Wuhan

Wuhan

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Wuhan is the capital of Hubei
Hubei
' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

 province, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 and Han
Han River (Hanshui)
The Han River is a left tributary of the Yangtze River with a length of 1532 km. Historically it was referred to as Hànshuǐ and the name is still occasionally used today....

 rivers. Arising out of the conglomeration of three boroughs, Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, Wuhan is known as "the nine provinces' leading thoroughfare"; it is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city. It is recognized as the political, economic, financial, cultural, educational and transportation center of central China. The city of Wuhan, first termed as such in 1927, has a population of 9,785,392 people (Census 2010), with about 6,177,000 residents in its urban area
Urban area
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.Urban areas are created and further...

. In the 1920s, Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 (KMT) government led by Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

 in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

.

History


The area was first settled more than 3,000 years ago. During the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

, Hanyang became a fairly busy port. In the 3rd century AD one of the most famous battles in Chinese history and a central event in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms, written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based on the events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history, starting in 169 and ending with the reunification of the land in...

—the Battle of Red Cliffs
Battle of Red Cliffs
The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle at the end of the Han Dynasty, immediately prior to the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. It was fought in the winter of 208/9 AD between the allied forces of the southern warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan...

—took place in the vicinity of the cliffs near Wuhan. Around that time, walls were built to protect Hanyang (AD 206) and Wuchang (AD 223). The latter event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD 223, the Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower is a famous and historic tower, first built in the year 223 AD, the current structure however, was rebuilt in 1981. The tower stands on Sheshan , at the bank of Yangtze River in Wuchang District, Wuhan, in Hubei province of central China.-History:- Legend :There are at least two...

 (黄鹤楼) was constructed on the Wuchang side of the Yangtze River. Cui Hao
Cui Hao (poet)
Cui Hao was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty in China.Cui Hao was born in Biànzhōu and passed the imperial examinations in 723. He is known to have traveled extensively as an official, particularly between the years 723-744. He was known for three poetry topic - women, frontier outposts, and...

, a celebrated poet of Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

, visited the building in the early 8th century; his poem made the building the most celebrated building in southern China. The city has long been renowned as a center for the arts (especially poetry) and for intellectual studies. Under the Mongol rulers (Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

), Wuchang was promoted to the status of provincial capital, and by the dawn of the 18th century, Hankou had become one of China's top four most important towns of trade.
In the late 19th century railroads were extended on a north-south axis through the city, making Wuhan an important transshipment
Transshipment
Transshipment or Transhipment is the shipment of goods or containers to an intermediate destination, and then from there to yet another destination....

 point between rail and river traffic. Also during this time period foreign powers extracted mercantile concessions, with the riverfront of Hankou being divided up into various foreign controlled merchant districts. These districts contained trading firm offices, warehouses, and docking facilities.

In 1911, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

's followers launched the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 that led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 and the establishment of the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

. Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 government led by Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

, in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 during the 1920s.

In 1938, Wuhan and the surrounding region was the site of the Battle of Wuhan
Battle of Wuhan
The Battle of Wuhan, popularly known to the Chinese as the Defence of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War...

, a major conflict in the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

. After being taken by the Japanese in 1938, Wuhan became a major Japanese logistics center for operations in southern China. In December 1944, the city was largely destroyed by U.S. firebombing
Firebombing
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs....

 raids conducted by the Fourteenth Air Force
Fourteenth Air Force
The Fourteenth Air Force is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Space Command . It is headquartered at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California....

. In 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident
Wuhan Incident
The Wuhan Incident was an armed conflict in the People's Republic of China between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city of Wuhan in July 1967, at the height of the Cultural Revolution...

 as a result of tensions arising out of by the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

.

The city has been subject to numerous devastating floods, which are supposed to be controlled by the ambitious Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang, in Hubei province, China...

, a project which was completed in 2008.

Opening Hankou as a trading port


During the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

 (known in the West as the Arrow War, 1856–1860), the Government of Qing Dynasty was defeated by the western powers and signed the Treaties of Tianjin and the Convention of Peking
Convention of Peking
The Convention of Peking or the First Convention of Peking is the name used for three different unequal treaties, which were concluded between Qing China and the United Kingdom, France, and Russia.-Background:...

, which stipulated eleven cities or regions (including Hankou) as trading ports. In December 1858, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin
James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin
Sir James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, KT, GCB, PC , was a British colonial administrator and diplomat...

, High Commissioner to China, led four warships up the Yangtze River in Wuhan to collect the information needed for opening the trading port in Wuhan. And in the spring of 1861, Counselor Harry Parkes and Admiral Herbert were sent to Wuhan to open a trading port. On the basis of the Convention of Peking, Harry Parkes concluded the Hankou Lend-Lease Treaty with Guan Wen, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei. It brought an area of 30.53 square kilometers along the Yangtze River (from Jianghan Road to Hezuo Road today) to become a British Concession and permitted Britain to set up their consulate in the British Concession. Thus, Hankou became an open trading port.

Hubei under Zhang Zhidong


In the fifteenth year of Guangxu Period (1889) of the Qing Dynasty, Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong ; Pseudonyms: Xiāngtāo , Xiāngyán , Yīgōng , Wújìng-Jūshì , later Bàobīng ; Posthumous name: Wénxiāng ) was an eminent Chinese politician during the late Qing Dynasty who advocated for controlled reform...

 was transferred from Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 to be the governor-general of Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 and Hubei
Hubei
' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

. By 1906, he had governed Hubei for 17 years. During this period, he elucidated the theory of “Chinese learning as the basis, Western learning for application,” known as the ti-yong ideal. He set up many heavy industries, founded Hanyang Steel Plant, Daye
Huangshi
Huangshi is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province.-Geography and climate:The prefecture-level city of Huangshi is located in southeastern Hubei province, along the southwestern bank of one of the major bends in the Yangtze River. It is located 100 km south-east of Wuhan, and...

 Iron Mine, Pingxiang Coal Mine and Hubei Arsenal and set up local textile industries, boosting the flourishing modern industry in Wuhan. Meanwhile, he initiated educational reform, opened dozens of modern educational organizations successively, such as Lianghu (Hunan and Hubei) Academy of Classical Learning, Civil General Institute, Military General Institute, Foreign Languages Institute and Lianghu (Hunan and Hubei) General Normal School, and selected a great many students for study overseas, which well promoted the development of China’s modern education. Furthermore, he trained modern military and organized a modern army including a zhen and a xie (both zhen and xie are military units in the Qing Dynasty) in Hubei. All of these laid a solid foundation for the modernization of Wuhan.

Wuchang Uprising


The Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 of October 1911, which overthrew the Qing Dynasty, originated in Wuhan. Prior to the uprising, anti-Qing secret societies were active in Wuhan. In September 1911, the outbreak of the protests in Sichuan forced the Qing authorities to send part of the New Army garrisoned in Wuhan to suppression the rebellion. On September 14 the Literature Society and Gongjinhui, two revolutionary organizations in Hubei, set up joint headquarters in Wuchang and planned for an uprising. On the morning of October 9, a bomb at the office of the political arrangement exploded prematurely and alerted local authorities. The proclamation for the uprising, beadroll and the revolutionaries’ official seal fell into the hands of Rui Cheng, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei, who demolished the uprising headquarters the same day, and set out to arrest the revolutionaries listed in the beadroll. This forced the revolutionaries to launch the uprising earlier than planned.

On the night of 10th, the revolutionaries fired shots to signal the uprising at the engineering barracks of Hubei New Army
New Army
The New Armies were the modernized Qing armies, trained and equipped according to Western standards...

, and then led on the New Army of all barracks to join the revolution. Under the guidance of Wu Zhaolin, Cai Jimin and others, this revolutionary army seized the official residence of the governor and government offices. Rui Cheng fled in panic into the Chu-Yu Ship, and Zhang Biao, the commander of Qing army, also fled the city. On the morning of 11th, the revolutionary army took the whole city of Wuchang, but leaders such as Jiang Yiwu and Sun Wu disappeared., thus the acephalous revolutionary army recommended Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. He was twice president of the Republic of China.- Early history :...

, the assistant governor of Qing army, as the commander-in-chief. Li founded the Hubei Military Government, proclaimed the abolition of the Qing rule in Hubei, the founding of the Republic of China and published an open telegram calling for other provinces to join the revolution. In the next two months, fourteen other provinces would declare their independence from the Qing government.

As the revolution spread to other parts of the country, the Qing government concentrated loyalist military forces to suppress the uprising in Wuhan. From October 17 to December 1, the revolutionary army and local volunteers defended the city in the Battle of Yangxia
Battle of Yangxia
The Battle of Yangxia , also known as the Defense of Yangxia was fought from October 18 to December 1, 1911 between the revolutionaries of the Wuchang Uprising and the loyalist armies of the Qing Dynasty...

 against better armed and more numerous Qing forces commanded by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai was an important Chinese general and politician famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor of China, his autocratic rule as the second President of the Republic of China , and his short-lived...

. After fierce fighting and heavy casualties, Qing forces seized both Hankou and Hanyang, but Yuan agreed to halt the advance on Wuchang and participated in peace talks, which would eventually lead to the return of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

 from exile, founding of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912, the abdication of the Last Emperor
Puyi
Puyi , of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China, and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing Dynasty. He ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912. From 1 to 12 July 1917 he was briefly restored to the throne as a nominal emperor by the...

 on February 12, and the formation of a united provisional government in the spring of 1912. Through the Wuchang Uprising, Wuhan is known as the birthplace of the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution, also known as Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing , and established the Republic of China...

, named after the Xinhai year on the Chinese calendar. The city has several museums and memorials to the revolution and the thousands of martyrs who died defending the revolution.

National government moved its capital to Wuhan


In 1926, with the north extension of Northern Expedition, the center of Great Revolution shifted from the Pearl River basin to the Yangtze River basin. On November 26, the KMT Central Political Committee decided to move the capital to Wuhan. In middle December, most of the KMT central executive commissioners and National Government commissioners arrived in Wuhan, set up the temporary joint conference of central executive commissioners and National Government commissioners, performed the top functions of central party headquarters and National Government, and declared they would work in Wuhan on January 1, 1927 and decided to combined the three towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang into Wuhan City, called “Capital District”. The National Government was located in the Nanyang Building in Hankou, while the central party headquarters and other organizations chose their locations in Hankou or Wuchang.

Battle of Wuhan


In early October 1938, Japanese aggressors moved east and north respectively upon outskirts of Wuhan. As a result, numerous companies and enterprises and large amounts people had to withdraw from Wuhan to the west of Hubei and Sichuan. The KMT navy undertook the responsibility of defending the Yangtze River on patrol and covering the withdrawal. On 24 October, while overseeing the waters of the Yangtze River near the town of Jinkou (Jiangxia District in Wuhan) in Wuchang, the KMT warship Zhongshan came up against six Japanese planes. The planes took turns to dive, strafe and bomb the ship. Though two planes were eventually shot down, the Zhongshan warship sank down due to serious damage with 25 casualties.

Completion and opening-to-traffic of the First Yangtze River Bridge


The project of building the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge , commonly known as First Wuhan Yangtze Bridge, is the first bridge built over the Yangtze River in Wuhan.-Timing:...

, also known as the First Yangtze River Bridge, was regarded as one of the key projects during the period of the first five-year plan. The Engineering Bureau of the First Yangtze River Bridge, set up by the Ministry of Railway in April 1953, was responsible for the design and construction of the bridge. The document “Resolutions on Building the First Yangtze River Bridge” was passed in the 203rd conference of State Council on 15 January 1954. The technical conference on the routes of the bridge, was held in Hankou on 15 January 1955, determined that the route from Tortoise Hill to Snake Hill was the best choice. On 25 October, the bridge proper was under construction. The same day in 1957 the whole project was completed and an opening-to-traffic ceremony was held on 15 October. The whole bridge was 1670 m (5,479 ft) long, of which the superstratum was a highway with a width of 22.5 m (73.82 ft) and the substratum was a double-line railway with a width of 18 m (59.06 ft). The bridge proper was 1156 m (3,792.65 ft) long with two pairs of eight piers and nine arches with a space of 128 m (419.95 ft) between each arch. Thanks to the First Yangtze River Bridge, Beijing-Wuhan and Guangdong-Wuhan railways were available and any place could be reached from Wuchang, Hankou to Hanyang. Thus Wuhan was a thoroughfare to nine provinces not only in reality but in name as well.

Geography


Wuhan is situated in the middle of Hubei province, 113°41′-115°05′ East, 29°58′-31°22′ North, east of the Jianghan Plain, and the confluence of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Hanshui River.

The metropolitan area comprises three parts – Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, commonly called the "Three Towns of Wuhan" (hence the name "Wuhan", combining "Wu" from the first city and "Han" from the other two). The consolidation of these three cities occurred in 1927 and Wuhan was thereby established. These three parts face each other across the rivers and are linked by bridges, including one of the first modern bridges in China, known as the "First Bridge". It is simple in geographical structure – low and flat in the middle and hilly in the south, with the Yangtze and Han rivers winding through the city. Wuhan occupies a land area of 8494.41 km2, most of which is plain and decorated with hills and a great number of lakes and pools.

Climate


Wuhan's climate is humid subtropical (Koppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa) with abundant rainfall and four distinctive seasons. Wuhan is known for its oppressively humid summers, when dewpoints can often reach 26 °C (79 °F) or more. Because of its hot summer weather, Wuhan is commonly known as one of the Three Furnaces
Three Furnaces
The term Three Furnaces refers to the especially hot and oppressively humid summer weather in several major cities in the Yangtze River Valley, within China. It was coined during the Republican period of China, and refers to the following cities:*Chongqing...

 of China, along with Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

 and Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

. Spring and autumn are generally mild, while winter is cool with occasional snow. In the recent thirty years, the average annual rainfall is 1269 mm, mainly from June to August; annual temperature is 15.8℃-17.5℃, annual frost free period lasts 211 to 272 days and annual sunlight duration is 1810 to 2100 hours. Extreme temperatures have ranged from -18.1 °C to 42 °C (108 °F).

Administrative divisions


The sub-provincial city of Wuhan has direct jurisdiction over 13 districts (区 qu):
Map Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
Central Districts 6,434,373 888.42 7,242
Jiang'an District
Jiang'an District
Jiang'an District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city.-External links:...

江岸区 Jiāng'àn Qū 895,635 64.24 13,942
Jianghan District
Jianghan District
Jianghan District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city....

江汉区 Jiānghàn Qū 683,492 33.43 20,445
Qiaokou District
Qiaokou District
Qiaokou District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city.-External links:...

硚口区 Qiáokǒu Qū 828,644 46.39 17,863
Hanyang District 汉阳区 Hànyáng Qū 792,183 108.34 7,312
Wuchang District 武昌区 Wǔchāng Qū 1,199,127 87.42 13,717
Qingshan District
Qingshan District
Qingshan District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city.- References :...

青山区 Qīngshān Qū 485,375 68.40 7,096
Hongshan District 洪山区 Hóngshān Qū 1,549,917 480.20 3,228
Suburban and Rural Districts 3,346,271 7,605.99 440
Dongxihu District
Dongxihu District
Dongxihu District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city....

东西湖区 Dōngxīhú Qū 451,880 439.19 1,029
Hannan District
Hannan District
Hannan District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city....

汉南区 Hànnán Qū 114,970 287.70 400
Caidian District
Caidian District
Caidian District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city....

蔡甸区 Càidiàn Qū 410,888 1,108.10 371
Jiangxia District 江夏区 Jiāngxià Qū 644,835 2,010.00 321
Huangpi District
Huangpi District
Huangpi District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city....

黄陂区 Huángpí Qū 874,938 2,261.00 387
Xinzhou District 新洲区 Xīnzhōu Qū 848,760 1,500.00 566
Water Region (水上地区) 4,748
Total 9,785,392 8,494.41 1,152

Transportation



Bridges


Wuhan has six bridges and one tunnel across the Yangtze River. The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge , commonly known as First Wuhan Yangtze Bridge, is the first bridge built over the Yangtze River in Wuhan.-Timing:...

, also called the First Bridge, was built over the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 (Chang Jiang) in 1957, carrying the railroad directly across the river between Snake Hill (on the left in the picture below) and Turtle Hill. Before this bridge was built it could take up to an entire day to barge
Train ferry
A train ferry is a ship designed to carry railway vehicles. Typically, one level of the ship is fitted with railway tracks, and the vessel has a door at the front and/or rear to give access to the wharves. In the United States, train ferries are sometimes referred to as "car ferries", as...

 railcars across. Including its approaches, it is 5,511 feet (1680 m) long, and it accommodates both a double-track railway on a lower deck and a four lane roadway above. It was built with the assistance of advisers from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

.

The Second Bridge
Second Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
The Second Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge is a bridge across the Yangtze River in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. It is located northeast of the historic central area of the city's Hankou District.-Construction:...

, a cable-stayed bridge
Cable-stayed bridge
A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns , with cables supporting the bridge deck....

, built of pre-stressed concrete, has a central span of 400 meters; it is 4,678 meters in length (including 1,877 meters of the main bridge) and 26.5 to 33.5 meters in width. Its main bridgeheads are 90 meters high each, pulling 392 thick slanting cables together in the shape of double fans, so that the central span of the bridge is well poised on the piers and the bridge's stability and vibration resistance are ensured. With six lanes on the deck, the bridge is designed to handle 50,000 motor vehicles passing every day.
The bridge was completed in 1995.
The Third Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
Third Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
thumb|right|250px|Wuhan's Third Yangtze River Bridge at Baishazhou.The Third Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge is a highway bridge over the Yangtze River in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It is located 6.8 kilometers southwest of the First Bridge...

 was completed in September 2000. Located 8.6 kilometers southwest of the First Bridge, construction of Baishazhou Bridge started in 1997. With an investment of over 1.4 billion yuan (about 170 million U.S. dollars), the bridge, which is 3,586 meters long and 26.5 meters wide, has six lanes and has a capacity of 50,000 vehicles a day. The bridge is expected to serve as a major passage for the future Wuhan Ring Road, enormously easing the city's traffic and aiding local economic development.

The Yangluo Bridge
Yangluo Bridge
The Yangluo Bridge is a suspension bridge near Wuhan in the Hubei province of China. With a main span of , it is tied with the Golden Gate Bridge for the ninth longest suspension bridge in the world...

 carries Wuhan's Ring Road across the Yangtze in the city's eastern suburbs (connecting the Hongshan District
Hongshan District, Wuhan
Hongshan District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city.-References :...

 with the Xinzhou District
Xinzhou District, Wuhan
Xinzhou District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city.The population in Xinzhou is 9570000 in 2004.- References :...

). It was opened on December 26, 2007.

The Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze River Bridge
Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze River Bridge
thumb|right|400px|Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze River BridgeThe Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze River Bridge is a combined road and rail bridge across the Yangtze River in the city of Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei Province of China....

 crosses the Yangtze in the northeastern part of the city, downstream of the Second bridge. Its name is due to the Tianxing Island (Tianxingzhou), above which it crosses the river. Built at the cost of 11 billion yuan, the 4,657-meter cable suspension bridge was opened on December 26, 2009, in time for the opening of the Wuhan Railway Station. It is a combined road and rail bridge, and carries the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
The Wuguang High-Speed Railway , short for Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Wuhan–Guangzhou Section, is a high-speed rail line, operated by China Railway High-speed , connecting Wuhan and Guangzhou , in the People's Republic of China...

 across the river.

Railways



Until the late 2009, the city proper in Wuhan was served by two major railway stations, namely the Hankou Railway Station
Hankou Railway Station
Hankou Railway Station is one of the three main railway stations in the city of Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei Province of the People's Republic of China...

 in Hankou and the Wuchang Railway Station
Wuchang Railway Station
Wuchang Railway Station, located at the east side of Zhongshan Road in Wuchang District, Wuhan, Hubei, China is a major railway station administrated by the Wuhan Railway Bureau under the Ministry of Railways....

 in Wuchang. As a result, the railway system in China actually did not have a unique designation for the name "Wuhan", and trains heading to Wuhan are marked with the respective borough's station name, and not the city's.

The (original) Hankou Station was the terminus for the Jinghan Railway
Jinghan railway
The Beijing–Hankou or Jinghan Railway was a railway line extending from the Chinese capital Beijing to Hankou in Hubei province that was finished in 1905. It was originally known as the Peking–Hankow Railway. Across the Yangtze river in Wuchang was another line, the Canton–Hankow...

 from Beijing, while the Wuchang Station was the terminus for the Yuehan Railway
Yuehan railway
The Guangdong–Hankou or Yuehan Railway is an older railway now incorporated into the Jingguang Railway. The original Canton–Hankow Railway ran from Guangzhou to Wuchang and was opened in 1936. Another line, the Peking–Hankow Railway ended across the river at Hankou...

 to Guangzhou. But since the construction of the First Yangtze Bridge and the linking of the two lines into the Jingguang Railway
Jingguang Railway
The Beijing–Guangzhou Railway or Jingguang Railway is a major arterial railway in the China that connects Beijing in the north with Guangzhou in the south. This dual-track electrified line has a total length of 2,324 kilometres and spans five provinces through north, central and south China...

, both Hankou and Wuchang stations have been served by trains going to all directions, which contrasts with the situation in such cities as New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 or Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, where different stations serve different directions.

With the opening of the Hefei-Wuhan high-speed railway on April 1, 2009, Wuhan became served by high-speed trains with Hefei, Nanjing, and Shanghai; several trains a day now connect the city with Shanghai, getting there in under 6 hours. As of the early 2010, most of these express trains leave from the Hankou Railway Station
Hankou Railway Station
Hankou Railway Station is one of the three main railway stations in the city of Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei Province of the People's Republic of China...

.
In 2006, construction began on the new Wuhan Railway Station with 11 platforms, located on the northeastern outskirts of the city. In December 2009, the station was opened, as China unveiled its second high-speed train
Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
The Wuguang High-Speed Railway , short for Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Wuhan–Guangzhou Section, is a high-speed rail line, operated by China Railway High-speed , connecting Wuhan and Guangzhou , in the People's Republic of China...

 with scheduled runs from Guangzhou to Wuhan. Billed as the fastest train in the world, it can reach a speed of 394 km/h (244.82 mph). The travel time between the two cities has been reduced from ten and a half hours to just three. Eventually, the rail service will extend north to Beijing.

As of 2011, the new Wuhan Railway Station is primarily used by the Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed trains, while most regular trains to other destinations continue to use the Hankou and Wuchang stations.

Public transit


When Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro
The Wuhan Metro is an elevated and underground metro system in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China. The system opened on 28 July 2004, making Wuhan the fifth city in mainland China to have a metro system after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou...

 opened in September 2004, Wuhan became the fifth Chinese city with a metro system (after Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

, and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

). The first 10.2 km line (10 stations) is an elevated rail (and therefore called 'light rail' in Chinese terminology). It runs from Huangpu to Zongguan in the downtown area of the Hankou District, and it is the first one in the country to use a communication-based train control system (a Moving Block signalling system, provided by Alcatel
Alcatel
Alcatel Mobile Phones is a brand of mobile handsets. It was established in 2004 as a joint venture between Alcatel-Lucent of France and TCL Communication of China....

). The designed minimum interval is only 90 seconds between two trains and it features driverless operation. Phase 2 of this line will extend the length to 28.8 km (17.9 mi) with 26 stations in total. It plans to start revenue service on July 28, 2010.

Air



Opened in April 1995, Wuhan Tianhe International Airport
Wuhan Tianhe International Airport
Wuhan Tianhe International Airport serves Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei Province, China. It was opened on April 15, 1995. The airport is located in Wuhan's suburban Huangpi District, around 26 kilometres to the north of Wuhan city center...

 is one of the busiest airports in central China and it is located 26 km north of Wuhan. It has also been selected as China's fourth international hub airport after Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport, is the main international airport serving Beijing, China. It is located northeast of Beijing's city center in an enclave of Chaoyang District that is surrounded by rural Shunyi District. The airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital...

, Shanghai-Pudong and Guangzhou Baiyun. A second terminal was completed in March 2008, having been started in February 2005 with an investment of CNY 3.372 billion.

Tourist sites


  • Wuchang has the largest lake within a city in China, the East Lake
    East Lake (Wuhan)
    East Lake is a large lake within the city limits of Wuhan, China, and the largest urban lake in China. Wuhan's East Lake covers an area of 33 square kilometers. It was designated as one of the 4A tourist zones of China in 2000...

    , as well as the South Lake.
  • The Hubei Provincial Museum
    Hubei Provincial Museum
    Hubei Provincial Museum is one of the best-known museums in China, with a large amount of State-level historic and cultural relics. Established in 1953, the museum moved to its present location in 1960 and gained its present name in 1963...

     includes many artifacts excavated from ancient tombs, including a concert bell set (bianzhong
    Bianzhong
    Bianzhong is an ancient Chinese musical instrument consisting of a set of bronze bells, played melodically. These sets of chime bells were used as polyphonic musical instruments and some of these bells have been dated at between 2,000 to 3,600 years old. They were hung in a wooden frame and...

    ). A dance and orchestral show is frequently performed here, using reproductions of the original instruments.
  • The Rock and Bonsai Museum includes a mounted platybelodon
    Platybelodon
    Platybelodon was a genus of large herbivorous mammal related to the elephant . It lived during the Miocene Epoch, about 15-4 million years ago, and ranged over Africa, Europe, Asia and North America...

     skeleton, many unique stones, a quartz crystal the size of an automobile, and an outdoor garden with miniature trees in the penjing
    Penjing
    Penjing , also known as penzai , tray landscape, potted scenery, potted landscape, and miniature trees and rockery is the ancient Chinese art of growing trees and plants, kept small by skilled pruning and formed to create an aesthetic shape and the complex illusion of age...

    ("Chinese Bonsai") style.
  • Jiqing Street(吉庆街) holds many roadside restaurants and street performers during the evening, and is the site of a Live Show (生活秀) with stories of events on this street by contemporary writer Chi Li
    Chi Li
    Chi Li , born in Xiantao, Hubei Province of China, is a contemporary female Chinese writer. She graduated from department of Chinese literature at Wuhan University in 1986....

    .
  • The Lute Platform in Hanyang was where the legendary musician Yu Boya is said to have played. According to the story of 知音 (zhi yin, "understanding music"), Yu Boya played for the last time over the grave of his friend Zhong Ziqi, then smashed his lute because the only person able to appreciate his music was dead.
  • Some luxury riverboat
    Riverboat
    A riverboat is a ship built boat designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways. They are generally equipped and outfitted as work boats in one of the carrying trades, for freight or people transport, including luxury units constructed for entertainment enterprises, such...

     tours begin here after a flight from Beijing
    Beijing
    Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

     or Shanghai
    Shanghai
    Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

    , with several days of flatland cruising and then climbing through the Three Gorges with passage upstream past the Gezhouba
    Gezhouba Dam
    The Gezhouba Dam or Gezhouba Water Control Project on the Yangtze River is located in the western suburbs of Yichang City in central China's Hubei province. The dam sits a few kilometers upstream from downtown Yichang, just downstream of the fall of the Huangbo River into the Yangtze. Construction...

     and Three Gorges
    Three Gorges Dam
    The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang, in Hubei province, China...

     dams to the city of Chongqing
    Chongqing
    Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

    . With the completion of the dam a number of cruises now start from the upstream side and continue west, with tourists traveling by motor coach from Wuhan.
  • The Yellow Crane Tower
    Yellow Crane Tower
    Yellow Crane Tower is a famous and historic tower, first built in the year 223 AD, the current structure however, was rebuilt in 1981. The tower stands on Sheshan , at the bank of Yangtze River in Wuchang District, Wuhan, in Hubei province of central China.-History:- Legend :There are at least two...

     (Huanghelou) is presumed to have been first built in approximately 220 AD. The tower has been destroyed and reconstructed numerous times, was burned last according to some sources in 1884. The tower underwent complete reconstruction in 1981. The reconstruction utilized modern materials and added an elevator, while maintaining the traditional design in the tower's outward appearance.


Economy


Wuhan is a sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

. Its GDP was 450 billion CNY  and GDP per capita was approximately 64,000 CNY  as of 2009. In 2008, the city's annual average disposable income
Disposable income
Disposable income is total personal income minus personal current taxes. In national accounts definitions, personal income, minus personal current taxes equals disposable personal income...

 was 16,360 CNY.
Wuhan has currently attracted about 50 French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 companies, representing over one third of French investment in China, and the highest level of French investment in any Chinese city.

Wuhan is an important center for economy, trade, finance, transportation, information technology, and education in Central China. Its major industries includes optic-electronic, automobile manufacturing, steel manufacturing, new pharmaceutical sector, biology engineering, new materials industry and environmental protection. Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Co. and Dongfeng-Citroen Automobile Co., Ltd headquartered in the city. There are 35 higher educational institutions including the well-known Wuhan University, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 3 state-level development zones and many enterprise incubators. Wuhan ranks third in China in overall strength of science and technology.

Industrial zones



Major industrial zones in Wuhan include:
  • Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone

Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Changfei Fiber-optical Cables (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), Fenghuo Telecommunications and Wuhan Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (the largest research institute in optical telecommunications in China). Wuhan ELHTZ also represents the development centre for China's laser industry with key players such as HUST Technologies and Chutian Laser being based in the zone.
  • Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone

Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993. Its current zone size is about 10–25 square km and it plans to expand to 25–50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone include Auto-mobile Production/Assembly, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Food/Beverage Processing, Heavy Industry, Telecommunications Equipment.
  • Wuhan Export Processing Zone

Wuhan Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan Economic & Technology Development Zone, planned to cover land of 2.7sqkm. The first 0.7sqkm area has been launched.
  • Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park

Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is located in Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone. Wuhan Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd. The planned area is 0.67 sqkm with total floor area of 600,000 square meters. The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km (29.02 mi) away from the Wuhan Tianhe Airport.

Colleges and universities



Wuhan is the scientific and educational center of Central China, with 35 higher educational institutions such as Wuhan University and Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Wuhan ranks 3rd in China in scientific and educational strength: it contains three national development zones and four scientific and technologic development parks, as well as numerous enterprise incubators, over 350 research institutes, 1470 hi-tech enterprises, and over 400,000 experts and technicians.
Wuhan also boasts eight national colleges and universities and fourteen public colleges and universities.

National

Wuhan University
Wuhan University
Wuhan University is a university located in Wuchang, Hubei, China. It is directly under the administration of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. It is regarded as one of the top ten universities in China, and its history dates back to 1893, making it one of China's...

 (founded in 1893)
武汉大学
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
The Huazhong University of Science and Technology is a public, coeducational research university located in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As a national key university, HUST is directly affiliated to the Ministry of Education of China. HUST has been referred as the flagship of China's higher...

 (HUST,founded in 1953)
华中科技大学
Wuhan University of Technology
Wuhan University of Technology
The Wuhan University of Technology was merged on May 27, 2000, from the former Wuhan University of Technology , Wuhan Transportation University and Wuhan Automotive Polytechnic University...

(WHUT)
武汉理工大学
China University of Geosciences
China University of Geosciences
The China University of Geosciences is a key national university directly under the administration of the Education Ministry of the People's Republic of China...


中国地质大学 (武汉)
Huazhong Agricultural University
Huazhong Agricultural University
Huazhong Agricultural University . a.k.a. Central China Agricultural University, HZAU/HAU) is a multi-disciplinary comprehensive university giving priority to agriculture, characterized by life sciences and supplemented by the combination of agriculture, basic sciences, engineering, liberal arts,...

 (founded in 1898)
华中农业大学
Central China Normal University (founded in 1903) (Huazhong Normal University
Huazhong Normal University
Huazhong Normal University , also known as Central China Normal University , located in Wuhan, China is a university directly under the control of the Chinese Ministry of Education.-External links:*...

)
华中师范大学
Zhongnan University of Economics and Law
Zhongnan University of Economics and Law
Zhongnan University of Economics and Law is a university located in Wuhan, a metropolis of Central China. It was founded in 1948.-External links:**...

 (founded in 1948)
中南财经政法大学
South-Central University for Nationalities
中南民族大学

Public

Hubei University
Hubei University
The Hubei University , colloquially known in Chinese as Huda was founded in 1931 and is as a key comprehensive university in Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. The University originated in 1931, starting from what was then Hubei Provincial College of Education. Established with approval...


湖北大学
Wuhan University of Science and Technology
Wuhan University of Science and Technology
Wuhan University of Science and Technology is a public, comprehensive, research university located in the city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China...


武汉科技大学
Jianghan University
Jianghan University
Jianghan University is a university in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Its campus is 1.4 km² large, with an additional 0.5 km² under construction. It lies within the Wuhan Economy and Technology Development Zone by the Lake Sanjiao....


江汉大学
Hubei University of Technology
Hubei University of Technology
The Hubei University of Technology , founded in 1952, is located in Hubei Province's capital-Wuhan. It's a public key multi-discipline university of local province and has 1069 teachers and 18 thousand students....


湖北工业大学
Wuhan Institute of Technology
Wuhan Institute of Technology
Wuhan Institute of Technology Wuhan Institute of Technology Wuhan Institute of Technology (WIT; is a university in China.It was founded in 1972 with the old name-HuBei Institute of Petrochemical and Chemical Technology( 湖北化工石油学院)It is under the administration of the Ministry of Education of ...


武汉工程大学
Wuhan University of Science and Engineering
武汉科技学院
Wuhan Polytechnic University
Wuhan Polytechnic University
Wuhan Polytechnic University is a university in Wuhan, China. It is located in the Evergreen Garden real estate development north of Hankou, near Tian He Airport....


武汉工业学院
Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
湖北中医学院
Wuhan Institute of Physical Education
Wuhan Institute of Physical Education
Wuhan Institute of Physical Education is a tertiary educational institution in China. According to the statistics released by the Ministry of Education of China, the WIPE is one of the four leading universities in the physical education area in China...


武汉体育学院
Hubei Institute of Fine Arts
Hubei Institute of Fine Arts
Hubei Institute of Fine Arts is an art college in the People's Republic of China . It is regarded as one of the best and most selective academies of fine arts in China. Its history dates back to 1920, making it the first private art school in modern China...


湖北美术学院
Hubei Police College
湖北警官学院
Wuhan Conservatory of Music
武汉音乐学院
Hubei University of Economics
湖北经济学院
Wuhan Bioengineering Institute
武汉生物工程学院
Hubei University of Education
湖北第二师范学院

Popular foods


  • Hot and Dry Noodles
    Re gan mian
    Re gan mian is a traditional local cuisine of Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province in central China. It is made of noodles called jian mian with a mixture of sauces and dried vegetables. Many stalls that make re gan mian will have their own variations in seasoning, creating signature tastes...

    , Re-gan mian (热干面) consists of long freshly boiled noodles mixed with sesame paste. The Chinese word re means hot and gan means dry. It is considered to be the most typical local food for breakfast.
  • Duck's neck
    Wuhan duck
    Wuhan duck refers to several dishes from the city of Wuhan, in Hubei Province, China. The dishes are specific parts of a duck, including the tongue, head, feet, liver, kidney, and most popularly, the neck, often referred to as "spicy duck neck". Common to all of these dishes is the colour, a deep...

      or Ya Bozi (鸭脖子) is a local version of this popular Chinese dish, made of duck necks and spices.
  • Bean skin or Doupi (豆皮)is a popular local dish with a filling of egg, rice, beef, mushrooms and beans cooked between two large round soybean skins and cut into pieces, structurally like a stuffed pizza without enclosing edges.
  • Soup dumpling or Xiaolongtangbao(小笼汤包)is a kind of dumpling with thin skin made of flour, steamed with very juicy meat inside so that is why it is called Tang (soup) Bao (bun), because every time one takes a bite from it the soup inside spills out.
  • A salty doughnut or Mianwo
    Mianwo
    Mian Wo is a deep fried doughnut shape small dish from Wuhan, Hubei province in central China. It is made by soy milk, rice milk, flour, sesame and chopped scallion...

    (面窝) is a kind of doughnut with a salty taste. It's much thinner than a common doughnut, and is a typical Wuhan local food.

Notable people


  • Zhong Ziqi — (name in Chinese: 钟子期), ancient Chinese musician whose musical composition Flowing Water had been burned on a CD carried by the U.S. space probe Voyager 1 as a representative of the earth civilization in the hope of being picked by humans from other planets.
  • Peng Xiuwen
    Peng Xiuwen
    Peng Xiuwen was a noted Chinese conductor and composer. He was a native of Wuhan, in the Hubei province of central China....

     — (name in Chinese: 彭修文), composer and conductor
  • Paula Tsui
    Paula Tsui
    Paula Tsui Siu-fung is a famous Cantopop singer in Hong Kong. She has been affiliated with the TVB television station until the mid-1990s but has performed for Asia Television Ltd...

     — (Chinese name: 徐小凤), a popular Chinese singer who spent most of her singing career in Hong Kong
  • Xu Fan — (name in Chinese: 徐帆), actress
  • Liu Yi Fei — (name in Chinese: 刘亦菲), actress and singer
  • Li Yuanhong
    Li Yuanhong
    Li Yuanhong was a Chinese general and political figure during the Qing dynasty and the republican era. He was twice president of the Republic of China.- Early history :...

     — (name in Chinese: 黎元洪), the former President of the Republic of China.
  • Xiong Bingkun — (name in Chinese: 熊秉坤), the armyman who called the start to the Wuhan Uprising in the 1911 Revolution of China which gave birth to the Republic of China, Asia's first democratic country.
  • Chang-lin Tien
    Chang-Lin Tien
    Chang-lin Tien was a Chinese American professor of mechanical engineering and university administrator. He was the seventh Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley , the first Asian to head a major university in the United States.-Early years:Born in Huangpi, Wuhan, China, Tien and...

     — Professor Chang-lin Tien (name in Chinese: 田长霖) (24 July 1935 – 29 October 2002), the seventh Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (1990–1997), the first Asian to head a major university in the United States.
  • Li Ting — (name in Chinese: 李婷), woman tennis player, Olympic gold medalist (in woman's doubles, Athens 2004)
  • Fu Mingxia
    Fu Mingxia
    Fu Mingxia . She is a top female diver, multiple Olympic gold medalist and world champion. She is about 1.58m tall .-Early life and career:...

     — (name in Chinese: 伏明霞), woman diving athlete, four-time Olympic gold Medalist (1 in Barcelona 1992, 2 in Atlanta 1996, 1 in Sydney 2000), the only athlete that had won gold medals at 3 Olympiads as well as one of the very few divers in the world who are able to win world championship in both platform diving and springboard diving. diver
    Diving
    Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, sometimes while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.Diving is one...

  • Zhou Jihong
    Zhou Jihong
    Zhou Jihong is a Chinese diver.At her first Olympic Games in 1984 she won the gold medal in the 10 metre platform event. She returned to compete at the Barcelona Olympics eight years later, placing fourth in the same event....

     — (name in Chinese: 周继红), woman diving athlete, Olympic gold medalist (Los Angeles 1984), the first Chinese who has won an Olympic gold medal in diving.
  • Qiao Hong
    Qiao Hong
    Qiao Hong is a former female Chinese table tennis player. She is now the coach of the women's national table tennis team and a member of the Chinese Olympic Committee....

     — (name in Chinese: 乔红), woman table tennis player, two-time Olympic gold medalist (in woman's doubles, Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996)
  • Wu Yi
    Wu Yi
    Wu Yi was one of four Vice Premiers of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, overseeing the country's economy until March 2008. Known as the "iron lady", Wu is one of the toughest negotiators in China's government.-Biography:...

     — (name in Chinese: 吴仪), former Vice-Premier and Minister Of Health of the People's Republic of China
  • Xiao Hailiang — (name in Chinese: 肖海亮), Olympic
    Olympic Games
    The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

     gold medalist (in 3m springboard synchronized diving, Sydney 2000) diver
    Diving
    Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, sometimes while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.Diving is one...

  • Gao Ling
    Gao Ling
    Gao Ling is a female badminton player from the People's Republic of China.-Career:Noted for her consistency, anticipation, forecourt prowess, and sporting smile, Gao is unarguably, to many fans, the most successful doubles specialists in the history of women's badminton. In addition, she earned...

     — (name in Chinese: 高凌), professional badminton player, two-time Olympic gold medalist (Sydney 2000, Athens 2004)
  • Li Na
    Li Na (tennis)
    Li Na , goes first before the equivalent of a first name in some other nations. Her name off court in China is Li Na. When listed on the , she is known as Na Li. However, in the match, the commentators call her Li Na, and when her full name is listed in text on court, it is also written as Li Na.;...

     — (name in Chinese: 李娜), woman tennis player, Champion of the French Open 2011
  • Chi Li
    Chi Li
    Chi Li , born in Xiantao, Hubei Province of China, is a contemporary female Chinese writer. She graduated from department of Chinese literature at Wuhan University in 1986....

     — (name in Chinese: 池莉), modern writer
  • Zhou Mi
    Zhou Mi (entertainer)
    Zhou Mi is a Chinese pop singer, emcee, and actor. He is a member of the Mandopop boy band Super Junior-M.Aside from providing lead and background vocals, he contributed to the group's first Chinese album "迷 " by writing the Chinese lyrics for "愛你愛你 ", "Marry U" and "渴望 "...

     — Super Junior M member
  • Tang Jie Li — AIBA
    International Boxing Association
    The International Boxing Association is a for-profit organization that sanctions professional boxing matches and awards world and subordinate championships.- Origins :...

     Women's Boxing World Champion
  • Tian Yuan
    Tian Yuan
    Tian Yuan is a Chinese singer-songwriter, actress, novelist and photographer. Born in Wuhan, China, she majored in English at Beijing Language and Culture University, and graduated in 2007.-Music career:...

     — singer and actress

Pal cities


Wuhan is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:

Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...


Diplomatic representation


As of October 2011 there are three countries that have consulates in Wuhan: The United States
The U.S. Consul General, the Honorable Ms. Diane L. Sovereign, has been stationed in Wuhan since 30 November 2009. The office of the U.S. Consulate General, Central China (located in Wuhan) celebrated its official opening on 20 November 2008 and is the first new American consulate in China in over 20 years.

See also


External links