Meinders School of Business is a college at Oklahoma City University. It offers traditional undergraduate and graduate degrees in most business...

    , established in 1986 on the campus of Tianjin University of Finance & Economics
    Tianjin University of Finance & Economics
    Tianjin University of Finance and Economics is a university in Tianjin, China.Tianjin University of Finance and Economics was founded in 1958, is one of the earliest universities offering applied economics and business administration in P.R.China...

    .


Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High schools


  • Tianjin No. 1 High School (天津一中)
  • Nankai High School
    Nankai High School
    Tianjin Nankai High School is an elite college-preparatory high school in Tianjin, China. This is the original Nankai High School, and it is often referred to as Nankai High School in Tianjin to differentiate it from Chongqing Nankai Middle School, its sister school in Chongqing...

     (南开中学) founded 1904, and one of the most prestigious in China
  • Yaohua High School
    Yaohua High School
    Yaohua High School is a key school directly under the Tianjin Municipal Committee of Education, in the People's Republic of China.- Introduction :...

     (耀华中学) founded 1927
  • Tianjin Shiyan High School (实验中学)
  • Tianjin Xinhua High School (新华中学)
  • Tianjin Foreign Languages School (TFLS) (天津外国语学院附属外国语学校)
  • Tianjin No. 20 high School (天津市第二十中学)
  • Tianjin Second Nankai High School (天津市第二南开中学)
  • Tianjin No. 7 High School (天津七中)
  • Tianjin No. 3 Middle School
    Tianjin No. 3 Middle School
    Tianjin No. 3 Middle School is located on Xiangdong Road in Hongqiao District of Tianjin, China. The school was established in 1901 and is the oldest modern public middle school in Tianjin. The school had various names over the years, including Bell Tower Middle School. In 1982, UNDP and UNESCO...

     (天津市第三中学)
  • Tianjin No. 5 High School (天津五中)
  • Tianjin No. 4 High School (天津四中)
  • No 42 High School (42中学)
  • No 41 High School (41中学)
  • Haihe High School (海河中学)
  • Tianjin High School(天津中学)

Twin towns – Sister cities


Tianjin is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
City Country Sister city since:
  Kobe
Kobe
, pronounced , is the fifth-largest city in Japan and is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture on the southern side of the main island of Honshū, approximately west of Osaka...

Japan June 24, 1973
  Fitchburg, Massachusetts
Fitchburg, Massachusetts
Fitchburg is the third largest city in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 40,318 at the 2010 census. Fitchburg is home to Fitchburg State University as well as 17 public and private elementary and high schools.- History :...

United States
  Philadelphia United States February 10, 1980
  Dallas United States
  Mobile
Mobile, Alabama
Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

United States
  Greenville, South Carolina
Greenville, South Carolina
-Law and government:The city of Greenville adopted the Council-Manager form of municipal government in 1976.-History:The area was part of the Cherokee Nation's protected grounds after the Treaty of 1763, which ended the French and Indian War. No White man was allowed to enter, though some families...

United States
  Rishon LeZion Israel
  Melbourne Australia May 5, 1980
  Yokkaichi, Mie
Yokkaichi, Mie
is a city located in Mie, Japan.As of October 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 314,393. The total area is 205.53 km².The closest major city is Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture....

Japan October 28, 1980
  Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Sarajevo |Bosnia]], surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans....

Bosnia and Herzegovina May 28, 1981
  Nord-Pas-de-Calais France October 10, 1984
  Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

Italy May 9, 1985
  Groningen Netherlands September 12, 1985
  Chiba
Chiba, Chiba
is the capital city of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It is located approximately 40 km east of the center of Tokyo on Tokyo Bay. Chiba City became a government designated city in 1992. Its population as of 2008 is approximately 960,000....

Japan May 7, 1986
  Kutaisi
Kutaisi
Kutaisi is Georgia's second largest city and the capital of the western region of Imereti. It is 221 km to the west of Tbilisi.-Geography:...

Georgia
  Plovdiv Region Bulgaria October 15, 1989
  İzmir
Izmir
Izmir is a large metropolis in the western extremity of Anatolia. The metropolitan area in the entire Izmir Province had a population of 3.35 million as of 2010, making the city third most populous in Turkey...

Turkey September 23, 1991
  Abidjan
Abidjan
Abidjan is the economic and former official capital of Côte d'Ivoire, while the current capital is Yamoussoukro. it was the largest city in the nation and the third-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, and Kinshasa but before Montreal...

Côte d'Ivoire September 26, 1992
  Ulan Bator Mongolia September 27, 1992
  Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Kharkiv or Kharkov is the second-largest city in Ukraine.The city was founded in 1654 and was a major centre of Ukrainian culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv became the first city in Ukraine where the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in December 1917 and Soviet government was...

Ukraine June 14, 1993
  Jönköping
Jönköping Municipality
Jönköping Municipality is a municipality in Jönköping County, southern Sweden. The city Jönköping is the municipal seat. The municipality is situated by the southern end of lake Vättern.-Historical background:...

Sweden September 23, 1993
  Incheon
Incheon
The Incheon Metropolitan City is located in northwestern South Korea. The city was home to just 4,700 people when Jemulpo port was built in 1883. Today 2.76 million people live in the city, making it Korea’s third most populous city after Seoul and Busan Metropolitan City...

South Korea December 7, 1993
  Łódź Poland October 1, 1994
  Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 states of Brazil.Rio de Janeiro has the second largest economy of Brazil behind only São Paulo state.The state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast...

Brazil April 18, 1995
  Amazonas State Brazil October 20, 1997
  Haiphong
Haiphong
, also Haiphong, is the third most populous city in Vietnam. The name means, "coastal defence".-History:Hai Phong was originally founded by Lê Chân, the female general of a Vietnamese revolution against the Chinese led by the Trưng Sisters in the year 43 C.E.The area which is now known as Duong...

Vietnam January 8, 1999
  Turku
Turku
Turku is a city situated on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River. It is located in the region of Finland Proper. It is believed that Turku came into existence during the end of the 13th century which makes it the oldest city in Finland...

Finland August 17, 2000
  Clarence, New York
Clarence, New York
Clarence is a town located in the northeastern part of Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 30,673 according to the 2010 census. This represents an increase of 17.42% from the 2000 census figure . Clarence is also the name of a postal district in the south part of the town...

United States November 10, 2001
  Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki , historically also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the region of Central Macedonia as well as the capital of the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace...

Greece March 4, 2002
  Nampo
Nampo
Namp'o is a city and seaport in South P'yŏngan Province, North Korea. It was a provincial-level Directly Governed City from 1980 to 2004, when it was designated a "Special City" and made a part of South P'yŏngan...

North Korea August 11, 2002
  Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city of Cambodia. Located on the banks of the Mekong River, Phnom Penh has been the national capital since the French colonized Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's center of economic and industrial activities, as well as the center of security,...

Cambodia November 17, 2008

Astronomical phenomena


At 39°07.5′N 117°11.7′E, the previous total solar eclipse
Solar eclipse
As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun as viewed from a location on Earth. This can happen only during a new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. At least...

 was the solar eclipse of October 28, 1277, the next total solar eclipse
Solar eclipse
As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun as viewed from a location on Earth. This can happen only during a new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. At least...

 will be on July 6, 2187.

Total solar eclipses from 1001 to 3000 are:
  • 1277-Oct-28 13:21 CST
  • 2187-Jul-06 17:13 CST
  • 2415-Apr-10 10:49 CST
  • 2636-May-27 05:09 CST
  • 2762-Aug-12 09:43 CST


Annular solar eclipses from 1001 to 3000 are:
  • 1189-Feb-17 11:37 CST
  • 1292-Jan-21 13:30 CST
  • 1665-Jan-16 16:42 CST
  • 1802-Aug-28 15:48 CST
  • 2118-Mar-22 15:33 CST
  • 2439-Jun-12 07:52 CST
  • 2686-Sep-10 07:12 CST
  • 2739-Apr-30 08:41 CST
  • 2894-Dec-18 14:38 CST


Wikisource has an article about solar eclipses as seen from Tianjin from 2001 to 3000.

See also


  • 天津 ("Heaven's port") is also the name of an asterism
    Asterism (astronomy)
    In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars recognized on Earth's night sky. It may form part of an official constellation, or be composed of stars from more than one. Like constellations, asterisms are in most cases composed of stars which, while they are visible in the same general direction,...

     in the Chinese constellation
    Chinese constellation
    Chinese constellations are the way the ancient Chinese grouped the stars. They are very different from the modern IAU recognized constellations. This is because the IAU was based on Greco-Roman astronomy instead of Chinese astronomy....

     of Girl Mansion
    Girl (Chinese constellation)
    The Girl mansion is one of the Twenty-eight mansions of the Chinese constellations. It is one of the northern mansions of the Black Tortoise.- Asterisms :...

     (女宿)
  • Gao Lingwen
    Gao Lingwen
    Gao Lingwen was a famous scholar and writer from the city of Tianjin , China. He was the founder and principal of the first modern high school of Tianjin, the Bell Tower Middle School , and the elder brother of China's acting President Gao Lingwei, of the Beiyang Government.After the fall of...

    , founder of Tianjin's first public school
  • List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population
  • American, Austro-Hungarian, British, French, Italian, Belgian, Russian and Japanese Concessions in Tianjin
    Concessions in Tianjin
    The Concessions in Tianjin were concession territories ceded by the Chinese imperial Qing Dynasty to the great powers in Tianjin, also known as Tientsin or Tien-Tsin.-General context:...


External links