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Chengdu

Chengdu

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Chengdu formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 province in Southwest China
Southwest China
Southwest China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the municipality of Chongqing, the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou, and the Tibet Autonomous Region.-Provinces:-Municipalities:...

. It holds sub-provincial administrative status
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

. The urban area houses 14,047,625 inhabitants (2010 census
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010....

: 7,123,697) within the municipality's nine districts and 6,730,749 in the surrounding region.

Chengdu is one of the most important economic, transportation, and communication centers in Western China
Western China
Western China , refers to the western part of China. In the definition of the Chinese government, Western China covers six provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan; one municipality: Chongqing; and three autonomous regions: Ningxia, Tibet, and Xinjiang.-Administrative...

. According to the 2007 Public Appraisal for Best Chinese Cities for Investment, Chengdu was chosen as one of the top ten cities to invest in out of a total of 280 urban centers in China. It was recently named China's 4th-most livable city by China Daily
China Daily
The China Daily is an English language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.- Overview :China Daily was established in June 1981 and has the widest print circulation of any English-language newspaper in the country...

.

The fertile Chengdu Plain
Chengdu Plain
The Chengdu Plain , known as Cuanxi Bazi in Sichuanese, is an alluvial plain located in the western part of Sichuan Basin in Sichuan, China. Chengdu is located on it....

, on which Chengdu is located, is also known as the "Country of Heaven" , a phrase also often translated as "The Land of Abundance". The discovery of the Jinsha site suggests the area of Chengdu had become the center of the bronze age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

 Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui is the name of an archaeological site and its deduced culture in China, now believed to be the site of an ancient Chinese city. The previously unknown Bronze Age culture was re-discovered in 1987 when archaeologists excavated remarkable artifacts, that radiocarbon dating dated as being...

 culture around the time of the establishment of the state of Shu, prior to its annexation by Qin
Qin (state)
The State of Qin was a Chinese feudal state that existed during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history...

 in 316 BC.

City nicknames


The city was named "Chengdu" when it was founded more than 2000 years ago, and the name has remained the same till the present day. The city has always been in the same location. The nicknames below are well known by people from Chengdu and other regions in China.
  • The City of Hibiscus
    Hibiscus
    Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world...

    : Róngchéng,

In the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms was between 907–960/979 AD and an era of political upheaval in China, between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the founding of the Song Dynasty. During this period, five dynasties quickly succeeded one another in the north, and more than 12 independent states were...

 (907-960), Mengchang, the king of the Later Shu
Later Shu
Later Shu was one of the Ten Kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China from 907 to 960. It was located in present-day Sichuan with its capital in Chengdu.-Founding:...

 Kingdom, ordered the planting of hibiscus on the fortress wall
Defensive wall
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city or settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements...

 surrounding the city. After this, Chengdu started being called the City of Hibiscus. Nowadays, the hibiscus is still the city flower of Chengdu, but the last city wall was torn down in the 1960s, along with the Royal Palace situated in the middle of the city, where the statue of Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

 now stands.
  • The Brocade
    Brocade
    Brocade is a class of richly decorative shuttle-woven fabrics, often made in colored silks and with or without gold and silver threads. The name, related to the same root as the word "broccoli," comes from Italian broccato meaning "embossed cloth," originally past participle of the verb broccare...

     City: Jinchéng,

In the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-23 AD), brocade produced in Chengdu enjoyed great popularity among the royal and elite class in China. An emperor created the office of Jin Guan (锦官) to oversee brocade production in Chengdu. Since then, Chengdu has been called "Jin Guan Cheng" (锦官城) meaning "Brocade Official's City", or in its short form, "Jin Cheng" (锦城) meaning "Brocade City."
  • The Turtle City: Guichéng,

According to the ancient legend, when Chengdu was built in 310 AD, the chief architect Zhang Yi followed the routes of a turtle to decide the city's borders. It coincides with the fact that the city does resemble the shape of a turtle on a map.

History




In the early 4th century BC, the 9th king of the state of Shu
Shu (state)
The State of Shu was an ancient state in what is now Sichuan, China. It was conquered by Qin in 316 BC. Shu was based on the Chengdu Plain, in the western Sichuan basin with some extension northeast to the upper Han River valley. To the east was the Ba tribal confederation. Further east down the...

 moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian. The Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 geographical work Tai Ping Huan Yu Ji states that the king was inspired by King Tai of Zhou
King Tai of Zhou
King Tai of Zhou , or Gugong Danfu , also, especially in older English translations, as Old Duke Tan-fu,​​ was a semi-legendary-to-historical person of ancient China, credited with being behind the shaping of the Zhou clan up into what would become the longest-tenured dynasty in the History of...

's statement that a settlement needed "one year to become a town; two years to become a capital." Following this, the king named the new city Cheng Du: literally, "become the capital". There are, however, several versions of why the capital was moved to Chengdu, and more recent theories of the name's origin point to it as stemming from, or referring to, earlier non-Han inhabitants and/or their languages.

After the conquest of Shu
Shu (state)
The State of Shu was an ancient state in what is now Sichuan, China. It was conquered by Qin in 316 BC. Shu was based on the Chengdu Plain, in the western Sichuan basin with some extension northeast to the upper Han River valley. To the east was the Ba tribal confederation. Further east down the...

 by the State of Qin
Qin (state)
The State of Qin was a Chinese feudal state that existed during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history...

 in 316 BC
316 BC
Year 316 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rutilus and Laenas...

, a new city was founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi
Zhang Yi (strategist)
Zhang Yi was born in the Wei state during the Warring States Period of Chinese history. He was an important strategist in helping Qin to dissolve the unity of the other states, and hence pave the way for Qin to unify China...

 (who as a matter of fact had argued against the invasion). This can be seen as the beginning of the Chinese Chengdu.

During the partition following the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty, i.e. the era of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
The Three Kingdoms period was a period in Chinese history, part of an era of disunity called the "Six Dynasties" following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty rulers. In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the...

, Liu Bei
Liu Bei
Liu Bei , also known as Liu Xuande, was a warlord, military general and later the founding emperor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history...

 founded the southwest kingdom of Shu-Han  with Chengdu as its capital.

During the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

, both the "Poet God" Li Bаí
Li Bai
Li Bai , also known in the West by various other transliterations, especially Li Po, was a major Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty poetry period. He has been regarded as one of the greatest poets in China's Tang period, which is often called China's "golden age" of poetry. Around a thousand existing...

  and the "Poet Sage" Dù Fǔ
Du Fu
Du Fu was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty.Along with Li Bai , he is frequently called the greatest of the Chinese poets. His greatest ambition was to serve his country as a successful civil servant, but he proved unable to make the necessary accommodations...

  spent some part of their lives in Chengdu. Du Fu constructed the celebrated "Caotáng" (thatched cottage or grass-hut) in the second year of his four-years stay (759-762). But today's Caotang, a rather sumptuous house in the traditional style, was only constructed in 1078 in memory of Du Fu. As early as the Tang dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 more than 1,200 years ago, Chengdu became one of the foremost commercial cities in China, second only to Yangzhou
Yangzhou
Yangzhou is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yangtze River, it borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the southwest, Huai'an to the north, Yancheng to the northeast, Taizhou to the east, and Zhenjiang across...

.

Chengdu was also the birthplace of the first widely used paper money
Paper Money
Paper Money is the second album by the band Montrose. It was released in 1974 and was the band's last album to feature Sammy Hagar as lead vocalist.-History:...

 in the world (Northern Song Dynasty, around A.D. 960). The Qingyang Gong Taoist temple was built in Chengdu in the ninth century, meaning "Green Goat".

Two rebel leaders, one around the end of Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

, the other near the end of Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

, set up the capitals of their short-lived kingdoms here, called Dàshu and Dàxi , respectively.
In the 13th century, Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and apparently...

 wrote about several bridges in China and the Anshun Bridge (or an earlier version of it) in Chengdu was one of them. He referred to Chengdu as "Sindafu" ("Cheng-Tu_Fu") as the capital of the province of the same name.

In 1279 the Mongols sacked Chengdu, killing 1.4 million inhabitants in the process.

During the Second World War the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party) government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 fled to Sichuan Province to escape the invading Japanese forces. They brought with them businesspeople, workers and academics, who founded many of the industries and cultural institutions which continue to make Chengdu an important center.

In 1944 the American XX Bomber Command
XX Bomber Command
The XX Bomber Command is an inactive United States Air Force unit. Its last assignment was with Far East Air Forces, based on Okinawa. It was inactivated on July 16, 1945.- History:...

 launched Operation Matterhorn
Operation Matterhorn
Operation Matterhorn was a military operations plan of the United States Army Air Forces in World War II for the strategic bombing of Japanese forces by B-29 Superfortresses based in India and China. Targets included Japan itself, and Japanese bases in China and South East Asia...

, an ambitious plan to base B-29 Superfortress
B-29 Superfortress
The B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing that was flown primarily by the United States Air Forces in late-World War II and through the Korean War. The B-29 was one of the largest aircraft to see service during World War II...

es at Chengdu and strategically bomb the Japanese Home Islands
Japanese Archipelago
The , which forms the country of Japan, extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean...

. Because the operation required a massive airlift of fuel and supplies over the Himalayas, it was not a significant military success, but it did earn Chengdu the distinction of launching the first serious retaliation against the Japanese homeland.

During the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang , the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China , for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China and People's Republic of...

, Chengdu was the last city on the Chinese mainland
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 to be held by the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

-controlled government. R.O.C.
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 President Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 and his son Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo , Kuomintang politician and leader, was the son of President Chiang Kai-shek and held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China...

 directed the defence of the city at Chengdu Central Military Academy until 1949, when the city fell into Communist hands. The People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 took the city on December 10 and the remnants of the Nationalist Chinese government fled to Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

.

Today the industrial base is very broad, including light and heavy manufacturing, aluminum smelting and chemicals. The textile industry remains important, with cotton and wool milling added to the traditional manufacturing of silk brocade and satin.

Today Chengdu is the headquarters of the Chengdu Military Region.

On May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake
2008 Sichuan earthquake
The 2008 Sichuan earthquake or the Great Sichuan Earthquake was a deadly earthquake that measured at 8.0 Msand 7.9 Mw occurred at 14:28:01 CST...

 struck causing damage to the area, killing about 80,000 people and injuring 26,413 as of May 12, 2008. 4,021 of the casualties and most of the property damage were from Dujiangyan and Pengzhou, two cities within the administration of Chengdu, the sub-provincial city. Chengdu did not suffer any discernible damage. The reason why many people died in the surrounding areas had to do with poor construction. Though only 75 kilometres (46.6 mi) from the epicenter, Chengdu itself was built to earthquake specification, and most buildings there remained intact.

Demography


The municipality is home for 14,047,625 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 7,123,697 in the city considerered as urban. The built up area is home to 6,730,749 million inhabitants and emcompasses 7 out of 9 urban districts (all but Longquanyi District
Longquanyi District
Longquanyi District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China. The population is overhalf a million. Longquanyi has been designated as a high-tech development district, with investment mainly focused in the urban areas....

 and Qingbaijiang District
Qingbaijiang District
Qingbaijiang District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China....

 still separated of core built up area + Pi county being urbanized quickly
)

Administrative divisions


Chengdu is a sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

. It has direct jurisdiction over 9 districts (区 qu), 4 county-level cities
County-level city
A county-level city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions....

 (市 shi) and 6 counties (县xian) :
Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
City Core
1 Qingyang District
Qingyang District
Qingyang District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China.Qingyang has an area of 68 square kilometers and a population of 460,000.-External links:*...

青羊区 Qīngyáng Qū 828,140 66 12,548
2 Jinjiang District
Jinjiang District
Jinjiang District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China. The Jin River flows through it....

锦江区 Jǐnjiāng Qū 690,422 61 11,318
3 Jinniu District
Jinniu District
Jinniu District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China....

金牛区 Jīnniú Qū 1,200,776 108 11,118
4 Wuhou District
Wuhou District
Wuhou District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China. It contains the historic site, Wuhou Temple and Jinli Street....

武侯区 Wǔhóu Qū 1,083,806 77 14,075
5 Chenghua District
Chenghua District
Chenghua District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China....

成华区 Chénghuá Qū 938,785 109 8,613
Suburban districts within city limit
6 Longquanyi District
Longquanyi District
Longquanyi District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China. The population is overhalf a million. Longquanyi has been designated as a high-tech development district, with investment mainly focused in the urban areas....

龙泉驿区 Lóngquányì Qū 767,203 558 1,375
7 Qingbaijiang District
Qingbaijiang District
Qingbaijiang District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China....

青白江区 Qīngbáijiāng Qū 381,792 392 974
8 Xindu District
Xindu District
新都区位于成都市北郊,居“天府之国”川西平原腹地,素有“天府明珠”和“香城”之称。全区幅员面积496平方公里,六分之五为平原,六分之一为浅丘。新都区现辖13镇(街道)、255个村(社区),全区总人口65万人。新都区是成都市科技·文化·旅游卫星城,在成都市总体规划中被确定为都市区,其中32.6平方公里为都市区 Xindu District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China....

新都区 Xīndū Qū 775,703 481 1,613
9 Wenjiang District
Wenjiang District
Wenjiang District is a district of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China....

温江区 Wēnjiāng Qū 457,070 277 1,650
Satellite cities
10 Dujiangyan
Dujiangyan City
Dujiangyan is a county-level city of Chengdu, Sichuan Province in China. It has an area of 1208 square kilometers and a population of 600,000 in 2003....

都江堰市 Dūjiāngyàn Shì 657,996 1,208 545
11 Pengzhou
Pengzhou
Pengzhou is a county-level city in Sichuan, China, some 19 km northwest of Chengdu. There is an expressway, free of charge to 川A and 川O vehicle holders, that connects Chengdu and the suburb, Pengzhou....

彭州市 Péngzhōu Shì 762,887 1,420 537
12 Qionglai 邛崃市 Qiónglái Shì 612,753 1,384 443
13 Chongzhou
Chongzhou
Chongzhou is a satellite city near Cheng Du - Capital of Sichuan Province, P.R China....

崇州市 Chóngzhōu Shì 661,120 1,090 607
Rural
14 Jintang County
Jintang County
Jintang County is a county in the eastern part of Chengdu City, the capital of Sichuan province, in Southwest China. Located approximately 28 kilometers away from downtown Chengdu, the county covers 1154 square kilometers and has a population of approximately 870,000. The large majority of the...

金堂县 Jīntáng Xiàn 717,225 1,156 620
15 Shuangliu County
Shuangliu County
Shuangliu County is a county in the southwestern part of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, China. Located approximately 19 kilometers away from downtown Chengdu, the county covers 1068 square kilometers and has a population of approximately 920,000...

双流县 Shuāngliú Xiàn 1,158,516 1,067 1,086
16 Pi County
Pi County
Pi County is a county within Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China. It is located just 10 km north-west of Chengdu's city centre...

郫县 Pí Xiàn 756,047 438 1,726
17 Dayi County
Dayi County
Dayi County is a county of Sichuan Province, China. It is under the administration of Chengdu city....

大邑县 Dàyì Xiàn 502,198 1,327 378
18 Pujiang County
Pujiang County, Sichuan
Pujiang County is a county of Sichuan Province, China. It is under the administration of Chengdu city.-Geography:Pujiang County is in the Southwest part of the Sichuan Basin and in the area from East longitude 103°19′to 103°41′ and from North latitude 30°05′ to 30°20′...

蒲江县 Pújiāng Xiàn 239,562 583 411
19 Xinjin County
Xinjin County
Xinjin County is a county of Sichuan Province, China. It is under the administration of Chengdu city....

新津县 Xīnjīn Xiàn 302,199 330 916

Geography



Chengdu is located at the western edge of the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan basin
The Sichuan Basin is a lowland region in southwestern China. Despite its historical name, it is not only synonymous to Sichuan province, comprising its central and eastern portions as well as part of Chongqing Municipality...

 and sits on the Chengdu Plain
Chengdu Plain
The Chengdu Plain , known as Cuanxi Bazi in Sichuanese, is an alluvial plain located in the western part of Sichuan Basin in Sichuan, China. Chengdu is located on it....

; the dominating terrain is plains. The prefecture
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 prefecture ranges in latitude from 30° 05' to 31° 26' N, while its longitude ranges from 102° 54' to 104° 53' E, stretching for 192 kilometres (119.3 mi) from east to west and 166 kilometres (103.1 mi) south to north, administering 12390 sqkm of land. Neighbouring prefectures are Deyang
Deyang
Deyang is a prefecture-level city in Sichuan province, China. Deyang is a wealthy, mostly industrial city, with the Erzhong Heavy Machinery Company Deyang is a prefecture-level city in Sichuan province, China. Deyang is a wealthy, mostly industrial city, with the Erzhong Heavy Machinery Company...

 (NE), Ziyang (SE), Meishan
Meishan
Meishan , formerly known as Meizhou or Qingzhou , is a prefecture-level city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Sichuan province of the People's Republic of China. Meishan is in the southwest of Sichuan Basin....

 (S), Ya'an
Ya'an
Ya'an is a prefecture-level city in the western part of Sichuan province of Southwest China, located just below the Tibetan Plateau.-History:...

 (SW), and the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture
Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture
The Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in Sichuan, whose capital is Barkam town . It has an area of 83,201 km²....

 (N). The urban area, with an elevation of 500 metres (1,640.4 ft), features a few rivers, three of them being the Jin
Jin River (Sichuan)
The Jin River is a river of Sichuan, China. It flows through the provincial capital of Chengdu and joins the Min Jiang at Pengshan.The river has a history of serious pollution which in the past has led to the river choking and flooding...

, Fu (府河), and Sha Rivers. Outside of the immediate urban area, the topography becomes more complex: to the east lies the Longquan Range (龙泉山脉) and the Penzhong Hills (盆中丘陵); to the west lie the Qionglai Mountains
Qionglai Mountains
Qionglai Mountains is a mountain range in the Sichuan Province of China. It runs in the general north-south direction, and is located mostly within the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, in the north-central part of the province....

, which rise to 5364 metres (17,598.4 ft) in Dayi County. The lowest point in Chengdu Prefecture, at 378 metres (1,240.2 ft), lies in the southeast in Jintang County.

Climate


Chengdu has a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

-influenced humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cwa) and is largely mild and humid. The Qin Mountains to the far north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter; because of this, the short winter is milder than in the Lower Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

. January averages 5.6 °C (42.1 °F) Snow is rare but there are a few periods of frost each winter. The summer is hot and humid, but not to the extent of the "Three Furnaces
Three Furnaces
The term Three Furnaces refers to the especially hot and oppressively humid summer weather in several major cities in the Yangtze River Valley, within China. It was coined during the Republican period of China, and refers to the following cities:*Chongqing...

" cities of Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

, Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

, and Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

, all which lie in the Yangtze basin. July and August average around 25 °C (77 °F), with afternoon highs sometimes reaching 33 °C (91.4 °F); sustained heat in the likes of some cities in Southeastern China is rare. Rainfall is common year-round but is the greatest in July and August, with very little of it in the cooler months. Chengdu also has one of the lowest sunshine totals in China (less sunshine annually than London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

), and most days are cloudy and overcast even if without rain. This is especially so in the winter months, when it is typically interminably grey and dreary, compounding the poor air quality. Spring (March–April) tends to be sunnier and warmer than autumn (October–November). Extremes have ranged from −5.9 °C to 40 °C (104 °F).

Culture and folklore




The native language in Chengdu is Sichuanese
Sichuanese Mandarin
Sichuanese Mandarin , commonly known as Sichuanese, Szechuanese or Szechwanese , is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and...

 (四川话), otherwise referred as Sichuan dialect
Sichuan dialect
Sichuanese Mandarin , commonly known as Sichuanese, Szechuanese or Szechwanese , is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and...

. More precisely, "Chengdu Dialect" (成都话/成都方言) is widely used in lieu of "Sichuanese" due to the largely different accents of Sichuanese speakers residing elsewhere.

People from Chengdu (or Sichuan/Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

, in general) tend to eat spicy food. Local specialties include Grandma Chen's Tofu (Mapo doufu
Mapo doufu
Mapo doufu, or mapo tofu, is a popular Chinese dish from the Sichuan province. It is a combination of tofu set in a spicy chili- and bean-based sauce, typically a thin, oily, and bright red suspension, and often cooked with minced meat, usually pork or beef...

), Chengdu Hot pot
Hot pot
Hot pot , less commonly Chinese fondue or steamboat, refers to several East Asian varieties of stew, consisting of a simmering metal pot of stock at the center of the dining table. While the hot pot is kept simmering, ingredients are placed into the pot and are cooked at the table...

, and Dan Dan Mien (literally meaning, "Noodles carried on a pole" (Dan Dan Noodles
Dan dan noodles
Dandan noodles or Dan Dan Mian is a classic dish originating from Chinese Sichuan cuisine...

). All three dishes are spicy. Mapo Doufu and Dan Dan Mien contain Sichuan pepper
Sichuan Pepper
Sichuan pepper is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum , widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. Despite the name, it is not related to black pepper or to chili peppers...

s (huājiāo; 花椒; literally "flower pepper") to give them additional flavor.
An article by the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It was the second-largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008 and the fourth most widely distributed newspaper in the country....

(2006) called Chengdu "China's party city" for its carefree lifestyle. Chengdu outnumbers Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

 in the number of tea house
Tea house
A tea house or tearoom is a venue centered on drinking tea. Its function varies widely depending on the culture, and some cultures have a variety of distinct tea-centered houses or parlors that all qualify under the English language term "tea house" or "tea room."-Asia:In Central Asia this term...

s and bars despite having less than half the population. The inhabitants have a reputation in China for having a laid-back attitude and for knowing how to enjoy life.

Cuisine


Sichuan cuisine is a huge system during the long history of Chinese food,it has changed a lot with the development of China and the improvement of Chengdu. Now,it is such a wonderful thing that people around the whole world can enjoy the delicious food from Chengdu cuisine.

In fact,Chengdu cuisine is a branch of Sichuan cuisine,but it is softer than Sichuan cuisine,which is just like a small stream beside a green yard.Therefore,the advantages of Chengdu cuisine,which is different from other cuisine in Sichuan,is that Chengdu cuisine is more daintily and tasty and also it is more meticulous in making and choosing ingredients.

Economy


The main industries in Chengdu - which include food, medicine, machinery and information technology - are supported by numerous large-scale enterprises, such as Chengdu Sugar and Wine Co. Ltd., Chengdu Food Group, Sichuan Medicine Co. Ltd., Chengdu Automobile Co. Ltd. etc. Many high-tech enterprises from outside Chengdu are also beginning to settle down there.

Chengdu is becoming one of the favorite cities for investment in western China. Among the world's 500 largest companies, 133 multinational enterprises have had subsidiaries or branch offices in Chengdu by October 2009. These MNEs include Intel, Cisco, Sony and Toyota that have assembly and manufacturing bases, as well as Motorola, Ericsson, and Microsoft that have R&D centers in Chengdu.
,
The National Development and Reform Commission
National Development and Reform Commission
The National Development and Reform Commission , formerly State Planning Commission and State Development Planning Commission, is a macroeconomic management agency under the Chinese State Council, which has broad administrative and planning control over the Chinese economy...

 has formally approved Chengdu's proposed establishment of a national bio-industry base there. The government of Chengdu has recently unveiled a plan to create a ¥90 billion bio pharmaceutical sector by 2012. China's aviation industries have begun construction of a high-tech industrial park in the city that will feature space and aviation technology. The local government plans to attract overseas and domestic companies for service outsourcing and become a well-known service outsourcing base in China and worldwide.

Electronics and the IT industry


Chengdu has long been established as a national base for the electronics and the IT industry. The first telecom R&D centre was set up by an Indian company called Primetel in 1996 and since then the city has developed as the global centre for the telecom R&D industry. Chengdu's growth accelerated alongside the growth of the telecom services sector in India and China, which together account for over 70% of the world telecommunications market. Several key national electronics R&D institutes are located in Chengdu. Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted a variety of multinationals, at least 30 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks the top 500 U.S. closely held and public corporations as ranked by their gross revenue after adjustments made by Fortune to exclude the impact of excise taxes companies collect. The list includes publicly and...

 companies and 12,000 domestic companies, including Intel, IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, Cisco
Cisco
Cisco may refer to:Companies:*Cisco Systems, a computer networking company* Certis CISCO, corporatised entity of the former Commercial and Industrial Security Corporation in Singapore...

, NOKIA
Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

, Motorola
Motorola
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, which was eventually divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011, after losing $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009...

, SAP
SAP AG
SAP AG is a German software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations. Headquartered in Walldorf, Baden-Württemberg, with regional offices around the world, SAP is the market leader in enterprise application software...

, Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

, Canon, HP, Xerox
Xerox
Xerox Corporation is an American multinational document management corporation that produced and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies...

, Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

, Tieto, NIIT
NIIT
NIIT Limited is a global computer education company. The company is listed on the National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange of India. The company provides training for individuals, enterprises, schools and colleges. It has its presence in 40 countries worldwide.In 2004 , NIIT was...

 and Wipro
Wipro
Wipro Limited formally Western India Products Limited is a global IT services and consulting company headquartered in Bangalore, India. As of 2011, Wipro is the second largest IT services company by turnover in India and employs more than 120,000 people worldwide as of March 2011...

, as well as domestic powerhouses such as Lenovo. Dell
Dell
Dell, Inc. is an American multinational information technology corporation based in 1 Dell Way, Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells and supports computers and related products and services. Bearing the name of its founder, Michael Dell, the company is one of the largest...

 plans to open its second major China operations center in 2011 in Chengdu as its center in Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiamen , also known as Amoy , is a major city on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province with an area of and population of 3.53 million...

 expands in 2010.

Intel Capital acquired a strategic stake in Primetel, Chengdu's first foreign technology company in 2001. Intel's Chengdu factory, set up in 2005 is its second in China, after its Shanghai factory, and the first such large-scale foreign investment in the electronics industry in interior mainland China. Intel, the world's largest chipmaker, has invested US$525 million in two assembly and testing facilities in Chengdu. Following the footsteps of Intel, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC), the world's third largest foundry, set up an assembly and testing plant in Chengdu. Intel's rival AMD is likewise set to open an R&D center in this city.

In November 2006, IBM signed an agreement with the Chengdu High-Tech Zone to establish a Global Delivery Center, its fourth in China after Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

 and Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

, within the Chengdu Tianfu Software Park
Chengdu Tianfu Software Park
Chengdu Tianfu Software Park , located at the core of the Southern Zone of Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone , has been developed by Chengdu Hi-tech Investment Group Co., Ltd. TFSP has a total planned construction area of over 2.2 million sq.m., and combines world-class infrastructures...

. Scheduled to be operational by February 2007, this new center will provide multilingual application development and maintenance services to clients globally in English, Japanese and Chinese, and to the IBM Global Procurement Center, recently located to the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen. On March 23, 2008, IBM announced at the "West China Excellent Enterprises CEO Forum" that the southwest working team of IBM's Global Business Services is now formally stationed in Chengdu. On May 28, 2008, Zhou Weikun, president of IBM China disclosed that IBM Chengdu would increase its staff number from the present 600 to nearly 1,000 by the end of the year.

Over the past few years, Chengdu's economy has flourished rapidly. Chengdu has been quick to become a major base for communication infrastructure, with one of China's nine top level postal centers and one of six national telecom exchanges.

In 2009, Chengdu hosted the World Cyber Games
World Cyber Games
The World Cyber Games is an international competitive video-gaming event operated by South Korean company World Cyber Games Inc., and sponsored by Samsung and Microsoft...

 Grand Finals (11–15 November). It was the first time China hosted the world's largest computer and video game tournament.

Financial industry


Chengdu is positioning itself to be a financial center for Western China and has successfully attracted major international financial institutions, including Citigroup
Citigroup
Citigroup Inc. or Citi is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States. Citigroup was formed from one of the world's largest mergers in history by combining the banking giant Citicorp and financial conglomerate...

, HSBC
HSBC
HSBC Holdings plc is a global banking and financial services company headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, United Kingdom. it is the world's second-largest banking and financial services group and second-largest public company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine...

, Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered PLC is a multinational financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom with operations in more than seventy countries...

, ABN AMRO
ABN AMRO
ABN AMRO Bank N.V. is a Dutch state-owned bank with headquarters in Amsterdam. It was re-established, in its current form, in 2009 following the acquisition and break up of ABN AMRO Group by a banking consortium consisting of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, Santander and Fortis...

, BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas S.A. is a global banking group, headquartered in Paris, with its second global headquarters in London. In October 2010 BNP Paribas was ranked by Bloomberg and Forbes as the largest bank and largest company in the world by assets with over $3.1 trillion. It was formed through the merger...

, JPMorgan Chase and The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ
The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ
is the largest bank in Japan, which was established on January 1, 2006, with the merger of the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. and UFJ Bank Ltd. The bank serves as the core retail and commercial banking arm of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group....

. In 1988, Dr. Joseph Fowler, a British professor of optoelectronics from Cambridge founded Scsi Capital, Asia's first venture capital firm focused on opportunities in the digital age, in Chengdu. Scsi currently manages an active portfolio in excess of Remnibi 300 billion and has operations in India, Israel, Singapore and USA.

Historically, Chengdu has marked its name in the history of financial innovation. The world’s first ever paper currency
Currency
In economics, currency refers to a generally accepted medium of exchange. These are usually the coins and banknotes of a particular government, which comprise the physical aspects of a nation's money supply...

 'Jiao Zi' was seen in Chengdu in the year 1023, during the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 of ancient China.

Now, Chengdu is not only the gateway of Western People's Republic of China for foreign financial institutions, but also a booming town for Chinese domestic financial firms. The Chinese monetary authority, People's Bank of China
People's Bank of China
The People's Bank of China is the central bank of the People's Republic of China with the power to control monetary policy and regulate financial institutions in mainland China...

 (China’s central bank), set its southwest China headquarters in Chengdu City. In addition, almost all domestic banks and securities brokerage firms located their regional headquarters or branches in Chengdu. At the same time, the local financial firms of Chengdu are strengthening their presences nationally, notably, West China Securities, GuoJin Securities and Chengdu Commercial Bank. Moreover, on top of banks and brokerage firms, the flourish of local economy lured more and more financial service firms to the city to capitalise on the economic growth. KPMG
KPMG
KPMG is one of the largest professional services networks in the world and one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young and PwC. Its global headquarters is located in Amstelveen, Netherlands....

 opened this first west China office in Chengdu City this October, and before the inauguration of KPMG Chengdu office, its rival, Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young is one of the largest professional services networks in the world and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms, along with Deloitte, KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers ....

, had already integrated Chengdu into its global operation for several years.

Defense industry


Located within the city limits is the Chengdu Aircraft Company
Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group
Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group is a Chinese aerospace conglomerate that manufactures aircraft parts as well as designs and manufactures combat aircraft. It was founded in 1958 to be a supplier of aircraft for the Chinese military...

 which produces the recently declassified J-10 Vigorous Dragon
Chengdu J-10
The Chengdu J-10 is a multirole fighter aircraft designed and produced by the People's Republic of China's Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation for the People's Liberation Army Air Force...

 combat aircraft as well as the JF-17 Thunder
JF-17 Thunder
The PAC JF-17 Thunder , or CAC FC-1 Xiaolong , is a light-weight, single-engine, multi-role combat aircraft developed jointly by the Chengdu Aircraft Industries Corporation of China, the Pakistan Air Force and the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex...

, in a joint collaborative effort with Pakistan Air Force
Pakistan Air Force
The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...

. Chengdu Aircraft Company is also currently developing the J-20 Black Eagle
Chengdu J-20
The Chengdu J-20 is a purported fifth-generation, stealth, twin-engine fighter aircraft prototype developed by Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force . In late 2010, the J-20 underwent high speed taxiing tests. The J-20 made its first flight on 11...

 stealth fighter. The company is one of the major manufacturers of Chinese Military aviation technology.

Investment


The Chengdu Statistics Bureau reports that the total investment in fixed assets in 2008 was 301.29 billion yuan (US$43.38 billion). Domestic investment was 180.52 billion yuan (US$26 billion), an increase of 23.5 percent from 2007. The total amount of foreign direct investment reached US$2.25 billion, an increase of 97.3 percent from 2007.

Industrial zones

  • Chengdu Economic & Technological Development Zone

Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved as state-level development zone in February 2000. The zone now has a developed area of 10.25 square kilometers and has a planned area of 26 square kilometers. Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone (CETDZ) lies 13.6 kilometers east of Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province and the hub of transportation and communication in southwest China. The zone has attracted investors and developers from more than 20 countries to carry out their projects there. Industries encouraged in the zone include mechanical, electronic, new building materials, medicine and food processing.
  • Chengdu Export Processing Zone

Chengdu Export Processing Zone was ratified by the State Council as one of the first 15 export processing zones in the country in April, 2000. In 2002, the state ratified the establishment of the Sichuan Chengdu Export Processing West Zone with a planned area of 1.5 km2, located inside the west region of the Chengdu Hi-tech Zone.
  • Chengdu Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Established in 1988, Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone was approved as one of the first national hi-tech development zones in 1991. In 2000, it was open to APEC and has been recognised as a national advanced hi-tech development zone in successive assessment activities held by China's Ministry of Science and Technology. It ranks 5th among the 53 national hi-tech development zones in China in terms of comprehensive strength.
Chengdu Hi-tech Development Zone covers an area of 82.5 km2, consisting of the South Park and the West Park. By relying on the city sub-center, which is under construction, the South Park is focusing on creating a modernised industrial park of science and technology with scientific and technological innovation, incubation R&D, modern service industry and Headquarters economy playing leading roles. Priority has been given to the development of software industry. Located on both sides of the "Chengdu-Dujiangyan-Jiuzhaigou"golden tourism channel, the West Park aims at building a comprehensive industrial park targeting at industrial clustering with complete supportive functions. The West Park gives priority to three major industries i.e. electronic information, biomedicine and precision machinery.
  • Chengdu National Cross-Strait Technology Industry Development Park

Intercity High-Speed Rail


The Chengdu-Dujiangyan High Speed Railway (成灌高速铁路) is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line connecting the urban area of Chengdu with the satellite city of Dujiangyan
Dujiangyan City
Dujiangyan is a county-level city of Chengdu, Sichuan Province in China. It has an area of 1208 square kilometers and a population of 600,000 in 2003....

. The line is 65 kilometres (40.4 mi) in length with 15 stations. China Railways CRH1 train sets on the line reach a maximum speed of 220 kilometres per hour (140 mph) and make the full-trip in 30 minutes. The line was built in 18 months and entered into operation on May 12, 2010. The railway is built to withstand an 8.0-magnitude earthquake.

On May 28, 2008, 16 days after the Wenchuan Earthquake devastated Dujiangyan and the western suburbs of Chengdu, the Chengdu city government and the Ministry of Railways agreed to build a high-speed railway line as part of the reconstruction of the disaster zone. Construction began on November 4, 2008 and involved 20,000 workers at the cost of Y13 billion. The line entered trial operation on April 1, 2010 and full commercial operation began on May 12, 2010, the second anniversary of the large earthquake that killed some 70,000 people in the region.

The route uses CRH1 trains in eight-car train sets, which can carry 661 passengers. Each day, 15 pairs of trains are scheduled daily between Chengdu and Dujiangyan’s Mountain Qingcheng Station.

Chengdu metro


Chengdu Metro officially opened on 1 October 2010. The 18 km North-South Line runs from Shenxian Lake (near northern railway station) to Century City (south Chengdu/Software Park). This is also called the number 1 line. The number 2 line is also opening in just a few months. Four more lines are planned to open in the (near) future.

Expressways


Chengdu's transportation network is well developed, and Chengdu serves as the starting point for many national highways, with major routes going from Sichuan-Shanxi, Sichuan-Tibet, and Sichuan-Yunnan.

For the year 2007, Chengdu announced the official launch of 37 significant projects, including the Chengdu-Jianyang Expressway in an attempt to accelerate the construction of the experimental district. This project is expected to solve the current transportation problem, which is proved to be the bottleneck in Jianyang
Jianyang, Sichuan
Jianyang is a county-level city in Ziyang prefecture in the Sichuan Province, in south central China.It has an area of 2,215 square kilometers and a population of 1,430,000.-Textile industry:...

's development. Development of major tunnels and the Longquan Lake scenic
Scenic
Scenic is the first full-length album by Denver Harbor, released on October 12, 2004 on Universal Records. It contains re-recorded versions of four of the five tracks from their debut EP Extended Play , as well as two of the three songs from their 2003 demo Scenic is the first full-length album by...

 spot has also been planned to integrate Jianyang better into the Chengdu economic circle.

Several major road projects were also mentioned in the paper: a 15 km tunnel from Shuangliu Taiping to Jianyang Sancha Lake; alteration of the National Expressway 321, from Jiangyang to Longquanyi, totaling 26 kilometers. There will also be a road that connects Longquan Town to Longquan Lake - it will be connected to the Chengdu-Jianyang Expressway and hence shorten the journey by 10 kilometers. The authority has yet to decide whether drivers will have to pay tolls to access the road.By the end of 2008, there are ten expressways, connecting the center of Chengdu to its suburbs. The expressways that will be open to the public by the end of December are the Chenglin Expressway, extensions of Guanghua Avenue, Shawan Line, and an expressway from Chengdu to Heilongtan.
  • The toll-free Chengjin Expressway in the east of Chengdu is 38.7 km long, with six lines and designed for travel at 80 km/h. After it opens to the public, it will take only about half an hour to drive from the downtown Chengdu to Jintang
    Jintang County
    Jintang County is a county in the eastern part of Chengdu City, the capital of Sichuan province, in Southwest China. Located approximately 28 kilometers away from downtown Chengdu, the county covers 1154 square kilometers and has a population of approximately 870,000. The large majority of the...

    , half the time of the current journey.

  • The expressway between Chengdu to Heilongtan (Chengdu section), going to the south of the city, is 42 km long. It is also toll-free and a journey from downtown Chengdu to Heilongtan will only take half an hour.

  • The extension of Guanghua Avenue, going towards the west of the city, is 11.6 km long with an estimated investment of 300 million yuan. It will cut the journey time from Chongzhou
    Chongzhou
    Chongzhou is a satellite city near Cheng Du - Capital of Sichuan Province, P.R China....

     city to Sanhuan Road to less than half an hour.

  • The extension of Shawan Road going north will be 8.8 km long, and is designed for travel at 60 km/h. After it is connected to the expressways Pixian–Dujiangyan and Pixian–Pengzhou, it will take only 30 minutes to go from Chengdu to Pengzhou
    Pengzhou
    Pengzhou is a county-level city in Sichuan, China, some 19 km northwest of Chengdu. There is an expressway, free of charge to 川A and 川O vehicle holders, that connects Chengdu and the suburb, Pengzhou....

    .

  • Via the Sichuan-Tibet Highway
    China National Highway 317
    China National Highway 317 runs broadly west to east from Chengdu, Sichuan to Naqu, Tibet. It is 2,028 kilometres in length.- Route and distance:...

    , from Chengdu to Nagchu (near Lhasa
    Lhasa
    Lhasa is the administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China and the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau, after Xining. At an altitude of , Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world...

    ) is a distance of 2028 km.

Highway

  • China National Highway 055
  • China National Highway 213
    China National Highway 213
    China National Highway 213 runs from Lanzhou in Gansu to Mohan in Yunnan. It is 2827 kilometres in length and runs via Chengdu, Sichuan and Kunming, Yunnan.-Route and distance:...

  • China National Highway 317
    China National Highway 317
    China National Highway 317 runs broadly west to east from Chengdu, Sichuan to Naqu, Tibet. It is 2,028 kilometres in length.- Route and distance:...

  • China National Highway 318
    China National Highway 318
    China National Highway 318 runs from Shanghai to Zhangmu on the China-Nepal border. It is 5,476 kilometres in length and runs west from Shanghai towards Zhejiang, Anhui, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, and ends in Tibet. One notable section of this road is the Si Du River Bridge, the bridge with the...

  • China National Highway 319
    China National Highway 319
    China National Highway 319 runs northwest from Xiamen, Fujian towards Jiangxi Province, Hunan Province, Chongqing, and ends in Chengdu, Sichuan. It is 2984 kilometres in length.- Route and distance:...

  • China National Highway 321
    China National Highway 321
    China National Highway 321 runs northwest from Guangzhou, Guangdong towards Guangxi Province, Guizhou Province, and ends in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. It is 2,220 kilometres in length.- Route and distance:...


Public transport


The seven line Chengdu Metro
Chengdu Metro
Chengdu Metro, commonly known as Metro in Chengdu, is a metro system in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province in China. It has one line, Line 1, which was constructed between December 2005 and 2010 . It is operated by Chengdu Metro Limited Liability Company...

 subway
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system has been planned, and construction of Line 1 is complete. Line 1 started to operate at the end of September 2010. Chengdu was the site of the June 5th bus fire incident.

Air transport



Chengdu is served by the Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport
Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport
Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is a major airport serving Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province, China. It is located in the north of Shuangliu County, about southwest of downtown Chengdu....

 located 16 km southwest of downtown. It has been the busiest airport in Central and Western China and the 6th busiest airport nationwide, with a total of 17.25 million in terms of passenger traffic in 2008.

The Chengdu Airport has constructed a second runway, capable of landing an Airbus 380, the largest commercial airplane to date. Chengdu is the fourth city in China with double commercial runways, after Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. On May 26, 2009, Air China
Air China
Air China is the flag carrier and one of the major airlines of the People's Republic of China. Based in Beijing Capital International Airport, Air China is the world's 10th largest airline by fleet size. The airline ranked behind its main competitors China Southern Airlines and China Eastern...

, the Chengdu Government and Sichuan Airport Group signed an agreement to improve the infrastructure of the airport and increase the number of international direct flights to and from Chengdu. The objective is to have a passenger traffic of 40 million by 2015, making Chengdu Airport the fourth international hub in China, after Beijing, Shanghai, and GuangZhou. There is also a long-term plan to build a second airport in Jintang County with five runways. Upon completion, it will take less than 30 minutes to travel from Jintang to downtown Chengdu.

Railway transport


Chengdu is a major railway junction city and rail administrative center in southwestern China. It is the terminus for the Baoji-Chengdu
Baoji-Chengdu Railway
The Baoji–Chengdu Railway or Baocheng Railway , is a mixed single- and double-track, electrified, railroad that connects central and southwest China between Baoji and Chengdu. The line has a total length of 668.2 km and passes through mostly mountainous terrain in Shaanxi, Gansu and Sichuan...

, Chengdu-Chongqing
Chengdu-Chongqing Railway
Chengdu-Chongqing Railway or Chengyu Railway , also known as the Chengyu Line, is a single-track, electrified, railroad in the Sichuan Basin of Southwest China between the cities of Chengdu and Chongqing. Chongqing's short form name is Yu and the railway is named after the two cities...

, ChengKun (Chengdu-Kunming
Kunming
' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

) and DaCheng (Chengdu-Dazhou), as well as the Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway
Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway
The Chengdu-Dujiangyan High Speed Railway is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line in Sichuan Province, China. It connects the provincial capital, Chengdu with the satellite city of Dujiangyan in Guan County. The line is in length with 15 stations. China Railways...

. The Chengdu Railway Bureau
Chengdu Railway Bureau
Chengdu Railway Bureau is a regional bureau affiliated to the Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China. It is in charge of 9 primary railway routes, with operating length of 4,457.8 kilometers. It oversees the railway networks in Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, although the portion of...

 manages the railway system of Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou
Guizhou
' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

 and Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

.

New lines under construction include conventional line to Lanzhou and high-speed lines to Mianyang, Leshan and Chongqing.

Chengdu now has four main train stations. Among them the North Marshalling Station is the largest marshalling station in China. Meanwhile, a new station for passenger transportation is to be built in a few years.

River transport


Located to the northwest of Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

, Chengdu has no direct access to the Yangtze River, or any other larger river. However, to ensure that Chengdu's goods have access to the river efficiently, the port cities of Yibin
Yibin
-Administrative divisions:-Economy:The city's industry focuses on electronics, food products, and power generation. It also produces paper, silk, and leather products...

 and Luzhou
Luzhou
-History:The history of Luzhou dates back to Xia and Shang Dynasties. Luzhou became a prefecture level city in 1983.-History of Luzhou:...

 -- both of which are reachable from Chengdu within hours by expressways—on the Yangtze have commenced large-scale port infrastructure development. As materials and equipment for the rebuilding of northern Sichuan are sent in from the East Coast to Sichuan, these ports will see significant increases in throughput.

Colleges and universities


Chengdu is the center of higher education and scientific research in Southwest China.

National universities include:
  • Sichuan University
    Sichuan University
    Sichuan University is one of the oldest national universities in China. It is ranked No. 8 among the Chinese universities according to the 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities....

     (SCU) (四川大学) (Founded in 1896)
  • Southwest Jiaotong University
    Southwest Jiaotong University
    Southwest Jiaotong University is one of the oldest universities in mainland China.-About SWJTU:The university was originally founded at Shanhaiguan, Hebei in 1896, and it is currently located in Chengdu, Sichuan, a major city in the southwest part of the country...

     (西南交通大学) (Founded in 1896)
  • University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
    -Academic schools:Built on the MIT model and as a member of "Project 985", UESTC is an electronics-centred multidisciplinary leading research university located in Chengdu China, currently enrolling over 10,000 research students and about 14,000 undergraduates in 14 academic Schools:*School of...

     (电子科技大学) (Founded in 1956)
  • Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
    Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
    Southwestern University of Finance and Economics , locally known as SWUFE, is a university in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China.Founded in 1952, it is one of the leading financial universities in mainland China and has a student population of around 20,000.-Campuses:* Guanghua Campus in NO.55...

     (西南财经大学) (Founded in 1952)


Important provincial universities include:
  • Sichuan Normal University
    Sichuan Normal University
    Sichuan Normal University is the oldest normal university located in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. It is the largest provincial key university with the most complete courses offered among the provincial universities and colleges in Sichuan province. It has about 35,000 students with 32,000 full-time...

     (四川师范大学) (Founded in 1946)
  • Southwest University for Nationalities
    Southwest University for Nationalities
    Southwest University for Nationalities often called Minzu Daxue in English, is a university located in Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan province. Its student population is largely composed of ethnic minorities, but it has recently opened up to Han Chinese and foreigners as well...

     (西南民族大学) (Founded in 1951)
  • Chengdu Institute Sichuan International Studies University (四川外语学院成都学院) (Founded in 2000)
  • Chengdu University of Technology
    Chengdu University of Technology
    Chengdu University of Technology was founded in 1956 and is located in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China.-History:The university was called Chengdu College of Geology before 1993. In May 2001, two other colleges amalgamated with the CDUT...

     (成都理工大学) (Founded in 1956)
  • Southwest Petroleum University
    Southwest Petroleum University
    Southwest Petroleum University is a Chinese university founded in 1958.-Schools and Departments:* School of Petroleum Engineering* School of Resources and Environment Engineering* School of Mechanical Engineering...

     (西南石油大学) (Founded in 1958)
  • Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (CDUTCM) (成都中医药大学) (Founded in 1956)
  • Sichuan Conservatory of Music
    Sichuan Conservatory of Music
    Sichuan Conservatory of Music , founded in 1939, is an interdisciplinary higher education institution focused on comprehensive art subjects.-External links:*...

    (四川音乐学院) (Founded in 1939)
  • Chengdu University of Information Technology
    Chengdu University of Information Technology
    Chengdu University of Information Technology is a Chinese university founded in 1951. It is a key developing provincial university joint building by China Meteorological Administration and Sichuan Province. It is the only university independently specializing in information technology in southwest...

     (CUIT) (成都信息工程学院) (Founded in 1951)
  • Chengdu Kinesiology University
    Chengdu Kinesiology University
    Chengdu Sport University , is a sports university situated in the southwest of the downtown district of Chengdu, Sichuan Province.The university is administered by the national State General Administration of Sports and the Sichuan provincial government....

     (成都体育学院) (Founded in 1942)
  • Xihua University
    Xihua University
    Xihua University is a university in Sichuan province, People's Republic of China. Approved by the State Ministry of Education, Xihua University was founded on April 16, 2003, formed by the merger of the former Sichuan University of Science and Technology and the former Teacher's College...

     (西华大学) (Founded in 1960)
  • Chengdu University (成都大学) (Founded in 1978)
  • Chengdu Medical College (成都医学院) (Founded in 2004)
  • Chengdu College of UESTC (电子科技大学成都学院)
  • Sichuan Agricultural University
    Sichuan Agricultural University
    Sichuan Agricultural University is a university located in Ya'an city, Sichuan province, China and part of the “Project 211”, specialized in biotechnology and agricultural sciences, and as well as offering degrees in physical science, engineering, economics, management, veterinary medicine,...

     (四川农业大学)


Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

International schools

  • Oxford International College of Chengdu
    Oxford International College of Chengdu
    Oxford International College of Chengdu is an international educational facility in Chengdu, China. It is owned by BE limited and is designed to give students the experiences, curriculum and the traditions of the top British Schools and Colleges. Oxford International College focusses on putting...

  • Chengdu Meishi International School
    Chengdu Meishi International School
    Chengdu Meishi International School is a school in Chengdu, China. Opened in 2002, the school offers American, Chinese, and French curricula as well as the IB Diploma Programme. Located outside of the 3rd ring road south of Chengdu, the school is an authorized education provider for the U.S. State...

  • Chengdu International School
  • The Léman International School - Chengdu
  • Quality Schools International
    Quality Schools International
    Quality Schools International is a group of non-profit international schools offering education in the English language, in a number of countries in Europe, Asia, and South America. The first school was founded in 1971. The individual schools are accredited by the Middle States Association of...

  • QSI International School of Chengdu
    QSI International School of Chengdu
    -History:The school is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools....

  • Eton House

Secondary schools

  • Chengdu No.7 High School
    Chengdu No.7 High School
    Chengdu No.7 High School is located at Moziqiao, Chengdu. Chengdu No.7 High School was established in 1905. It is one of the first key high schools designated by the Sichuan Government. It is considered as one of the best three high schools in Sichuan. The other two schools are Shishi Middle...

     (成都七中)
  • Chengdu Liewu High School (成都列五中学)
  • Chengdu Shude High School
    Chengdu Shude High School
    Chengdu Shùdé High School Chengdu Shùdé High School Chengdu Shùdé High School (Simplified Chinese: 成都市树德中学, Traditional Chinese: 成都樹徳中學, pinyin: Chéngdu Shùdé Zhongxúe)is a top high school in Chengdu, China. In Chinese, Shùdé literally means establishing morality.-History:...

     (成都树德中学)
  • Shishi Middle School
    Shishi Middle School
    Chengdu Shishi High School is a state secondary school in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China. It stands on the site of the first local Chinese public school, founded in the Han Dynasty between 143 BC and 141 BC by Wén Wēng...

     (成都石室中学)
  • The Affiliated High School of Sichuan University
    The Affiliated High School of Sichuan University
    The Affiliated High School of Sichuan University is a public middle school for grades 7-12. It has two campuses, both of which are located in the Wuhou District, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. It is one of the top rated middle schools in Chengdu and it is listed as "Key School of Sichuan...

     (四川大学附属中学)
  • The Affiliated High School of Sichuan Normal University (四川师范大学附属中学)
  • Chengdu Experimental Foreign Languages School(成都实验外国语学校)
  • Chengdu Foreign Languages School
    Chengdu Foreign Languages School
    Chengdu Foreign Languages School is a private secondary school in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China...

     (成都外语学校)
  • Chengdu Shude Experimental School (成都树德实验中学)
  • Chengdu Shude Union School (成都树德联校)
  • Chengdu Shishi Union School (成都石室联中)
  • Chengdu Yulin Middle School (成都玉林中学)
  • Chengdu Guangya International School
  • Chengdu Yandaojie Junior and Senior Middle school 成都市盐道街中学初中部与高中部

Consulates


The United States Consulate General at Chengdu opened on October 16, 1985. It was the first foreign consulate in west-central China since 1949. Currently eight countries have consulates in Chengdu. The United Kingdom also has a visa application center in Chengdu.
Consulate Year Consular District
  United States Consulate General Chengdu 1986 Sichuan/Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

/Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

/Guizhou
Guizhou
' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

/Tibet Autonomous Region
Tibet Autonomous Region
The Tibet Autonomous Region , Tibet or Xizang for short, also called the Xizang Autonomous Region is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China , created in 1965....

  Germany Consulate General Chengdu 2003 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
  Republic of Korea Consulate General Chengdu 2004 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
  Thailand Consulate General Chengdu 2004 Sichuan/Chongqing
  France Consulate General Chengdu 2005 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
  Singapore Consulate General Chengdu 2006 Sichuan/Chongqing/Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

/
  Pakistan Consulate General Chengdu 2007 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
  Sri Lanka Consulate Chengdu 2009 Sichuan/Chongqing/Shaanxi/Yunnan/Guizhou

Twin towns — Sister cities


In 1979, Chengdu signed a sister city
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 agreement with Montpellier
Montpellier
-Neighbourhoods:Since 2001, Montpellier has been divided into seven official neighbourhoods, themselves divided into sub-neighbourhoods. Each of them possesses a neighbourhood council....

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, the first pair of Sino-French sister cities. Later Chengdu signed sister city agreements with cities in ten countries, as well as signing a friendly region agreement with the Dalarna
Dalarna
', English exonym: Dalecarlia, is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden. Another English language form established in literature is the Dales. Places involving the element Dalecarlia exist in the United States....

 province in Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

. Chengdu has had many friendly exchanges with the sister cities. Montpellier
Montpellier
-Neighbourhoods:Since 2001, Montpellier has been divided into seven official neighbourhoods, themselves divided into sub-neighbourhoods. Each of them possesses a neighbourhood council....

, for example, has a Chengdu Street and a Chengdu Plaza. The soccer team Chengdu Blades
Chengdu Blades
Chengdu Blades F.C. is a professional football club based in Chengdu, PR China who currently plays in the 42,000 seater Chengdu Sports Centre in the Chinese Super league...

 is owned by Sheffield United F.C.
Sheffield United F.C.
Sheffield United Football Club is a professional English football club based in the city of Sheffield, South Yorkshire.They were the first sporting team to use the name 'United' and are nicknamed 'The Blades', thanks to Sheffield's worldwide reputation for steel production...


Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

, Azerbaijan Montpellier
Montpellier
-Neighbourhoods:Since 2001, Montpellier has been divided into seven official neighbourhoods, themselves divided into sub-neighbourhoods. Each of them possesses a neighbourhood council....

, France; since 1979 Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is the centre of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. It is located in the centre of the country in the Ljubljana Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 270,000 inhabitants...

, Slovenia; since 1981 Linz
Linz
Linz is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria . It is located in the north centre of Austria, approximately south of the Czech border, on both sides of the river Danube. The population of the city is , and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about...

, Austria; since 1983 Kofu, Japan; since 1983 Knoxville, Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee
Founded in 1786, Knoxville is the third-largest city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, U.S.A., behind Memphis and Nashville, and is the county seat of Knox County. It is the largest city in East Tennessee, and the second-largest city in the Appalachia region...

, United States Phoenix
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

, United States; since 1986 Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers .The name...

, Canada; since 1988 Mechelen
Mechelen
Mechelen Footnote: Mechelen became known in English as 'Mechlin' from which the adjective 'Mechlinian' is derived...

, Belgium; since 1993 Volgograd
Volgograd
Volgograd , formerly called Tsaritsyn and Stalingrad is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River...

, Russia; since 1994 Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia; since 1998 Palermo
Palermo
Palermo is a city in Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Province of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture, architecture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old...

, Italy; since 1999 Gimcheon
Gimcheon
Gimcheon is a city in North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. It is situated on the major land transportation routes between Seoul and Busan, namely the Gyeongbu Expressway and Gyeongbu Line railway.-Administrative divisions:...

, South Korea; since 2000 Medan
Medan
- Demography :The city is Indonesia's fourth most populous after Jakarta, Surabaya, and Bandung, and Indonesia's largest city outside of Java island. Much of the population lies outside its city limits, especially in Deli Serdang....

, Indonesia; since 2001 Dalarna
Dalarna
', English exonym: Dalecarlia, is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden. Another English language form established in literature is the Dales. Places involving the element Dalecarlia exist in the United States....

 (province), Sweden; since 2004 Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

, Germany; since 2009

See also


Further reading

  • Ling Zhu, "Chengdu, the city of spice and tea", China Daily
    China Daily
    The China Daily is an English language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.- Overview :China Daily was established in June 1981 and has the widest print circulation of any English-language newspaper in the country...

    , Government of China, Friday, December 22, 2006

External links