Hubei

Hubei

Overview
is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting. The provincial capital is Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

.

Hubei is officially abbreviated to "鄂" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the Qin dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

, while a popular name for Hubei is "楚" (Chǔ), after the powerful state of Chu that existed here during the Eastern Zhou dynasty.
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Encyclopedia
is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting. The provincial capital is Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

.

Hubei is officially abbreviated to "鄂" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the Qin dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

, while a popular name for Hubei is "楚" (Chǔ), after the powerful state of Chu that existed here during the Eastern Zhou dynasty. It borders Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

 to the north, Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

 to the east, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 to the southeast, Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 to the south, Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

 to the west, and Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

 to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang, in Hubei province, China...

 is located at Yichang
Yichang
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in Hubei province after the province capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.-History:In ancient times Yichang...

, in the west of the province.

History


By the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC - 476 BC), the territory of today's Hubei was part of the powerful state of Chu. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
The Zhou Dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as...

, and it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north; but it was also culturally unique, and was a powerful state that held onto much of the middle and lower Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

, with power extending northwards into the North China Plain
North China Plain
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. The plain is bordered on the north by the Yanshan Mountains and on the west by the Taihang Mountains edge of the Shanxi plateau. To the south, it merges into the Yangtze Plain...

.


During the Warring States Period
Warring States Period
The Warring States Period , also known as the Era of Warring States, or the Warring Kingdoms period, covers the Iron Age period from about 475 BC to the reunification of China under the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC...

 (475 BC - 221 BC) Chu became the major adversary of the upstart state of Qin to the northwest (in what is now Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

 province), which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan basin
The Sichuan Basin is a lowland region in southwestern China. Despite its historical name, it is not only synonymous to Sichuan province, comprising its central and eastern portions as well as part of Chongqing Municipality...

, then (in 278 BC) its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as part of Qin's bid for the conquest of all China.

Qin founded the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

 in 221 BC, the first unified state in China. Qin was succeeded by the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 in 206 BC, which established the province (zhou
Zhou (political division)
Zhou were historical political divisions of China. Formally established during the Han Dynasty, zhou continued to exist until the establishment of the Republic of China — a period of over 2000 years...

) of Jingzhou in what is now Hubei and Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

. Near the end of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao
Liu Biao
Liu Biao , style name Jingsheng , was a warlord and the governor of Jing Province during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history. He was a member of the extended family of the Han Dynasty emperors...

. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao
Cao Cao
Cao Cao was a warlord and the penultimate chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during the dynasty's final years. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid the foundations for what was to become the state of Cao Wei and was posthumously titled...

, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China; but in the Battle of Red Cliffs
Battle of Red Cliffs
The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle at the end of the Han Dynasty, immediately prior to the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. It was fought in the winter of 208/9 AD between the allied forces of the southern warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan...

, warlords Liu Bei
Liu Bei
Liu Bei , also known as Liu Xuande, was a warlord, military general and later the founding emperor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history...

 and Sun Quan
Sun Quan
Sun Quan , son of Sun Jian, formally Emperor Da of Wu, was the founder of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. He ruled from 222 to 229 as King of Wu and from 229 to 252 as Emperor of Wu....

 drove Cao Cao out of Jingzhou. Liu Bei then took control of Jingzhou; he went on to conquer Yizhou (the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan basin
The Sichuan Basin is a lowland region in southwestern China. Despite its historical name, it is not only synonymous to Sichuan province, comprising its central and eastern portions as well as part of Chongqing Municipality...

), but lost Jingzhou to Sun Quan; for the next few decades Jingzhou was controlled by the Wu Kingdom, ruled by Sun Quan and his successors.


The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into northern China at the beginning of the 4th century began nearly three centuries of the division of China into a nomad-ruled (but increasingly Sinicized) north and a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

-ruled south. Hubei, which is in southern China, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the reunification of China by the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty was a powerful, but short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it ended nearly four centuries of division between rival regimes. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty....

 in 589. In 617 the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 replaced Sui, and later on the Tang Dynasty placed what is now Hubei under several circuits: Jiangnanxi Circuit in the south; Shannandong Circuit in the west, and Huainan Circuit in the east. After the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 disintegrated in the 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnan
Jingnan
Jingnan was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created in 924, marking the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period Jingnan (荆南) (also called Nanping (南平)) was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created in 924, marking the beginning of the Five Dynasties and...

 in the center, Wu
Wu (Ten Kingdoms)
Wu , also referred to as Huainan , Hongnong , Southern Wu , or Yang Wu , was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China which was in existence between the years of 907 and 937. Its capital was Jiangdu Municipality...

 (later Southern Tang
Southern Tang
Southern Tang was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-975. Southern Tang replaced the Wu Kingdom when Li Bian deposed the emperor Yang Pu....

) to the east, and the Five Dynasties to the north.

The Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 reunified China in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered China fully in 1279, and under their rule the province of Huguang
Huguang
Huguang was a province of China during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. It was partitioned in the late Qing Dynasty, becoming the provinces of Hubei and Hunan....

 was established, covering Hubei, Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

, and parts of Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 and Guangxi
Guangxi
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China along its border with Vietnam. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.Guangxi's location, in...

. During the Mongol rule, in 1334, Hubei was devastated by the world's first recorded outbreak of the Black Death
Black Death
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Of several competing theories, the dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory, which attributes the outbreak to the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Thought to have...

, which spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia.

The Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 drove out the Mongols in 1368, and their version of Huguang province was smaller, and corresponded almost entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. While Hubei was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power,


During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei was several times ravaged by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong
Zhang Xianzhong
Zhang Xianzhong or Chang Hsien-chung , nicknamed Yellow Tiger, was a Chinese rebel leader who conquered Sichuan Province in the middle of the 17th century. Upon capturing it, he declared himself emperor of the Daxi Dynasty .According to Chinese chronicles, many scholars rejected that claim, so he...

 and Li Zicheng. The Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 which had conquered China in 1644, soon split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan in 1664. The Qing Dynasty continued to maintain a viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 of Huguang, however; one of the most famous was Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong ; Pseudonyms: Xiāngtāo , Xiāngyán , Yīgōng , Wújìng-Jūshì , later Bàobīng ; Posthumous name: Wénxiāng ) was an eminent Chinese politician during the late Qing Dynasty who advocated for controlled reform...

, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei (especially Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

) into a prosperous center of commerce and industry. The Huangshi
Huangshi
Huangshi is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province.-Geography and climate:The prefecture-level city of Huangshi is located in southeastern Hubei province, along the southwestern bank of one of the major bends in the Yangtze River. It is located 100 km south-east of Wuhan, and...

/Daye area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of mining and metallurgy.

In 1911 the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 took place in modern-day Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

, overthrowing the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 and establishing the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

, led by Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei , alternate name Wang Zhaoming, was a Chinese politician. He was initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang , but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the CCP ended in political failure...

; this government was later merged into Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

's government in Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

. During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 while the western parts remained under Chinese control.

During the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 in the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival Red Guard
Red Guards (China)
Red Guards were a mass movement of civilians, mostly students and other young people in the People's Republic of China , who were mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.-Origins:...

factions.

As the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of Sino-Soviet border conflict
Sino-Soviet border conflict
The Sino–Soviet border conflict was a seven-month military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino–Soviet split in 1969. The most serious of these border clashes occurred in March 1969 in the vicinity of Zhenbao Island on the Ussuri River, also known as Damanskii...

s in the late 1960s, the Xianning
Xianning
Xianning is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province. It is known as the "City of Osmanthus".-Geography and climate:Xianning is located in southeastern Hubei province, just south of Wuhan, between the southern bank of the Yangtze River in the north and the Mufu Mountains in the south. It...

 prefecture of Hubei was chosen as the site of Project 131
Underground Project 131
Underground Project 131 is a system of tunnels in China's Hubei province constructed in the late 1960s and the early 1970s to accommodate the Chinese military command headquarters in case of a nuclear war...

, an underground military command headquarters.

The province - and Wuhan in particular - suffered severely from the 1954 Yangtze River Floods
1954 Yangtze River Floods
From June to September of 1954, the Yangtze River Floods were a series of catastrophic floodings that occurred mostly in Hubei Province. Due to unusually high volume of precipitation as well as an extraordinarily long rainy season in the middle stretch of the Yangtze River late in the spring of...

. Large scale dam construction followed, with the Gezhouba Dam
Gezhouba Dam
The Gezhouba Dam or Gezhouba Water Control Project on the Yangtze River is located in the western suburbs of Yichang City in central China's Hubei province. The dam sits a few kilometers upstream from downtown Yichang, just downstream of the fall of the Huangbo River into the Yangtze. Construction...

 on the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 near Yichang
Yichang
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in Hubei province after the province capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.-History:In ancient times Yichang...

 started in 1970 and completed in 1988; the construction of the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang, in Hubei province, China...

, further upstream, began in 1993. In the following years, authorities resettled millions of people from western Hubei to make way for the construction of the dam. A number of smaller dams have been constructed on the Yangtze's tributaries as well.

Geography



The Jianghan Plain takes up most of central and eastern Hubei, while the west and the peripheries are more mountain
Mountain
Image:Himalaya_annotated.jpg|thumb|right|The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everestrect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzorect 200 28 335 52 Makalurect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everestrect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateaurect 250 406 340 427 Rong River...

ous, with ranges such as the Wudang Mountains
Wudang Mountains
The Wudang Mountains , also known as Wu Tang Shan or simply Wudang, are a small mountain range in the northwestern part of Hubei Province of People's Republic of China, just to the south of the city of Shiyan.-Geography:...

, the Jingshan Mountains
Jingshan Mountains
The Jingshan Mountains are a chain of mountains in the western part of Nanzhang County, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China. Stretching for around 150 kilometers, their peaks range in height from 1200 to about 1800 meters above sea level with the highest peak, Mount Julong , reaching an...

, the Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains, or Dabashan is a mountain range in Central China, north of the Yangtze River.-Geography:The Daba Mountains run in the general west-northwest to east-southeast direction, along the border between, on the one side Sichuan and Chongqing, and on the other side Shaanxi and Hubei...

, and the Wu Mountains (in rough north-to-south order). The Dabie Mountains lie to the northeast of the Janghan Plain, on the border with Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

 and Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

; the Tongbai Mountains lie to the north on the border with Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

; to the southeast, the Mufu Mountains
Mufu Mountains
The Mufu Mountains are a range of mountains located on the border of Jiangxi and Hubei provinces in China.Some maps label the range as 幕埠山, which would be transliterated as Mùbù Shān , but this is apparently is a typo.-References:...

 form the border with Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

. The highest peak in Hubei is Shennong Peak, found in the Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains, or Dabashan is a mountain range in Central China, north of the Yangtze River.-Geography:The Daba Mountains run in the general west-northwest to east-southeast direction, along the border between, on the one side Sichuan and Chongqing, and on the other side Shaanxi and Hubei...

 and in the forestry
Forestry
Forestry is the interdisciplinary profession embracing the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands...

 area of Shennongjia
Shennongjia
Shennongjia Forestry District is a county-level administrative unit in Hubei province, directly subordinated to the provincial government...

; it has an altitude of 3105 m.


The two major river of Hubei are the Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 and its left tributary Hanshui; they give their name to the Jianghan Plain. The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 enters Hubei from the west via the Three Gorges; the eastern half of the Three Gorges (Xiling Gorge
Xiling Gorge
Xiling Gorge is a gorge on the Yangtze River in China. It is located in Zigui County and Yiling District of Hubei Province, from Xiangxi down to the western suburbs of Yichang, and is the largest and farthest downstream of the Three Gorges....

 and part of Wu Gorge
Wu Gorge
Wu Gorge , sometimes called Great Gorge , is the second gorge of the Three Gorges system on the Yangtze River, People's Republic of China. Formed by the Wu River, it stretches from Wushan to Guandukou, and is located downstream of Qutang Gorge and upstream of Xiling Gorge...

) lies in western Hubei, while the western half is in neighbouring Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

. The Hanshui enters the province from the northwest. After crossing most of the province, the two great rivers meet at Wuhan, the provincial capital.

Among the notable tributaries of the Yangtze within the province are the Shen Nong Stream
Shen Nong Stream
Shennong Stream is a left tributary of the Yangtze River, located in the Hubei Province of central China. Fed by tributaries some of which come from the Shennongjia Forestry District, the stream flows south, falling into the Yangtze opposite the city of Badong.Originally the Shennong Stream...

 (a small northern tributary, severely affected by the Three Gorges Dam project); the Qingjiang, a major waterway of southwestern Hubei; the Huangbo
Huangbo River
Huangbo River is a river in China's Hubei Province, a left tributary of the Yangtze River. The Huangbo is located entirely within the prefecture-level city of Yichang. It flows in the general southern direction through Yichang's Yiling District and Yuan'an County, falling into the Yangtze within...

 near Yichang
Yichang
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in Hubei province after the province capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.-History:In ancient times Yichang...

; and the Fushui
Fushui River
The Fushui River is a river flowing through Tongshan and Yangxin Counties in the south-eastern part of Hubei Province, China.The river is 196 km long, originating in the Mufu Mountains, and discharges into the Yangtze River. There are a number of dams on the river and its tributaries.The...

 in the southeast.
Thousands of lakes dot the landscape of Hubei's Jianghan Plain, giving Hubei the name of: "Province of Lakes"; the largest of these lakes are Lake Liangzi and Lake Honghu. The numerous hydro dams created a number of large reservoirs, the largest of which is the Danjiangkou Reservoir
Danjiangkou Reservoir
Danjiangkou Reservoir is a multi-purpose reservoir in Xichuan County, Henan and Danjiangkou City, Hubei province, Central China. Created by the Danjiangkou Dam, it serves as a supply of water for the region as well as irrigation, electricity generation and flood control. It was constructed in 1958,...

 on the Hanshui, on the border between Hubei and Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

.

Hubei has a subtropical climate with distinct seasons. Hubei has average temperatures of 1 - 6 °C in winter and of 24 - 30 °C in summer; punishing temperatures of 40 °C or above are famously associated with Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

, the provincial capital. The mountainous districts of western Hubei, in particular Shennongjia
Shennongjia
Shennongjia Forestry District is a county-level administrative unit in Hubei province, directly subordinated to the provincial government...

, with their cooler summers, attract numerous visitors from Wuhan and other lowland cities.

Besides the capital Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

, other important cities are Jingmen
Jingmen
Jingmen is a prefecture-level city in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. Jingmen is within an area where cotton and oil crops are planted. The population of the city is approximately 2,984,000 . The urban area of Jingmen City has a population of about 350,000...

; Shiyan
Shiyan
Shiyan is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China.-Geography:The Wudang Mountains run approximately east-west through the territory of the "Prefecture-level city" of Shiyan, crossing several of its county-level divisions...

, the center of automotive industry and the gateway to Wudangshan; Yichang
Yichang
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in Hubei province after the province capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.-History:In ancient times Yichang...

, the main base for the gigantic hydroelectric projects of southwestern Hubei; and Shashi
Shashi District
Shashi District is a district within the main urban area of the Jingzhou Prefecture-level City, Hubei Province, China. It is located on the left bank of the Yangtze River, between Yichang and Wuhan...

.

Administrative divisions


Hubei is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions (of which there are twelve prefecture-level cities and one autonomous prefecture), as well as three directly administered county-level cities and one directly administered county-level forestry area.
Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat Population (2010
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010....

)
— Sub-provincial city —
1 Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

武汉市 Wǔhàn Shì Jiang'an District
Jiang'an District
Jiang'an District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Wuhan city.-External links:...

9,785,392
Prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 —
2 Ezhou
Ezhou
-Geography and climate:Ezhou is located in southeastern Hubei province, on the southern bank of the Yangtze River east of Wuchang , and across the river from the city of Huanggang, to which it is connected by the Ehuang Bridge...

鄂州市 Èzhōu Shì Echeng District
Echeng District
Echeng District is one of the three administrative districts into which the prefecture-level city of Ezhou, in China's Hubei province, is divided. The district is quite small, and includes Ezhou's main urban area and its eastern and southern suburbs....

1,048,672
3 Huanggang
Huanggang, Hubei
Huanggang City is a major municipality in eastern Hubei Province, China. It is situated to the north of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and is bounded in the north by the Dabie Shan mountain range....

黄冈市 Huánggāng Shì Huangzhou District
Huangzhou District
Huangzhou District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Huanggang city....

6,162,072
4 Huangshi
Huangshi
Huangshi is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province.-Geography and climate:The prefecture-level city of Huangshi is located in southeastern Hubei province, along the southwestern bank of one of the major bends in the Yangtze River. It is located 100 km south-east of Wuhan, and...

黄石市 Huángshí Shì Huangshigang District
Huangshigang District
Huangshigang District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Huangshi city....

2,429,318
5 Jingmen
Jingmen
Jingmen is a prefecture-level city in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. Jingmen is within an area where cotton and oil crops are planted. The population of the city is approximately 2,984,000 . The urban area of Jingmen City has a population of about 350,000...

荆门市 Jīngmén Shì Dongbao District
Dongbao District
Dongbao District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Jingmen city....

2,873,687
6 Jingzhou
Jingzhou
Jingzhou is a prefecture-level city in Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the banks of the Yangtze River.Its population is 5,691,707 at the 2010 census whom 1,154,086 in the built up area made of 3 urban districts.-Geography:Jingzhou occupies an area of...

荆州市 Jīngzhōu Shì Shashi District
Shashi District
Shashi District is a district within the main urban area of the Jingzhou Prefecture-level City, Hubei Province, China. It is located on the left bank of the Yangtze River, between Yichang and Wuhan...

5,691,707
7 Shiyan
Shiyan
Shiyan is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China.-Geography:The Wudang Mountains run approximately east-west through the territory of the "Prefecture-level city" of Shiyan, crossing several of its county-level divisions...

十堰市 Shíyàn Shì Zhangwan District
Zhangwan District
Zhangwan District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Shiyan city....

3,340,843
8 Suizhou
Suizhou
Suizhou , formerly Sui County , is a prefecture-level city in Hubei province of Central China.-Administration:The prefecture-level city of Suizhou administers 2 county-level divisions, including 1 district and 1 county-level city....

随州市 Suízhōu Shì Zengdu District
Zengdu District
Zengdu District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Suizhou city....

2,162,222
9 Xiangyang 襄阳市 Xiāngyang Shì Xiangcheng District 5,500,307
10 Xianning
Xianning
Xianning is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province. It is known as the "City of Osmanthus".-Geography and climate:Xianning is located in southeastern Hubei province, just south of Wuhan, between the southern bank of the Yangtze River in the north and the Mufu Mountains in the south. It...

咸宁市 Xiánníng Shì Xian'an District
Xian'an District
Xian'an District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Xianning.Xian'an District includes Xianning's central urban area and nearby villages.-Sights:At the "Underground Project 131" site, some 15 km southeast of Xianning urban area,...

2,462,583
11 Xiaogan
Xiaogan
Xiaogan is a prefecture-level city in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. Its population is 5,060,000 residents.-Subdivisions:*Xiaonan District *Yingcheng City *Anlu City *Hanchuan City *Xiaochang County...

孝感市 Xiàogǎn Shì Xiaonan District
Xiaonan District
Xiaonan District is a district of Hubei, China. It is under the administration of Xiaogan city....

4,814,542
12 Yichang
Yichang
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in Hubei province after the province capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.-History:In ancient times Yichang...

宜昌市 Yíchāng Shì Xiling District
Xiling District
Xiling District is a district of Yichang, Hubei, China. It includes the central part of Yichang's urban area, on the left bank of the Yangtze River.-External links:*...

4,059,686
Autonomous prefecture
Autonomous prefectures of China
Autonomous prefectures are one type of Autonomous areas of China, existing at the prefectural level. Autonomous prefectures either have over 50% of the population with ethnic minorities or are historically resided by significant minorities. All autonomous prefectures are mostly dominated, in...

 —
13 Enshi (Tujia & Miao)
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
-Demographics:The total area is 24,000 square kilometers, and the population is 3,800,000. 52.6% of the population belong to the Tujia and Miao nations, who -while officially minority nations- are thus a majority here...

恩施土家族苗族自治州 Ēnshī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu Enshi (city)
Enshi City
- Transportation :* Yiwan Railway* China National Highway 209* G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway, which crosses the Qingjiang River near the city over the Qingjiang Bridge.-External links:*...

3,290,294
— Sub-prefecture-level city —
14 Tianmen
Tianmen
Tianmen is a sub-prefecture-level city in central Hubei Province, Central China.It is on the west of Wuhan and east of Jingzhou. Formerly known as Jingling , it was renamed to Tianmen in 1726 during Qing Dynasty....

天门市 Tiānmén Shì Tianmen
Tianmen
Tianmen is a sub-prefecture-level city in central Hubei Province, Central China.It is on the west of Wuhan and east of Jingzhou. Formerly known as Jingling , it was renamed to Tianmen in 1726 during Qing Dynasty....

1,418,913
15 Qianjiang
Qianjiang, Hubei
Qianjiang is a sub-prefecture-level city of south-central Hubei province, Central China.-Geography and climate:Qianjiang is located in south-central Hubei province in the Jiang-Han plain. Its area...

潜江市 Qiánjiāng Shì Qianjiang
Qianjiang, Hubei
Qianjiang is a sub-prefecture-level city of south-central Hubei province, Central China.-Geography and climate:Qianjiang is located in south-central Hubei province in the Jiang-Han plain. Its area...

946,277
16 Xiantao
Xiantao
Xiantao is a sub-prefecture level city in the province of south-east Hubei province, Central China. As of 2005, it had a population of 240,000.-Sports:...

仙桃市 Xiāntáo Shì Xiantao
Xiantao
Xiantao is a sub-prefecture level city in the province of south-east Hubei province, Central China. As of 2005, it had a population of 240,000.-Sports:...

1,175,085
— Forestry district —
17 Shennongjia
Shennongjia
Shennongjia Forestry District is a county-level administrative unit in Hubei province, directly subordinated to the provincial government...

神农架林区 Shénnóngjià Línqū Shennongjia
Shennongjia
Shennongjia Forestry District is a county-level administrative unit in Hubei province, directly subordinated to the provincial government...

76,140


The thirteen prefecture-level divisions and four directly administered county-level divisions of Hubei are subdivided into 102 county-level divisions (38 districts, 24 county-level cities, 37 counties, two autonomous counties, one forestry area; the directly administered county-level divisions are included here). Those are in turn divided into 1234 township-level divisions (737 towns, 215 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 273 subdistrict
Subdistrict
Subdistrict is a low level administrative division of a country. In Thailand it may refer to the King Amphoe or to the Tambon. In England and Wales it was part of a Registration district....

s).

See List of administrative divisions of Hubei for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Politics



Secretaries of the CPC
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

 Hubei Committee:
  1. Li Xiannian
    Li Xianniàn
    Li Xiannian was President of the People's Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference until his death. He was an influential political figure throughout the PRC, having been a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of...

     (李先念): 1949-1954
  2. Wang Renzhong (王任重): 1954-1966
  3. Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1966-1967
  4. Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1970-1973
  5. Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973-1978
  6. Chen Pixian
    Chen Pixian
    -Biography:Chen Pixian was born in Shanghang County, Fujian in 1916. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1931.After the People's Republic of China was founded, Chen was the Secretary of the CPC Shanghai Committee from 1956 to 1960....

     (陈丕显): 1978-1982
  7. Guan Guangfu (关广富): 1983-1994
  8. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1994-2001
  9. Jiang Zhusheng (蒋祝平): 2001
  10. Yu Zhengsheng
    Yu Zhengsheng
    Yu Zhengsheng is the current CPC party chief in Shanghai, China, a post which makes him first-in-charge of China's largest city. Formerly the party chief in Hubei, Yu is also concurrently a member of the Politburo, and has been since 2002.- Early life :...

     (俞正声): 2001-2007
  11. Luo Qingquan
    Luo Qingquan
    Luo Qingquan is a politician of the People's Republic of China, and the current secretary of the Communist Party of China Hubei committee.Born in Jiangling, Hubei, Luo started working in 1968, and joined the CPC in 1975...

     (罗清泉): 2007


Governors of Hubei:
  1. Li Xiannian
    Li Xianniàn
    Li Xiannian was President of the People's Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference until his death. He was an influential political figure throughout the PRC, having been a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of...

     (李先念): 1949-1954
  2. Liu Zihou (刘子厚): 1954-1956
  3. Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1956-1967
  4. Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1968-1973
  5. Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973-1978
  6. Chen Pixian
    Chen Pixian
    -Biography:Chen Pixian was born in Shanghang County, Fujian in 1916. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1931.After the People's Republic of China was founded, Chen was the Secretary of the CPC Shanghai Committee from 1956 to 1960....

     (陈丕显): 1978-1980
  7. Han Ningfu (韩宁夫): 1980-1982
  8. Huang Zhizhen (黄知真): 1982-1986
  9. Guo Zhenqian (郭振乾): 1986-1990
  10. Guo Shuyan (郭树言): 1990-1993
  11. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1993-1995
  12. Jia Zhuping (蒋祝平): 1995-2001
  13. Zhang Guoguang (张国光): 2001-2002
  14. Luo Qingquan
    Luo Qingquan
    Luo Qingquan is a politician of the People's Republic of China, and the current secretary of the Communist Party of China Hubei committee.Born in Jiangling, Hubei, Luo started working in 1968, and joined the CPC in 1975...

     (罗清泉): 2002-2007
  15. Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2007-incumbent (acting)

Economy



Hubei is often called the "Land of Fish and Rice" . Important agricultural products in Hubei include cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

, rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

, wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

, and tea
Tea
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

, while industries include automobiles, metallurgy, machinery, power generation, textiles, foodstuffs and high-tech commodities.

Mineral
Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids and does not...

 resources that can be found in Hubei in significant quantities include borax
Borax
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. It is usually a white powder consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water.Borax has a wide variety of uses...

, hongshiite, wollastonite
Wollastonite
Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium. It is usually white. It forms when impure limestone or dolostone is subjected to high temperature and pressure sometimes in the presence of silica-bearing fluids...

, garnet
Garnet
The garnet group includes a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. The name "garnet" may come from either the Middle English word gernet meaning 'dark red', or the Latin granatus , possibly a reference to the Punica granatum , a plant with red seeds...

, marlstone, iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

, phosphorus
Phosphorus
Phosphorus is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidized state, as inorganic phosphate rocks...

, copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

, gypsum
Gypsum
Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is found in alabaster, a decorative stone used in Ancient Egypt. It is the second softest mineral on the Mohs Hardness Scale...

, rutile
Rutile
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2.Rutile is the most common natural form of TiO2. Two rarer polymorphs of TiO2 are known:...

, rock salt, gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

 amalgam, manganese
Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

 and vanadium
Vanadium
Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery gray, ductile and malleable transition metal. The formation of an oxide layer stabilizes the metal against oxidation. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature...

. The province's recoverable reserves of coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

 stand at 548 million tons, which is modest compared to other Chinese provinces. Hubei is also well known for its mines of fine turquoise and green faustite.
Once completed, the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang, in Hubei province, China...

 in western Hubei will provide plentiful hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy...

, with an estimated annual power production of 84,700 Gwh. Existing hydroelectric stations include Gezhouba
Gezhouba Dam
The Gezhouba Dam or Gezhouba Water Control Project on the Yangtze River is located in the western suburbs of Yichang City in central China's Hubei province. The dam sits a few kilometers upstream from downtown Yichang, just downstream of the fall of the Huangbo River into the Yangtze. Construction...

, Danjiangkou
Danjiangkou
Danjiangkou is a county-level city within the Shiyan "Prefecture-level city" of Hubei Province, China. It has a population of more than 150,000.-Geography:...

, Geheyan, Hanjiang, Duhe, Huanglongtan, Bailianhe, Lushui and Fushui.

Hubei's economy ranks 11th in the country and its nominal GDP for 2010 was 1.58 trillion yuan (233.4 billion USD) and a per capita of 21,566 RMB (2,863 USD). The government of Hubei hopes to keep the GDP growth rate above 10% annually and double per capita GDP by 2020

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Hubei Jingzhou Chengnan Economic Development Zone

Jingzhou Chengnan EDZ was established in 1992 under the approval of Hubei Government. Three major industries include textile, petroleum and chemical processing, with a combined output accounts for 90% of its total output. The zone also enjoys a well-developed transportation network - only 6 km to the airport and 4 km to the railway station.
  • Wuhan
    Wuhan
    Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

     East Lake High-Tech Development Zone

Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Changfei Fiber-optical Cables (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), Fenghuo Telecommunications and Wuhan Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (the largest research institute in optical telecommunications in China). Wuhan ELHTZ also represents the development centre for China's laser industry with key players such as HUST Technologies and Chutian Laser being based in the zone.
  • Wuhan
    Wuhan
    Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

     Economic and Technological Development Zone

Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993. Its current zone size is about 10-25 square km and it plans to expand to 25-50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone include Automobile Production/Assembly, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Food/Beverage Processing, Heavy Industry, Telecommunications Equipment.
  • Wuhan
    Wuhan
    Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

     Export Processing Zone

Wuhan Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan Economic & Technology Development Zone, planned to cover land of 2.7sqkm. The first 0.7sqkm area has been launched.
  • Wuhan
    Wuhan
    Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

     Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park

Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is located in Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone. Wuhan Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd. The planned area is 0.67 sqkm with total floor area of 600,000 square meters. The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km (29.02 mi) away from the Wuhan Tianhe Airport.
  • Xiangyang
    Xiangyang
    Xiangzhou District is a district of Xiangyang, Hubei, China. The district itself was formerly known as Xiangyang. It was a city famous for the Siege of Xiangyang by invading forces of the Mongol-founded Yuan Dynasty...

     New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Demographics


Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 form the dominant ethnic group in Hubei. A considerable Miao
Hmong people
The Hmong , are an Asian ethnic group from the mountainous regions of China, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand. Hmong are also one of the sub-groups of the Miao ethnicity in southern China...

 and Tujia population live in the southwestern part of the province, especially in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
-Demographics:The total area is 24,000 square kilometers, and the population is 3,800,000. 52.6% of the population belong to the Tujia and Miao nations, who -while officially minority nations- are thus a majority here...

.

On October 18, 2009, Chinese officials began to relocate 330,000 residents from the Hubei and Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

 provinces that will be effected by the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han river
Han River (Hanshui)
The Han River is a left tributary of the Yangtze River with a length of 1532 km. Historically it was referred to as Hànshuǐ and the name is still occasionally used today....

. The reservoir is part of the larger South-North Water Transfer Project
South-North Water Transfer Project
The South-North Water Transfer Project is a multi-decade infrastructure project of the People's Republic of China to better utilize water resources available to China. This is to be achieved through the South North Water Diversion Project...

.

Culture



People in Hubei speak Mandarin dialects; most of these dialects are classified as Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin , also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin , is a primary branch of Mandarin Chinese spoken by Han Chinese people throughout many regions of central and southwestern China, such as Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Guizhou, most parts of Hubei, the western part of Hunan, the northern...

 dialects, a group that also encompasses the Mandarin dialects of most of southwestern China.

Perhaps the most celebrated element of Hubei cuisine
Hubei cuisine
Hubei cuisine is derived from the native cooking styles of the Hubei province of China. It emphasizes on how carefully the material is cut, and how the color matches, and specializing in steaming. Hubei cuisine comprises three distinct styles:...

 is the Wuchang fish, a freshwater bream that is commonly steamed.

Types of traditional Chinese opera
Chinese opera
Chinese opera is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back as far as the third century CE...

 popular in Hubei include Hanju and Chuju.

The Shennongjia
Shennongjia
Shennongjia Forestry District is a county-level administrative unit in Hubei province, directly subordinated to the provincial government...

 area is the alleged home of the Yeren
Yeren
The Yeren , variously referred to as the Yiren, Yeh Ren, Chinese Wildman, , or Man-Monkey, , is a legendary creature said to be an as yet undiscovered hominid residing in the remote mountainous forested regions of western Hubei....

, a wild undiscovered hominid
Hominidae
The Hominidae or include them .), as the term is used here, form a taxonomic family, including four extant genera: chimpanzees , gorillas , humans , and orangutans ....

 that lives in the forested hills.

The people of Hubei are given the uncomplimentary nickname "Nine Headed Birds
Nine-headed Bird
The nine-headed bird is one of the earliest forms of the Chinese phoenix, worshiped by ancient natives in Hubei Province, which during the Warring States Period was part of the kingdom of Chu ....

" by other Chinese, from a mythological
Chinese mythology
Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written tradition. These include creation myths and legends and myths concerning the founding of Chinese culture and the Chinese state...

 creature said to be very aggressive and hard to kill. "In the sky live nine-headed birds. On the earth live Hubei people." (天上九头鸟,地上湖北佬)

Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

 is one of the major culture centers in China.

Education


The premier Wuhan University
Wuhan University
Wuhan University is a university located in Wuchang, Hubei, China. It is directly under the administration of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. It is regarded as one of the top ten universities in China, and its history dates back to 1893, making it one of China's...

 (founded in 1893) and many other institutions in Wuhan makes it a hub of higher education and research in China.

Universities



  • Wuhan University
    Wuhan University
    Wuhan University is a university located in Wuchang, Hubei, China. It is directly under the administration of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. It is regarded as one of the top ten universities in China, and its history dates back to 1893, making it one of China's...

  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology
    The Huazhong University of Science and Technology is a public, coeducational research university located in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As a national key university, HUST is directly affiliated to the Ministry of Education of China. HUST has been referred as the flagship of China's higher...

  • Huazhong Agricultural University
    Huazhong Agricultural University
    Huazhong Agricultural University . a.k.a. Central China Agricultural University, HZAU/HAU) is a multi-disciplinary comprehensive university giving priority to agriculture, characterized by life sciences and supplemented by the combination of agriculture, basic sciences, engineering, liberal arts,...

  • Huazhong Normal University
    Huazhong Normal University
    Huazhong Normal University , also known as Central China Normal University , located in Wuhan, China is a university directly under the control of the Chinese Ministry of Education.-External links:*...

  • Hubei University of Technology
    Hubei University of Technology
    The Hubei University of Technology , founded in 1952, is located in Hubei Province's capital-Wuhan. It's a public key multi-discipline university of local province and has 1069 teachers and 18 thousand students....

  • Zhongnan University of Finance and Economics
  • China University of Geosciences
    China University of Geosciences
    The China University of Geosciences is a key national university directly under the administration of the Education Ministry of the People's Republic of China...

  • Wuhan University of Science & technology
  • Tongji Medical University
  • Wuhan University of Hydraulic and Electric Engineering
  • Hubei University
    Hubei University
    The Hubei University , colloquially known in Chinese as Huda was founded in 1931 and is as a key comprehensive university in Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. The University originated in 1931, starting from what was then Hubei Provincial College of Education. Established with approval...

  • Wuhan Technical University of Survey & Mapping
  • Hubei University of Economics
  • Hubei College of Education
  • Wuhan Institute of Medical Sciences
  • University of Hydraulic Electric Engineering(yichang)
  • Wuhan Institute of Chemical Technology
  • Yangtze University
  • South-Central University for Nationalities
  • Hubei Institute of Fine Arts
    Hubei Institute of Fine Arts
    Hubei Institute of Fine Arts is an art college in the People's Republic of China . It is regarded as one of the best and most selective academies of fine arts in China. Its history dates back to 1920, making it the first private art school in modern China...


Transportation



Prior to the construction of China's national railway network, the Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 and Hanshui Rivers had been the main transportation arteries of Hubei for many centuries, and still continue to play an important transport role.

The railway from Beijing
Jingguang Railway
The Beijing–Guangzhou Railway or Jingguang Railway is a major arterial railway in the China that connects Beijing in the north with Guangzhou in the south. This dual-track electrified line has a total length of 2,324 kilometres and spans five provinces through north, central and south China...

 reached Wuhan in 1905, and was later extended to Guangzhou, becoming the first north-to-south railway mainline to cross China. A number of other lines crossed the province later on, including the Beijing-Kowloon line
Jingjiu Railway
The Beijing-Jiujiang-Kowloon Railway, also known as the Beijing-Jiujiang-Kowloon Railway or Jingjiu Railway) is a railway in the China connecting Beijing West Station in Beijing to Shenzhen Station in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province...

, which intersects the easternmost region of the province.

The first decade of the 21st century has seen a large number of new railway construction in Hubei. The Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway
The Wuguang High-Speed Railway , short for Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, Wuhan–Guangzhou Section, is a high-speed rail line, operated by China Railway High-speed , connecting Wuhan and Guangzhou , in the People's Republic of China...

, roughly parallel to the original Wuhan-Guangzhou line, opened in late 2009, and is currently being extended to the north
Shiwu Passenger Railway
Shiwu Passenger Railway is a 840 km high-speed rail line between Shijiazhuang and Wuhan in China under construction since October 2008. It is expected to be put into service by 2012. The total investment is 116.76 billion yuan. The design speed is 350 km/h...

, towards Beijing. A new east-west high-speed corridor connecting major cities along the Yangtze (the Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line
Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line
Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line , is a partially completed high-speed railway corridor in People's Republic of China. The chinese name of the railway line, Huhanrong, is a combination of the abbreviations for Shanghai , Wuhan , and Chengdu , three major cities along the line.The...

) is being constructed as well: the Hefei-Wuhan section, which opened in 2009, has enabled fast service between Wuhan and Shanghai, while the Wuhan-Yuchang
Hanyi Railway
Hanyi Railway , or Hankou-Yichang Railway, is a railway currently being constructed between Hankou and Yichang in the Chinese province of Hubei. It will be a section of the future Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line from Shanghai to Wuhan to Chengdu...

 and Yichang-Wanzhou
Yiwan Railway
The Yichang–Wanzhou Railway, or the Yiwan Railway connects the cities of Yichang and Wanzhou via Lichuan, in the central People's Republic of China. It was completed in 2010, and will be part of the future Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line from Shanghai to Wuhan to Chengdu...

 sections are (as of 2010) under construction.

Hubei's main airport is Wuhan Tianhe International Airport
Wuhan Tianhe International Airport
Wuhan Tianhe International Airport serves Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei Province, China. It was opened on April 15, 1995. The airport is located in Wuhan's suburban Huangpi District, around 26 kilometres to the north of Wuhan city center...

. Yichang Sanxia Airport serves the Three Gorges region. There are also passenger airports in Xiangfan
Xiangfan Airport
Xiangfan Airport is an airport in Xiangfan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China .-Airlines and destinations:...

, Enshi
Enshi Airport
Enshi Xujiaping Airport is an airport in Enshi, Hubei Province, China.-Airlines and destinations:-See also:*List of airports in the People's Republic of China...

, and Jingzhou
Jingzhou
Jingzhou is a prefecture-level city in Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the banks of the Yangtze River.Its population is 5,691,707 at the 2010 census whom 1,154,086 in the built up area made of 3 urban districts.-Geography:Jingzhou occupies an area of...

 (Shashi Airport, named after the city's Shashi District
Shashi District
Shashi District is a district within the main urban area of the Jingzhou Prefecture-level City, Hubei Province, China. It is located on the left bank of the Yangtze River, between Yichang and Wuhan...

).

Tourism


The province's most famous natural attraction (shared with the adjacent Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

 Municipality) is the scenic area of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze. Located in the far west of the province, the gorges can be conveniently visited by one of the numerous tourist boats (or a regular passenger boats) that travel up the Yangtze from Yichang
Yichang
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in Hubei province after the province capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.-History:In ancient times Yichang...

 through the Three Gorges and into the neighboring Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

 municipality.

The mountains of western Hubei
Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains, or Dabashan is a mountain range in Central China, north of the Yangtze River.-Geography:The Daba Mountains run in the general west-northwest to east-southeast direction, along the border between, on the one side Sichuan and Chongqing, and on the other side Shaanxi and Hubei...

, in particular in Shennongjia
Shennongjia
Shennongjia Forestry District is a county-level administrative unit in Hubei province, directly subordinated to the provincial government...

 District, offer a welcome respite from Wuhan's and Yichang's summer heat, as well as skiing opportunities in winter. The tourist facilities in that area concentrate around Muyu
Muyu, Hubei
Muyu is a town in Shennongjia Forestry District, Hubei Province, China. Located on China National Highway 209, it is the main population and services center of the southern part of the district....

 in the southern part of Shennongjia, the gateway to Shennongjia National Nature Reserve (神农架国家自然保护区). Closer to the provincial capital, Wuhan, is the Mount Jiugong (Jiugongshan) national park, in Tongshan County
Tongshan County, Hubei
Tongshan is a county within the Municipality of Xianning, Hubei Province of China. The county is located along Hubei's mountainous south-eastern border with Jiangxi...

 near the border with Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

.

A particular important site of both natural and cultural significance is Mount Wudang (Wudangshan) in the northwest of the province. Originally created early in the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

, its building complex has been listed by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 since 1994 as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

.

Other historic attractions in Hubei include:
  • The old Jingzhou
    Jingzhou
    Jingzhou is a prefecture-level city in Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the banks of the Yangtze River.Its population is 5,691,707 at the 2010 census whom 1,154,086 in the built up area made of 3 urban districts.-Geography:Jingzhou occupies an area of...

     City
  • The Xianling Mausoleum, built by the Ming Dynasty
    Ming Dynasty
    The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

     Jiajing Emperor
    Jiajing Emperor
    The Jiajing Emperor was the 11th Ming Dynasty Emperor of China who ruled from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin...

     for his parents at their fief near Zhongxiang
    Zhongxiang
    Zhongxiang is a county-level city of Jingmen, central Hubei province, Central China. Zhongxiang means "Blessed with propitious omen", which was gifted by Emperor Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty. Zhongxiang is a well-known historical and cultural city in China....

    .
  • The Yellow Crane Tower
    Yellow Crane Tower
    Yellow Crane Tower is a famous and historic tower, first built in the year 223 AD, the current structure however, was rebuilt in 1981. The tower stands on Sheshan , at the bank of Yangtze River in Wuchang District, Wuhan, in Hubei province of central China.-History:- Legend :There are at least two...

     in Wuhan
    Wuhan
    Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

  • The Hubei Provincial Museum
    Hubei Provincial Museum
    Hubei Provincial Museum is one of the best-known museums in China, with a large amount of State-level historic and cultural relics. Established in 1953, the museum moved to its present location in 1960 and gained its present name in 1963...

     in Wuhan, with extensive archaeological and cultural exhibits and performance presentations of ancient music and dance. This is one of the best places to learn about the ancient state of Chu, which flourished on the territory of present-day Hubei during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty which developed its own unique culture, quite distinct from that of the Shang
    Shang Dynasty
    The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty was, according to traditional sources, the second Chinese dynasty, after the Xia. They ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as "China proper" in the Yellow River valley...

    /Zhou
    Zhou Dynasty
    The Zhou Dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as...

     civilization of the northern China.


The province also has historical sites connected with China's more recent history, such as the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

 Memorial in Wuhan, Project 131
Underground Project 131
Underground Project 131 is a system of tunnels in China's Hubei province constructed in the late 1960s and the early 1970s to accommodate the Chinese military command headquarters in case of a nuclear war...

 site (a Cultural-Revolution-era underground military command center) in Xianning
Xianning
Xianning is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province. It is known as the "City of Osmanthus".-Geography and climate:Xianning is located in southeastern Hubei province, just south of Wuhan, between the southern bank of the Yangtze River in the north and the Mufu Mountains in the south. It...

, and the National Mining Park (国家矿山公园) in Huangshi
Huangshi
Huangshi is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province.-Geography and climate:The prefecture-level city of Huangshi is located in southeastern Hubei province, along the southwestern bank of one of the major bends in the Yangtze River. It is located 100 km south-east of Wuhan, and...

.

Sport



Professional sports teams in Hubei include:
  • Chinese Football Association Super League
  • Wuhan Huanghelou

Twinning


In 2005, Hubei province signed a twinning agreement with Telemark
Telemark
is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder. The county administration is in Skien. Until 1919 the county was known as Bratsberg amt.-Location:...

 county of Norway. A "Norway-Hubei Week" was held in 2007.

External links