Toulouse

Toulouse

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Toulouse is a city
Communes of France
The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to incorporated municipalities or villages in the United States or Gemeinden in Germany...

 in the Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne is a department in the southwest of France named after the Garonne river. Its main city is Toulouse.-History:Haute-Garonne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. It was created from part of the former province of Languedoc.The...

 department in southwestern France

It lies on the banks of the River Garonne
Garonne
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

, 590 km (366 mi) away from Paris and half-way between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. With 1,102,882 inhabitants as of 1 January 2006, the Toulouse metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in France, after Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 (11.8 million), Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

 (1.8 million), Marseille
Marseille
Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

 (1.7 million) and Lille
Lille
Lille is a city in northern France . It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country behind those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium...

 (1.16 million)

Toulouse is one of the bases of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

, Galileo positioning system
Galileo positioning system
Galileo is a global navigation satellite system currently being built by the European Union and European Space Agency . The €20 billion project is named after the famous Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei...

, the SPOT satellite system
SPOT (satellites)
SPOT is a high-resolution, optical imaging Earth observation satellite system operating from space. It is run by Spot Image based in Toulouse, France...

, and CNES
CNES
The is the French government space agency . Established under President Charles de Gaulle in 1961, its headquarters are located in central Paris and it is under the supervision of the French Ministries of Defence and Research...

's Toulouse Space Centre (CST), the largest space centre in Europe. Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space is an aerospace company born after the Thales Group bought the participation of Alcatel in the two joint-ventures between Alcatel and Finmeccanica, Alcatel Alenia Space and Telespazio.-History:...

, Europe's largest satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

 manufacturer, and Astrium Satellites, EADS
EADS
The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N.V. is a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide...

's satellite system subsidiary, also have a significant presence in Toulouse. Its world renowned university
University of Toulouse
The Université de Toulouse is a consortium of French universities, grandes écoles and other institutions of higher education and research, named after one of the earliest universities established in Europe in 1229, and including the successor universities to that earlier university...

 is one of the oldest in Europe (founded in 1229) and, with more than 97,000 students, is with Lille the third-largest university campus of France after Paris
University of Paris
The University of Paris was a university located in Paris, France and one of the earliest to be established in Europe. It was founded in the mid 12th century, and officially recognized as a university probably between 1160 and 1250...

 and Lyon
University of Lyon
The University of Lyon , located in Lyon and Saint Etienne, France, is a center for higher education and research comprising 16 institutions of higher education...

.

Toulouse was the capital of the former province
Provinces of France
The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were roughly equivalent to the historic counties of England...

 of Languedoc
Languedoc
Languedoc is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées. It had an area of approximately 42,700 km² .-Geographical Extent:The traditional...

 (provinces were abolished during the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

). It is now the Chef-lieu
Chef-lieu
A chef-lieu is a town or city that is pre-eminent, from an administrative perspective, in any given sub-division of territory in France and some French-speaking countries.-In Algeria:...

 of the Midi-Pyrénées
Midi-Pyrénées
Midi-Pyrénées is the largest region of metropolitan France by area, larger than the Netherlands or Denmark.Midi-Pyrénées has no historical or geographical unity...

 region, the largest region in metropolitan France. It is also the Chef-lieu
Chef-lieu
A chef-lieu is a town or city that is pre-eminent, from an administrative perspective, in any given sub-division of territory in France and some French-speaking countries.-In Algeria:...

 of the Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne is a department in the southwest of France named after the Garonne river. Its main city is Toulouse.-History:Haute-Garonne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. It was created from part of the former province of Languedoc.The...

 department
Départements of France
The departments of France are French administrative divisions. The 101 departments form one of the three levels of local government, together with the 22 metropolitan and 5 overseas regions above them and more than 36 000 communes beneath them...

.

Hydrography


The city is traversed by the Canal de Garonne
Canal de Garonne
The Canal de Garonne, formerly known as Canal latéral à la Garonne, is a French canal dating from the 19th century which connects Toulouse to Castets-en-Dorthe. The remainder of the route to Bordeaux uses the Garonne River. It is the continuation of the Canal du Midi which connects the...

, the Canal du Midi
Canal du Midi
The is a long canal in Southern France . The canal connects the Garonne River to the on the Mediterranean and along with the Canal de Garonne forms the Canal des Deux Mers joining the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. The canal runs from the city of Toulouse down to the Étang de Thau...

 and the rivers Garonne
Garonne
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

, Touch
Touch River
The Touch is a long river in southwestern France, left tributary of the Garonne. Its source is in the département of Haute-Garonne, near Lilhac.It flows through the following département and towns:...

 and Hers-Mort
Hers-Mort
The Hers-Mort is a 90 km long river in southern France, a right-bank tributary of the Garonne. Its average flow rate is 4 m3/s. The Hers-Mort rises in the Lauragais region, near the village Fonters-du-Razès, in the Aude department...

.

Climate


Toulouse has a temperate climate that is usually classified as oceanic
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 (Cfb) under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, falling just short of a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Cfa) classification. Toulouse is located at the junction with the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 zone, but uniform precipitation prevents it from being classified this way.

Population

Historical Population
Urban Area Metropolitan
Area
1695 43,000
1750 48,000
1790 52,863
1801 50,171
1831 59,630
1851 95,277
1872 126,936
1911 149,000
1936 213,220
1946 264,411
1954 268,865
1962 329,044
1968 439,764 474,000
1975 509,939 585,000
1982 541,271 645,000
1990 650,336 797,373
1999 761,090 964,797
2008 850,873 1,102,882


The population of the city proper (French: commune) was 437,715 at the 1 Jan. 2006 census, with 1,102,882 inhabitants in the metropolitan area (French: aire urbaine
Aire urbaine
The aire urbaine is a statistical region created by the INSEE that comprises a commuter belt surrounding a contiguous urban core...

) at the 1 Jan. 2006 census, up from 964,797 at the March 1999 census, which means a record 1.98% population growth per year between 1999 and 2006 for the metropolitan area.

Toulouse is the fourth largest city in France, after Paris, Marseille
Marseille
Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

 and Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

, and the fifth-largest metropolitan area after Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Lille
Lille
Lille is a city in northern France . It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country behind those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium...

.

Fuelled by booming aerospace and high-tech industries, population growth of 1.5% a year in the metropolitan area in the 1990s (compared with 0.37% for metropolitan France
Metropolitan France
Metropolitan France is the part of France located in Europe. It can also be described as mainland France or as the French mainland and the island of Corsica...

), and a record 1.98% a year in the 2000s (0.69% for metropolitan France), means the Toulouse metropolitan area hit the 1,000,000 inhabitant mark in 2000 or 2001. Boasting the highest population growth of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, Toulouse is on its way to overtake Lille as the fourth-largest metropolitan area of France (if the Belgian part of the Lille metropolitan area is not included), and Lyon as the third-largest city of France.

Community of the Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse



The Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse (Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Toulouse) was created in 2001 to better coordinate transport, infrastructure and economic policies between the city of Toulouse and its immediate independent suburbs. It succeeds a previous district which had been created in 1992 with less powers than the current council. It combines the city of Toulouse and 24 independent communes, covering an area of 380 km² (147 sq. miles), totaling a population of 583,229 inhabitants (as of 1999 census), 67% of whom live in the city of Toulouse proper. As of February 2004 estimate, the total population of the Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse was 651,209 inhabitants, 65.5% of whom live in the city of Toulouse. Due to local political feuds, the Community of Agglomeration only hosts 61% of the population of the metropolitan area, the other independent suburbs having refused to join in. Since 2009, the Community of agglomeration has become an urban community (in French: communauté urbaine).

Local politics


One of the major political figures in Toulouse was Dominique Baudis
Dominique Baudis
Dominique Baudis is the French ombudsman. Formerly a journalist, politician and Mayor of Toulouse, he had been a member of DL and later of the leading centre-right Union for a Popular Movement....

, the mayor of Toulouse between 1983 and 2001, member of the centrist UDF
Union for French Democracy
The Union for French Democracy was a French centrist political party. It was founded in 1978 as an electoral alliance to support President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in order to counterbalance the Gaullist preponderance over the right. This name was chosen due to the title of Giscard d'Estaing's...

. First known as a journalist famous for his coverage of the war in Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, 36 year-old Dominique Baudis succeeded his father Pierre Baudis in 1983 as mayor of Toulouse. (Pierre Baudis was mayor from 1971 to 1983.) The Baudis dynasty succeeded in turning Toulouse into a center-right stronghold, whereas historically the city had been left-leaning since the 19th century. Dominique Baudis is also known as a writer who wrote historical novels about the ancient counts of Toulouse
Counts of Toulouse
The first Counts of Toulouse were the administrators of the city and its environs under the Merovingians. No succession of such royal appointees is known, though a few names survive to the present...

, their crusade in the Middle East, and the Albigensian Crusade
Albigensian Crusade
The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc...

.

During his time as mayor, Toulouse's economy and population boomed. He tried to strengthen the international role of Toulouse (such as its Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

 operations), as well as revive the cultural heritage of the city. The Occitan cross, flag of Languedoc
Languedoc
Languedoc is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées. It had an area of approximately 42,700 km² .-Geographical Extent:The traditional...

 and symbol of the counts of Toulouse, was chosen as the new flag of the city, instead of the traditional coat of arms of Toulouse (which included the fleur de lis of the French monarchy). Many cultural institutions were created, in order to attract foreign expatriates and emphasise the city's past. For example, monuments dating from the time of the counts of Toulouse
History of Toulouse
The city of Toulouse, in Midi-Pyrénées, southern France can be traced back to ancient times. It was the capital of the County of Toulouse in the Middle Ages and today is the capital of the Midi-Pyrénées region.- Before 118 BC: pre-Roman times :...

 were restored, the city's symphonic concert hall (Halle aux Grains) was refurbished, a city theater was built, a Museum of Modern Art was founded, the Bemberg Foundation (European paintings and bronzes
Bronze sculpture
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mold. Then, as the bronze cools, it...

 from the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 to the 20th century) was established, a huge pop music concert venue (Zénith, the largest in France outside Paris) was built, the space museum and educational park Cité de l'Espace
Cité de l'espace
The Cité de l'espace is a theme park oriented towards space and the conquest of space. It was inaugurated in June 1997 and is situated on the eastern outskirts of Toulouse in France...

was founded, etc.

To deal with growth, major housing and transportation projects were launched. Perhaps the one for which Baudis is most famous is the Toulouse Metro
Toulouse Metro
The Toulouse metro serves the city of Toulouse, France, and some of the surrounding area. The city's public transport system was initially managed by Société d'économie mixte des voyageurs de l'agglomération toulousaine , which was a company that was 80% owned by local government bodies and 20%...

: line A of the underground
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 was opened in 1993, and Baudis succeeded in having work started on line B (which opened in 2007), despite strong local opposition to the anticipated costs. The creation of a system of underground car parking structures in Toulouse city centre was sharply criticised by the Green Party
The Greens (France)
The Greens were a Green political party to the centre-left of the political spectrum in France. They had officially been in existence since 1984, but their spiritual roots could be traced as far back as René Dumont’s candidacy for the presidency in 1974...

.

Despite all these massive undertakings, the city's economy proved so strong that Dominique Baudis was able to announce, in 1999, that the city had finished repaying its debt, making it the only large city in France ever to achieve solvency. In Europe, typical per capita city debt for a city the size of Toulouse is around 1,200 euros. Achieving solvency was a long-standing goal for Baudis, who had said that he would extinguish city debt before leaving office. Local opposition, however, has criticised this achievement, saying that the task of governments is not to run zero-deficit, but to ensure the well-being of citizens, through social benefits, housing programs for poor people, etc.

In 2000, Dominique Baudis was at the zenith of his popularity, with approval rates of 85%. He announced that he would not run for a fourth (6-year) term in 2001. He explained that with 3 terms he was already the longest-serving mayor of Toulouse since the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

; he felt that change would be good for the city, and that the number of terms should be limited. He endorsed Philippe Douste-Blazy
Philippe Douste-Blazy
Philippe Douste-Blazy is a French centre-right politician. He served as Minister for Health , Minister of Culture and Foreign Minister in the cabinet of Dominique de Villepin .Douste-Blazy is also a cardiologist and Christian Democrat politician from Lourdes...

, then UDF
Union for French Democracy
The Union for French Democracy was a French centrist political party. It was founded in 1978 as an electoral alliance to support President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in order to counterbalance the Gaullist preponderance over the right. This name was chosen due to the title of Giscard d'Estaing's...

 mayor of Lourdes
Lourdes
Lourdes is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in the Midi-Pyrénées region in south-western France.Lourdes is a small market town lying in the foothills of the Pyrenees, famous for the Marian apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes occurred in 1858 to Bernadette Soubirous...

 as his successor. Baudis has since been appointed president of the CSA (Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel
Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel
The Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel is a French institution, created in 1989, whose role is to regulate the various electronic media in France, such as radio and television, including through eventual censorship...

) in Paris, the French equivalent of the American FCC
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government, created, Congressional statute , and with the majority of its commissioners appointed by the current President. The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, competition, the spectrum, the...

.

Philippe Douste-Blazy narrowly won in the 2001 elections, which saw the left making its best showing in decades. Douste-Blazy had to deal with a reinvigorated political opposition, as well as with the dramatic explosion of the AZF plant in late 2001.

In March 2004, he entered the national government, and left Toulouse in the hands of his second-in-command Jean-Luc Moudenc
Jean-Luc Moudenc
Jean-Luc Moudenc is a French politician and was the mayor of Toulouse from 2004 to 2008. He was defeated for reelection in 2008 by Pierre Cohen of the Socialist Party. Moudenc is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement party .Moudenc was born in Toulouse...

, elected mayor by the municipal council. In March 2008, Moudenc was defeated by the Socialist Party's candidate Pierre Cohen
Pierre Cohen
Pierre Cohen is a member of the National Assembly of France. He represents the Haute-Garonne department, and is a member of the Socialiste, radical, citoyen et divers gauche group....

.

Sights



  • Capitole de Toulouse
    Capitole de Toulouse
    The Capitole de Toulouse is the heart of the municipal administration of the French city of Toulouse.The Capitouls of the Toulouse embarked on the construction of the original building in 1190, to provide a seat for the government of a province growing in wealth and influence...

     (mainly 18th century), housing the Hôtel de Ville, the Théâtre du Capitole (opera house), and the Donjon du Capitole (16th century), located on the Place du Capitole.
  • Banks of the Garonne
    Garonne
    The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of .-Source:The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret , the Ratera-Saboredo...

     (mainly 18th century)
  • Bazacle
    Bazacle
    The Bazacle is a structure in and on the banks of the River Garonne in the French city of Toulouse.It originated as a ford across the river Garonne, used from the 12th century onwards. The name bazacle comes from the Latin word vadaculum, meaning "little ford"...

  • Jardin des Plantes
    Jardin des Plantes, Toulouse
    The Jardin des Plantes is a public park and botanical garden located on Allée Jules-Guesde, Toulouse, France.-History:The first botanical garden in Toulouse was created in 1730 by the Société des sciences de Toulouse and located in the Saint-Sernin district, not far from the Matabiau...

    , Grand-Rond, Jardin Royal
  • Pont Neuf
    Pont Neuf, Toulouse
    The Pont Neuf, French for "New Bridge" , is a 16th century bridge in Toulouse, in the South of France.-Construction:...

     (16th century)
  • Hôpital de la Grave, featuring a copper dome of the 18th century
  • Hôpital Saint-Raymond, 16th century hospital
  • Hôtel-Dieu Saint Jacques, former 16th and 17th century hospital on the banks of the Garonne
  • Château d'eau (19th century)
  • Canal du Midi
    Canal du Midi
    The is a long canal in Southern France . The canal connects the Garonne River to the on the Mediterranean and along with the Canal de Garonne forms the Canal des Deux Mers joining the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. The canal runs from the city of Toulouse down to the Étang de Thau...

  • Many Hôtels particuliers (palaces), notably of the 16th century like the Hôtel d'Assézat
    Hôtel d'Assézat
    The Hôtel d'Assézat in Toulouse, France, is a Renaissance hôtel particulier of the 16th century which houses the Bemberg Foundation, a major art gallery of the city.-History:...

    , the Hôtel du Vieux-Raisin, the Hôtel de Bernuy and the Hôtel de Bagis.
  • Saint-Pierre bridge, 19th century iron bridge
  • Wilson Square
  • Halle aux Grains (19th century)
  • Gare de Toulouse Matabiau
    Gare de Toulouse Matabiau
    Toulouse-Matabiau is the main railway station in Toulouse, southern France. It is located in the city centre and connected to the Toulouse Metro. The station is situated on the Bordeaux–Sète railway, Toulouse–Bayonne railway, Brive-Toulouse railway and Toulouse-Auch railway...

    , railroad station
  • Médiathèque José Cabanis
    Médiathèque José Cabanis
    The Médiathèque José Cabanis is the main building of the Public Libraries of Toulouse. Situated next to the Main Rail Station, it was built in 2002 by Buffi and named after José Cabanis, a poet who lived in Toulouse ....

  • Institut national des sciences appliquées

Museums

  • Musée Georges Labit
  • Musée des Augustins
    Musée des Augustins
    The Musée des Augustins de Toulouse is a fine arts museum in Toulouse, France which conserves a collection of sculpture and paintings from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century...

    , the fine arts museum of the city housed in a former gothic convent.
  • Les Abattoirs, museum of modern and contemporary art.
  • Fondation Bemberg, art museum housed in the 16th century Hôtel d'Assézat.
  • Musée Saint-Raymond
    Musée Saint-Raymond
    The Musée Saint-Ramond is a museum located in Toulouse, France an specialized in Antiquities....

    , housed in the former 16th century Saint-Raymond hospital.
  • Cité de l'espace
    Cité de l'espace
    The Cité de l'espace is a theme park oriented towards space and the conquest of space. It was inaugurated in June 1997 and is situated on the eastern outskirts of Toulouse in France...

     (City of Space, a theme park of space exploration).
  • Muséum de Toulouse
    Muséum de Toulouse
    The Muséum de Toulouse, is the Museum of Natural History in Toulouse, France. It is located in the Busca-Montplaisir, and have collections of more than 2 millions and a half items.- Collections :...

     (Muséum de Toulouse, a natural history museum).

Religious buildings

  • Saint-Sernin Basilica
    Saint-Sernin Basilica
    The Basilica of St. Sernin is a church in Toulouse, France, the former abbey church of the Abbey of St. Sernin or St. Saturnin. It was built in the Romanesque style between about 1080 and 1120. It is located on the site of a previous basilica of the 4th century which contained the body of Saint...

     (the largest romanesque church in Europe) which contains what is widely considered the most beautiful pipe organ
    Pipe organ
    The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air through pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each organ pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass...

     in France.
  • Notre-Dame du Taur church, 14th century
  • Church of the Jacobins and its cloister
    Cloister
    A cloister is a rectangular open space surrounded by covered walks or open galleries, with open arcades on the inner side, running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth...

     (burial place of Saint Thomas Aquinas)
  • Saint-Étienne cathedral
    Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Toulouse
    Toulouse Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral, and a national monument of France, located in the city of Toulouse.It is the seat of the Archbishop of Toulouse....

    , 13th to 16th century
  • Daurade basilica
    Notre-Dame de la Daurade
    Notre-Dame de la Daurade is a basilica in Toulouse, France. It was established in 410 when Emperor Honorius allowed the conversion of Pagan temples to Christianity...

    , 18th–19th century
  • Ursulines tower
  • Saint Nicolas church, gothic church
  • Notre-Dame de la Dalbade church, 15th–16th century
  • Saint-Pierre des Cuisines church, 11th and 12th century with a 4th century crypt.
  • Carmelite chapel, chapel with 17th and 18th century frescoes.
  • former Augustine Convent and its gothic cloister, which now houses the Musée des Augustins
    Musée des Augustins
    The Musée des Augustins de Toulouse is a fine arts museum in Toulouse, France which conserves a collection of sculpture and paintings from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century...

    .

Economy



The main industries are aeronautics
Aeronautics
Aeronautics is the science involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of airflight-capable machines, or the techniques of operating aircraft and rocketry within the atmosphere...

, space, electronics, information technology and biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

. Toulouse hosts the Airbus headquarters and assembly-lines of Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

 A320
Airbus A320
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

, A330
Airbus A330
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

, A340
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

, and A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

, the others (A318, A319, A321 and A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

 interior furnishing) being in Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

, Germany. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, with A350 and A380 production going in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organization plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff
Christian Streiff
Christian Streiff is a French businessman.Streiff was born at Sarrebourg, Moselle. He was nominated chief executive officer of the European commercial aircraft manufacturer Airbus S.A.S. on July 2, 2006. He resigned from this position three months later, on October 9, 2006, and was replaced by...

. Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

 has its head office in Blagnac
Blagnac
Blagnac is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France.It is the third-largest suburb of the city of Toulouse, although governed by a separate council, and is adjacent to it on the northwest side. It is a member of the Urban community of Greater Toulouse...

, near Toulouse. Airbus's France division has its main office in Toulouse.

Toulouse also hosts the headquarters of Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

, ATR
ATR
ATR is an Italian-French aircraft manufacturer headquartered on the grounds of Toulouse Blagnac International Airport in Blagnac, France surburb of Toulouse. It was formed in 1981 by Aérospatiale of France and Aeritalia of Italy...

, or again Groupe Latécoère
Groupe Latécoère
The Groupe Latécoère is an aircraft company based in Toulouse, France. Founded by Pierre-Georges Latécoère in 1917, the company was known in the past particularly for its seaplanes...


According to Newsweek
Newsweek
Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It is distributed throughout the United States and internationally. It is the second-largest news weekly magazine in the U.S., having trailed Time in circulation and advertising revenue for most of its existence...

, Toulouse ranked as the fifth most dynamic city in the world in 2006.

Colleges and universities


Toulouse has the third-largest student population in France after Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

 and Paris with 97,000 students.

The University of Toulouse
University of Toulouse
The Université de Toulouse is a consortium of French universities, grandes écoles and other institutions of higher education and research, named after one of the earliest universities established in Europe in 1229, and including the successor universities to that earlier university...

 (Université de Toulouse), established in 1229, is located here (now split into three separate universities). Like the universities in Oxford
Oxford
The city of Oxford is the county town of Oxfordshire, England. The city, made prominent by its medieval university, has a population of just under 165,000, with 153,900 living within the district boundary. It lies about 50 miles north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames run through...

 and Paris, the University of Toulouse was established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Arabs of Andalus and Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology – inspiring scientific discoveries and advances in the arts – as society began seeing itself in a new way. These colleges were supported by the Church, in hopes of reconciling Greek philosophy and Christian theology.
  • Université Toulouse I
    Université Toulouse I
    Toulouse 1 University Capitole is located in the heart of the city of Toulouse, in southwestern France, and boasts an age-old academic tradition which goes back to 1229.- History :...

    , Toulouse School of Economics
    Toulouse School of Economics
    The Toulouse School of Economics is a school of economics within the University of Toulouse. In 2007, the French government and the Academy of Sciences chose TSE as one of 13 "Réseaux Thématiques de Recherche Avancée" across all fields, enabling the creation of a private foundation, the...

     and Institut d'études politiques de Toulouse
  • University of Toulouse II – Le Mirail
  • Université Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III)


Toulouse is also the home of Toulouse Business School (ESC Toulouse) and several engineering schools:
  • ICAM Toulouse (Institut catholique d'arts et métiers)
  • INSA Toulouse
    INSA Toulouse
    The Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Toulouse or INSA Toulouse is a Grande École d'Ingénieurs, an engineering university, under the authority of the French Ministry of Education and Research and part of the INSA's network...

  • ISAE SUPAERO
    École Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace
    The École Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace , founded in 1909, is one of the most prestigious and selective grandes écoles in France. It was the world's first dedicated aerospace engineering school and is considered to be one of the best in Europe in that field...

     (École Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace)
  • ISAE ENSICA
    ENSICA
    The École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de constructions aéronautiques , meaning National Higher School of aeronautical constructions, is a French engineering school founded in 1945. It is located in Toulouse....

     (École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de constructions aéronautiques)
  • ENAC
    École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile
    The ' is a French and a national French civil aeronautics academy .It was founded in 1949 in Paris Orly and moved to Toulouse in 1968....

     (École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile)
  • INP ENSEEIHT (École Nationale Supérieure d'Électronique, d'Électrotechnique, d'Informatique, d'Hydraulique et des Télécommunications)
  • INP ENSIACET
    École nationale supérieure des ingénieurs en arts chimiques et technologiques
    INP-ENSIACET is a high-level selective institute. It is part of the National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse , which includes 3 other grandes écoles: INP-ENSAT, INP-ENSEEIHT and INP-ENIT....

     (École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs en art chimique et technologique)
  • INP ENSAT ('École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Toulouse)
  • EPITECH (École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies or European Institute of Information Technology)
  • IPSA
    Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées
    IPSA, Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées, is a French private grande école in aeronautical and space engineering located at Ivry-sur-Seine and Toulouse, certified by the State since 2010 and by Commission des Titres d’Ingénieur since 2011....

     (Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées)
  • EIPurpan (École d'ingénieurs de Purpan)


The most well known high schools in Toulouse are Lycée Pierre de Fermat, Lycée Saint-Joseph and Lycée Saint-Sernin.

Transport


In addition to an extensive bus system, the Toulouse Metro
Toulouse Metro
The Toulouse metro serves the city of Toulouse, France, and some of the surrounding area. The city's public transport system was initially managed by Société d'économie mixte des voyageurs de l'agglomération toulousaine , which was a company that was 80% owned by local government bodies and 20%...

 is a VAL (Véhicule Automatique Léger) metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system made up of driverless (automatic) rubber-tired trains. Line A runs for 12.5 km from Balma-Gramont in the north-east to Basso Cambo in the south-west. Line B, which opened in June 2007, serves 20 stations north to south and intersects line A at Jean Jaurès. Line T1 (December 2010), runs from Beauzelle to Toulouse passing through Blagnac. Line C has existed since line A was completed. It is not VAL but an urban railway line operated by SNCF
SNCF
The SNCF , is France's national state-owned railway company. SNCF operates the country's national rail services, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network...

. It connects to line A at Arènes. Similarly, Line D runs south from Toulouse Matabiau
Gare de Toulouse Matabiau
Toulouse-Matabiau is the main railway station in Toulouse, southern France. It is located in the city centre and connected to the Toulouse Metro. The station is situated on the Bordeaux–Sète railway, Toulouse–Bayonne railway, Brive-Toulouse railway and Toulouse-Auch railway...

 to Muret
Muret
Muret is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France.It is an outer suburb of the city of Toulouse, even though it does not belong to Greater Toulouse, which it has declined to join...

. All urban bus, metro and tram services are operated by Tisséo.

In 2007, a city-wide bicycle rental scheme called VélôToulouse was introduced, with bicycles available from automated stations for a daily, weekly, monthly or yearly subscription.

Airports include:
  • Toulouse Blagnac
    Toulouse Blagnac International Airport
    Toulouse Blagnac Airport or Aéroport de Toulouse - Blagnac is an airport located west northwest of Toulouse, just south of Blagnac, both communes of the Haute-Garonne département in the Midi-Pyrénées région of France....

    , the principal local airport
  • Toulouse Lasbordes


The main railway station, with regional and national services, is Toulouse-Matabiau
Gare de Toulouse Matabiau
Toulouse-Matabiau is the main railway station in Toulouse, southern France. It is located in the city centre and connected to the Toulouse Metro. The station is situated on the Bordeaux–Sète railway, Toulouse–Bayonne railway, Brive-Toulouse railway and Toulouse-Auch railway...

.

Communications


Toulouse is the home of Bonhoure Radio Tower, a 61-metre high lattice tower used for FM and TV transmission. In 2001 a large (100 km) optical fiber
Optical fiber
An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made of a pure glass not much wider than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of...

 (symmetric 360Gbit/s) network named
Infrastructure Métropolitaine de Télécommunications was deployed around the city and suburbs.

Culture


The Théâtre du Capitole
Théâtre du Capitole
The Théâtre du Capitole de Toulouse is an opera house and ballet company located within the main administration buildings, the Capitole, of the city of Toulouse in south-west France....

 is the home of opera and ballet; there has been a theatre on the site since 1736. The Orchestre National du Capitole
Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse
The Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse is a French orchestra based in Toulouse. It acts as both a symphony orchestra whose main residence is Toulouse's Halle aux Grains, and the permanent orchestra of the Théâtre du Capitole in Toulouse....

, long associated with Michel Plasson
Michel Plasson
Michel Plasson is a French conductor.Plasson was a student of Lazare Lévy at the Conservatoire de Paris. In 1962, he was a prize-winner at the International Besançon Competition for Young Conductors. He studied briefly in the United States, including time with Charles Münch...

, plays at the Halle aux Grains.

It is the seat of the Académie des Jeux Floraux
Académie des Jeux floraux
Académie des Jeux floraux , or Collège de la gaie science , is the most ancient literary institution of the western world. It was founded in 1323 by Clémence Isaure as the Consistori del Gay Saber with the goal of encouraging Occitan poetry...

, the equivalent of the French Academy for the Occitan-speaking regions of southern France, making Toulouse the unofficial capital of Occitan culture
Occitania
Occitania , also sometimes lo País d'Òc, "the Oc Country"), is the region in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language...

. The traditional Occitan cross
Occitan cross
The Occitan cross — also cross of Occitania, cross of Languedoc, cross of Forcalquier and Toulouse cross — is the symbol of Occitania...

 was adopted as the symbol of both the City of Toulouse and the newly-founded Midi-Pyrénées région.

The city's gastronomic specialties include Saucisses de Toulouse, a type of herb sausage
Sausage
A sausage is a food usually made from ground meat , mixed with salt, herbs, and other spices, although vegetarian sausages are available. The word sausage is derived from Old French saussiche, from the Latin word salsus, meaning salted.Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made...

, cassoulet
Cassoulet
Cassoulet is a rich, slow-cooked bean stew or casserole originating in the south of France, containing meat , pork skin and white haricot beans....

Toulousain, a bean and pork stew
Stew
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables , meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, sausages, and seafood are also used...

, and garbure
Garbure
Garbure is a thick French soup or stew of ham with cabbage and other vegetables, usually with cheese and stale bread added. The name derives from the use of the term garb to describe sheaves of grain depicted on a heraldic shield or coat of arms. Thus the name of garbure, which is eaten with a...

, a cabbage soup with poultry. Also, foie gras
Foie gras
Foie gras ; French for "fat liver") is a food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened. This fattening is typically achieved through gavage corn, according to French law, though outside of France it is occasionally produced using natural feeding...

, the liver of an overfed duck or goose, is a delicacy mainly made in the Midi-Pyrénées.

Sport


Most notably, Toulouse is represented by Stade Toulousain
Stade Toulousain
Stade Toulousain, also referred to as Toulouse, is a French rugby union club from Toulouse in Midi-Pyrénées. Toulouse is one of the finest rugby clubs in Europe, having won the Heineken Cup four times – in 1996, 2003, 2005 and 2010. They were also runners-up in 2004 and 2008 against London Wasps...

, a rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 club competing in the Top 14 competition. Stade Toulousain is considered one of the finest rugby union clubs in all of Europe, having been crowned the Heineken Cup
Heineken Cup
The Heineken Cup is one of two annual rugby union competitions organised by European Rugby Cup involving leading club, regional and provincial teams from the six International Rugby Board countries in Europe whose national teams compete in the Six Nations Championship: England, France, Ireland,...

 champions four times since 1996.

Toulouse Olympique
Toulouse Olympique
Toulouse Olympique are a French professional rugby league team from Toulouse, in the southwest of France. They were founded on 22 October, in 1937 two years after the founding of the French Rugby League Federation. Between 1995 and 2002 the club were known as Spacers de Toulouse, due to links with...

 represents the city in Rugby League
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

, they play in the Co-operative Championship.
The city also has a professional football team Toulouse FC
Toulouse FC
Toulouse Football Club is a French association football club based in the city of Toulouse. The club was founded in 1970 and currently play in Ligue 1, the top level of French football. Toulouse plays its home matches at the Stadium Municipal located within the city. The first team is managed by...

 who play in ligue 1, the top level of football in France.

Fenix Toulouse Handball who play in division 1, the top level of Handball in France.

Spacers Toulouse volleyball who play in division 1, the top level of volleyball in France.
The city also hosted games during the 1998 FIFA World Cup
1998 FIFA World Cup
The 1998 FIFA World Cup, the 16th FIFA World Cup, was held in France from 10 June to 12 July 1998. France was chosen as host nation by FIFA on 2 July 1992. The tournament was won by France, who beat Brazil 3-0 in the final...

, 2007 rugby world cup
2007 Rugby World Cup
The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987. Twenty nations competed for the Webb Ellis Cup in the tournament, which was hosted by France from 7 September to 20 October. France won the hosting rights in 2003,...

 and the EuroBasket 1999
EuroBasket 1999
-Group B:-Group C:-Group D:-Second round:- Group E :- Group F :-Championship bracket:-5th place bracket:- Quarterfinals :-Classification rounds:- Semifinals :- Third place game:- Final :...

.

Personalities

  • Bernard Werber
    Bernard Werber
    Bernard Werber is a French science fiction writer active since the 1990s.-Novels:His style of writing mixes different literary genres, notably the saga, the science fiction of the inter-war years, and tracts of philosophy.In most of his novels, Bernard Werber uses the same form of construction,...

    , writer
  • Jean de Coras
    Jean de Coras
    Jean de Coras, also called Corasius was a French jurist.Born in Réalmont as the son of a notary, he studied law in Toulouse, Cahors, Orléans and perhaps also in other cities, under teachers such as Franciscus Curtis junior and Marianus Socinus junior...

     (1515–1572), judge and humanist
  • Lucas Puig
    Lucas Puig
    Lucas Puig is a French professional skateboarder who grew up in Toulouse, France -Sponsorship:Puig currently holds sponsorship deals with Cliché Skateboards,Adidas skateboarding, Independent Trucks, Autobahn Wheels, Fourstar Clothing, and Von Zipper Sunglasses.-Video games:Lucas Puig made his...

    , professional skateboarder
  • Antony Rea
    Antony Rea
    Antony Rea is an French professional mixed martial artist. Antony is a Cage Rage veteran and has fought for Shooto, bodogFIGHT and Konfrontacja Sztuk Walki. He is notable for his fights with Ultimate Fighting Championship contenders Vitor Belfort, Marvin Eastman, Jason MacDonald, Kazuo Takahashi,...

    , mixed martial artist
  • Pierre de Fermat
    Pierre de Fermat
    Pierre de Fermat was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and an amateur mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his adequality...

    , lawyer and mathematician
  • Marcus Antonius Primus
    Marcus Antonius Primus
    Marcus Antonius Primus was a Roman Empire general.Primus was born at Tolosa in Gaul. During the reign of Nero, he was resident in Rome and a member of the Senate, from which he was expelled for conspiring to forge a will with Valerius Fabianus, and was banished from the city...

    , famous Roman general
  • Carlos Gardel
    Carlos Gardel
    Carlos Gardel was a singer, songwriter and actor, and is perhaps the most prominent figure in the history of tango. He was born in Toulouse, France, although he never acknowledged his birthplace publicly, and there are still claims of his birth in Uruguay. He lived in Argentina from the age of two...

    , singer, composer
  • Christine Albanel
    Christine Albanel
    Christine Albanel is a French civil servant. From May 2007 to June 2009 she was France's Minister for Culture and Communication in François Fillon's government.Albanel is agrégé in classical Letters...

    , politician
  • Philippe Mexès
    Philippe Mexès
    Philippe Mexès is a French professional footballer who plays as a centre back for Italian Serie A club Milan and for the French national team.-Auxerre:...

    , footballer
  • David Skrela
    David Skrela
    David Skrela is a French rugby union footballer. He plays for the French national side and for ASM Clermont Auvergne as a fly-half or centre. He is renowned for his tackles and his kick....

    , rugby union player.
  • Maxime Médard
    Maxime Médard
    Maxime Médard is a French rugby union player who plays his club rugby for French club Stade Toulousain in Top 14 and France internationally. He can play as both a fullback and on the wing and is described by assistant national team coach Emile Ntamack as an "incredible talent" that, during the...

    , rugby union player.
  • Antoine Crozat
    Antoine Crozat
    Antoine Crozat, marquis du Châtel , French founder of an immense fortune, was the first private proprietary owner of French Louisiana from 1712 to 1717....

    , first governor of Louisiana, and his brother Pierre Crozat
    Pierre Crozat
    thumb|265px|[[Rembrandt]]'s painting [[Danaë |Danae]] from Crozat's collection.Pierre Crozat was a French art collector at the center of a broad circle of cognoscenti; he was the brother of Antoine Crozat....

    .
  • Fabien Pelous
    Fabien Pelous
    Fabien Pelous is a retired French rugby union footballer. A lock who also occasionally played as a number eight and flanker, he played almost all of his professional career for Stade Toulousain, and is the all-time leader in appearances for the French national team...

    , rugby player
  • Frédéric Michalak
    Frédéric Michalak
    Frédéric Michalak is a French rugby union footballer, who currently plays in South Africa for the Sharks in Super Rugby and the Natal Sharks in the Currie Cup. His early career was spent playing for his hometown team, Toulouse, in the Top 14 and in the Heineken Cup...

    , rugby player
  • Jean-Louis Debré
    Jean-Louis Debré
    Jean-Louis Debré is a conservative French political figure. He was President of the National Assembly of France from 2002 to 2007 and has been President of the Constitutional Council since 2007.-Biography:Debré was born in Toulouse...

    , politician
  • Claude Nougaro
    Claude Nougaro
    Claude Nougaro was a French songwriter and singer.Claude Nougaro was born in Toulouse to a respected French opera singer, Pierre Nougaro, and an Italian piano teacher, Liette Tellini. He was raised by his grandparents in Toulouse where he heard Glenn Miller, Édith Piaf and Louis Armstrong on the...

    , parolier, writer and singer, passionate about jazz and language
  • Solène Jambaqué
    Solène Jambaqué
    Solene Jambaque is a French alpine skier and two time Paralympic Champion.She competed in the 2006 Winter Paralympics in Turin, Italy....

    , alpine skier with hemiplegia, multi-medal winner at the Winter Paralympic Games
  • Pierre Seel
    Pierre Seel
    Pierre Seel was a gay Holocaust survivor and the only French person to have testified openly about his experience of deportation during World War II due to his homosexuality.-Biography:...

    , persecuted homosexual during the Holocaust
  • Marine Delterme
    Marine Delterme
    Marine Delterme is a French actress, painter, sculptor and former model.-Early life and private life:Marine Delterme was born in Toulouse, France. She grew up in Paris. Her parents worked in the art restoration business...

    , actress
  • Laurent Wolf
    Laurent Wolf
    Laurent Wolf 1973 in Toulouse Is a French electro-house producer and DJ. He is the author of several compilations that contain his own tracks and also his remixes. He reached the top of the charts with his "Saxo" and "Calinda" compositions. Laurent Wolf was the winner of the DJ category in the...

    , DJ
  • Gael Clichy
    Gaël Clichy
    Gaël Clichy is a French footballer who plays as a defender for Manchester City and the France national football team. Though initially right-foot dominant, he primarily plays as a left back that is also capable of playing as an offensive-minded wingback. Clichy is described as a player who...

    , footballer
  • Dilemn
    Dilemn
    Dilemn, whose real name is Gauvain Fargeot, is a French electro music producer, born in 1981 in Toulouse .- Biography :...

    , DJ
  • Count Henry Russell (1834–1909), explorer, Pyreneiste, author and founder member of Societe Ramond

Twin towns – Sister cities


Toulouse is twinned with:

 United States Atlanta, Georgia, United States
 Lebanon Tripoli
Tripoli, Lebanon
Tripoli is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in Lebanon. Situated 85 km north of the capital Beirut, Tripoli is the capital of the North Governorate and the Tripoli District. Geographically located on the east of the Mediterranean, the city's history dates back...

, Lebanon
 Italy Bologna
Bologna
Bologna is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna, in the Po Valley of Northern Italy. The city lies between the Po River and the Apennine Mountains, more specifically, between the Reno River and the Savena River. Bologna is a lively and cosmopolitan Italian college city, with spectacular history,...

, Italy
 United Kingdom Bristol
Bristol
Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007...

, England, United Kingdom
 Mainland China Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

, China

 Spain Elx
Elx
Elche or Elx is a city located in the comarca of Baix Vinalopó, in the Alicante province which, in turn, is a part of the Valencian Community, Spain...

 / Elche, País Valencià, Spain
 Ukraine Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

, Ukraine
 Israel Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

, Israel
 Argentina Rosario, Argentina

Toulouse also has accords of cooperation with the following towns:

 Poland Bydgoszcz, Poland
 Germany Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

, Germany
 Vietnam Hanoi
Hanoi
Hanoi , is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam...

, Vietnam
 Chad N'Djamena
N'Djamena
N'Djamena is the capital and largest city of Chad. A port on the Chari River, near the confluence with the Logone River, it directly faces the Cameroonian town of Kousséri, to which the city is connected by a bridge. It is also a special statute region, divided in 10 arrondissements. It is a...

, Chad

 Senegal Saint-Louis
Saint-Louis, Senegal
Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region. Located in the northwest of Senegal, near the mouth of the Senegal River, and 320 km north of Senegal's capital city Dakar, it has a population officially estimated at 176,000 in 2005. Saint-Louis...

, Senegal
 Brazil São José dos Campos
São José dos Campos
São José dos Campos is a municipality and a major city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and one of the most important industrial and research centers in Latin America. It is located in the Paraíba Valley, between the two most active production and consumption regions in the country, São Paulo ...

, Brazil
 Spain Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Zaragoza , also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain...

, Aragón
Aragon
Aragon is a modern autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces : Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza...

, Spain

In addition, Toulouse has an adoption city:
 Kingdom of Romania Câmpia Turzii
Câmpia Turzii
Câmpia Turzii is a city in Cluj County, Romania, which was formed in 1925 by the union of two villages, Ghiriş and Sâncrai...

, Romania

See also

  • 138 Tolosa
    138 Tolosa
    138 Tolosa is a brightly coloured, stony main-belt asteroid. It was discovered by Henri Joseph Perrotin on May 19, 1874, and named after the Latin for Toulouse, France....

    , an asteroid
    Asteroid
    Asteroids are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones...

  • Institut d'études politiques de Toulouse
  • List of bishops of Toulouse
  • Toulouse Geese
  • Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
    Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
    Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa or simply Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an œuvre of exciting, elegant and provocative images of the modern...

     – famous artist born of nobility in Midi-Pyrénées région, but not born in the city of Toulouse
  • Communes of the Haute-Garonne department

External links

Official site Greater Toulouse Council