Zürich

Zürich

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Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 and the capital of the canton of Zurich
Canton of Zürich
The Canton of Zurich has a population of . The canton is located in the northeast of Switzerland and the city of Zurich is its capital. The official language is German, but people speak the local Swiss German dialect called Züritüütsch...

. It is located in central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zurich. It is also known as Lake Zürich and Lake of Zürich. It lies approximately at co-ordinates ....

. While the municipality itself has approximately 380,500 inhabitants, the Zurich metropolitan area is an urbanised area of international importance constituted by a population of nearly 2 million inhabitants. Zurich is a mixed hub for railways, roads, and air traffic. Both Zurich Airport and railway station are the largest and busiest in the country.

Permanently settled for around 7,000 years, the history of Zurich goes back to its founding by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. During the Middle Ages Zurich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, was the place of origin and centre of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

 in German-speaking Switzerland, led by Ulrich Zwingli.

Zurich is a leading global city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 and among the world's largest financial centres. The city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking giants. Also, most of the research and development centres are concentrated in Zurich and the low rate of tax attracts overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zurich was named the city with the best quality of life
World's Most Livable Cities
The world's most liveable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on a reputable annual survey of living conditions. Two examples are the Mercer Quality of Living Survey and The Economists World's Most Livable Cities .Liveability rankings are designed for use by...

 in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe.

An impressive number of museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum
Swiss National Museum
The Swiss National Museum — part of the Musée Suisse Group, itself affiliated with the Federal Office of Culture — is one of the most important art museums of cultural history in Europe and the world...

 and the Kunsthaus
Kunsthaus Zürich
The Kunsthaus Zürich houses one of the most important art museums in Switzerland and Europe, collected by the local Kunstverein, called Zürcher Kunstgesellschaft, and holdings running from the Middle Ages to contemporary art, with an emphasis on Swiss art.Kunsthaus is also the name of the tram stop...

. Zurich also hosts one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world.

Name


The Swiss standard German
Swiss Standard German
Swiss Standard German, referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh...

 pronunciation of the name is ˈtsyːrɪç. In Zurich German
Zürich German
Zürich German, or Züritüütsch is the High Alemannic dialect spoken in the Canton of Zürich, Switzerland.It is divided in six sub-dialects, covering the entire Canton with the exception of the parts north of the Thur and the Rhine....

 without the final consonant, Züri [ˈtsyɾi], although the adjective remains Zürcher [ˈtsyrxər].
The city is called Zurich zyʁik in French, Zurigo dzuˈriːɡo in Italian, and Turitg [tuˈritɕ] in Romansh.

In English, the name is usually written Zurich, without the umlaut
Umlaut (diacritic)
The diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics that consist of two dots placed over a letter, most commonly a vowel. When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï....

. It is pronounced ˈzjʊərɪk or ˈzʊərɪk ; more recently sometimes also with /ts/ as in German.

The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA(tio) TURICEN(sis) ("Turicum tax post"). Neither the name's linguistic origin (most likely Rhaetic
Raetic language
Raetic is an extinct language spoken in the ancient region of Raetia in the Eastern Alps in pre-Roman and Roman times. It is documented by a limited number of short inscriptions in two variants of the Etruscan alphabet...

 or Celtic
Celtic languages
The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family...

) nor its meaning can be determined with certainty. A possibility is derivation from *Turīcon, from the Gaulish personal name Tūros. The stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, [tuˈriːkon], was lost in German [ˈtsyːʁɪç] but is preserved in Italian Zurigo [dzuˈriːɡo].

A first development towards its later, Germanic
Germanic languages
The Germanic languages constitute a sub-branch of the Indo-European language family. The common ancestor of all of the languages in this branch is called Proto-Germanic , which was spoken in approximately the mid-1st millennium BC in Iron Age northern Europe...

 form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 10th century onward, the name has more or less clearly been established as Zürich (Zurih (857), Zurich (924)).

Zurich is sometimes referred to as "Downtown Switzerland" for publicity reasons.

Early history



Settlements of the Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

 were found around Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zurich. It is also known as Lake Zürich and Lake of Zürich. It lies approximately at co-ordinates ....

. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène
La Tène culture
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where a rich cache of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857....

 settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof hill
Lindenhof hill
The Lindenhof hill is a moraine hill and a public square in the historic center of Zurich, Switzerland.- Topography :Lindenhof hill dominates Lindenhof quarter in the district 1 , the historical center of Zurich's Altstadt. To the North, it ends at Uraniastrasse and to the South near St. Peter...

. In Roman times
Roman Gaul
Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in the Roman Empire, in modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. Roman control of the area lasted for less than 500 years....

, Turicum was a tax-collecting point at the border of Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. The indigenous population of Gallia Belgica, the Belgae, consisted of a mixture of Celtic and Germanic tribes...

 (from AD 90 Germania superior
Germania Superior
Germania Superior , so called for the reason that it lay upstream of Germania Inferior, was a province of the Roman Empire. It comprised an area of western Switzerland, the French Jura and Alsace regions, and southwestern Germany...

) and Raetia
Raetia
Raetia was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian people. It was bounded on the west by the country of the Helvetii, on the east by Noricum, on the north by Vindelicia, on the west by Cisalpine Gaul and on south by Venetia et Histria...

 for goods trafficked on the Limmat
Limmat
The Limmat is a river in Switzerland. It is the continuation of the Linth river, known as Limmat from the point of effluence from Lake Zurich, in the city of Zurich. From Zurich it flows in a northwesterly direction, after 35 km reaching the river Aare...

 river. After Emperor Constantine’s reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy (two of the four praetorian prefectures of the Roman Empire) was located east of Turicum, crossing the Linth River between Lake Walen
Lake Walen
Walensee is one of the larger lakes in Switzerland, for about 2/3 of its surface in the Canton of St. Gallen and for 1/3 in the Canton of Glarus. It is also known as Lake Walen or Lake Walenstadt, after Walenstadt. Other towns and villages at the lake include: Weesen, Quinten, Quarten, and Murg.The...

 and Lake Zurich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum’s safety. The earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it, discovered at the Lindenhof.

In the 5th century, the Germanic Alamanni tribe settled in the Swiss plateau
Swiss plateau
The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau constitutes one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura mountains and the Swiss Alps. It covers about 30% of the Swiss surface...

. The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian
Carolingian
The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name "Carolingian", Medieval Latin karolingi, an altered form of an unattested Old High German *karling, kerling The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the...

 castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...

, Louis the German
Louis the German
Louis the German , also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian, was a grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.He received the appellation 'Germanicus' shortly after his death in recognition of the fact...

, is mentioned in 835 (in castro Turicino iuxta fluvium Lindemaci). Louis also founded the Fraumünster
Fraumünster
The Fraumünster abbey in Zurich was founded in 853 by Louis the German for his daughter Hildegard. He endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zurich, Uri, and the Albis forest, and granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority.- History :In 1045, King Henry III...

 abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard. He endowed the Benedictine
Benedictine
Benedictine refers to the spirituality and consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century for the cenobitic communities he founded in central Italy. The most notable of these is Monte Cassino, the first monastery founded by Benedict...

 convent with the lands of Zurich, Uri
Canton of Uri
Uri is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and a founding member of the Swiss Confederation. It is located in Central Switzerland. The canton's territory covers the valley of the Reuss River between Lake Lucerne and the St. Gotthard Pass. German is the primary language spoken in Uri...

, and the Albis
Albis
The Albis is a chain of hills in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, stretching for some 19 km from Sihlbrugg in the south to Waldegg near Zurich in the north. The chain forms, among others, the border between the Affoltern and Horgen districts. The best known point is Uetliberg at 870 m,...

 forest, and granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III
Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III , called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors...

 granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, and mint coins, and thus effectively made the abbess the ruler of the city.

Zurich became reichsunmittelbar in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall
Defensive wall
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city or settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements...

 was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses at the Rennweg were built as well. The Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had started to fall into ruin.

Emperor Frederick II
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II , was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous...

 promoted the abbess of the Fraumünster to the rank of a duchess in 1234. The abbess nominated the mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

, and she frequently delegated the minting of coins to citizens of the city. The political power
Political power
Political power is a type of power held by a group in a society which allows administration of some or all of public resources, including labour, and wealth. There are many ways to obtain possession of such power. At the nation-state level political legitimacy for political power is held by the...

 of the convent slowly waned in the 14th century, beginning with the establishment of the Zunftordnung (guild
Zünfte of Zürich
There are fourteen historical Zünfte of Zurich, under the system established in 1336 with the "guild revolution" of Rudolf Brun...

 laws) in 1336 by Rudolf Brun
Rudolf Brun
Rudolf Brun was the leader of the Zürich guilds' revolution of 1336, and the city's first independent mayor....

, who also became the first independent mayor, i.e. not nominated by the abbess.

An important event in the early 14th Century was the completion of the Manesse Codex, a key source of medieval German poetry. The famous illuminated manuscript
Illuminated manuscript
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders and miniature illustrations...

 – described as "the most beautifully illumined German manuscript in centuries;" – was commissioned by the Manesse family of Zurich, copied and illustrated in the city at some time between 1304 and 1340. Producing such a work was a highly expensive prestige project, requiring several years work by highly skilled scribes and miniature painters, and it clearly testifies to the increasing wealth and pride of Zurich citizens in this period.

Old Swiss Confederacy



On May 1, 1351, the citizens of Zurich had to swear allegiance before representatives of the cantons of Lucerne
Canton of Lucerne
Lucerne is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the centre of Switzerland. The population of the canton is . , the population included 57,268 foreigners, or about 15.8% of the total population. The cantonal capital is Lucerne.-History:...

, Schwyz
Canton of Schwyz
Schwyz is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne in the east and Lake Zurich in the north, centered around and named after the town of Schwyz....

, Uri and Unterwalden
Unterwalden
Unterwalden is the old name of a forest-canton of the Old Swiss Confederacy in central Switzerland, south of Lake Lucerne, consisting of two valleys or Talschaften, now organized as two half-cantons, an upper part, Obwalden, and a lower part, Nidwalden.Unterwalden was one of the three participants...

, the other members of the Swiss Confederacy
Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy was the precursor of modern-day Switzerland....

. Thus, Zurich became the fifth member of the Confederacy, which was at that time a loose confederation of de facto independent states
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the federal state of Switzerland. Each canton was a fully sovereign state with its own borders, army and currency from the Treaty of Westphalia until the establishment of the Swiss federal state in 1848...

. Zurich was the presiding canton of the Diet from 1468 to 1519. This authority was the executive council and lawmaking body of the confederacy, from the Middle Ages until the establishment of the Swiss federal state
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 in 1848. Zurich was temporarily expelled from the confederacy in 1440 due to a war with the other member states over the territory of Toggenburg
Toggenburg
Toggenburg is the name given to the upper valley of the Thur River, in the Swiss Canton of St. Gallen. Currently, it is one of the eight constituencies into which the canton is divided....

 (the Old Zurich War
Old Zürich War
The Old Zürich War , 1440–46, was a conflict between the canton of Zürich and the other seven cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy over the succession to the Count of Toggenburg....

). Neither side had attained significant victory when peace was agreed upon in 1446, and Zurich was re-admitted to the confederation in 1450.


Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism...

 started the Swiss Reformation at the time when he was the main preacher in the 1520s, at the Grossmünster
Grossmünster
The Grossmünster is a Romanesque-style church in Zurich, Switzerland. It is one of the three major churches in the city . The core of the present building near the banks of the Limmat River was constructed on the site of a Carolingian church, which was, according to legend, originally commissioned...

. He lived there from 1484 until his death in 1531. The Zurich Bible
Zürich Bible
The Zürich Bible is a Bible translation historically based on the translation by Huldrych Zwingli. Recent editions have the stated aim of maximal philological exactitude.-Froschau Bible:...

, based on that of Zwingli, was issued in 1531. The Reformation resulted in major changes in state matters and civil life in Zurich, spreading also to a number of other cantons. Several cantons remained Catholic and became the basis of serious conflicts that eventually led to the outbreak of the Wars of Kappel
Wars of Kappel
The wars of Kappel were two armed conflicts fought near Kappel am Albis between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy during the reformation in Switzerland.*First war of Kappel...

.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Council of Zurich adopted an isolationist attitude, resulting in a second ring of imposing fortifications built in 1624. The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

 which raged across Europe motivated the city to build these walls. The fortifications required a lot of resources, which were taken from subject territories without reaching any agreement. The following revolts were crushed brutally. In 1648, Zurich proclaimed itself a republic, shedding its former status of a free imperial city.


The Helvetic Revolution
Helvetic Republic
In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then consisted mainly of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance, and conquered territories such as Vaud...

 of 1798 saw the fall of the Ancien Régime. Zurich lost control of the land and its economic privileges, and the city and the canton separated their possessions between 1803–1805. In 1839, the city had to yield to the demands of its urban subjects, following the Züriputsch
Züriputsch
The Züriputsch of 6 September 1839 was a putsch of the rural conservative population against the liberal rule of the city of Zürich on the eve of the formation of the Swiss federal state. The reason for the putsch was the appointment of the controversial German theologian David Strauss to the...

 of 6 September. Most of the ramparts built in the 17th century were torn down, without ever having been besieged, to allay rural concerns over the city's hegemony
Hegemony
Hegemony is an indirect form of imperial dominance in which the hegemon rules sub-ordinate states by the implied means of power rather than direct military force. In Ancient Greece , hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states...

. The Treaty of Zurich
Treaty of Zurich
The Treaty of Zurich was signed by the Austrian Empire, the French Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia on November 10, 1859. The agreement was a reaffirmation of the terms of the preliminary peace of Villafranca, which brought the Austro-Sardinian War to an official close...

 between Austria, France, and Sardinia was signed in 1859.

Modern history



Zurich was the Federal capital for 1839–40, and consequently the victory of the Conservative party there in 1839 caused a great stir throughout Switzerland. But when in 1845 the Radicals regained power at Zurich, which was again the Federal capital for 1845–46, Zurich took the lead in opposing the Sonderbund
Sonderbund
The Sonderbund War of November 1847 was a civil war in Switzerland. It ensued after seven Catholic cantons formed the Sonderbund in 1845 in order to protect their interests against a centralization of power...

 cantons. Following the Sonderbund war and the formation of the Swiss Federal State, Zurich voted in favour of the Federal constitutions of 1848 and of 1874. The enormous immigration from the country districts into the town from the "thirties" onwards created an industrial class which, though "settled" in the town, did not possess the privileges of burghership, and consequently had no share in the municipal government. First of all in 1860 the town schools, hitherto open to "settlers" only on paying high fees, were made accessible to all, next in 1875 ten years' residence ipso facto conferred the right of burghership, while in 1893 the eleven outlying districts were incorporated with the town proper

Extensive developments took place during the 19th century. From 1847, the Spanisch-Brötli-Bahn, the first railway on Swiss territory, connected Zurich with Baden
Baden, Switzerland
Baden is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Aargau, on the west bank of the river Limmat, located in the Limmat Valley , northwest of Zürich. It is the seat of the district of Baden...

, putting the Zürich Hauptbahnhof at the origin of the Swiss rail
SBB-CFF-FFS
Swiss Federal Railways and SFR are not in official use) is the national railway company of Switzerland headquartered in Bern. Formerly a government institution, it is since 1999 a special stock corporation with all shares held by the Swiss Confederation or the Swiss cantons...

 network. The present building of the Hauptbahnhof (the main railway station) dates to 1871. Zurich’s Bahnhofstrasse (Station Street) was laid out in 1867, and the Zurich Stock Exchange was founded in 1877. Industrialisation led to migration into the cities and to rapid population growth, particularly in the suburbs of Zurich.

Zurich was accidentally bombed
Bombings of Switzerland in World War II
Bombings of Switzerland in World War II consisted of initially sporadic bombing events that became more frequent during the later stage of World War II....

 during World War II.

Coat of arms


The blue and white coat of arms
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer. Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth...

 of Zurich is attested from 1389, and was derived from banners with blue and white stripes in use since 1315 . The first certain testimony of banners with the same design is from 1434. The coat of arms is flanked by two lions.
The red Schwenkel on top of the banner had varying interpretations: For the people of Zurich, it was a mark of honour, granted by Rudolph I
Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolph I was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburg dynasty to a leading position among the Imperial feudal dynasties...

. Zurich's neighbours mocked it as a sign of shame, commemorating the loss of the banner at Winterthur
Winterthur
Winterthur is a city in the canton of Zurich in northern Switzerland. It has the country's sixth largest population with an estimate of more than 100,000 people. In the local dialect and by its inhabitants, it is usually abbreviated to Winti...

 in 1292.

Today, the Canton of Zurich uses the same coat of arms as the city.

Government



The City Council (Stadtrat) constitutes the executive
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

 government of the City of Zurich and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of nine councilors, each presiding over a department. The president of the executive department acts as mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

. Current city president is Corine Mauch
Corine Mauch
Corine Mauch is a Swiss Social Democrat politician who serves as mayor of Zürich. She is the first female and first openly gay person to be elected mayor of the city....

. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the City Parliament are carried by the City Council. The election of the City Council by registered voters is held every four years. The executive body holds its meetings in the City Hall, on the bank of the Limmat. The building was built in 1883 in Renaissance style.

On the other hand, the City Parliament (Gemeinderat) holds the legislative power. It is made up of 125 members, with elections also held every four years. The City Parliament decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the City Council and the administration. The sessions of the City Parliament are public. Unlike the member of the City Council, the members of the City Parliament are not politicians by profession, but they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Zurich allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Parliament. The legislative body holds its meetings in the Town Hall
Zürich town hall
The Zurich town hall is the Rathaus of Zurich, Switzerland.- History :It was built in 1694-1698. It served as the seat of government of the Republic of Zurich until 1798...

, opposite to the City Hall.

As of 2010, the Zurich City Council is made up of four representatives of the SDP (Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland is the largest centre-left political party in Switzerland....

, one of whom is the mayor), two members of the FDP (Free Democratic Party
Free Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Free Democratic Party was a classical liberal political party in Switzerland. It was one of the major parties in Switzerland until its merger with the smaller classical liberal Liberal Party, to form FDP.The Liberals on 1 January 2009....

), two members of the Green Party
Green Party of Switzerland
The Green Party of Switzerland is the fifth-largest party in the National Council of Switzerland, and the largest party that is not represented on the Federal Council.-History:...

 and one member of the CVP (Christian Democratic Party
Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland
The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland is a Christian democratic political party in Switzerland. It is the fourth-largest party in the National Council, with 31 seats, and the largest in the Council of States, with 15 seats. It has one seat, that of Doris Leuthard, on the Swiss...

).

Geography



Zurich is situated at 408 metres (1,338.6 ft) above sea level on the lower (northern) end of Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zurich. It is also known as Lake Zürich and Lake of Zürich. It lies approximately at co-ordinates ....

 (Zürichsee) about 30 kilometres (18.6 mi) north of the Alps
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

, nestling between the wooded hills on the west and east side. The Old Town stretches on both sides of the Limmat
Limmat
The Limmat is a river in Switzerland. It is the continuation of the Linth river, known as Limmat from the point of effluence from Lake Zurich, in the city of Zurich. From Zurich it flows in a northwesterly direction, after 35 km reaching the river Aare...

 river, which flows from the lake, running northwards at first and then gradually turning into a curve to the west. The geographic (and historic) centre of the city is the Lindenhof
Lindenhof hill
The Lindenhof hill is a moraine hill and a public square in the historic center of Zurich, Switzerland.- Topography :Lindenhof hill dominates Lindenhof quarter in the district 1 , the historical center of Zurich's Altstadt. To the North, it ends at Uraniastrasse and to the South near St. Peter...

, a small natural hill on the west bank of the Limmat, about 700 metres (2,296.6 ft) north of where the river issues from Lake Zurich. Today the incorporated city stretches somewhat beyond the natural hydrographic confines of the hills and includes some neighbourhoods to the northeast in the Glatt Valley
Glatt Valley
The Glatt Valley is a region and a river valley in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.- Geography :The River Glatt is a tributary of the River Rhine in the Zürcher Unterland area of the Canton of Zurich...

 (German: Glattal) and to the north in the Limmat Valley
Limmat Valley
The Limmat Valley is a river valley and a region in the cantons of Zürich and Aargau in Switzerland.- Geography :Limmat is the name of a long river located in the cantons of Zürich and Aargau...

 (German: Limmattal). The boundaries of the older city are easy to recognize by the Schanzengraben canal. This artificial watercourses has been used for the construction of the third fortress
Fortifications of Zürich
Zurich was an independent city or city-state from 1218 to 1798. The town was fortified with a city wall from the 13th to the 17th century, and with more elaborate ramparts constructed in the 17th to 18th century and mostly demolished in the 1830s to 1870s.-First wall:There had been a first city...

 in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Topography


The municipality of Zurich has an area of 91.88 square kilometres (35.5 sq mi), of which 4.1 km² (1.6 sq mi) is made up of Lake Zurich. The area includes a section of the northern Swiss Plateau
Swiss plateau
The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau constitutes one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura mountains and the Swiss Alps. It covers about 30% of the Swiss surface...

. The banks of the Limmat constitute the densest part of the city. The river is oriented in the southeast-northwest direction, with the flat valley floor having a width of two to three kilometres. The partially channelled and straightened Limmat does not flow in the central part of the valley, but always along its right (northeastern) side. The river Sihl
Sihl
The Sihl is a river of Switzerland. It rises at Drusberg in the Canton of Schwyz. It passes through the Sihlsee near Einsiedeln, and then enters the Canton of Zurich, flowing through the Sihl valley at the foot of the Albis, passing the Sihlwald, the largest remaining deciduous forest of the Swiss...

 meets with the Limmat at the end of Platzspitz, which borders the Swiss National Museum
Swiss National Museum
The Swiss National Museum — part of the Musée Suisse Group, itself affiliated with the Federal Office of Culture — is one of the most important art museums of cultural history in Europe and the world...

. The Limmat reaches the lowest point of the municipality in Oberengstringen
Oberengstringen
Oberengstringen is a municipality in the district of Dietikon in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland, located in the Limmat Valley .-History:...

 at 392 m (1,286.1 ft) above sea level.

On its west side the Limmat valley is flanked by the wooded heights of the Albis
Albis
The Albis is a chain of hills in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, stretching for some 19 km from Sihlbrugg in the south to Waldegg near Zurich in the north. The chain forms, among others, the border between the Affoltern and Horgen districts. The best known point is Uetliberg at 870 m,...

 chain, which runs along the western border. The Üetliberg
Uetliberg
The Üetliberg is a mountain in the Swiss plateau, part of the Albis chain, rising to 873 m . The Uetliberg offers a panoramic view of the entire city of Zurich and the Lake of Zurich. There is also a hotel in the name of "Uto Kulm" on this small mountain...

 is, with 869 m (2,851 ft) above sea level, the highest elevation of the surrounding area. Its summit can be reached easily by the Uetlibergbahn. From the platform of the observation tower on the summit, an impressive panorama of the city, the lake and the Alps can be seen.

The northeast side of the Limmat valley includes a range of hills, which marks the watershed between the Limmat and the Glatt. From the northwest to the southeast, the height of the mostly wooded knolls increases: the Gubrist (615 m (2,017.7 ft)), the Hönggerberg (541 m (1,774.9 ft)), the Käferberg
Käferberg
Käferberg and Waidberg are the summits of a wooded mountain respectively chain of hills overlooking the inner city of Zurich, Lake Zurich, Albis chain and Uetliberg, as well as the Limmat Valley and the Zürcher Unterland in Switzerland....

 (571 m (1,873.4 ft)), the Zürichberg
Zürichberg
The Zürichberg is a wooded hill rising to 679 metres , overlooking Lake Zurich and located immediately to the east of the City of Zurich in Switzerland, between the valleys of the Limmat and the Glatt rivers...

 (676 m (2,217.8 ft)) and the Adlisberg
Adlisberg
Adlisberg is a wooded mountain overlooking the Zürichsee , neighboored in the northwest by the Zürichberg.- Geography :Adlisberg mountain is located to the east of the city of Zürich, between the Glatt river valley and Lake Zürich. Its highest point is about above the Lake Zürich...

 (701 m (2,299.9 ft)). Between the Käferberg and the Zürichberg is located the saddle of the Milchbuck (about 470 m (1,542 ft)), an important passage from the Limmat valley to the Glatt valley.

The northernmost part of the municipality extends to the plain of the Glatt valley and to the saddle which makes the connection between the Glattal and Furttal. Also a part of the Katzensee
Katzensee
Katzensee is a lake on the border of the city of Zurich and Regensdorf in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Its surface area is 0.36 km²....

 (nature reserve) and the Büsisee, both of which are drained by the Katzenbach to Glatt, belong to the city.

Climate


Zurich has, depending on the definition used, an oceanic
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 or humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfb/Dfb), with four distinct seasons. Decisive for the climate of Zurich are both the winds from westerly directions, which often result in precipitation and, on the other hand, the Bise
Bise
-Switzerland:In Switzerland the bise blows from the north-east, above all during the winter months, and is due to a high-pressure cell north-west of Switzerland. The effects of the bise are strongest in Geneva, situated in a narrow passage between the Jura mountains in the West and the Alps in the...

 (east or north-east wind), which is usually associated with high-pressure situations, but cooler weather phases with temperatures lower than the average. The Foehn wind, which plays an important role in the northern alpine valleys, has a limited impact on Zurich.

The annual mean temperature at the measuring station of the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology
MeteoSwiss
MeteoSwiss , officially the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, is an office of the federal administration of Switzerland. It employs 290 people at locations in Zurich, Zurich Airport, Geneva, Locarno and Payerne....

 in Zurich (556 m (1,824.1 ft) above sea level on the slope of the Zürichberg, 150 m (492.1 ft) above the level of the city centre) is 8.5 °C (47.3 °F). The coldest month mean temperatures are measured in January with -0.5 C and the warmest are measured in July with 17.6 °C (63.7 °F). On average there are 88 days in which the minimum temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), and 26 days in which the maximum temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F). There are on average 30 summer days (above 25 °C (77 °F)) throughout the year, while hot days (with a temperature reaching 30 °C (86 °F)) are only three. The average high temperature in July are 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) and low temperature are 11.6 °C (52.9 °F). Spring and autumn are generally cool to mild. These values are relatively low compared to other stations on the plateau but they can be explained by the altitude of the station. In the Limmat valley more summer days and hot days can be expected. Zurich has an average of 1,482 hours of sunshine per year. The 1136 millimetres (44.7 in) rainfall spread throughout the year. During the warmer half of the year and especially the three summer months, levels of rainfall are higher than those measured in winter. The meteorological station at Kloten
Kloten
-External links:* -References:...

 gives an average precipitation of 1031 millimetres (40.6 in).

Climate protection


The city of Zurich is among the world-leaders in protecting the climate by following a manifold approach. In November 2008 the people of Zurich voted in a public referendum
Referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of...

 to write into law the quantifiable and fixed deadline of one tonne of CO2 per person per annum by 2050
2000-watt society
The 2000-watt society is a vision, originated by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich at the end of 1998, in which each person in the developed world would cut their over-all rate of energy use to an average of no more than 2,000 watts The 2000-watt society (2,000-Watt Society) is a...

. This forces any decision of the executive to support this goal, even if the costs are higher in all dimensions. Some examples are the new disinfection section of the public city hospital in Triemli (Minergie-P
Minergie
MINERGIE is a registered quality label for new and refurbished low-energy-consumption buildings. This label is mutually supported by the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss Cantons and the Principality of Liechtenstein along with Trade and Industry. The label is registered in Switzerland and around the...

 quality – passive house
Passive house
The term passive house refers to the rigorous, voluntary, Passivhaus standard for energy efficiency in a building, reducing its ecological footprint. It results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling. A similar standard, MINERGIE-P, is used in...

), the continued optimisation and creation of public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

ation, enlargement of the bicycle-only network, research and projects for renewable energy
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable . About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from...

 and enclosure of speed-ways.

Urban area


The areas surrounding the Limmat are almost completely built over (residential, industrial areas, commercial zones). Also densely built, the sun-exposed and preferred residential locations on the hills overlooking Zurich, Waidberg and Zürichberg and the bottom section of the slope on the western side of the valley on the Üetliberg.

The green lungs of the city include the vast forest areas of Adlisberg, Zürichberg, Käferberg, Hönggerberg and Üetliberg. Major parks are also located along the lakeshore (Zurichhorn and Enge). Furthermore, the cultivated area through parks and gardens is loosened. Larger contiguous agricultural lands are located near Affoltern
Affoltern am Albis
Affoltern am Albis is a municipality in the district of Affoltern in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.It is the smallest city of Switzerland. In Switzerland a city is defined as having at least 10,000 inhabitants.-Geography:...

 and Seebach
Seebach (Zürich)
Seebach is a quarter in the district 11 of Zurich, located in the Glatt Valley .It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1934....

. Of the total area of the municipality of Zurich (in 1996, without the lake), 45.4% are settlements, industry and commerce, 15.5% are transports, 26.5% are forests, 11%: is agriculture and 1.2% is water.

City districts



The previous boundaries of the city of Zurich (before 1893) were more or less synonymous with the location of the old town. Two large expansions of the city limits occurred in 1893 and in 1934 when the city of Zurich merged with many surrounding municipalities, that had been growing increasingly together since the 19th century. Today, the city is divided into twelve districts (known as Kreis in German), numbered 1 to 12, each one of which may contain anywhere between 1 and 4 neighborhoods:
  • District 1
    Altstadt (Zürich)
    Altstadt in the Swiss city of Zürich encompasses the area of the entire historical city before 1893, before the incorporation of what are now districts 2 to 12 into the municipality, over the period 1893 to 1934...

    , known as Altstadt, contains the old town, both to the east and west of the start of the Limmat
    Limmat
    The Limmat is a river in Switzerland. It is the continuation of the Linth river, known as Limmat from the point of effluence from Lake Zurich, in the city of Zurich. From Zurich it flows in a northwesterly direction, after 35 km reaching the river Aare...

     river.
  • District 2
    District 2 (Zürich)
    District 2 is a district on the western side of Lake Zurich in the Swiss city of Zurich.The district comprises the quarters Wollishofen, Leimbach and Enge.-References:...

     lies along the west side of Lake Zurich
    Lake Zurich
    Lake Zurich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zurich. It is also known as Lake Zürich and Lake of Zürich. It lies approximately at co-ordinates ....

    , and contains the neighbourhoods of Enge, Wollishofen and Leimbach.
  • District 3, known as Wiedikon is between the Sihl
    Sihl
    The Sihl is a river of Switzerland. It rises at Drusberg in the Canton of Schwyz. It passes through the Sihlsee near Einsiedeln, and then enters the Canton of Zurich, flowing through the Sihl valley at the foot of the Albis, passing the Sihlwald, the largest remaining deciduous forest of the Swiss...

     river and the Üetliberg
    Uetliberg
    The Üetliberg is a mountain in the Swiss plateau, part of the Albis chain, rising to 873 m . The Uetliberg offers a panoramic view of the entire city of Zurich and the Lake of Zurich. There is also a hotel in the name of "Uto Kulm" on this small mountain...

    , and contains the neighbourhoods of Alt-Wiedikon, Sihlfeld and Friesenberg.
  • District 4, known as Aussersihl lies between the Sihl and the train tracks leaving Zürich Hauptbahnhof.
  • District 5, known as Industriequartier, is between the Limmat and the train tracks leaving Zürich Hauptbahnhof, it contains the former industrial area of Zurich which has gone under a large-scale rezoning to create upscale modern housing, retail and commercial real estate.
  • District 6
    District 6 (Zürich)
    District 6 is a district north of the old town in the Swiss city of Zurich.The district comprises the quarters Unterstrass and Oberstrass. Both entities were formerly municipalities of their own, but were incorporated into Zurich in 1893.-References:...

     is on the edge of the Zürichberg
    Zürichberg
    The Zürichberg is a wooded hill rising to 679 metres , overlooking Lake Zurich and located immediately to the east of the City of Zurich in Switzerland, between the valleys of the Limmat and the Glatt rivers...

    , a hill overlooking the eastern part of the city. District 6 contains the neighbourhoods of Oberstrass
    Oberstrass
    Oberstrass is a quarter in the district 6 in Zurich.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1893.The quarter has a population of 9,494 distributed on an area of 2.64 km².-References:...

     and Unterstrass
    Unterstrass
    Unterstrass is a quarter in the district 6 in Zurich.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1893.The quarter has a population of 19,921 distributed on an area of 2.46 km².- References :...

    . There neighbourhoods are home to Zurich's wealthiest and more prominent residents.
  • District 7
    District 7 (Zürich)
    District 7 is a district east of the old town in the Swiss city of Zurich.The district comprises the quarters Fluntern, Hottingen, Hirslanden and Witikon. All entities were formerly municipalities of their own, but were incorporated into Zurich in 1893 .-References:...

     is on the edge of the Adlisberg
    Adlisberg
    Adlisberg is a wooded mountain overlooking the Zürichsee , neighboored in the northwest by the Zürichberg.- Geography :Adlisberg mountain is located to the east of the city of Zürich, between the Glatt river valley and Lake Zürich. Its highest point is about above the Lake Zürich...

     hill as well as the Zürichberg, on the eastern side of the city. District 7 contains the neighbourhoods of Hottingen
    Hottingen (Zürich)
    Hottingen is a quarter in the district 7 in Zurich.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1893.The quarter has a population of 10,100 distributed on an area of 5.05 km²....

     and Hirslanden
    Hirslanden
    Hirslanden is a quarter in the district 7 in Zurich.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1893.The quarter has a population of 6,859 distributed on an area of 2.2 km²....

    .
  • District 8, known as Riesbach, lies on the eastern side of Lake Zurich
    Lake Zurich
    Lake Zurich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zurich. It is also known as Lake Zürich and Lake of Zürich. It lies approximately at co-ordinates ....

    .
  • District 9
    District 9 (Zürich)
    District 9 is a district in the Swiss city of Zurich.The district comprises the quarters Albisrieden and Altstetten. Both entities were formerly municipalities of their own, but were incorporated into Zurich in 1934.-References:...

     is between the Limmat to the north and the Üetliberg to the south. It contains the neighbourhoods Altstetten
    Altstetten (Zürich)
    Altstetten is a quarter in the district 9 in Zurich.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1934 together with Albisrieden.The quarter has a population of 28,278 distributed on an area of 7.47 km²....

     and Albisrieden
    Albisrieden
    Albisrieden is a quarter in the district 9 in Zurich.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1934.The quarter has a population of 17,226 distributed on an area of 4.6 km².-References:...

    .
  • District 10
    District 10 (Zürich)
    District 10 is a district in the Swiss city of Zurich.The district comprises the quarters Höngg and Wipkingen. Both entities were formerly municipalities of their own, but were incorporated into Zurich in 1934 and 1893 respectively....

     is to the east of the Limmat
    Limmat
    The Limmat is a river in Switzerland. It is the continuation of the Linth river, known as Limmat from the point of effluence from Lake Zurich, in the city of Zurich. From Zurich it flows in a northwesterly direction, after 35 km reaching the river Aare...

     and to the south of the Hönggerberg and Käferberg
    Käferberg
    Käferberg and Waidberg are the summits of a wooded mountain respectively chain of hills overlooking the inner city of Zurich, Lake Zurich, Albis chain and Uetliberg, as well as the Limmat Valley and the Zürcher Unterland in Switzerland....

     hills. District 10 contains the neighbourhoods of Höngg
    Höngg
    Zürich is a quarter in the district 10 in Zürich.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zürich in 1934.The quarter has a population of 21,186 distributed on an area of 6.98 km²....

     and Wipkingen
    Wipkingen
    Wipkingen is a quarter in the district 10 in Zurich.It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1893.The quarter has a population of 15,446 distributed on an area of 2.11 km².- Transportation :...

    .
  • District 11
    District 11 (Zürich)
    District 11 is a district east of the old town in the Swiss city of Zurich.The district comprises the quarters Affoltern, Oerlikon and Seebach. All entities were formerly municipalities of their own, but were incorporated into Zurich in 1934....

     is in the area north of the Hönggerberg and Käferberg
    Käferberg
    Käferberg and Waidberg are the summits of a wooded mountain respectively chain of hills overlooking the inner city of Zurich, Lake Zurich, Albis chain and Uetliberg, as well as the Limmat Valley and the Zürcher Unterland in Switzerland....

     and between the Glatt valley
    Glatt Valley
    The Glatt Valley is a region and a river valley in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.- Geography :The River Glatt is a tributary of the River Rhine in the Zürcher Unterland area of the Canton of Zurich...

     and the Katzensee
    Katzensee
    Katzensee is a lake on the border of the city of Zurich and Regensdorf in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Its surface area is 0.36 km²....

     (Cats Lake). It contains the neighbourhoods of Affoltern
    Affoltern (Zürich)
    Affoltern is a quarter in the district 11 in Zurich, located in the Glatt Valley .- History and demographics :Affoltern was first mentioned in 870 as Affaltrahe, and in the 9th century it was reigned by the St...

    , Oerlikon and Seebach
    Seebach (Zürich)
    Seebach is a quarter in the district 11 of Zurich, located in the Glatt Valley .It was formerly a municipality of its own, having been incorporated into Zurich in 1934....

    .
  • District 12, known as Schwamendingen, is located in the Glattal
    Glatt Valley
    The Glatt Valley is a region and a river valley in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.- Geography :The River Glatt is a tributary of the River Rhine in the Zürcher Unterland area of the Canton of Zurich...

     (Glatt valley) on the northern side of the Zürichberg
    Zürichberg
    The Zürichberg is a wooded hill rising to 679 metres , overlooking Lake Zurich and located immediately to the east of the City of Zurich in Switzerland, between the valleys of the Limmat and the Glatt rivers...

    .


Most of the district boundaries are fairly similar to the original boundaries of the previously existing municipalities before they were incorporated into the city of Zurich.

Transport


Public transport is extremely popular in Zurich, and its inhabitants use public transport in large numbers. About 70% of the visitors to the city use the tram or bus, and about half of the journeys within the municipality take place on public transport. Within Zurich and throughout the canton of Zurich, the ZVV
ZVV
The ZVV is a public transportation network system, combining rail, bus, tram, trolleybus, lake boat and cable car services in the canton of Zürich as well as Rapperswil-Jona and Pfäffikon SZ.- History and network :Established in May 1990, it...

 network of public transport has traffic density ratings among the highest worldwide. When adding frequency, which in Zurich can be as often as seven minutes, it does become the densest across all dimensions. Three means of mass-transit exist: the S-Bahn
S-Bahn
S-Bahn refers to an often combined city center and suburban railway system metro in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark...

 (local trains), trams
Zürich trams
Trams make an important contribution to public transport in the city of Zurich in Switzerland. The tram network serves most city neighbourhoods, and is the backbone of public transport within the city, albeit supplemented by the inner sections of the Zurich S-Bahn, along with urban trolleybus and...

, and bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

es (both diesel and electric, also called trolley buses
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

). In addition, the public transport network includes boats on the lake and river, funicular railways
Funicular
A funicular, also known as an inclined plane or cliff railway, is a cable railway in which a cable attached to a pair of tram-like vehicles on rails moves them up and down a steep slope; the ascending and descending vehicles counterbalance each other.-Operation:The basic principle of funicular...

 and even the Luftseilbahn Adliswil-Felsenegg
Luftseilbahn Adliswil-Felsenegg
Luftseilbahn Adliswil-Felsenegg is an aerial tramway in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Its name is commonly abbreviated to LAF; the tramway usually is called Felseneggbahn....

 (LAF), a cable car
Cable car
A cable car is any of a variety of transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate, or a vehicle on these systems.-Aerial lift:Aerial lifts where the vehicle is suspended in the air from a cable:...

 between Adliswil
Adliswil
Adliswil is a municipality in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.-History:Adliswil is first mentioned in 1050 as Adelenswile. In the second half of the 12th Century it was mentioned as Adololdiswile and in 1248 as Adeloswile.Under the Helvetic Republic, the hamlet of...

 and Felsenegg
Felsenegg
Felsenegg is a vantage point in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.- Geography :Felsenegg is located some to the southwest of the city of Zürich on the Albis chain, between the municipalities of Stallikon and Adliswil. The hilltop station of Luftseilbahn Adliswil-Felsenegg aerial tramway is...

. Tickets purchased for a trip are valid on all means of public transportation (train, tram, bus, boat). The Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft
Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft
The Lake Zurich Shipping Company or Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft is a public Swiss company operating passenger ships and boats on Lake Zürich....

 (commonly abbreviated to ZSG) operates passenger vessels on the Limmat river and the Lake Zurich, connecting surrounding towns between Zurich and Rapperswil
Rapperswil
Rapperswil-Jona is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of See-Gaster in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.Besides Rapperswil and Jona, which were separate municipalities until 2006, the municipality includes Bollingen, Busskirch, Curtiberg, Kempraten-Lenggis, Wagen, and Wurmsbach.-Today:On...

.


Zurich is a mixed hub for railways, roads, and air traffic
Air Traffic
Air Traffic was a British alternative rock band from Bournemouth. Formed in 2003, the band consists of Chris Wall , David Ryan Jordan , Tom Pritchard and Jim Maddock ....

. Zürich Hauptbahnhof is the largest and busiest station in Switzerland and is an important railway hub in Europe. It has several other railway stations
Train station
A train station, also called a railroad station or railway station and often shortened to just station,"Station" is commonly understood to mean "train station" unless otherwise qualified. This is evident from dictionary entries e.g...

, including Oerlikon, Stadelhofen, Hardbrücke, Tiefenbrunnen, Enge, Selnau
Zürich Selnau railway station
Zürich Selnau, or Bahnhof Selnau, is a railway station on the Zürich S-Bahn system in Selnau in the centre of the Swiss city of Zürich...

, Wiedikon and Altstetten. The railway network is mainly operated by the Federal Railways but Zurich is also served by the major InterCity trains from the neighbouring countries.

Zurich Airport is located less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of the city in Kloten
Kloten
-External links:* -References:...

. Zurich Airport has its own railway station, which is located underground. It is directly connected to Zurich and most of the major Swiss cities. There is also an airfield in Dübendorf
Dübendorf
Dübendorf is a municipality in the district of Uster in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.It is a suburb of Zürich in Switzerland with a population of about 23,000 . It is the fourth largest city in the canton, after Zürich, Winterthur, and Uster.-History:Dübendorf is first mentioned in 946 as...

.

The A1
A1 (Switzerland)
The A1 is a motorway in Switzerland. It follows Switzerland's main east-west axis, from St. Margrethen in northeastern Switzerland's canton of St. Gallen through to Geneva in southwestern Switzerland...

, A3 and A4
A4 (Switzerland)
The A4 motorway in Switzerland begins from Schaffhausen, in northern Switzerland, and travels southward into central Switzerland. of A4 is: Bargen - Schaffhausen - Winterthur - Zürich - Central Switzerland.- Route description :...

 motorways pass close to Zurich. The A1 heads west towards Bern and Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

 and eastwards towards St. Gallen
St. Gallen
St. Gallen is the capital of the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. It evolved from the hermitage of Saint Gall, founded in the 7th century. Today, it is a large urban agglomeration and represents the center of eastern Switzerland. The town mainly relies on the service sector for its economic...

; the A4 leads northwards to Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 34,587 ....

; and the A3 heads northwest towards Basel
Basel
Basel or Basle In the national languages of Switzerland the city is also known as Bâle , Basilea and Basilea is Switzerland's third most populous city with about 166,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany...

 and southeast along Lake Zurich and Lake Walen
Lake Walen
Walensee is one of the larger lakes in Switzerland, for about 2/3 of its surface in the Canton of St. Gallen and for 1/3 in the Canton of Glarus. It is also known as Lake Walen or Lake Walenstadt, after Walenstadt. Other towns and villages at the lake include: Weesen, Quinten, Quarten, and Murg.The...

 towards Sargans
Sargans
Sargans is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of Sarganserland in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.Sargans is known for its castle, which dates from before the founding of the Swiss Confederation in 1291...

.

Demographics



There are about 380,000 people living in Zurich , making it Switzerland's largest city. Of registered inhabitants, 30.6% (115,379 people) do not hold Swiss citizenship. Of these, German citizens make up the largest group with 22.0%, followed by Italians
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. The population of the city proper including suburbs totals 1.08 million people. The entire metropolitan area (including the cities of Winterthur
Winterthur
Winterthur is a city in the canton of Zurich in northern Switzerland. It has the country's sixth largest population with an estimate of more than 100,000 people. In the local dialect and by its inhabitants, it is usually abbreviated to Winti...

, Baden
Baden, Switzerland
Baden is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Aargau, on the west bank of the river Limmat, located in the Limmat Valley , northwest of Zürich. It is the seat of the district of Baden...

, Brugg
Brugg
Brugg or Brügg may refer to the following places:* In Switzerland:** Brugg, Aargau, in the Canton of Aargau*** FC Brugg, a Swiss football club, from the town of Brugg in Canton Aargau...

, Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 34,587 ....

, Frauenfeld
Frauenfeld
Frauenfeld is the capital of the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.-Early history:The earliest trace of human settlement are several La Tène era graves to the east of Langdorf. The Roman road from Oberwinterthur to Pfyn ran through what is now the Allmend in Frauenfeld. Two Roman villas were...

, Uster
Uster
Uster is a city and capital of the district Uster in the Swiss Canton of Zürich.It is the third largest city in the Canton of Zürich, with over 30,000 inhabitants, and is one of the twenty largest cities in Switzerland...

/Wetzikon
Wetzikon
Wetzikon is a municipality in the district of Hinwil in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.-Geography:Wetzikon has an area of . Of this area, 42.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 17.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 27.9% is settled and the remainder is non-productive...

, Rapperswil-Jona
Rapperswil-Jona
Rapperswil-Jona is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of See-Gaster in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.Besides Rapperswil and Jona, which were separate municipalities until 2006, the municipality includes Bollingen, Busskirch, Curtiberg, Kempraten-Lenggis, Wagen, and Wurmsbach.-Today:On...

 and Zug
Zug
Zug , is a German-speaking city in Switzerland. The name ‘Zug’ originates from fishing vocabulary; in the Middle Ages it referred to the right to ‘pull up’ fishing nets and hence to the right to fish.The city of Zug is located in the Canton of Zug and is its capital...

) has a population of around 1.68 million people.

Languages


The official language used by the government and in most publications is German, while the main language is Zurich German
Zürich German
Zürich German, or Züritüütsch is the High Alemannic dialect spoken in the Canton of Zürich, Switzerland.It is divided in six sub-dialects, covering the entire Canton with the exception of the parts north of the Thur and the Rhine....

 (Züritüütsch), which is a dialect of Alemannic
Alemannic German
Alemannic is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. It is spoken by approximately ten million people in six countries: Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, France and Italy...

. As of 2000, speakers with Alemannic or German as their mother-tongue
First language
A first language is the language a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity...

 make up 77.7% of the population. Italian follows behind at 4.7% of the population. Other native languages spoken by more than 1% of the population include South Slavic languages
South Slavic languages
The South Slavic languages comprise one of three branches of the Slavic languages. There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans. These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches by a belt of German, Hungarian and Romanian speakers...

 (2.2%)—this includes Serbian
Serbian language
Serbian is a form of Serbo-Croatian, a South Slavic language, spoken by Serbs in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia and neighbouring countries....

, Bosnian
Bosnian language
Bosnian is a South Slavic language, spoken by Bosniaks. As a standardized form of the Shtokavian dialect, it is one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina....

, Croatian
Croatian language
Croatian is the collective name for the standard language and dialects spoken by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries...

, Macedonian
Macedonian language
Macedonian is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by approximately 2–3 million people principally in the region of Macedonia but also in the Macedonian diaspora...

, and Slovenian, Spanish (2.2%), French (2.1%), English (1.8%), Portuguese (1.6%), Albanian
Albanian language
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.6 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northwestern Greece...

 (1.5%).

Religion


After the Reformation
Reformation
- Movements :* Protestant Reformation, an attempt by Martin Luther to reform the Roman Catholic Church that resulted in a schism, and grew into a wider movement...

 led by Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism...

, Zurich was a centre and stronghold of Protestantism
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 in Switzerland. Over the course of the 20th century, a significant number of Catholics settled in the city, and Catholics instead of Protestants became the largest denomination - although not representing a majority of the total population; in 2000, Catholics were the largest single denomination at 33.3% of the population. At the end of 2009, a plurality of the population of the canton did not declare a religion, claimed no faith, or identified with a non-Christian religion. In the city of Zurich, at the end of 2010, 165,686 (or 45%) had no faith, did not respond, or identified with another confession, Catholics numbered 111,946 (30%), and members of the Swiss Reformed Church
Swiss Reformed Church
The Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland was started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basel , Bern , St...

 numbered 94,419 (or 25%)

Social


The level of unemployment in Zurich was 2.6% in August 2007. About 4% of the city population, 15,500, live either directly or indirectly on welfare payment from the state (April 2005).

Main sights


Most of Zurich's sights are located within the area on either side of the Limmat river, between the Main railway station and Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich
Lake Zurich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zurich. It is also known as Lake Zürich and Lake of Zürich. It lies approximately at co-ordinates ....

. The churches and houses of the old town are clustered here, as are the most expensive shops along the famous Bahnhofstrasse. The Lindenhof
Lindenhof
The Lindenhof in the old town of Zürich is the historical site of the Roman castle, and the later Carolingian Kaiserpfalz. It is situated on the Lindenhof hill, to the left of the Limmat at the Schipfe....

 in the old town is the historical site of the Roman castle, and the later Carolingian Imperial Palace
Kaiserpfalz
The term Kaiserpfalz or Königspfalz refers to a number of castles across the Holy Roman Empire which served as temporary, secondary seats of power for the Holy Roman Emperor in the Early and High Middle Ages...

.

Churches

  • Grossmünster
    Grossmünster
    The Grossmünster is a Romanesque-style church in Zurich, Switzerland. It is one of the three major churches in the city . The core of the present building near the banks of the Limmat River was constructed on the site of a Carolingian church, which was, according to legend, originally commissioned...

     (great minster) (near Lake Zurich, on the Eastern side of the Limmat River in the old city), where Zwingli was pastor; first built around 820; declared by Charlemagne imperial church

  • Fraumünster
    Fraumünster
    The Fraumünster abbey in Zurich was founded in 853 by Louis the German for his daughter Hildegard. He endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zurich, Uri, and the Albis forest, and granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority.- History :In 1045, King Henry III...

     (our lady's minster) first church built before 874; the Romanesque
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

     choir dates from 1250–70; Marc Chagall
    Marc Chagall
    Marc Chagall Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as "the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century."According to art historian Michael J...

     stained glass
    Stained glass
    The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works produced from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant buildings...

     choir windows; (on the opposite side of the Limmat). During 2004 the Fraumünster was fully renovated. During this period the installed scaffolding went above the tip of the tower allowing a unique and exceptional 360° panoramic view of Zurich.

  • St. Peter
    St. Peter, Zürich
    St. Peter is one of the four main churches of the old town of Zurich, besides Grossmünster, Fraumünster and Predigerkirche.Located next to the Lindenhof hill, site of the former Roman castle, it was built on the site of a temple to Iuppiter. An early church of 10 by 7 metres is archaeologically...

     (downstream from the Fraumünster, in the old city); with the largest church clock face in the world.

Museums

  • Zurich Museum of Art
    Kunsthaus Zürich
    The Kunsthaus Zürich houses one of the most important art museums in Switzerland and Europe, collected by the local Kunstverein, called Zürcher Kunstgesellschaft, and holdings running from the Middle Ages to contemporary art, with an emphasis on Swiss art.Kunsthaus is also the name of the tram stop...

     – The Museum of Art, also known as Kunsthaus Zürich, is one of the significant art museums of Europe. It holds one of the largest collections in Classic Modern Art
    Modern art
    Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of...

     in the world (Munch, Picasso, Braque, Giacometti, etc.). The museum also features a large library collection of photographs.

  • Swiss National Museum
    Swiss National Museum
    The Swiss National Museum — part of the Musée Suisse Group, itself affiliated with the Federal Office of Culture — is one of the most important art museums of cultural history in Europe and the world...

     – The National Museum (German: Landesmuseum) displays many objects that illustrate the cultural and historical background of Switzerland. It also contains many ancient artifacts, including stained glass, costumes, painted furniture and weapons. The museum is located in the Platzspitz park opposite to the Hauptbahnhof.

  • Centre Le Corbusier
    Centre Le Corbusier
    The Centre Le Corbusier or Heidi Weber Museum is an art museum in Zürich dedicated to the work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier. In 1960, Heidi Weber had the vision to establish a museum designed by Le Corbusier...

     – Located on the shore of the Lake Zurich nearby Zürichhorn, the Centre Le Corbusier (also named: Heidi Weber Museum), is an art museum dedicated to the work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier
    Le Corbusier
    Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier , was a Swiss-born French architect, designer, urbanist, writer and painter, famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930...

    , inside the last house he designed.

  • Rietberg Museum
    Rietberg Museum
    The Rietberg Museum is a museum in Zürich, Switzerland, displaying Asian, African, American and Oceanian art. It is the only art museum of non-European cultures in Switzerland, the third-largest museum in Zürich, and the largest to be run by the city itself...

     – The Rietberg Museum, situated in Gablerstrasse, is one of the great repositories of art and culture in Zurich. The museum also displays exhibits gathered from various corners of the world: bronze artifacts from Tibet, ceramics and jade, Indian sculpture, Chinese grave decorations, masks by African tribes etc.

  • Museum of Design
    Museum of Design Zürich
    The Museum of Design, Zurich is a museum for industrial design, visual communication, architecture, and craft in Zurich, Switzerland.- Overview :...

     – The Museum of Design is a museum for industrial design, visual communication, architecture and craft. It is part of the Department of Cultural Analysis of the Zurich University of the Arts.

  • Haus Konstruktiv
    Haus Konstruktiv
    Haus Konstruktiv, the Foundation for Constructive and Concrete Art, was founded by private individuals in 1986. From 1987 to spring 2001 it was located at Seefeldstrasse 317 in the outer Seefeld area of Zurich and was known as the "House for Constructive and Concrete Art".It is now situated in new...

     – The Haus Konstruktiv is a museum with Swiss-wide and international recognition. The museum is about constructive, concrete and conceptual art
    Conceptual art
    Conceptual art is art in which the concept or idea involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. Many of the works, sometimes called installations, of the artist Sol LeWitt may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions...

     and design. It testimonies to Zurich’s industrial architecture in the immediate vicinity of the Main Station.

  • Uhrenmuseum Beyer
    Uhrenmuseum Beyer
    The Uhrenmuseum Beyer is located in the heart of the city of Zürich, Switzerland and is one of the world's leading private museums dedicated to the horology....

     – The Uhrenmuseum is located in the heart of the city. Documenting the history of timekeeping and timekeepers, the museum is home to a large collection of mechanical timepieces as well as a collection of primitive time keeping devices such as water clocks, sundials and hourglasses

  • Guild houses
    Zünfte of Zürich
    There are fourteen historical Zünfte of Zurich, under the system established in 1336 with the "guild revolution" of Rudolf Brun...

     – The Guild houses (German: Zunfthaus) are located along the Limmat river (downstream from the Grossmünster): Meisen
    Zunfthaus zur Meisen
    The Zunfthaus zur Meisen at Münsterhof is the guild house of the Zunft zur Meisen. It's one of the historically valuable buildings in the Lindenhof quarter in Zürich, Switzerland, and houses the porcelain and faience collection of the Swiss National Museum.- History :The guild house was built in...

     (also a porcellan and fayence museum), Rüden
    Zunfthaus zum Rüden
    The Zunfthaus zum Rüden at Limmatquai is the guildhall of the Gesellschaft zur Constaffel, or guild of nobles, one of the 14 traditional guilds of Zürich. It is one of the historically notable buildings in the Rathaus quarter in Zürich, Switzerland.- History :The building was originally a modest...

    , Haue
    Zunfthaus zur Haue
    The Zunfthaus zur Haue at Limmatquai is the guildhall of the Zunft zum Kämbel, one of the 14 traditional guilds of Zürich. It is one of the historically notable buildings in the Rathaus quarter in Zürich, Switzerland.- History :...

    , Saffran, Schneidern, Schmiden, Zimmerleuten, and some more.

  • Tram Museum
    Zurich Tram Museum
    The Zurich Tram Museum is a transport museum in the Swiss city of Zurich, specialising in the history of the Zurich tram system. The main museum site is located at the former tram depot Tramdepot Burgwies, which is on tram route 11 in the city's Hirslanden quarter...

     - The Tram Museum is located at Burgwies in Zurich's eastern suburbs, and chronicles the history of Zurich's iconic tram system
    Zürich trams
    Trams make an important contribution to public transport in the city of Zurich in Switzerland. The tram network serves most city neighbourhoods, and is the backbone of public transport within the city, albeit supplemented by the inner sections of the Zurich S-Bahn, along with urban trolleybus and...

     with exhibits varying in date from 1897 to the present day.

Parks and nature

  • Zoological Garden
    Zürich Zoologischer Garten
    The Zürich Zoologischer Garten is a zoo located in Zurich in Switzerland. It was opened in 1929 and, as of 2004, has 2200 specimens of 300 species...

     – The zoological garden holds about 260 species of animals and houses about 2200 animals. One can come across separate enclosures of snow leopards, India lions, clouded leopards, Amur leopards, otters and pandas in the zoo.

  • Botanical Garden – The Botanical Garden houses about 15,000 species of plants and trees and contains as many as three million plants. In the garden, many rare plant species from south western part of Africa, as well as from New Caledonia can be found. The University of Zurich
    University of Zurich
    The University of Zurich , located in the city of Zurich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students. It was founded in 1833 from the existing colleges of theology, law, medicine and a new faculty of philosophy....

     holds the ownership of the Botanical Garden.

  • Chinese Garden – The Chinese Garden is a gift by Zurich's Chinese partner town Kunming
    Kunming
    ' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

    , as remiscence for Zurich's technical and scientific assistance in the development of the Kunming city drinking water supply and drainage. The garden is an expression of one of the main themes of Chinese culture, the «Three Friends of Winter
    Three Friends of Winter
    The Three Friends of Winter, also known as Suihan Sanyou, are the pine, bamboo, and plum. Every year, as the cold days deepen into the winter season, many plants begin to wither. That the pine, bamboo and plum do not was noted by the Chinese. Known by them as Three Friends of Winter, they entered...

    » – three plants that together brave the cold season – pine
    Pine
    Pines are trees in the genus Pinus ,in the family Pinaceae. They make up the monotypic subfamily Pinoideae. There are about 115 species of pine, although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species.-Etymology:...

    , bamboo
    Bamboo
    Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family....

    , and plum.

  • Üetliberg
    Uetliberg
    The Üetliberg is a mountain in the Swiss plateau, part of the Albis chain, rising to 873 m . The Uetliberg offers a panoramic view of the entire city of Zurich and the Lake of Zurich. There is also a hotel in the name of "Uto Kulm" on this small mountain...

     – Located to the west of the city at an altitude of 813 metres (2,667.3 ft) above sea level
    Above mean sea level
    The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

    , the Üetliberg is the highest hill and offers views over the city. The summit is easily accessible by train from Zurich main station.

Architecture



Compared to other cities, there are few tall buildings in Zurich. The municipal building regulations (Article 9) limit the construction of high-rise buildings to areas in the west and north of the city. In the industrial district, in Altstetten and Oerlikon, buildings up to 80 metres (262.5 ft) in height are allowed (high-rise area I). In the adjacent high-rise areas II and III the height is limited to 40 metres (131.2 ft). Around the year 2000, regulations became more flexible and high-rise buildings were again planned and built. The people's initiative "40 meters is enough," which would have reduced both the maximum height and the high-rise buildings area, was clearly rejected on 29 November 2009. At this time in Zurich about a dozen high-rises buildings were under construction or in planning, including the Prime Tower
Prime Tower (Zürich)
The Prime Tower, also named "Maag-Tower" in an earlier stage of planning, is a skyscraper in Zurich, Switzerland. It is under construction as of 2009. Upon completion, which is scheduled for 2011, it will be the highest skyscraper in Switzerland at a height of .The building is located near the...

 as the tallest skyscraper in Switzerland.

World heritage sites


The prehistoric settlements at Enge Alpenquai and Grosse Stadt Kleiner Hafner are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps
Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps
Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps is a series of prehistoric pile-dwelling settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 B.C. on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands...

 a UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 World Heritage Site.

Economy


Zurich is a leading financial center
Financial Centre
A financial centre is a global city that is a company and business hub, as well as being home to many world famous banks and/or stock exchanges....

 and global city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

. The Greater Zurich Area is Switzerland's economic centre and home to a vast number of international companies. By far the most important sector in the economy of Zurich is the service industry, which employs nearly four fifths of workers. Other important industries include light industry, machine and textile industries and tourism. Most Swiss banks have their headquarters in Zurich and there are numerous foreign banks in the Greater Zurich Area. Located in Zurich, the Swiss Stock Exchange was established in 1877 and is nowadays the fourth most prominent stock exchange in the world. In addition Zurich is the world's largest gold trading centre. Ten of the country's 50 largest companies have their head offices in Zurich, among them UBS
UBS AG
UBS AG is a Swiss global financial services company headquartered in Basel and Zürich, Switzerland, which provides investment banking, asset management, and wealth management services for private, corporate, and institutional clients worldwide, as well as retail clients in Switzerland...

, Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse
The Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational financial services company headquartered in Zurich, with more than 250 branches in Switzerland and operations in more than 50 countries.-History:...

, Swiss Re
Swiss Re
Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd , generally known as Swiss Re, is a Swiss reinsurance company. It is the world’s second-largest reinsurer, after having acquired GE Insurance Solutions. The company has its headquarters in Zurich...

 and Zurich Financial Services
Zurich Financial Services
Zurich Financial Services AG is a major financial services group based in Zurich, Switzerland.-History:The Company was founded in 1872 as subsidiary of the Schweiz Marine Insurance Company under the name Versicherung Verein...

.

Contributory factors to economic strength


The high quality of life has been cited as a reason for economic growth
Economic growth
In economics, economic growth is defined as the increasing capacity of the economy to satisfy the wants of goods and services of the members of society. Economic growth is enabled by increases in productivity, which lowers the inputs for a given amount of output. Lowered costs increase demand...

 in Zurich. The consulting firm
Management consulting
Management consulting indicates both the industry and practice of helping organizations improve their performance primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and development of plans for improvement....

 Mercer has for many years ranked Zurich as a city with the highest quality of life in the world. In particular, Zurich received high scores for work, housing, leisure, education and safety. Local planning authorities ensure clear separation between urban and recreational areas and there are many protected nature reserves. Other cities in the country, Bern and Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

, were also listed among the top ten. Zurich is also ranked the sixth most expensive city in the world. In 2008, Zurich was ranked ninth. The city ranked behind Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 and ahead of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

. It is the third most expensive city in Europe and second most expensive city in Switzerland after Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

.

Zurich benefits from the high level of investment in education that is typical of Switzerland in general and provides skilled labour at all levels. The city is home to two major universities, thus enabling access to graduates and high technology research. Professional training incorporates a mix of practical work experience and academic study while, in general, emphasis is placed on obtaining a good level of general education and language ability. As a result the city is home to many multilingual people and employees generally demonstrate a high degree of motivation and a low level of absenteeism. Such characteristics are reflected in the high level of productivity the region enjoys and account for the opening of offices and research centres in the city by large corporations.

The Swiss stock exchange



The Swiss stock exchange is called SIX Swiss Exchange, formerly known as SWX. The SIX Swiss Exchange is the head group of several different worldwide operative financial systems: virt-x, Eurex
Eurex
Eurex is one of the world's leading derivatives exchanges, providing European benchmark derivatives featuring open and low-cost electronic access globally...

, Eurex US, EXFEED and STOXX
STOXX
STOXX Ltd. is owned by Deutsche Börse AG and SIX Group AG. The first STOXX indices, were launched in February 1998: the EURO STOXX 50 Index and the STOXX Europe 50 Index.STOXX Ltd...

. The exchange turnover generated at the SWX was in 2007 of 1,780,499.5 million CHF
Swiss franc
The franc is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia. Although not formally legal tender in the German exclave Büsingen , it is in wide daily use there...

; the number of transactions arrived in the same period at 35,339,296 and the Swiss Performance Index
Swiss Performance Index
The Swiss Performance Index SPI is Switzerland's most closely followed performance index. It is a dividend-corrected index that includes all SWX Swiss Exchange-traded equity securities of companies domiciled in Switzerland or the Principality of Liechtenstein....

 (SPI) arrived at a total market capitalization
Market capitalization
Market capitalization is a measurement of the value of the ownership interest that shareholders hold in a business enterprise. It is equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding of a publicly traded company...

 of 1,359,976.2 million CHF
Swiss franc
The franc is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia. Although not formally legal tender in the German exclave Büsingen , it is in wide daily use there...

.

The SIX Swiss Exchange goes back more than 150 years. In 1996, fully electronic trading
Electronic trading
Electronic trading, sometimes called etrading, is a method of trading securities , foreign exchange or financial derivatives electronically...

 replaced the traditional floor trading system at the stock exchange
Stock exchange
A stock exchange is an entity that provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade stocks, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, and capital events including the payment of income and...

s of Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

 (founded in 1850), Zurich (1873) and Basel (1876).

Since 2008, the SIX Swiss Exchange has been part of the SIX Group, as SWX Group, SIS Group and Telekurs Group merged.

Education and research



About 60,000 people study at the 20 universities, colleges and institutions of higher education in Zurich. Two of Switzerland's most distinguished universities are located in the city. The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
ETH Zurich
The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich or ETH Zürich is an engineering, science, technology, mathematics and management university in the City of Zurich, Switzerland....

 (ETH Zurich) which is controlled by the (federal) state and the University of Zurich
University of Zurich
The University of Zurich , located in the city of Zurich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students. It was founded in 1833 from the existing colleges of theology, law, medicine and a new faculty of philosophy....

 that is under direction of the canton of Zurich. Both universities were listed in the top 50 world universities rated in 2007.

ETH was founded in 1854 by the Swiss Confederation and opened its doors in 1855 as a polytechnic institute. ETH achieved its reputation particularly in the fields of chemistry, mathematics and physics and there are 21 Nobel Laureates who are associated with the institution. ETH is usually ranked the top university in continental Europe. The institution consists of two campuses, the main building in the heart of the city and the new campus on the outskirts of the city.

The University of Zurich was founded in 1833, although its beginnings date back to 1525 when the Swiss reformer Ulrich Zwingli founded a college of theology. Nowadays with its 24,000 students and 1,900 graduations each year, the University of Zurich is the largest in Switzerland and offers the widest range of subjects and courses at any Swiss higher education institution.

The Pedagogical College, the Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Zurich University of Applied Sciences
The Zurich University of Applied Sciences , located in the city of Winterthur, with facilities in Zurich and Wädenswil, is the second largest University in Switzerland after the University of Zurich.* University of Zurich: around 25000 Students...

 (ZHAW) and the Zurich University of the Arts (ZHdK) are another three top-class technical colleges which contribute to Zurich's reputation as a knowledge and research pole by providing applied research and development. Zurich is also one of the co-location centres of the Knowledge and Innovation Community (Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology.

State universities by size in Canton Zurich


Only (federal) state Universities and higher education institutions, > > >
Rank Institution Total students
University of Zurich - UZH
University of Zurich
The University of Zurich , located in the city of Zurich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students. It was founded in 1833 from the existing colleges of theology, law, medicine and a new faculty of philosophy....

25,618
Zurich University of Applied Sciences - ZFH
Zurich University of Applied Sciences
The Zurich University of Applied Sciences , located in the city of Winterthur, with facilities in Zurich and Wädenswil, is the second largest University in Switzerland after the University of Zurich.* University of Zurich: around 25000 Students...

15,334
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich - ETH
ETH Zurich
The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich or ETH Zürich is an engineering, science, technology, mathematics and management university in the City of Zurich, Switzerland....

15,093

List of largest universities by enrollment in Switzerland

Media


Many large Swiss
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 media conglomerates are headquartered in Zurich, such as tamedia
Tamedia
Tamedia AG is a media company in Switzerland.Its most important publications is the Tages-Anzeiger, a daily newspaper based in Zurich. It also owns the weekly SonntagsZeitung, the free national newspaper 20 Minuten, the free Tagblatt der Stadt Zürich, the weekly financial newspaper Finanz und...

, Ringier
Ringier
Ringier AG is one of the largest media corporations in Switzerland founded in Zofingen and based in Zürich. It publishes several newspapers and magazines in both German and French...

 and the NZZ-Verlag
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
The Neue Zürcher Zeitung is a major German language Swiss daily newspaper based in Zurich.One of the oldest newspapers still published, it originally appeared as Zürcher Zeitung, edited by Salomon Gessner, from January 12, 1780, and was renamed to Neue Zürcher Zeitung in 1821...

. Zurich is one of the most important media locations in the German speaking part of the country. This status has been recently reinforced by the increase in availability of online publications published in Zurich.

Television and radio


The headquarters of Switzerland's national licence fee funded German language
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 television network
Television network
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay TV providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small...

 ("SF
Schweizer Fernsehen
Schweizer Fernsehen is the German language division of SRG SSR, in charge of production and distribution of television programmes in German for German-speaking Switzerland...

") are located in the Leutschenbach neighborhood, to the north of the Oerlikon train station. Regional commercial television station "TeleZüri
TeleZüri
TeleZüri is a local television channel for the city and agglomeration of Zürich, Switzerland. It was founded by Roger Schawinski, a pioneer of local radio. Today it is owned by the Swiss media company Tamedia, the publisher of the Tages-Anzeiger....

" (Zurich Television) has its headquarters near Escher-Wyss Platz. The production facilities for other commercial stations "Star TV", "u1" TV and "3+" are located in Schlieren
Schlieren, Zurich
Schlieren is a municipality in the district of Dietikon in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.- History :The oldest artifact discovered in the Canton of Zürich is a Stone Age Neanderthal hand axe which was found in Schlieren, and dates back to approximately 100,000 BCE.Until 1415, Schlieren...

.

One section of the Swiss German language licence fee funded public radio
Public broadcasting
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing.Public broadcasting may be...

 station "Schweizer Radio DRS
Schweizer Radio DRS
Schweizer Radio: Radio der deutschen und rätoromanischen Schweiz is a company of SRG SSR idée suisse. - Broadcasting :SR DRS own six radio stations, which in German-speaking Switzerland has a market share of over 60 percent....

" is located in Zurich. There are commercial local radio stations broadcasting from Zurich, such as "Radio 24" on the Limmatstrasse, "Energy Zürich" in Seefeld on the Kreuzstrasse, Radio "LoRa" and "Radio 1". There are other radio station
Radio station
Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both...

s that operate only during certain parts of the year, such as "CSD Radio" (May/June), "Radio Streetparade" (July/August) and "rundfunk.fm" (August/September).

Print media


There are three large daily newspapers published in Zurich that are known across Switzerland. The Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
The Neue Zürcher Zeitung is a major German language Swiss daily newspaper based in Zurich.One of the oldest newspapers still published, it originally appeared as Zürcher Zeitung, edited by Salomon Gessner, from January 12, 1780, and was renamed to Neue Zürcher Zeitung in 1821...

 (NZZ), the Tages-Anzeiger
Tages-Anzeiger
Tages-Anzeiger, also abbreviated Tagi or TA, is a German language Swiss national daily newspaper based in Zurich. Among newspapers in Switzerland, it has one of the largest readerships, reaching around 550,000 readers. The Tages-Anzeiger was first published in 1893...

 and the Blick
Blick
Blick is a German-language daily tabloid newspaper published in Zürich, Switzerland since 1959 by Ringier.It has a circulation of 275,000 and a readership of 750,000 . Only the free daily 20 Minuten has a higher circulation in Switzerland....

, the largest Swiss tabloid. All three of those newspapers publish Sunday editions. These are the "NZZ am Sonntag", "SonntagsZeitung" and "SonntagsBlick". Besides the three main daily newspapers, there are free daily commuter newspapers
Free daily newspaper
Free daily newspapers are distributed free of charge, either in central places in cities and towns, or with other newspapers. The revenues of such newspapers are based on advertising.-In the U.S.:...

 which are widely distributed: 20 Minuten
20 Minuten
20 Minuten is a free German language daily newspaper in Switzerland, distributed to commuters at over 150 train stations across the country.The newspaper was first published in 1999 by "20 Minuten Schweiz AG"...

(20 minutes), published weekdays in the mornings and Blick am Abend
Heute (newspaper)
heute was a free, ad-financed daily German language, tabloid format newspaper in Switzerland, launched on 15 May 2006, until its final edition on 30 May 2008. It was the second Pendlerzeitung in Switzerland, after the morning newspaper 20 Minuten, being distributed in the evenings, from...

, weekdays but in the late afternoon.

There are a number of magazines from major publishers that are based in Zurich. Some examples are: Bilanz, Die Weltwoche
Die Weltwoche
Die Weltwoche is a Swiss weekly magazine based in Zürich. It is privately owned by Roger Köppel. The magazine's regular columnists of note include the former president of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Peter Bodenmann, as well as Christoph Mörgeli MP, a leading figure of the right...

, and Annabelle.

Culture


Zurich has a rich cultural tradition. In addition to high-quality museums and galleries, Zurich has high-calibre chamber and symphony orchestras and several important theatres.

The Zurich Film Festival
Zurich Film Festival
The Zurich Film Festival ' is an important international film festival, held annually in Zurich, Switzerland. A stated objective of the festival is to discover and support young, aspiring filmmakers and to offer the industry, audiences, the press and a broader public an exciting cinema experience...

 is one of the most important upcoming international film festivals. In just a few years, the Festival became firmly established upon the national and international festival landscape. Over the course of 11 days, it attracts both stars and new talents and celebrates popular international productions.
One of the largest and most popular annual events in Zurich is the Street Parade
Street Parade
The Street Parade is the most attended technoparade in Europe, since the end of Love Parade 2010. It takes place in Zurich, Switzerland. Comparable to Berlin's Love Parade, the Street Parade is one of the largest techno parties in the world and the largest annual event in Zurich...

, which is also one of the largest techno and dance music festivals in the world. Proceeding along the side of Lake Zurich, it normally occurs on the second Saturday in August. The first edition was held In 1992 with about 1,000 participants. By 2001 the event had reached the size of 1 million participants. The Zürifäscht, on the other hand, is a triennial public festival. It features music, fireworks set to music, and other attractions throughout the old town. It is the largest public festival in Switzerland and is attended by up to 2 million visitors.

The Kunst Zürich is an international contemporary art
Contemporary art
Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. The definition of the word contemporary would support the first view, but museums of contemporary art commonly define their collections as consisting of art produced...

 fair with an annual guest city; it combines most recent and youngest art with the works of well-established artists. Another annual public art exhibit is the city campaign, sponsored by the City Vereinigung (the local equivalent of a chamber of commerce
Chamber of commerce
A chamber of commerce is a form of business network, e.g., a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community...

) with the cooperation of the city government
Local government
Local government refers collectively to administrative authorities over areas that are smaller than a state.The term is used to contrast with offices at nation-state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government...

. It consists of decorated sculptures distributed over the city centre, in public places. Past themes have included lions (1986), cows (1998), benches (2003), teddy bears (2005), and huge flower pots (2009). From this originated the concept of the CowParade
CowParade
CowParade is an international public art exhibit that has been featured in major world cities. Fiberglass sculptures of cows are decorated by local artists, and distributed over the city centre, in public places such as train stations, important avenues, and parks. They often feature artwork and...

 that has been featured in other major world cities.

Zurich is also the home to several art movements. The Cabaret Voltaire
Cabaret Voltaire (Zürich)
Cabaret Voltaire was the name of a nightclub in Zurich, Switzerland. It was founded by Hugo Ball, with his companion Emmy Hennings on February 5, 1916 as a cabaret for artistic and political purposes. Other founding members were Marcel Janco, Richard Huelsenbeck, Tristan Tzara, and Jean Arp...

 where the Dada movement
Dada
Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zurich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature—poetry, art manifestoes, art theory—theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a...

 was founded in 1916. Constructive Art Movement
Art movement
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years...

 took also one of the first steps in Zurich. Artists like Max Bill
Max Bill
Max Bill was a Swiss architect, artist, painter, typeface designer, industrial designer and graphic designer.Bill was born in Winterthur...

, Marcel Breuer
Marcel Breuer
Marcel Lajos Breuer , was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect and furniture designer of Jewish descent. One of the masters of Modernism, Breuer displayed interest in modular construction and simple forms.- Life and work :Known to his friends and associates as Lajkó, Breuer studied and taught at...

, Camille Graeser
Camille Graeser
Camille Graeser was a Swiss painter.-References:*This article was initially translated from the German Wikipedia....

 or Richard Paul Lohse
Richard Paul Lohse
Richard Paul Lohse was a Swiss painter and graphic artist and one of the main representatives of the concrete and constructive art....

 had their ateliers in Zurich, which became even more important after the takeover of power by the Nazi-Regime
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 in Germany and World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

The best known traditional holiday in Zürich is the Sechseläuten
Sechseläuten
The Sechseläuten is a traditional spring holiday in the Swiss city of Zürich celebrated in its current form since the early 20th century.-Burning of the Böögg:...

 (Sächsilüüte), including a parade of the guilds
Zünfte of Zürich
There are fourteen historical Zünfte of Zurich, under the system established in 1336 with the "guild revolution" of Rudolf Brun...

 and the burning of "winter" in effigy. Another is the Knabenschiessen
Knabenschiessen
Knabenschiessen is a traditional target shooting competition in Zürich. held on the second weekend of September each year. The festival, officially held for the first time in 1889, is one of the oldest in Switzerland, dating back to the 17th century....

 target shooting competition
Schützenfest
A Schützenfest is a traditional festival or fair featuring a target shooting competition in the cultures of both Germany and Switzerland....

 for teenagers (originally boys, open to female participants since 1991).

Opera, ballet and theaters



The Zurich Opera House
Zurich Opera House
Opernhaus Zürich is an opera house in the Swiss city of Zurich. It has been the home of the Zurich Opera since 1891.- History :...

 (German: Zürcher Opernhaus) is one of the principal opera house
Opera house
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building...

s in Europe. Built in 1834, it was the first permanent theatre in the heart of Zurich and was at the time, the seat of Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...

's activities. Later in 1890, the theatre was re-built as an ornate building with a neo-classical architecture. The portico is made of white and grey stone ornamented with the busts of Wagner, Weber and Mozart. Later, busts of Schiller, Shakespeare and Goethe were also added. The auditorium is designed in the rococo style. Once a year, it hosts the Zürcher Opernball with the President of the Swiss Confederation and the economic and cultural élite of Switzerland.

The Schauspielhaus Zürich
Schauspielhaus Zürich
The Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most prominent and important theatres in the German-speaking world. It is also known as "Pfauenbühne" after its location on the Pfauen Square in Zürich, Switzerland. The large theatre has 750 seats...

 is the main theatre complex of the City. It has two dépendances: Pfauen in the Central City District and Schiffbauhalle, an old industrial hall, in Zurich West. The Schauspielhaus was home to emigrants such as Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht was a German poet, playwright, and theatre director.An influential theatre practitioner of the 20th century, Brecht made equally significant contributions to dramaturgy and theatrical production, the latter particularly through the seismic impact of the tours undertaken by the...

 or Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual...

, and saw premieres of works of Max Frisch
Max Frisch
Max Rudolf Frisch was a Swiss playwright and novelist, regarded as highly representative of German-language literature after World War II. In his creative works Frisch paid particular attention to issues relating to problems of human identity, individuality, responsibility, morality and political...

, Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Friedrich Dürrenmatt was a Swiss author and dramatist. He was a proponent of epic theatre whose plays reflected the recent experiences of World War II. The politically active author's work included avant-garde dramas, philosophically deep crime novels, and often macabre satire...

, Botho Strauss
Botho Strauß
Botho Strauss is a German playwright, novelist and essayist.-Biography:Botho Strauss's father was a chemist. After finishing his secondary education, Strauss studied German, History of the Theatre and Sociology in Cologne and Munich, but never finished his dissertation on Thomas Mann und das Theater...

 or Elfriede Jelinek
Elfriede Jelinek
Elfriede Jelinek is an Austrian playwright and novelist. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2004 for her "musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that, with extraordinary linguistic zeal, reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power."-...

. The Schauspielhaus is one of the most prominent and important theatres in the German-speaking world.

The Theater am Neumarkt is one of the oldest theatres of the city. Established by the old guilds in the Old City District, it is located in a baroque palace near Niederdorf Street. It has two stages staging mostly avantgarde works by European directors.

The Zürcher Theater Spektakel
Zürcher Theater Spektakel
The Zürcher Theater Spektakel is an international theatre and performing arts festival, held annually each summer in Zürich, Switzerland. First held in 1980,...

 is an international theatre festival, ranking among the most important European festivals for contemporary performing arts
Performing arts
The performing arts are those forms art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art object...

.

Food


The traditional cuisine of Zurich consists of traditional fare, reflecting the centuries of rule by patrician burghers as well as the lasting imprint of Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism...

's puritan
Puritan
The Puritans were a significant grouping of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries. Puritanism in this sense was founded by some Marian exiles from the clergy shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, as an activist movement within the Church of England...

ism. Traditional dishes include Zürcher Geschnetzeltes
Zürcher Geschnetzeltes
Zürcher Geschnetzeltes is a Swiss dish from Zurich region.Its main ingredients are veal, sliced in to small pieces, sliced mushrooms and cream...

and Tirggel
Tirggel
Tirggel are traditional Christmas biscuits from Zürich, Switzerland. Made from flour and honey, they are thin, hard, and sweet.-History:Tirggel-like honey cakes were already popular in antiquity. The earliest known baking moulds for similar pastries date to 3rd millennium BC Mesopotamia...

.

Nightlife and clubbing



Zurich offers a great deal of variety when it comes to night-time leisure. It is the host city of the world-famous Street Parade
Street Parade
The Street Parade is the most attended technoparade in Europe, since the end of Love Parade 2010. It takes place in Zurich, Switzerland. Comparable to Berlin's Love Parade, the Street Parade is one of the largest techno parties in the world and the largest annual event in Zurich...

, which takes place in August every year.

The most famous districts for Nightlife are the Niederdorf
Niederdorf district
The Niederdorf district refers to an area in Zürich's old town across and along the river from the train station It is known as being a main destination for the city's nightlife, as well as many shops and beautiful alleyways. It gets its name from Niederdorfstrasse, which is the bustling main strip...

 in the old town with bars, restaurants, lounges, hotels, clubs, etc. and a lot of fashion shops for a young and stylish public and the Langstrasse
Langstrasse
Langstrasse is a street and quarter in district 4 in Zurich. Langstrasse begins near the district courts and extends north-northeast to the train tracks of Zürich Hauptbahnhof. The following short segment of Langstrasse leads towards Limmatplatz in district 5...

 in the districts 4 and 5 of the city. There are authentic amusements: Brazilian bars, punk clubs, HipHop
Hip hop
Hip hop is a form of musical expression and artistic culture that originated in African-American and Latino communities during the 1970s in New York City, specifically the Bronx. DJ Afrika Bambaataa outlined the four pillars of hip hop culture: MCing, DJing, breaking and graffiti writing...

 stages, Caribic restaurants, arthouse-cinemas, Turkish kebabs and Italian espresso-bars, but also sex shop
Sex shop
A sex shop, erotic shop is a shop that sells products related to adult sexual or erotic entertainment, such as sex toys, lingerie, clothing, pornography, and other related products...

s or the famous red light district
Red-light district
A red-light district is a part of an urban area where there is a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, adult theaters, etc...

 of Zurich.

In the past ten years new parts of the city have risen into the spotlight. Notably, the area known as Zurich West
Zurich West
Zurich West is an area in the Industriequartier, located in the west of Zurich. It is a former industrial site, stretching between the track leading away from Zürich Hauptbahnhof and the Limmat, and experiencing a gradual conversion into a new quarter, including offices, apartments and arts...

 in district 5, near the Escher-Wyss square and the S-Bahn Station of Zurich Hardbrücke
Zürich Hardbrücke
Zürich Hardbrücke is a railway station in the central part of the Swiss city of Zürich. The station was opened in 1982 and expanded in 1990 in line with the introduction of the S-Bahn scheme....

.

Sports


The people of Zurich enjoy an active lifestyle and sport is an integral part of Swiss culture and society. The abundance of international sporting facilities make Zurich an attractive place for sport lovers and several international sport federations are located in the city.
Association football is an essential aspect of sports in Zurich. The city is home to two major Swiss football team
Football team
A football team is the collective name given to a group of players selected together in the various team sports known as football.Such teams could be selected to play in an against an opposing team, to represent a football club, group, state or nation, an All-star team or even selected as a...

s listed in Switzerland's highest league
Swiss Super League
The Swiss Super League or Axpo Super League is the top tier of the Swiss Football League. The Swiss Super League is currently ranked 16th according to UEFA's ranking of league coefficients, which is based upon Swiss team performances in European competitions.-Names:-Participating clubs:The teams...

; Grasshopper-Club Zürich
Grasshopper-Club Zürich
Grasshopper Club Zürich commonly referred to as simply GC, GCZ, or Grasshopper is a Swiss multisports club based in Zürich. The oldest and best known section of Grasshopper Club Zürich is its football team...

 founded in 1886 and FC Zürich which has existed since 1896. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)
FIFA
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association , commonly known by the acronym FIFA , is the international governing body of :association football, futsal and beach football. Its headquarters are located in Zurich, Switzerland, and its president is Sepp Blatter, who is in his fourth...

 is headquartered in the city. In 2007 were inaugurated the new FIFA headquarters building, designed by architect Tilla Theus

Among the most popular sports in Switzerland is ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

. In Zurich it is represented by the ZSC Lions
ZSC Lions
The Zürcher Schlittschuh Club Lions are a professional ice hockey team located in Zürich, Switzerland, playing in the National League A. The home arena, the 10,700 seat Hallenstadion, is in the Zürich district of Oerlikon...

. The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF)
International Ice Hockey Federation
The International Ice Hockey Federation is the worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey. It is based in Zurich, Switzerland, and has 70 members...

 officiating as head organisation for ice hockey leagues worldwide is based in Zurich as well.

Biking is a popular sport as well as a mean of transport in Zurich. Biking routes are generally marked with red and white signs and the yellow lanes are exclusively meant for the bikers. Also hiking trails are well marked with yellow signs, which give the hiker the probable time it will take him to reach his destination. There are specific maps available for hiking and walking trails throughout Switzerland. Some of the most accessible walks in the Zurich area are the Üetliberg and the Zürichberg.

As many as 30 clubs and 7 indoor Curling facilities can be found in the greater Zurich area. The Curling season starts in early September and continues until the end of April.

Events



Weltklasse Zürich
Weltklasse Zürich
Weltklasse Zürich is an annual track and field meeting at the Letzigrund in Zurich, Switzerland. Previously one of the IAAF Golden League events, it is now part of the IAAF Diamond League. One of the first large-scale international athletics events , it is sometimes referred to as the one day...

, sometimes referred to as the one day Olympics, is one of prestigious one day athletics meet held annually at the Letzigrund
Letzigrund
In January 2005, UEFA approved plans to rebuild the stadium for use as a EURO 2008 venue. It hosted 3 matches in the 2008 European Football Championship....

 Stadium. The Weltklasse is reputed as one of the best and most classy athlete meet in the world after the Olympics. Since it started on August 12, 1928, the sporting event has witnessed new world records and national records. Till date as many as 24 world records were set in Weltklasse.

Zurich Marathon is a popular sport event, inviting numerous athletes from every corner of the globe. Zurich Marathon is a long distance running event, covering approximately 43 kilometres (26.7 mi) at one stretch. The running course starts from Zurich and passes through Bahnhofstrasse, Bellevue, Mythenquai, Quaibrücke, Talstrasse and Utoquai, and along Lake Zurich to several other places. New Year's Eve run
Neujahrsmarathon Zürich
The Neujahrsmarathon Zürich is a marathon race held on January 1 each year, since 2005. The start takes place at midnight, exactly at the beginning of the New Year. Start and finish are located in Schlieren near Zurich in Switzerland. The track consists of four laps along the river Limmat...

 is another important running event. The race is held on January 1 each year and the start takes place at midnight exactly.

Zurich was one of six venues of the 1954 FIFA World Cup
1954 FIFA World Cup
The 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Switzerland from 16 June to 4 July. Switzerland was chosen as hosts in July 1946. The tournament set a number of all-time records for goal-scoring, including the highest average goals scored per game...

 and one of eight venues of the UEFA Euro 2008. The Euro 2008 games were held in the Letzigrund Stadium. Work on the new Letzigrund was completed in exceptionally quick time and the stadium opened in August 2007 just one year after the demolition of the old arena.

Zurich also hosted the 1998 World Ice Hockey Championships
1998 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships
-World Championship Group C :Played March 22-28 in Budapest, Székesfehérvár and Dunaújváros.- Group 1 :- Group 2 :- Final Round 25-28 Place :Hungary was promoted to Group B.- Consolation Round 29-32 Place :...

. The city previously co-hosted the 1953
1953 World Ice Hockey Championships
The 1953 Men's Ice Hockey World Championships were held between March 7 and March 15, 1953 in Basel and Zurich, Switzerland.This was the first world championship tournament with only European teams....

 and 1939
1939 World Ice Hockey Championships
The 1939 Ice Hockey World Championships were held between February 3 and February 12, 1939 in Zürich and Basel, Switzerland. The fourteen teams participating in the 1939 World Championship were initially divided into four preliminary groups: two groups of four and two groups of three. The top two...

 editions.

Notable people


People who were born or died in Zurich:
  • Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920), Duchess of Edinburgh, died in Zurich
  • Richard Avenarius
    Richard Avenarius
    Richard Heinrich Ludwig Avenarius was a German-Swiss philosopher. He formulated the radical positivist doctrine of "empirical criticism" or empirio-criticism....

     (1843–1896), Philosopher, died in Zurich
  • Diego Benaglio (born 1983), footballer, born in Zurich
  • Severin Blindenbacher
    Severin Blindenbacher
    Severin Blindenbacher is a professional ice hockey defenceman, who currently plays for the Texas Stars in the American Hockey League...

     (born 1983), ice hockey player, born in Zurich
  • Felix Bloch
    Felix Bloch
    Felix Bloch was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the U.S.-Life and work:Bloch was born in Zürich, Switzerland to Jewish parents Gustav and Agnes Bloch. He was educated there and at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, also in Zürich. Initially studying engineering he soon changed to physics...

     (1905–1983), physicist, born in Zurich
  • Heinrich Bullinger
    Heinrich Bullinger
    Heinrich Bullinger was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zurich church and pastor at Grossmünster...

     (1504–1575), reformer and theologian, died in Zurich
  • Elias Canetti
    Elias Canetti
    Elias Canetti was a Bulgarian-born modernist novelist, playwright, memoirist, and non-fiction writer. He wrote in German and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981, "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power".-Life:...

     (1905–1994), novelist, died in Zurich
  • Wilhelm Filchner
    Wilhelm Filchner
    Wilhelm Filchner was a German explorer.At the age of 21, he participated in his first expedition, which led him to Russia. Two years later, he travelled alone and on horseback through the Pamir Mountains, from Osh to Murgabh to the upper Wakhan to Tashkurgan and back...

     (1877–1957), explorer, died in Zurich
  • Max Frisch
    Max Frisch
    Max Rudolf Frisch was a Swiss playwright and novelist, regarded as highly representative of German-language literature after World War II. In his creative works Frisch paid particular attention to issues relating to problems of human identity, individuality, responsibility, morality and political...

     (1911–1991), novelist, born and died in Zurich
  • Christoph Froschauer
    Christoph Froschauer
    Christoph Froschauer was the first printer in Zürich, notably for printing the Froschauer Bible, the Zwinglian Bible translation. His workshop is the nucleus of the Orell Füssli publishing house....

     (ca. 1490/1–1564), Printer of the Froschauer Bible, died in Zurich
  • Patrick Geering
    Patrick Geering
    Patrick Geering is a Swiss professional ice hockey defenceman who participated at the 2010 IIHF World Championship as a member of the Switzerland men's national ice hockey team.-External links:...

     (born 1990), ice hockey player, born in Zurich
  • Conrad Gessner
    Conrad Gessner
    Conrad Gessner was a Swiss naturalist and bibliographer. His five-volume Historiae animalium is considered the beginning of modern zoology, and the flowering plant genus Gesneria is named after him...

     (1516–1565), naturalist, born and died in Zurich
  • Marcel Grossmann
    Marcel Grossmann
    Marcel Grossmann was a mathematician of Jewish ancestry, and a friend and classmate of Albert Einstein. He became a Professor of Mathematics at the Federal Polytechnic Institute in Zurich, today the ETH Zurich, specializing in descriptive geometry....

     (1878–1936), mathematician, died in Zurich
  • Otto Hunziker
    Otto Frederick Hunziker
    Otto Frederick Hunziker was a pioneer in the American and international dairy industry, as both an educator and a technical innovator. Otto Hunziker was born and raised in Switzerland, emigrated to the U.S., and studied at Cornell University. He started and developed the dairy program at Purdue...

     (1873–1959), pioneer in the international dairy industry, born in Zurich
  • James Joyce
    James Joyce
    James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century...

     (1882–1941), Irish novelist, died in Zurich (buried at Fluntern cemetery in Zurich)
  • Carl Jung
    Carl Jung
    Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of Analytical Psychology. Jung is considered the first modern psychiatrist to view the human psyche as "by nature religious" and make it the focus of exploration. Jung is one of the best known researchers in the field of dream analysis and...

     (1875–1961), psychiatrist, lived and died in Zurich
  • Gottfried Keller
    Gottfried Keller
    Gottfried Keller , a Swiss writer of German-language literature, was best known for his novel Green Henry .- Life and work :...

     (1819–1890), poet, born and died in Zurich
  • Amanullah Khan
    Amanullah Khan
    Amanullah Khan was the King of the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Amir and after 1926 as Shah. He led Afghanistan to independence over its foreign affairs from the United Kingdom, and his rule was marked by dramatic political and social change...

     (1929–1960), deposed Afghan reformist King, died in Zurich
  • Otto Klemperer
    Otto Klemperer
    Otto Klemperer was a German conductor and composer. He is widely regarded as one of the leading conductors of the 20th century.-Biography:Otto Klemperer was born in Breslau, Silesia Province, then in Germany...

     (1885–1973), German conductor, died in Zurich (buried at Israelitischer Friedhof Oberer Friesenberg)
  • Hugo Koblet
    Hugo Koblet
    Hugo Koblet was a Swiss champion cyclist. He won the Tour de France and the Giro d'Italia as well as competing in six-day and pursuit races on the track. He won 70 races as a professional...

     (1925–1964), cycling champion, born in Zurich
  • Johann Kaspar Lavater
    Johann Kaspar Lavater
    Johann Kaspar Lavater was a Swiss poet and physiognomist.-Early life:Lavater was born at Zürich, and educated at the Gymnasium there, where J. J. Bodmer and J. J...

     (1741–1801), poet and physiognomist, born in Zurich
  • Antonio Ligabue
    Antonio Ligabue
    Antonio Ligabue was an Italian painter, one of the most important Naïve artists of the 20th century.He was born in Zurich, Switzerland, and died in Gualtieri, Reggio Emilia, Italy....

     (1899–1965), Italian painter, born in Zurich
  • Hugo Loetscher
    Hugo Loetscher
    Hugo Loetscher was a Swiss writer and essayist.- Life :Loetscher was born in Zürich, and grew up there. He studied philosophy, sociology and literature at the University of Zürich and the Sorbonne...

     (1929–2009), writer, born and died in Zurich
  • Dieter Meier
    Dieter Meier
    Dieter Meier is a Swiss musician and conceptual artist who is best known for the electronic music group Yello he formed with music producer Boris Blank...

     (born 1945), conceptual artist and musician with electronica group Yello
    Yello
    Yello is a Swiss electronica band consisting of Dieter Meier and Boris Blank. They are probably best known for their singles "The Race" and "Oh Yeah", which feature a mix of electronic music and manipulated vocals, as does most of their music....

    , born in Zurich
  • Conrad Ferdinand Meyer
    Conrad Ferdinand Meyer
    Conrad Ferdinand Meyer was a Swiss poet and historical novelist, a master of realism chiefly remembered for stirring narrative ballads like "Die Füße im Feuer" .-Biography:...

     (1825–1898), poet, born in Zurich
  • Wolfgang Pauli
    Wolfgang Pauli
    Wolfgang Ernst Pauli was an Austrian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. In 1945, after being nominated by Albert Einstein, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or...

     (1900–1958), physicist, died in Zurich
  • Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach....

     (1746–1827), educational reformer, born in Zurich
  • James Sadleir
    James Sadleir
    James Sadleir was a member of the British House of Commons, chiefly notable for being one of the few members expelled by that body. Sadleir was the son of Clement William Sadleir of Shrone Hill, County Tipperary...

     (c. 1815–1881), fugitive swindler, murdered in Zurich
  • Johann Jakob Scheuchzer
    Johann Jakob Scheuchzer
    Johann Jakob Scheuchzer was a Swiss scholar born at Zürich.thumb|Herbarium deluvianumthumb|Zürich, Zwingli-Platz : Former home of Konrad von Mure and the house, where Johann Jakob Scheuchzer was bornthumb|Memorial plate-Career:The son of the senior town physician of Zürich, he received his...

     (1672–1733), scholar, born in Zurich
  • Roland Scholl
    Roland Scholl
    Roland Heinrich Scholl was a Swiss chemist who taught at various European universities. Among his most notable achievements are the synthesis of coronene, the co-development of the Bally-Scholl synthesis, and various discoveries about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.-Early life and...

     (1865–1945), chemist, born in Zurich
  • Johanna Spyri
    Johanna Spyri
    Johanna Spyri was an author of children's stories, and is best known for her book Heidi. Born Johanna Louise Heusser in the rural area of Hirzel, Switzerland, as a child she spent several summers in the area around Chur in Graubünden, the setting she later would use in her novels.-Biography:In...

     (1827–1901), author of Heidi
    Heidi
    Heidi is a Swiss work of fiction, published in two parts as Heidi's years of learning and travel and Heidi makes use of what she has learned.It is a novel about the events in the life of a young girl in her grandfather's care, in the Swiss Alps...

    , died in Zurich
  • Tobias Stephan
    Tobias Stephan
    Tobias Stephan is a Swiss professional ice hockey goaltender currently playing for Genève-Servette of the Swiss National League A...

     (born 1984), ice hockey player, born in Zurich
  • Stefi Talman
    Stefi Talman
    Stefanie Thalman known as Stefi Talman is a Swiss-born shoe designer of Eurasian descent.-Life and Background:...

     (born 1958), Swiss shoe designer, born in Zurich
  • Pancho Vladigerov
    Pancho Vladigerov
    Pancho Haralanov Vladigerov was a Bulgarian composer, pedagogue, and pianist....

     (1899–1978), Bulgarian composer, born in Zurich
  • Ueli Gegenschatz
    Ueli Gegenschatz
    Ueli Gegenschatz was a Swiss BASE jumper, paraglider and skydiver who held several world records....

     (1971–2009), Swiss BASE jumper, died in Zurich after a failed jump from the Sunrise Tower


Famous residents:
  • Gustav Bertha (2000–2009)
  • Boris Blank
    Boris Blank (musician)
    Boris Blank is a Swiss artist and musician especially famous for his work in the musical duo Yello with Dieter Meier.-Career:...

    , musician with Yello
    Yello
    Yello is a Swiss electronica band consisting of Dieter Meier and Boris Blank. They are probably best known for their singles "The Race" and "Oh Yeah", which feature a mix of electronic music and manipulated vocals, as does most of their music....

  • Mileva Maric
    Mileva Maric
    Mileva Marić was one of the first women to study mathematics and physics in Europe...

    , Serbian
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

     mathematician and the first wife of Albert Einstein
  • Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

     (1896–1900, 1909–1911, 1912–1914)
  • James Joyce
    James Joyce
    James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century...

     (1915–1919)
  • Udo Jürgens
    Udo Jürgens
    Udo Jürgens is an Austrian composer and singer of popular music whose career spans over fifty years...

  • Celtic Frost
    Celtic Frost
    Celtic Frost was a metal band from Zürich, Switzerland. They are known for their heavy influence on the extreme metal genres. The group was first active from 1984 to 1993, and re-formed in 2001. Following Tom Gabriel Fischer's departure in 2008, Celtic Frost decided to break up again...

  • Patricia Kaas
    Patricia Kaas
    Patricia Kaas is a French singer and actress.Kaas is a very successful French-speaking singer, with an International following...

  • Vladimir Lenin
    Vladimir Lenin
    Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years , as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a...

     (1917)
  • Thomas Mann
    Thomas Mann
    Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual...

     (1933–1942)
  • Manuel Rivera-Ortiz
    Manuel Rivera-Ortiz
    Manuel Rivera-Ortiz is an American documentary photographer of Puerto Rican descent, the author of several photographic collections and the recipient of a number of awards. He is best known for his documentary photographs of people's living conditions in less developed countries...

  • Kurt Tucholsky
    Kurt Tucholsky
    Kurt Tucholsky was a German-Jewish journalist, satirist and writer. He also wrote under the pseudonyms Kaspar Hauser, Peter Panter, Theobald Tiger and Ignaz Wrobel. Born in Berlin-Moabit, he moved to Paris in 1924 and then to Sweden in 1930.Tucholsky was one of the most important journalists of...

     (1932–1933)
  • Tina Turner
    Tina Turner
    Tina Turner is an American singer and actress whose career has spanned more than 50 years. She has won numerous awards and her achievements in the rock music genre have led many to call her the "Queen of Rock 'n' Roll".Turner started out her music career with husband Ike Turner as a member of the...

  • Tristan Tzara
    Tristan Tzara
    Tristan Tzara was a Romanian and French avant-garde poet, essayist and performance artist. Also active as a journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, he was known best for being one of the founders and central figures of the anti-establishment Dada movement...

     (1896–1963)
  • Richard Wagner
    Richard Wagner
    Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...

     (1849–1861)
  • Jonas Kaufmann
    Jonas Kaufmann
    Jonas Kaufmann is a German operatic tenor. Although he has sung a variety of leading roles including both the Mozart and Wagner repertoire, he is particularly known for his performances in spinto roles such as Don José in Carmen, Cavaradossi in Tosca, Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur, and the title...


See also


  • Eastern Switzerland
    Eastern Switzerland
    Eastern Switzerland is the common name of the region situated to the north of Glarus Alps, with the cantons of Schaffhausen, Thurgau, St. Gallen, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Glarus...

  • List of mayors of Zurich
  • Paddle steamer Stadt Zürich
    Paddle steamer Stadt Zürich
    Stadt Zürich is the oldest steam paddle ship on Lake Zurich. Stadt Zürich was built in 1909 by Escher, Wyss & Cie. in Zürich for the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft, as the 32nd ship in touristic service on Lake Zürich...


External links