Copenhagen

Copenhagen

Overview
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region. Within this region, Copenhagen and the Swedish
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 city of Malmö
Malmö
Malmö , in the southernmost province of Scania, is the third most populous city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg.Malmö is the seat of Malmö Municipality and the capital of Skåne County...

 are growing into a combined metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

. Copenhagen is situated on the islands of Zealand and Amager
Amager
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is partly situated on Amager, which is connected to the much larger island of Zealand by five bridges.-History:...

.

First documented in the 11th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the beginning of the 15th century.
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Timeline

1794   Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen burns down.

1843   Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.

1911   International Women's Day is launched in Copenhagen, Denmark, by Clara Zetkin, leader of the Women's Office for the Social Democratic Party in Germany.

1957   G-AOHP of British European Airways crashes at Ballerup after the failure of three engines on approach to Copenhagen Airport. The cause was a malfunction of the anti-icing system on the aircraft.

1964   In Copenhagen, Denmark, Gigliola Cinquetti wins the ninth Eurovision Song Contest for Italy singing "Non ho l'età" ("I'm not old enough").

1993   EU - riots in Nørrebro, Copenhagen caused by the approval of the four Danish exceptions in the Maastricht Treaty referendum. Police opened fire against civilians for the first time since World War II and injured 11 demonstrators. In total 113 bullets are fired.

2007   "Squatters" are evicted from Ungdomshuset in Copenhagen, Denmark, provoking the March 2007 Denmark Riots.

 
Encyclopedia
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region. Within this region, Copenhagen and the Swedish
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 city of Malmö
Malmö
Malmö , in the southernmost province of Scania, is the third most populous city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg.Malmö is the seat of Malmö Municipality and the capital of Skåne County...

 are growing into a combined metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

. Copenhagen is situated on the islands of Zealand and Amager
Amager
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is partly situated on Amager, which is connected to the much larger island of Zealand by five bridges.-History:...

.

First documented in the 11th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the beginning of the 15th century. During the 17th century, under the reign of Christian IV
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV was the king of Denmark-Norway from 1588 until his death. With a reign of more than 59 years, he is the longest-reigning monarch of Denmark, and he is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects...

, it became a significant regional centre.

Copenhagen is a major regional centre of culture, business, media, and science, as indicated by several international surveys and rankings (see International rankings below). Life science
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

, information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 and shipping
Shipping
Shipping has multiple meanings. It can be a physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo, by land, air, and sea. It also can describe the movement of objects by ship.Land or "ground" shipping can be by train or by truck...

 are important sectors, and research & development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

 plays a major role in the city's economy. Its strategic location and excellent infrastructure, with the largest airport in Scandinavia located 14 minutes by train from the city centre, have made it a regional hub and a popular location for regional headquarters and conventions
Convention (meeting)
A convention, in the sense of a meeting, is a gathering of individuals who meet at an arranged place and time in order to discuss or engage in some common interest. The most common conventions are based upon industry, profession, and fandom...

.

Copenhagen has repeatedly been recognized as one of the cities with the best quality of life. It is also considered one of the world's most environmentally friendly
Environmentally friendly
Environmentally friendly are terms used to refer to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies claimed to inflict minimal or no harm on the environment....

 cities. The water in the inner harbour is clean and safe for swimming. 36% of all citizens commute to work by bicycle. Every day, they cycle a combined 1.2 million km.

Since the turn of the millennium, Copenhagen has seen a strong urban and cultural development and has been described as a boom town. This is partly due to massive investments in cultural facilities as well as infrastructure and a new wave of successful designers, chefs and architects. , Copenhagen is ranked as the 10th most expensive city in the world according to Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

 magazine.

History


Copenhagen's founding has traditionally been dated to Bishop Absalon
Absalon
Absalon was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death. He was the foremost politician and churchfather of Denmark in the second half of the 12th century, and was the closest advisor of King Valdemar I of...

's construction of a castle on the small island of Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark, and part of Copenhagen Inner City. Bishop Absalon constructed the city's first castle on the island in 1166-67 at the site where Christiansborg Palace, the seat of the Danish Parliament lies today...

 in 1167 where Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace, , on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, is the seat of the Folketing , the Danish Prime Minister's Office and the Danish Supreme Court...

 stands today. Recent archeological finds indicate that by the 11th century, Copenhagen had already grown into a small town with a large estate, a church, a market, at least two wells and many smaller habitations spread over a fairly wide area. Many historians believe that the town dates to the late Viking age, and was possibly founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard. From the middle of the 12th century it grew in importance, after coming into Absolon's possession, who fortified it in 1167, the year traditionally marking the foundation of Copenhagen. The excellent harbour
Harbor
A harbor or harbour , or haven, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use. Harbors can be natural or artificial...

 encouraged Copenhagen's growth until it became an important centre of commerce. However it did not become the nation's capital until the middle of the 15th century, and the archbishop still has residence in Roskilde
Roskilde
Roskilde is the main city in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark on the island of Zealand. It is an ancient city, dating from the Viking Age and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network....

.

The city's origin as a harbour and a place of commerce is reflected in its name. Its original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name is derived, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning "merchants' harbour" or "buyer's haven" (cf. German "Kaufmannshafen"). The English name for the city is derived from its Low German
Low German
Low German or Low Saxon is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands...

 name, Kopenhagen. The element hafnium
Hafnium
Hafnium is a chemical element with the symbol Hf and atomic number 72. A lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in zirconium minerals. Its existence was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869. Hafnium was the penultimate stable...

 is also named for Copenhagen, whose Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 name is Hafnia, derived from the city's original name, Hafnæ ("harbour").

As the town rose in prominence, it was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
The Hanseatic League was an economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe...

. In 1254 it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen
Jakob Erlandsen
Jakob Erlandsen was a Danish Archbishop of Lund and the central character of the first great church conflict in Denmark....

. During 1658–59 it withstood a siege by the Swedes
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 under Charles X
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Charles X Gustav also Carl Gustav, was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he also succeeded him as Pfalzgraf. He was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who...

 and successfully repelled a major assault. In 1711 the plague
Black Death
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Of several competing theories, the dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory, which attributes the outbreak to the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Thought to have...

 reduced Copenhagen's population of about 65,000 by one-third.

On 2 April 1801 a British
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom during the period when what is now the Republic of Ireland formed a part of it....

 fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker defeated a Danish-Norwegian
Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway is the historiographical name for a former political entity consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the originally Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands...

 fleet
Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy
The Royal Danish-Norwegian Navy or The Common Fleet also known simply as the Danish Navy was the naval force of the united kingdoms Denmark and Norway from 1509 to 12 April 1814. The fleet was established when the Royal Danish Navy and the Royal Norwegian Navy was combined by King Hans, when he...

 anchored near Copenhagen. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, KB was a flag officer famous for his service in the Royal Navy, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was noted for his inspirational leadership and superb grasp of strategy and unconventional tactics, which resulted in a number of...

 led the main attack. He famously disobeyed Parker's order to withdraw, destroying many of the Dano-Norwegian ships before a truce was agreed. Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought battle, surpassing even the heavy fighting at Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
The Battle of Trafalgar was a sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the French Navy and Spanish Navy, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars ....

. It was during this battle that Lord Nelson famously "put the telescope to the blind eye" in order not to see Admiral Parker's signal to cease fire
Ceasefire
A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have also been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces...

.

The Second Battle of Copenhagen
Battle of Copenhagen (1807)
The Second Battle of Copenhagen was a British preemptive attack on Copenhagen, targeting the civilian population in order to seize the Dano-Norwegian fleet and in turn originate the term to Copenhagenize.-Background:Despite the defeat and loss of many ships in the first Battle of Copenhagen in...

 (or the Bombardment of Copenhagen) (16 August – 5 September 1807) was from a British point of view a preemptive attack
Preemptive war
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived inevitable offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending war before that threat materializes. It is a war which preemptively 'breaks the peace'. The term: 'preemptive war' is...

 on Copenhagen, targeting the civilian population in order to seize the Dano-Norwegian fleet
Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy
The Royal Danish-Norwegian Navy or The Common Fleet also known simply as the Danish Navy was the naval force of the united kingdoms Denmark and Norway from 1509 to 12 April 1814. The fleet was established when the Royal Danish Navy and the Royal Norwegian Navy was combined by King Hans, when he...

. But from a Danish point of view the battle was a terror bombardment on their capital. Particularly notable was the use of incendiary Congreve rocket
Congreve rocket
The Congreve Rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804.The rocket was developed by the British Royal Arsenal following the experiences of the Second, Third and Fourth Mysore Wars. The wars fought between the British East India Company and the...

s (containing phosphorus, which cannot be extinguished with water) that randomly hit the city. Few houses with straw roofs remained after the bombardment. The largest church, Vor frue kirke
Church of Our Lady (Copenhagen)
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen and the National Cathedral of Denmark. It is situated on Vor Frue Plads and next to the main building of the University of Copenhagen....

, was destroyed by the sea artillery. The battle is considered the first terror attack
Terrorism
Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. In the international community, however, terrorism has no universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition...

 against a major European city in modern times by several historians. The confiscation of the navy, would later source the term to Copenhagenize
Copenhagenization (naval)
Copenhagenization refers to the practice of confiscating the warships of a defeated enemy. It first occurs when the British fleet under Admiral Gambier defeated the Dano-Norwegian fleet in the Second Battle of Copenhagen in 1807....

.
The British landed 30,000 men and surrounded Copenhagen. The attack continued for the next three days, killing some 2,000 civilians and destroying most of the city. The devastation was so great because Copenhagen relied on an old defence-line
Fortifications of Copenhagen
The fortifications of Copenhagen is the broad name for the rings of fortifications surrounding the city of Copenhagen. It can be classified historically as follows:* The medieval fortifications dating from the 12th century...

 whose limited range could not reach the British ships and their longer-range
Range of a projectile
right|thumb|250 px|The path of this projectile launched from a height y0 has a range d.In physics, assuming a flat Earth with a uniform gravity field, a projectile launched with specific initial conditions will have a predictable range. As in Trajectory of a projectile, we will use:The following...

 artillery. Not until the 1850s were the ramparts of the city opened to allow new housing to be built around The Lakes  that bordered the old defences to the west. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, because the old ramparts were out of date as a defence system, and because of bad sanitation
Sanitation
Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic...

 in the old city. Before the opening, central Copenhagen was inhabited by approximately 125,000 people, peaking in the census of 1870 (140,000); today the figure is around 25,000. In 1901, Copenhagen expanded further, incorporating communities with 40,000 people, and in the process making Frederiksberg an enclave
Enclave and exclave
In political geography, an enclave is a territory whose geographical boundaries lie entirely within the boundaries of another territory.An exclave, on the other hand, is a territory legally or politically attached to another territory with which it is not physically contiguous.These are two...

 within Copenhagen.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Copenhagen was occupied by German troops
Occupation of Denmark
Nazi Germany's occupation of Denmark began with Operation Weserübung on 9 April 1940, and lasted until German forces withdrew at the end of World War II following their surrender to the Allies on 5 May 1945. Contrary to the situation in other countries under German occupation, most Danish...

 along with the rest of the country from 9 April 1940 until 4 May 1945. The occupation was not a part of the Nazi German expansion, and in the first years German authorities wanted a kind of understanding with the Danish government. Even a general parliamentary election was granted in 1941, with only the Communist Party
Communist Party of Denmark
Communist Party of Denmark is a communist political party in Denmark which was founded as Venstresocialistiske Parti in 1919. VSP was a split from the Danish Social Democratic Party. The party assumed its present name in 1920...

 excluded. But in August 1943, when the government's collaboration with the occupation forces collapsed, several ships were scuttled in Copenhagen Harbour by the Royal Danish Navy
Royal Danish Navy
The Royal Danish Navy is the sea-based branch of the Danish Defence force. The RDN is mainly responsible for maritime defence and maintaining the sovereignty of Danish, Greenlandic and Faroese territorial waters...

 to prevent their use by the Germans. Around that time the Nazis started to arrest Jews
Racial policy of Nazi Germany
The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the "Aryan race", and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy...

, although many managed to escape to Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

.

After the Normandy invasion the Germans feared that the Danish police could become a problem, and in early September 1944 the entire Danish police force was meant to be arrested. But a majority of the Danish police managed to either hide or escape to Sweden. Out of 2,000 policemen captured and deported to Germany fewer than half returned after the war. During the last eight months of occupation Copenhagen suffered a high rate of common criminality.

Ole Lippman, the leader of the Danish resistance movement (SOE)
Special Operations Executive
The Special Operations Executive was a World War II organisation of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 July 1940, to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local...

, asked for RAF assistance in attacking Nazi headquarters in Copenhagen. Accordingly, vice Air Marshall Sir Basil Embry
Basil Embry
Air Chief Marshal Sir Basil Edward Embry GCB, KBE, DSO & Three Bars, DFC, AFC, RAF, was a senior Royal Air Force commander...

 drew the plans for a spectacular precision attack on the SD
Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst , full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS, or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany. The organization was the first Nazi Party intelligence organization to be established and was often considered a "sister organization" with the...

 and Gestapo
Gestapo
The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

 building, the former office of the Shell Oil Company
Shell Oil Company
Shell Oil Company is the United States-based subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, a multinational oil company of Anglo Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest oil companies in the world. Approximately 22,000 Shell employees are based in the U.S. The head office in the U.S. is in Houston, Texas...

. Political prisoners were kept in the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels of the building. The attack came on 22 March 1945, coming in three small waves. All six planes (carrying one bomb each) in the first wave hit their target, but unfortunately one of the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg girls school. Due to this crash four of the planes in the two following waves assumed the school was the target, and aim their bombs at the school. Several teachers and some 15 students were killed, but 18 (of 20 total) political prisoners managed to escape, the Gestapo archives were completely destroyed, and Hitler became so insecure of the situation that he withdrew only half of the roughly 200,000 soldiers in Denmark to reinforce German forces on the Rhine.

Since the summer of 2000, Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö
Malmö
Malmö , in the southernmost province of Scania, is the third most populous city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg.Malmö is the seat of Malmö Municipality and the capital of Skåne County...

 have been connected by a toll bridge/tunnel (Øresund Bridge), which carries railroad and automobile traffic. As a result, Copenhagen has become the centre of a larger metropolitan area which spans both nations. The construction of the bridge has led to many changes to the public transport system
Transport network
A transport network, or transportation network in American English, is typically a network of roads, streets, pipes, aqueducts, power lines, or nearly any structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity....

 and extensive redevelopment of Amager
Amager
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is partly situated on Amager, which is connected to the much larger island of Zealand by five bridges.-History:...

, south of Copenhagen.

In December 2009 Copenhagen hosted the worldwide climate meeting COP15. When US President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 participated in the end of this meeting it was the fourth time an American President had visited Copenhagen during his term (Obama also visited Copenhagen in October 2009, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

 in 2005 and Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

 in the 1990s).

Location




Copenhagen is located on the eastern shore of the island of Zealand (Sjælland), partly on the island of Amager
Amager
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is partly situated on Amager, which is connected to the much larger island of Zealand by five bridges.-History:...

 and on a number of natural and artificial islets between the two. Copenhagen faces the Øresund to the east, the strait of water that separates Denmark from Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, and which connects the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 with the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

. The Swedish
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 towns of Malmö
Malmö
Malmö , in the southernmost province of Scania, is the third most populous city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg.Malmö is the seat of Malmö Municipality and the capital of Skåne County...

 and Landskrona
Landskrona
Landskrona is a locality and the seat of Landskrona Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 28,670 inhabitants in 2005.-History:The city of Landskrona was founded at the location of Scania's best natural harbour, as a means of King Eric of Pomerania's anti-Hanseatic policy, intended to compete...

 lie on the Swedish side of the sound directly across from Copenhagen.

Copenhagen is part of the Øresund region, which consists of Zealand, Lolland-Falster and Bornholm in Denmark and Scania
Scania
Scania is the southernmost of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, constituting a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, and some adjacent islands. The modern administrative subdivision Skåne County is almost, but not totally, congruent with the...

 in Sweden.

Copenhagen Municipality


Copenhagen Municipality
Copenhagen municipality
Copenhagen Municipality is the largest of the municipalities making up the city of Copenhagen. It lies at the center of Copenhagen and contains the old historic city....

 is an administrative unit which covers the central part of the actual city of Copenhagen. It is a fairly small part of the actual city which falls within the municipality both because it covers a confined area and because the enclave of Frederiksberg is an independent municipality. Since a reform in 2006–08, Copenhagen is divided into 10 official districts (Danish: Bydele).
Official districts Other areas
  • 1. Indre By
    Indre By
    Indre By , also known as Copenhagen Center or K or Downtown Copenhagen or City, is one of the 15 administrative, statistical, and tax city districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark...

  • 2. Østerbro
    Østerbro
    Østerbro is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just north of the city centre, outside the old city gate Østerport which, after it was moved around 1700, used to be located close to present-day Østerport Station...

  • 3. Nørrebro
    Nørrebro
    Nørrebro is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is northwest of the city centre, beyond the location of the old Northern Gate , which, until dismantled in 1856, was near the current Nørreport station.-Geography:...

  • 4. Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave
    Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave
    Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. The district has an area of 8.22 km² and a population of 53,351.* Vesterbro* Kongens Enghave...

  • 5. Valby
    Valby
    ' is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located in the southwestern corner of Copenhagen Municipality, it is a heterogeneous mixture of different types of housing - including apartment blocks, terraced housing, areas with single-family houses and allotments, as well as remains...

  • 6. Vanløse
    Vanløse
    Vanløse is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It lies on the western border of the municipality. Vanløse covers an area of 6.69 km², and has a population of 36,115, making Vanløse the smallest district of Copenhagen, by population....

  • 7. Brønshøj-Husum
    Brønshøj-Husum
    Brønshøj-Husum is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It lies on the northwest border of the municipality. It covers an area of 8.73 km², has a population of 39,588...

  • 8. Bispebjerg
    Bispebjerg
    Bispebjerg is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It lies on the north border of the municipality. It covers an area of 5.39 km², has a population of 40,033, and a population density of 7,389 per km²....

  • 9. Amager Øst
    Amager Øst
    Amager Øst is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It encompasses the part of Copenhagen located on the island of Amager, east of the major shopping street Amagerbrogade.Prior to an administrative reform in 2006-08, the district was known as Sundbyøster.Amager Øst holds within...

  • 10. Amager Vest
    Amager Vest
    Amager Vest is a district of Copenhagen, Denmark, located on the western part of the island of Amager....


Source: the official site of the City of Copenhagen
  • Slotsholmen
    Slotsholmen
    Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark, and part of Copenhagen Inner City. Bishop Absalon constructed the city's first castle on the island in 1166-67 at the site where Christiansborg Palace, the seat of the Danish Parliament lies today...

  • Frederiksstaden
    Frederiksstaden
    Frederiksstaden is a district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Constructed during the reign of Frederick V in the second half of the 18th century and it is considered to be one of the most important rococo complexes in Europe....

  • Islands Brygge
    Islands Brygge
    Islands Brygge is a harbourfront area in central Copenhagen, Denmark, located on the north-western coast of Amager. The neighbourhood is noted for its waterfront park Havneparken, which is one of the most popular areas along the Copenhagen harbourfront and the location of one of the Copenhagen...

  • Holmen
    Holmen, Copenhagen
    Holmen is an area in central Copenhagen, Denmark. In spite of its name, deceptively in singular, Holmen is a congregation of small islands, forming a north-eastern extension of Christianshavn between Zealand and the northern tip of Amager....

  • Christiania
    Freetown Christiania
    Not to be confused with Christiania, Norway, another name for Oslo.Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighbourhood of about 850 residents, covering 34 hectares in the borough of Christianshavn in the Danish capital Copenhagen...

     (Freetown)
  • Carlsberg
    Carlsberg (district)
    Carlsberg is an area straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 33 hectares and is the former industrial site of the Carlsberg Breweries, which decommissioned their Valby brewery at the end of 2008, concentrating their production of...

  • Sluseholmen
    Sluseholmen
    Sluseholmen is a peninsula in the South Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Southern Docklands of the Port of Copenhagen, the area used to house heavy industry, but since the turn of the millennium Sluseholmen has undergone massive redevelopment, transforming it into a mainly residential...

  • Amagerbro
    Amagerbro
    Amagerbro is an area in the northern part of the island Amager and a district in Copenhagen. The area is known as a working class area, and has approximately 20,000 inhabitants. The district has 2 metro stations. Amagerbro station and Lergravsparken station....

  • Ørestad
    Ørestad
    Ørestad is a developing city area in Copenhagen, Denmark, on the island of Amager. It is expected that 20,000 people will live in Ørestad, 20,000 will study, and 80,000 people will be employed in the area...

  • Nordhavnen
    Nordhavnen
    Nordhavnen, or Nordhavn, is a harbour area at the coast of Øresund founded at the end of the 19th century in Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of more than 2 km²....

  • Bellahøj
    Bellahøj
    Bellahøj Husene is a large housing project, 5km northwest of central Copenhagen, Denmark. It contains 28 high-rise blocks. Each block has between 9 and 13 floors. The housing project was among the first ever built in Scandinavia. It was the first with high-rise apartments in Copenhagen when it was...

  • Brønshøj
    Brønshøj
    Brønshøj, part of the municipality of Copenhagen, forms, together with Husum, the administrative city district of Brønshøj-Husum. Brønshøj lies on rising ground 4 km west of Copenhagen center and is bordered by the large wetland area of Utterslev Mose to the north. A number of ponds, lakes,...

  • Ryparken
    Ryparken
    Ryparken is an area in the northern part of Østerbro, Copenhagen. The area is sometimes referred to as the "broke" area of relatively rich Østerbro. The area is connected by S-train....

  • Vigerslev
    Vigerslev
    Vigerslev is a working class neighborhood and is part of Valby, Copenhagen, Denmark. The area is dominated by a large industrial zone, apartments and few single-family houses.The area is connected with S-train ....




The suffix -bro in the names Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Amagerbro should not be confused with the Danish word for bridge, which is also 'bro'. The term is thought to be an abbreviation
Abbreviation
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. Usually, but not always, it consists of a letter or group of letters taken from the word or phrase...

 or short form of the Danish word brolagt meaning paved referring to the roads paved with cobblestones leading to the city's former gates.

Greater Copenhagen



The conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 of Copenhagen consists of several municipalities. After Copenhagen Municipality
Copenhagen municipality
Copenhagen Municipality is the largest of the municipalities making up the city of Copenhagen. It lies at the center of Copenhagen and contains the old historic city....

, the second largest is Frederiksberg Municipality, an enclave inside Copenhagen Municipality. Both are contained in the larger Capital Region of Denmark, containing most of the Copenhagen metropolitan area
Metropolitan Copenhagen
The term Metropolitan Copenhagen consist of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg municipalities and the former Copenhagen County, except for the municipalities Høje-Taastrup, Ledøje-Smørum, in all, 18 municipalities, and except parts of Ballerup, Greve , Ishøj, former Søllerød and former Værløse, ...

.

Previously, the areas of Frederiksberg, Gentofte and Copenhagen municipalities have been used to define the city of Copenhagen. This definition is now obsolete. To meet statistical needs upon the latest municipal reform, which took place in early 2007, a definitory concept of Danish lands was introduced. A land is basically a geographical and statistical definition, and the area is not considered to be an administrative unit. The land of Copenhagen City includes the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør, Frederiksberg and Tårnby, with a total population of 692,876 at the start of 2011.

Copenhagen and Frederiksberg were two of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county
Counties of Denmark
Denmark was until December 31, 2006 divided into 15 counties , and 270 municipalities . On January 1, 2007, the counties were replaced by five Regions and the number of municipalities slashed to 98....

. On 1 January 2007, the municipalities lost their county privileges and became part of Copenhagen Capital Region.

Finger Plan


Suburban Copenhagen is planned according to the Finger Plan
Finger Plan
The Finger Plan is an urban plan from 1947 which provides a strategy for the development of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. According to the plan, Copenhagen is to develop along five 'funger', centred on S-train commuter rail lines, which extend from the 'palm', that is the dense urban fabric of...

 , initiated in 1947, dividing the suburbs into five fingers. The S-train
S-Train
The S-train network is a combined urban rapid transit and suburban rail network of Metropolitan Copenhagen, Denmark. It connects the city center with the inner suburbs of Copenhagen, and has close to half of the stations within the urban city. The first line was opened in 1934...

 lines are built according to the Finger Plan, while green wedges and highways are built between the fingers.

Climate


Copenhagen is in the oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 zone, bordering on a humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

: Dfb). As the city is in the path of Atlantic low-pressure systems, Copenhagen experiences unstable and changing weather patterns in all four seasons, as well as temperatures about 5 degrees higher than average for its latitude (55 degrees North) worldwide. The main reason for this warmth is the Atlantic Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

, which moves warm water from around Gulf Coast area toward Europe, and the low-pressure systems follow with the oceanic stream.

Precipitation is moderate throughout the year, with a small peak during June to August. Snowfall occurs mainly from late December until early March, but snow cover seldom lasts long. Rain during January and February is as common as snow, and the average temperatures for these two winter months is near the freezing point
Melting point
The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard atmospheric pressure...

.

During winter, the weather is dependent on which latitude the Atlantic low pressure centre takes. With a stable high-pressure system around the Alps
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

, the low pressure from the southwest moves toward southern Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

 and northern Germany, producing above-freezing temperatures day and night. When a stable high-pressure system sits over Denmark or the lands to the northeast (such as Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

 or Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

), the mild Atlantic winds from the southwest are blocked, allowing polar winds to cover the area, and the temperature dips to below freezing (rarely below -5 °C during the day and -12 °C during the night). If the European continent experiences cold due to the eastern Russian winds, which rarely occurs, it can "freeze from the south". This was a phenomenon that took several centuries to understand.

Spring is comparable to continental Europe, but delayed about a week because of the cold surrounding water. On the other hand, in late autumn Copenhagen is kept milder due to the same factor, but reversed. In late November and December the surrounding ocean water is generally warmer than the air. From mid-October to February, one or two storms occur. Storms in the summertime are rare.

Summer is a mixture of southwestern mild, windy and rainy low-pressure systems, and periods of stable high pressures. In summer, high-pressure systems usually bring sunny and fairly warm weather. But these warm periods, which can occur any time from late April until mid September, usually last no longer than ten days.

Cityscape



The city's appearance today is shaped by the key role it has played as a regional centre for centuries. Copenhagen has a multitude of districts, each representing its time and with its own distinctive character, making up a dense urban fabric. Other distinctive features of Copenhagen include the abundance of water, the many parks, and the bicycle paths
Segregated cycle facilities
Segregated cycle facilities are marked lanes, tracks, shoulders and paths designated for use by cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded...

 that line most streets.

Architecture




The oldest section of Copenhagen's inner city
Inner city
The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis. In the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Ireland, the term is often applied to the lower-income residential districts in the city centre and nearby areas...

 is often referred to as "Middelalderbyen" (The Medieval
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 City). However, the most distinctive district of Copenhagen is Frederiksstaden
Frederiksstaden
Frederiksstaden is a district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Constructed during the reign of Frederick V in the second half of the 18th century and it is considered to be one of the most important rococo complexes in Europe....

 developed during the reign of Frederick V
Frederick V of Denmark
Frederick V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1746, son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalen of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.-Early life:...

. It has Amalienborg Palace
Amalienborg Palace
Amalienborg Palace is the winter home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. It consists of four identical classicizing palace façades with rococo interiors around an octagonal courtyard ; in the centre of the square is a monumental equestrian statue of Amalienborg's...

 at its centre and is dominated by the dome of the Marble Church
Frederik's Church
Frederick's Church , popularly known as The Marble Church is a church in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just north of Amalienborg Palace....

 and several elegant 18th century mansions. The old inner city of Copenhagen includes the small island of Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark, and part of Copenhagen Inner City. Bishop Absalon constructed the city's first castle on the island in 1166-67 at the site where Christiansborg Palace, the seat of the Danish Parliament lies today...

 with Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace, , on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, is the seat of the Folketing , the Danish Prime Minister's Office and the Danish Supreme Court...

 and Christianshavn
Christianshavn
Christianshavn is an artificial island neighbourhood located in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen. Originally it was laid out as an independent privileged merchant's town with inspiration from...

. Around the historical city centre lies a band of congenial residential bouroughs (Vesterbro, Inner Nørrebro, Inner Østerbro) dating mainly from late 19th century. They were built outside the old ramparts of the city when the city was finally allowed to expand beyond this barrier.

Sometimes referred to as "the City of Spires", Copenhagen is known for its horizontal skyline, only broken by spires at churches and castles. Most characteristic is the baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 spire of Church of Our Saviour with its spiralling and narrowing external stairs that visitors can climb to the very top of the spire. Other important spires are those of Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace
Christiansborg Palace, , on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, is the seat of the Folketing , the Danish Prime Minister's Office and the Danish Supreme Court...

, the City Hall
Copenhagen City Hall
Copenhagen City Hall is the headquarters of the Municipal Council as well as the Lord mayor of the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. The building is situated on The City Hall Square in central Copenhagen....

 and the former Church of St. Nikolaj that now houses a modern art
Modern art
Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of...

 venue. A bit lower are the renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 spires of Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle is a renaissance castle located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. The castle was originally built as a country summerhouse in 1606 and is an example of Christian IV's many architectural projects...

 and the "dragon spire" of Christian IV's former stock exchange
Børsen
Børsen is a building on Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is built by Christian IV in 1619–1640 and is the oldest stock exchange in Denmark...

, so named because it resembles the tails of four dragons twined together.

Recent years have seen a boom in modern architecture in Copenhagen both when it comes to Danish architecture
Architecture of Denmark
The architecture of Denmark has its origins in the Viking period, richly revealed by archaeological finds. It became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, then Gothic churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country...

 and works by international architects. For a few hundred years, virtually no foreign architects had worked in Copenhagen but since the turn of the millennium the city and its immediate sourroundings have seen buildings and projects from international star architects. In the same time, a number of Danish architects have achieved success in Copenhagen and abroad. Buildings in Copenhagen have won RIBA European Awards
Royal Institute of British Architects
The Royal Institute of British Architects is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally.-History:...

 four years in a row ("Sampension" in 2005, "Kilen" in 2006, "Tietgenkollegiet" in 2007 and the Royal Playhouse
Royal Danish Playhouse
The Royal Danish Playhouse is a theatre building for the Royal Danish Theatre, situated on the harbour front in the Frederiksstaden neighbourhood of central Copenhagen, Denmark...

 in 2008.) The last three mentioned projects are all by Lundgaard & Tranberg Architects. At the 2008 World Architecture Festival
World Architecture Festival
The World Architecture Festival is an annual event held in Barcelona organised by EMAP, a media group that runs other festivals, including the World Retail Congress and Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival, as well as publishes various journals, including within the field of...

 in Barcelona, Bjarke Ingels Group
Bjarke Ingels
Bjarke Ingels is a Danish architect. He heads the architectural practice Bjarke Ingels Group which he founded in 2006. In 2009 he co-founded the design consultancy KiBiSi...

 won an award for the World's Best Residential Building 2008 for a house in Ørestad. The Forum AID Award for Best building in Scandinavia went to Copenhagen buildings both in 2006 and 2008. In 2008 British design magazine Monocle
Monocle (2007 magazine)
Monocle is a lifestyle magazine and website founded by Tyler Brûlé, a Canadian journalist and entrepreneur. Described by CBC News reporter Harry Forestell as a "meeting between Foreign Policy and Vanity Fair", the magazine provides a globalist perspective on issues as fashion, international...

 named Copenhagen the World's best design city 2008.

The boom in urban development
Urban planning
Urban planning incorporates areas such as economics, design, ecology, sociology, geography, law, political science, and statistics to guide and ensure the orderly development of settlements and communities....

 and modern architecture
Modern architecture
Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely...

 has brought some changes to the city's skyline. A political majority has decided to keep the historical centre free of high-rise buildings, but several areas will see or have already seen massive urban development. Ørestad
Ørestad
Ørestad is a developing city area in Copenhagen, Denmark, on the island of Amager. It is expected that 20,000 people will live in Ørestad, 20,000 will study, and 80,000 people will be employed in the area...

 now has seen most of the recent development. Located near Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark and the Oresund Region. It is located on the island of Amager, south of Copenhagen city centre, and west of Malmö city centre on the other side of the Oresund Bridge. The airport lies mainly in the municipality...

, it currently boasts one of the largest malls in Scandinavia and a variety of office and residential buildings as well as IT University
IT University of Copenhagen
The IT University of Copenhagen is a Danish globally oriented, independent university.The IT University of Copenhagen was established in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1999. At that time, it was - in Danish - called "IT-højskolen"...

 and a high school. The two largest hotels in Scandinavia are currently under construction (ultimo 2008).
An ambitious regeneration project will create a new Carlsberg District
Carlsberg (district)
Carlsberg is an area straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 33 hectares and is the former industrial site of the Carlsberg Breweries, which decommissioned their Valby brewery at the end of 2008, concentrating their production of...

 at the historical premises of the Carlsberg Breweries that has terminated the production of beer in Copenhagen and moved it to Fredericia
Fredericia
Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the eastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region known locally as Trekanten, or The Triangle...

. The district will have a total of nine high-rise buildings and seeks to mix the old industrial buildings with modern architecture to create a dense, maze-like quarter with a focus on sustainability
Sustainability
Sustainability is the capacity to endure. For humans, sustainability is the long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions, and encompasses the concept of union, an interdependent relationship and mutual responsible position with all living and non...

 and an active urban life. A third major area of urban development also with a focus on sustanibility is Nordhavn
Nordhavn
Nordhavn is a trade name of a line of ocean-going recreational trawler style yacht designed and produced by Pacific Asian Enterprises, Inc. of Dana Point, California. The yachts, ranging from 40 to in length, are renowned for their structural strength and ability to cross oceans...

. The Copenhagen tradition with urban development on artificial island
Artificial island
An artificial island or man-made island is an island or archipelago that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means...

s that was initiated with Christian IV
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV was the king of Denmark-Norway from 1588 until his death. With a reign of more than 59 years, he is the longest-reigning monarch of Denmark, and he is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects...

's construction of Christianshavn
Christianshavn
Christianshavn is an artificial island neighbourhood located in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen. Originally it was laid out as an independent privileged merchant's town with inspiration from...

 has recently been continued with the creation of Havneholmen as well as a canal district
Sluseholmen Canal District
Sluseholmen Canal District is a residential development, located on Sluseholmen peninsula in the South Harbour area of Copenhagen, Denmark. The development comprises 1,350 apartments. The apartments are built on eight artificial islands, separated by dug-out canals...

 at Sluseholmen
Sluseholmen
Sluseholmen is a peninsula in the South Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Southern Docklands of the Port of Copenhagen, the area used to house heavy industry, but since the turn of the millennium Sluseholmen has undergone massive redevelopment, transforming it into a mainly residential...

 in the South Harbour
Kongens Enghave
Kongens Enghave , also known as Sydhavnen , is a district in southern Copenhagen. The area has historically been one of the poorest neighbourhoods in Copenhagen, dissected by major transport corridors and characterized by social problems as well as industry along the harbour-front.Since the turn...

. A district in Copenhagen with a different take on modern architecture is that of Christiania
Freetown Christiania
Not to be confused with Christiania, Norway, another name for Oslo.Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighbourhood of about 850 residents, covering 34 hectares in the borough of Christianshavn in the Danish capital Copenhagen...

 whose many creative and idiosyncratic buildings are exponents of an "architecture without architects".

Parks


Copenhagen is a green city with many big and small parks. King's Garden
Rosenborg Castle Gardens
Rosenborg Castle Gardens is Copenhagen's oldest and most visited park with 2.5 million visitors per year.-The Renaissance gardens:...

, the garden of Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle is a renaissance castle located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. The castle was originally built as a country summerhouse in 1606 and is an example of Christian IV's many architectural projects...

, is the oldest and most visited park in Copenhagen. Its landscaping was commenced by Christian IV
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV was the king of Denmark-Norway from 1588 until his death. With a reign of more than 59 years, he is the longest-reigning monarch of Denmark, and he is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects...

 in 1606. Every year it sees more than 2.5 million visitors and in the summer months it is packed with sunbathers, picnickers and ballplayers. It serves as a sculpture garden
Sculpture garden
A sculpture garden is an outdoor garden dedicated to the presentation of sculpture, usually several permanently sited works in durable materials in landscaped surroundings....

 with a permanent display of sculptures as well as temporary exhibits during summer. Also located in the city centre are the Botanical Gardens
University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden
The University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden , usually referred to simply as Copenhagen Botanical Garden, is a botanical garden located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark...

 particularly noted for their large complex of 19th century greenhouses donated by Carlsberg founder J. C. Jacobsen. Fælledparken
Fælledparken
The park Fælledparken in Copenhagen, Denmark, was created 1906–1914 by landscape architect Edvard Glæsel in cooperation with the Copenhagen Municipality on the commons previously named Nørrefælled and Østerfælled....

 is at 58 hectares the largest park in Copenhagen. It is popular for sports and hosts several annual events such as a free opera concert at the opening of the opera season, other open-air concerts, carnival
Carnival
Carnaval is a festive season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February. Carnaval typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, mask and public street party...

, Labour Day celebrations and Copenhagen Historic Grand Prix
Copenhagen Historic Grand Prix
Copenhagen Historic Grand Prix is a vintage motor sports car race held annually on the grounds of Fælledparken in Copenhagen, Denmark. It has been arranged since 2001 and takes place in the first weekend of August...

, which is a race for antique car
Antique car
In the United States, an antique car is generally defined as a car over 45 years of age, this being the definition used by the Antique Automobile Club of America. However, the legal definition for the purpose of antique vehicle registration varies widely. The antique car era includes the veteran...

s. A historical green space
Green belt
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a linear character and may run through an...

 in the northeastern part of the city is Kastellet
Kastellet, Copenhagen
Kastellet, located in Copenhagen, Denmark is one of the best preserved fortifications in Northern Europe. It is constructed in the form of a pentagram with bastions at its corners...

, a well-preserved renaissance citadel
Citadel
A citadel is a fortress for protecting a town, sometimes incorporating a castle. The term derives from the same Latin root as the word "city", civis, meaning citizen....

 that now serves mainly as a park. Another popular park is the Frederiksberg Garden
Frederiksberg Park
Frederiksberg Park is one of the largest and most attractive greenspaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjacent Søndermarken it forms a green area of 64 hectares at the western edge of Inner Copenhagen...

, a 32-hectare romantic
Romanticism
Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution...

 landscape park
Landscape garden
The term landscape garden is often used to describe the English garden design style characteristic of the eighteenth century, that swept the Continent replacing the formal Renaissance garden and Garden à la française models. The work of Lancelot 'Capability' Brown is particularly influential.The...

. It houses a colony of tame grey herons
Grey Heron
The Grey Heron , is a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae, native throughout temperate Europe and Asia and also parts of Africa. It is resident in the milder south and west, but many birds retreat in winter from the ice in colder regions...

 and other waterfowl
Waterfowl
Waterfowl are certain wildfowl of the order Anseriformes, especially members of the family Anatidae, which includes ducks, geese, and swans....

. The park offers views of the elephants and the elephant house designed by world-famous British architect Norman Foster of the adjacent Copenhagen Zoo, the largest zoo in Denmark.

In Copenhagen, many cemeteries
Cemetery
A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. The term "cemetery" implies that the land is specifically designated as a burying ground. Cemeteries in the Western world are where the final ceremonies of death are observed...

 double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities such as sunbathing, reading and meditation. Assistens Cemetery, the burial place of Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author, fairy tale writer, and poet noted for his children's stories. These include "The Steadfast Tin Soldier," "The Snow Queen," "The Little Mermaid," "Thumbelina," "The Little Match Girl," and "The Ugly Duckling."...

, is an important green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro
Nørrebro
Nørrebro is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is northwest of the city centre, beyond the location of the old Northern Gate , which, until dismantled in 1856, was near the current Nørreport station.-Geography:...

 and a Copenhagen institution. The lesser known Vestre Kirkegaard
Vestre Cemetery
Vestre Cemetery is located in a large park setting in the Kongens Enghave district of Copenhagen, Denmark. With its 54 hectares it is the largest cemetery in Denmark.Beautifully landscaped, it also serves as an important open space,...

 is the largest (54 hectares) cemetery in Denmark and offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, hedges, overgrown tomb
Tomb
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes...

s, monuments, tree-lined avenues, lakes and other garden features.

It is official municipal policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes. In line with this policy, several new parks are under development in areas lacking green spaces.

Beaches


Copenhagen and the surrounding areas have 3 beaches with a total of approx. 8 km of sandy beaches within 30 minutes cycling from the city centre. This includes Amager Strandpark
Amager Strandpark
Amager Strandpark is a seaside public park in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located on the island of Amager and includes an artificial island and offers a total of of beaches. Amager Strandpark is a Blue Flag beach and the adjacent Kastrup Marina as well as the nearby Dragør Marina also enjoy Blue...

, which opened in 2005 and includes a 2 km long artificial island and a total of 4.6 km of beaches, located just 15 minutes by bicycle or a few minutes by metro from the city centre.

The beaches are supplemented by a system of Harbour Baths
Copenhagen Harbour Baths
Copenhagen Harbour Baths is a system of recreational bathing facilities along the waterfront of Copenhagen, Denmark. There are currently three harbour baths, the first and most well-known of which is located at Islands Brygge...

 along the Copenhagen waterfront. The first and most popular of these is located at Islands Brygge
Islands Brygge
Islands Brygge is a harbourfront area in central Copenhagen, Denmark, located on the north-western coast of Amager. The neighbourhood is noted for its waterfront park Havneparken, which is one of the most popular areas along the Copenhagen harbourfront and the location of one of the Copenhagen...

 and has won international acclaim for its design.

Demographics


As of 2010, 78.4% of Copenhagen's population is Danish
Danes
Danish people or Danes are the nation and ethnic group that is native to Denmark, and who speak Danish.The first mention of Danes within the Danish territory is on the Jelling Rune Stone which mentions how Harald Bluetooth converted the Danes to Christianity in the 10th century...

, 7.0% are immigrants from western countries and 14.47% of a non-Western background.
Depending on the boundaries used, the population of Copenhagen differs. Statistics Denmark
Statistics Denmark
Statistics Denmark is a Danish governmental organization under the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. The organization is responsible for creating statistics on the Danish society, for example employment statistics, trade balance, and demographics....

 uses a measure of the contiguously built-up urban area of Copenhagen, this means the number of communities included in this statistical abstract has changed several times, in the abstracts latest edition with about 1.2 million (1,199,224 (2011)) inhabitants. This number is not a strict result of the commonly used measuring methods of 200 meters of continuously build-up area, as there are exceptions to the general rule: The suburbs of Birkerød
Birkerød
Birkerød is a town and was a municipality in Frederiksborg County on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark...

 and Hørsholm
Hørsholm
Hørsholm Kommune is a municipality in the Copenhagen Capital Region in the northern part of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 31 km², and has a total population of 24,197...

 are excluded, while all of Brøndby and parts of Ishøj and Greve
Greve municipality
Greve Municipality is a municipality about 21 km south-west of Copenhagen in Region Sjælland on the east coast of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 60 km², and has a total population of 47,773...

 are included. Statistics Denmark has never stated the geographical area of urban Copenhagen. However, we know it consists of Copenhagen Municipality
Copenhagen municipality
Copenhagen Municipality is the largest of the municipalities making up the city of Copenhagen. It lies at the center of Copenhagen and contains the old historic city....

, Frederiksberg and 16 of the 20 municipalities in the old counties Copenhagen
Copenhagen County
Københavns Amt is a former county on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. It covered the municipalities in the metropolitan Copenhagen area, with the exception of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. Effective January 1, 2007, the county was abolished and merged into Region Hovedstaden Københavns...

 and Roskilde, though 5 of them only partially.

Statistics Denmark has worked out definitions of so-called lands (landsdele), a definition used to meet statistical needs on a lower level than regions. From this, the land of Copenhagen city (København by) is defined by the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør, Frederiksberg and Tårnby, with a total population of 667,228 in the beginning of 2009. The surroundings of Copenhagen is defined by another land, Copenhagen suburban (Københavns omegn), which includes the municipalities of Albertslund
Albertslund
Albertslund Kommune is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 23 km², and has a total population of 27,602 . Its mayor is Steen Christiansen, a member of the Social Democrats political party...

, Ballerup, Brøndby, Gentofte, Gladsaxe, Glostrup
Glostrup
Glostrup Kommune is a suburban municipality and town in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand approx. 10 km west of Copenhagen in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 13 km², and has a total population of 20,673 . Its Zip code is 2600...

, Herlev
Herlev
Herlev Kommune is a suburban municipality in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 12 km², and has a total population of 26,567 . Its mayor is Kjeld Hansen, a member of the Social Democrats political party...

, Hvidovre
Hvidovre
Hvidovre Kommune is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden near Copenhagen on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 22 km², and has a total population of 49,380...

, Høje-Taastrup, Ishøj, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Rødovre and Vallensbæk, and with a total population of 508,183 (1 January 2009). This gives a total population of 1,171,709 for these two lands together. The lands of Copenhagen city and Copenhagen suburban can together be used as a definition of the metropolitan area, although perhaps a somewhat narrow one.

From 1 January 2009 the population of the 34 municipalities closest to and including the municipality of Copenhagen is 1.875.179. Land area: 2,923 km². (Capital Region – Bornholm + East Zealand + Stevns) . Thus, the region comprises 6.8% of the land area of Denmark, but has 34% of Denmark's population. This gives a total of 667 inhabitants per km² or 1,660 per square mile for the region. This compares with a population density in the rest of the country of approximately 90 per km² or around 230 per square mile.

Based on a 10%-isoline (data from 2002) in which at least 10% commutes into central parts of the Copenhagen area, most of Zealand would be covered and this area has a population of about 2.3 million inhabitants.

Since the opening of the Øresund Bridge in 2000, commuting between and integration of Greater Malmö and Copenhagen have increased rapidly, and a combined statistical metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 has formed. This combined metropolitan area has a population of 2,488,551 (2009).

A high-ranking civil servant of the Interior Ministry
Ministry of Social Welfare (Denmark)
The Danish Ministry of Social Affairs was re-created in 2010 as a split of the Social Welfare ministry created after the 2007 Folketing elections. The split moved the section that had to do with the Ministry of the Interior off into the Ministry of the Interior and Health. The current minister is...

, Henning Strøm, who was involved in (i.e. known as "the Father of") a past municipal reform, which took effect on 1 April 1970, said on television, broadcast in connection with the recent Kommunalreformen ("The Municipal Reform" of 2007), that Copenhagen municipality would encompass an area with 1.5 million inhabitants, if the principles of the 1970 municipal reform were also applied on Copenhagen municipality. In other words: in the rest of Denmark the city occupies only part of the municipality, but in Copenhagen the municipality of Copenhagen occupies only part of the city of Copenhagen.

Culture and recreation


Since the late 1990s, Copenhagen has undergone a transformation from a cozy Scandinavian capital to a cool metropolitan city of international scope in the league of cities like Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

 and Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

. This is due to massive investments in infrastructure as well as culture and a wave of new successful Danish architects, designers and chefs.

Museums


Copenhagen has a wide array of museums of International standard
International standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use, worldwide...

. The National Museum
National Museum of Denmark
The National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen is Denmark’s largest museum of cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures, alike. The museum's main domicile is located a short distance from Strøget at the center of Copenhagen. It contains exhibits from around the world,...

, Nationalmuseet, is Denmark's largest museum of Archaeology
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 and cultural history
Cultural history
The term cultural history refers both to an academic discipline and to its subject matter.Cultural history, as a discipline, at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural...

, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures alike. The National Gallery
Statens Museum for Kunst
Statens Museum for Kunst is the Danish national gallery located in Copenhagen....

 – "Statens Museum for Kunst" – is Denmark's national art museum and contains collections dating from 12th century and all the way up to present day artists. Among artists represented in the collections are Rubens, Rembrandt, Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the...

, Braque
Georges Braque
Georges Braque[p] was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art style known as Cubism.-Early Life:...

, Léger
Fernand Léger
Joseph Fernand Henri Léger was a French painter, sculptor, and filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of Cubism which he gradually modified into a more figurative, populist style...

, Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

 and Emil Nolde
Emil Nolde
Emil Nolde was a German painter and printmaker. He was one of the first Expressionists, a member of Die Brücke, and is considered to be one of the great oil painting and watercolour painters of the 20th century. He is known for his vigorous brushwork and expressive choice of colors...

.

Another important Copenhagen art museum is the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark...

 founded by second generation Carlsberg tycoon-philanthropist Carl Jacobsen
Carl Jacobsen
Carl Christian Hillman Jacobsen was a Danish brewer, art collector and philanthropist, the son of J. C. Jacobsen, who founded the brewery Carlsberg and named it after him.-Career:...

 and is built around his personal collections. Its main focus is classical Egyptian
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

, Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 and Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 sculptures and other antiquities and a collection of Rodin
Auguste Rodin
François-Auguste-René Rodin , known as Auguste Rodin , was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past...

 sculptures that is the largest outside France (Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve and theke, a storing-place). Besides its sculpture collections, the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek also holds a comprehensive collection of paintings of impressionist
Impressionism
Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s...

 and post-impressionist
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of French art since Manet. Fry used the term when he organized the 1910 exhibition Manet and Post-Impressionism...

 painters such as Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. . Retrieved 6 January 2007...

, Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to...

, Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th...

, van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent Willem van Gogh , and used Brabant dialect in his writing; it is therefore likely that he himself pronounced his name with a Brabant accent: , with a voiced V and palatalized G and gh. In France, where much of his work was produced, it is...

 and Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa or simply Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an œuvre of exciting, elegant and provocative images of the modern...

 as well as Danish Golden Age
Golden Age
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology and legend and refers to the first in a sequence of four or five Ages of Man, in which the Golden Age is first, followed in sequence, by the Silver, Bronze, and Iron Ages, and then the present, a period of decline...

 painters.

Louisiana
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located directly on the shore of the Øresund Sound in Humlebæk, north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the most visited art museum in Denmark with an extensive permanent collection of modern and contemporary art, dating from World War II and up...

 is a museum of modern art
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. It has been important in developing and collecting modernist art, and is often identified as the most influential museum of modern art in the world...

 situated on the coast just north of Copenhagen. It is located in the middle of a sculpture garden on a cliff overlooking Øresund. The museum is included in the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You Die
1,000 Places to See Before You Die
1,000 Places to See Before You Die is a 2003 travel book by Patricia Schultz.Among the "1,000 places" in the book are historic ones such as Robert Louis Stevenson's home in Western Samoa and the trail of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in the United States, cultural ones such as the Oregon...

. The Danish Museum of Art & Design is housed in the 18th century former Frederiks Hospital
Frederiks Hospital
The royal Frederiks Hospital was Denmark's first hospital in the present-day meaning of the word. It was founded by king Frederik V and financed by the earnings from the Norwegian Postal Service....

 and displays Danish design
Danish design
Danish Design is a term often used to describe a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in mid-20th century. Influenced by the German Bauhaus school, many Danish designers used the new industrial technologies, combined with ideas of simplicity and functionalism to...

 as well as international design and crafts.

Other museums include:
  • Thorvaldsens Museum
    Thorvaldsens Museum
    The Thorvaldsen Museum is a single-artist museum in Copenhagen, Denmark, dedicated to the art of Danish neoclassicistic sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen , who lived and worked in Rome for most of his life . The museum is located on the small island of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen next to...

     is a single-artist museum dedicated to the oeuvre
    Work of art
    A work of art, artwork, art piece, or art object is an aesthetic item or artistic creation.The term "a work of art" can apply to:*an example of fine art, such as a painting or sculpture*a fine work of architecture or landscape design...

     of romantic Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen
    Bertel Thorvaldsen
    Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish-Icelandic sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life in Italy . Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, and was accepted to the Royal Academy of Arts when he was eleven years old...

     who lived and worked in Rome.
  • Cisternerne
    Cisternerne
    Cisternerne - Museum for moderne Glaskunst is a museum in Copenhagen, Denmark, dedicated to modern glass art. It is located in some grotto-like former water cisterns that come complete with Stalactites formed by the changing water levels...

     is a small but different museum dedicated to modern glass art. It is located in some grotto-like former cistern
    Cistern
    A cistern is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Cisterns are often built to catch and store rainwater. Cisterns are distinguished from wells by their waterproof linings...

    s that come complete with Stalactite
    Stalactite
    A stalactite , "to drip", and meaning "that which drips") is a type of speleothem that hangs from the ceiling of limestone caves. It is a type of dripstone...

    s formed by the changing water levels.
  • The Ordrupgaard Museum
    Ordrupgaard
    Ordrupgaard is a state-owned art museum situated near Jægersborg Dyrehave, north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The museum houses one of Northern Europe’s most considerable collections of Danish and French art from the19th and beginning of the 20th century....

     is an art museum located just north of Copenhagen in an old mansion with an extension by Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid
    Zaha Hadid
    Zaha Hadid, CBE is an Iraqi-British architect.-Life and career:Hadid was born in 1950 in Baghdad, Iraq. She received a degree in mathematics from the American University of Beirut before moving to study at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London.After graduating she worked...

    . It features 19th century French and Danish art and is particularly noted for its works by Paul Gaugin
    Paul Gauguin
    Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin was a leading French Post-Impressionist artist. He was an important figure in the Symbolist movement as a painter, sculptor, print-maker, ceramist, and writer...

    .

Performing Arts


The new Copenhagen Concert Hall
Copenhagen Concert Hall
The Copenhagen Concert Hall by Jean Nouvel is a part of the new DR Byen , that houses the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, DR. The concert hall and the DR Town are located in the northern part of Ørestad - an ambitious development area in Copenhagen, Denmark...

 opened in January 2009. It is designed by Jean Nouvel
Jean Nouvel
Jean Nouvel is a French architect. Nouvel studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and was a founding member of Mars 1976 and Syndicat de l'Architecture...

 and has four halls with the main auditorium
Auditorium
An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres. For movie theaters, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens.- Etymology :...

 seating 1800 people. It serves as the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra
Danish National Symphony Orchestra
The Danish National Symphony Orchestra , is a Danish orchestra based in Copenhagen. The DNSO is the principal orchestra of DR...

 and along with the Walt Disney Concert Hall
Walt Disney Concert Hall
The Walt Disney Concert Hall at 111 South Grand Avenue in Downtown Los Angeles, California is the fourth hall of the Los Angeles Music Center. Bounded by Hope Street, Grand Avenue, 1st and 2nd Streets, it seats 2,265 people and serves as the home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic orchestra and the...

 in Los Angeles the most expensive concert hall ever built. Another important venue for classical music is the Tivoli Concert Hall located in the historical Tivoli Gardens. The Copenhagen Opera House (in Danish usually called Operaen) that opened in 2005 and is designed by Henning Larsen
Henning Larsen
Henning Larsen is a Danish architect.He is internationally known for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs building in Riyadhand the Copenhagen Opera House...

, is the national opera house of Denmark and among the most modern opera houses in the world. The old Royal Danish Theatre
Royal Danish Theatre
The Royal Danish Theatre is both the national Danish performing arts institution and a name used to refer to its old purpose-built venue from 1874 located on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen. The theatre was founded in 1748, first serving as the theatre of the king, and then as the theatre of the...

 dating from 1748 still works as a supplementary opera scene. The Royal Danish Theatre is also home to the Royal Danish Ballet
Royal Danish Ballet
The Royal Danish Ballet is one of the oldest ballet companies in the world. Based in Copenhagen, Denmark, it originates from 1748, when the Royal Danish Theatre was founded, and was finally organized in 1771 in response to the great popularity of French and Italian styles of dance...

. Founded in 1748 along with the theatre, it is one of the oldest ballet troupes in Europe. It is home to the Bournonville style
Bournonville School
The Bournonville method is a ballet technique and training system devised by the Danish ballet master August Bournonville.-Overview:August Bournonville trained with his father Antoine Bournonville and other notable French ballet masters...

 of ballet.
Copenhagen has a significant jazz
Jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

 scene that has existed for many years. It developed when a number of American jazz musicians such as Ben Webster
Ben Webster
Benjamin Francis Webster , a.k.a. "The Brute" or "Frog," was an influential American jazz tenor saxophonist. Webster, born in Kansas City, Missouri, was considered one of the three most important "swing tenors" along with Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young...

, Thad Jones
Thad Jones
Thaddeus Joseph Jones was an American jazz trumpeter, composer, and bandleader.-Biography:Thad Jones was born in Pontiac, Michigan to a musical family of ten . Thad Jones was a self taught musician, performing professionally by the age of sixteen...

, Richard Boone
Richard B. Boone
Richard Bently Boone was an American jazz musician and scat singer.Born in Little Rock, Arkansas, Richard Boone sang in his Baptist church choir as a boy, then began playing the trombone at the age of twelve. He served with the U.S. Army from 1948 to 1953 where he played trombone in a military band...

, Ernie Wilkins, Kenny Drew
Kenny Drew
Kenneth Sidney "Kenny" Drew was an American jazz pianist.-Biography:Born in New York City, New York, he first recorded with Howard McGhee in 1949, and over the next two years recorded with Buddy DeFranco, Coleman Hawkins, Milt Jackson, Charlie Parker, Buddy Rich, and Dinah Washington...

, Ed Thigpen
Ed Thigpen
Edmund Leonard "Ed" Thigpen was an American jazz drummer, best-known for his work with the Oscar Peterson trio from 1959 to 1965...

, Bob Rockwell, Dexter Gordon
Dexter Gordon
Dexter Gordon was an American jazz tenor saxophonist and an Academy Award-nominated actor . He is regarded as one of the first and most important musicians to adapt the bebop musical language of people like Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, and Bud Powell to the tenor saxophone...

, and others such as rock guitarist
Guitarist
A guitarist is a musician who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of instruments such as classical guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, and bass guitars. Some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar while singing.- Versatility :The guitarist controls an extremely...

 Link Wray
Link Wray
Fred Lincoln "Link" Wray Jr was an American rock and roll guitarist, songwriter and occasional singer....

 came to live in Copenhagen during the 1960s. Every year in early July Copenhagen's streets, squares and parks fill up with big and small jazz concerts during the Copenhagen Jazz Festival (see yearly events).
The most important venue for rhythmical music in Copenhagen is Vega in Vesterbro district which has been chosen as "best concert venue in Europe" by international music magazine Live

For free entertainment one can stroll along Strøget
Strøget
Strøget is a carfree zone in Copenhagen, Denmark. This popular tourist attraction in the centre of town is the longest pedestrian shopping area in Europe....

, especially between Nytorv
Nytorv
Nytorv is a public square in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjoining Gammeltorv it forms a common space, today part of the Strøget pedestrian zone...

 and Højbro Plads
Højbro Plads
Højbro Plads is a rectangular public square located between the adjoining Amagertorv and Slotsholmen Canal in the City Centre of Copenhagen, Denmark...

, which in the late afternoon and evening is a bit like an impromptu three-ring circus
Circus
A circus is commonly a travelling company of performers that may include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, unicyclists and other stunt-oriented artists...

 with musicians, magicians
Magic (illusion)
Magic is a performing art that entertains audiences by staging tricks or creating illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats using natural means...

, jugglers
Juggling
Juggling is a skill involving moving objects for entertainment or sport. The most recognizable form of juggling is toss juggling, in which the juggler throws objects up to catch and toss up again. This may be one object or many objects, at the same time with one or many hands. Jugglers often refer...

 and other street performers
Busking
Street performance or busking is the practice of performing in public places, for gratuities, which are generally in the form of money and edibles...

.

Sports


Copenhagen has a wide variety of sport teams. The major football teams are F.C. Copenhagen
F.C. Copenhagen
F.C. Copenhagen is a professional Danish football club in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is part of the Parken Sport & Entertainment....

 and Brøndby
Brøndby IF
Brøndby IF is a Danish professional football club based in Brøndbyvester, Brøndby, on the western outskirts of Copenhagen and is the biggest football club in Denmark with almost 2000 members. The club is also known as Brøndbyernes Idrætsforening, or Brøndby and BIF for short...

. FC København plays at Parken
Parken Stadium
Parken Stadium is a football stadium in the Indre Østerbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark, built from 1990–1992. It currently has a capacity of 38,065 for football games, and is the home ground of F.C. Københaven and the Danish national football team...

 in Østerbro, Copenhagen. Other teams are Fremad Amager, B93
Boldklubben 1893
Boldklubben af 1893 is a Danish football club currently playing in the Danish 2nd Division East. They play at the 7,000 seat Østerbro Stadion in Østerbro, Copenhagen.-Achievements:* Danish championship titles :...

, AB
Akademisk Boldklub
Akademisk Boldklub or AB is a Danish professional football club from Copenhagen,currently playing at the second highest level in Danish domestic football, the 1st Division.-History:...

, Frem
Boldklubben Frem
Boldklubben Frem is a Danish sports club based in the Valby-Sydhavnen area of Copenhagen. It is best known for its semi-professional football team. Since its foundation in 1886, Frem has won the Danish Championships six times and the Danish Cup twice...

, Lyngby
Kongens Lyngby
Kongens Lyngby is the main city in the affluent Danish municipality of Lyngby-Taarbæk. Just north of Copenhagen, the city lies in the northern part of Denmark's largest island, Zealand...

 and Hvidovre IF
Hvidovre IF
Hvidovre IF is a Danish football club, founded on 15 October 1925 in Hvidovre.- Current squad :As of 2011-03-21...

.

Copenhagen also has multiple ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 teams, of which two are playing in the top league, AL-Bank Ligaen, namely Rødovre Mighty Bulls
Rødovre Mighty Bulls
Rødovre Mighty Bulls is the professional ice hockey team of the Rødovre Skating and Ice hockey Club...

 and Hvidovre Ligahockey.

World ranked no.2, Peter Gade
Peter Gade
Peter Høeg Gade is a Danish professional badminton player. He currently resides in Holte in Copenhagen...

, is one of the world's best international badminton players.

There are a lot of handball teams
Team handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

 in Copenhagen. FC København
F.C. Copenhagen
F.C. Copenhagen is a professional Danish football club in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is part of the Parken Sport & Entertainment....

 owns both a women's and a men's team, which have the same name and logo. They were formerly known as FIF. Of other clubs playing in the "highest" leagues there are; Ajax Heroes, Ydun, and HIK (Hellerup
Hellerup
Hellerup is a Danish town of Region Hovedstaden, located in the Gentofte Municipality in Denmark. It is bordered to the east by the sound Øresund and to the South by Copenhagen and counted among the most affluent areas in Denmark....

).

Rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 is also played in the Danish capital with teams such as CSR-Nanok, Copenhagen Business School Sport Rugby and Rugbyklubben Speed.
The Danish Australian Football League
Danish Australian Football League
The Danish Australian Football League is the controlling body and main league for the sport of Australian rules football in Denmark. Founded in 1989, regular competition commenced in 1991...

, based in Copenhagen is the largest Australian rules football
Australian rules football
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, also called football, Aussie rules or footy is a sport played between two teams of 22 players on either...

 competition outside of the English speaking world
Anglosphere
Anglosphere is a neologism which refers to those nations with English as the most common language. The term can be used more specifically to refer to those nations which share certain characteristics within their cultures based on a linguistic heritage, through being former British colonies...

.

In 2011 Copenhagen will host the UCI Road World Championships
UCI Road World Championships
The UCI Road World Championships are the annual world championships for bicycle road racing organized by the Union Cycliste Internationale...

.

Amusement parks


Copenhagen has the two oldest amusement parks in the World. World-famous Tivoli Gardens is an amusement park
Amusement park
thumb|Cinderella Castle in [[Magic Kingdom]], [[Disney World]]Amusement and theme parks are terms for a group of entertainment attractions and rides and other events in a location for the enjoyment of large numbers of people...

 and pleasure garden located right in the middle of Copenhagen between the City Hall Square and the Central Station. Among its rides are the oldest still operating roller coaster
Roller coaster
The roller coaster is a popular amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. LaMarcus Adna Thompson patented the first coasters on January 20, 1885...

 and the oldest ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
A Ferris wheel is a nonbuilding structure consisting of a rotating upright wheel with passenger cars attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, the cars are kept upright, usually by gravity.Some of the largest and most modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on...

 in the World. It also functions as an open-air concert
Open air concert
An open air concert is a concert taking place outside a hall in the open air.-Overview:Open air concerts can range from small, acousitic gatherings taking place at a municipal park, to large multi-day music festivals, involving some of the most famous music acts in the world...

 venue. It opened on 15 August 1843 making it the second oldest amusement park in the world. Dyrehavsbakken
Dyrehavsbakken
Dyrehavsbakken , commonly referred to as Bakken , is the world's oldest operating amusement park. It is located near Klampenborg but belongs under Lyngby-Taarbæk Kommune, Denmark about 10 km north of Copenhagen...

 (in English "the Deer Garden Hill") is located in Klampenborg a little north of Copenhagen in a forested area known as dyrehaven
Jægersborg Dyrehave
Dyrehaven , officially Jægersborg Dyrehave, is a forest park north of Copenhagen. It covers around 11 square kilometres...

. Having been made into an amusement park complete with rides, games and restaurants by Christian IV
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV was the king of Denmark-Norway from 1588 until his death. With a reign of more than 59 years, he is the longest-reigning monarch of Denmark, and he is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects...

, it is the oldest surviving amusement park in the World.

Cuisine


As of 2009, Copenhagen has 13 Michelin star
Michelin Guide
The Michelin Guide is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. The term normally refers to the Michelin Red Guide, the oldest and best-known European hotel and restaurant guide, which awards the Michelin stars...

 restaurants, the most of any Scandinavian city. The city is increasingly recognized internationally as a gourmet destination. Apart from the selection of upmarket restaurants, Copenhagen offers a great variety of Danish, international and ethnic restaurants. It is possible to find modest eateries serving open sandwich
Open sandwich
An open sandwich, also known as an open face/faced sandwich, Ulrich Sandwich, bread baser, or tartine, consists of a single slice of bread with one or more food items on top.- In various countries :...

es ("smørrebrød
Smørrebrød
Smørrebrød usually consists of a piece of buttered rye bread , a dense, dark brown bread. Pålæg , the topping, then among others can refer to commercial or homemade cold cuts, pieces of meat or fish, cheese or spreads...

") – the traditional and best known Danish lunch dish; however, most restaurants serve international dishes. Another local specialty, Danish pastry
Danish pastry
Danish pastry is a sweet pastry which has become a specialty of Denmark and neighbouring Scandinavian countries and is popular throughout the industrialized world, although the form it takes can differ significantly from country to country...

, can be sampled from any of numerous bakeries found in all parts of the city. The restaurant Noma
Noma (restaurant)
Noma is a two Michelin star restaurant run by chef René Redzepi in Copenhagen, Denmark. The name is an acronym of the two Danish words "nordisk" and "mad" , and the restaurant is known for its reinvention and interpretation of the Nordic Cuisine...

 (Short for Danish: nordisk mad English: Nordic food) was ranked as the Best Restaurant in the World
Restaurant (magazine) Top 50
The S.Pellegrino World's 50 Best Restaurants is produced by British magazine Restaurant based on a poll of international chefs, restaurateurs, gourmands and restaurant critics. In addition to the main ranking, the Chef's Choice list is based on votes from the fifty head chefs from the restaurants...

 by Restaurant
Restaurant (magazine)
Restaurant is a British magazine aimed at chefs, restaurant proprietors and other catering professionals that concentrates on the fine dining end of the industry. It produces an annual list of what it considers to be the best 50 restaurants, based on the votes of 600 "chefs, restaurateurs, critics...

 in 2010 and 2011.

Copenhagen has long been associated with beer. Carlsberg beer has been brewed at the brewery's premises at the border between Vesterbro and Valby
Valby
' is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located in the southwestern corner of Copenhagen Municipality, it is a heterogeneous mixture of different types of housing - including apartment blocks, terraced housing, areas with single-family houses and allotments, as well as remains...

 districts since 1847 and has long been almost synonymous with Danish beer
Beer in Denmark
Beer in Denmark is dominated by Carlsberg and Tuborg. Since Tuborg was acquired by Carlsberg in 1970 this has left a near monopoly for Carlsberg. A number of regional breweries however managed to survive, and most of them merged to Royal Unibrew in 2005...

 production. However, recent years have seen an explosive growth in the number of microbreweries
Microbrewery
A microbrewery or craft brewer is a brewery which produces a limited amount of beer, and is associated by consumers with innovation and uniqueness....

 so that Denmark today has more than 100 breweries, many of which are located in Copenhagen. Some like Nørrebro Bryghus also act as brewpubs where it is also possible to eat at the premises.

Media


Many Danish media corroborations are located in Copenhagen. DR, the major Danish public service
Public broadcasting
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing.Public broadcasting may be...

 broadcasting corporation collected their activities in a new headquarters, DR byen
DR Byen
DR Byen is the headquarter of the Danish national broadcasting corporation , located in Copenhagen, Denmark. The buildings include the Copenhagen Concert Hall by architect Jean Nouvel....

, in 2006 and 2007. Similarly has Odense
Odense
The city of Odense is the third largest city in Denmark.Odense City has a population of 167,615 and is the main city of the island of Funen...

 based TV2
TV 2 (Denmark)
TV 2 is a publicly owned television station in Denmark based in Odense. The station began broadcasting on 1 October 1988, thereby ending the television monopoly previously exercised by the Danmarks Radio ....

 collected its Copenhagen activities in a modern media house in the Teglholmen
Teglholmen
Teglholmen is a peninsula in the South Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark, located between Sluseholmen and Enghave Brygge. As part of the Southern Docklands of the Port of Copenhagen, the area used to house...

. The two national daily newspapers Politiken
Politiken
Politiken is a Danish daily broadsheet newspaper, published by JP/Politikens Hus.The newspaper comes third among Danish newspapers in terms of both number of readers and circulated copies ....

 and Berlingske Tidende
Berlingske Tidende
Berlingske, previously known as Berlingske Tidende , is a Danish national daily newspaper based in Copenhagen...

 and the two tabloids Ekstra Bladet
Ekstra Bladet
Ekstra Bladet is a Danish tabloid newspaper focusing on sensationalist stories. It gets a share of its income from sex ads. Since 1979 it has always had a partly or completely naked woman on page nine which is referred to as Side 9 Pigen , a Danish equivalent of the English Page Three girl...

 and B.T.
B.T. (tabloid)
B.T. is a Danish tabloid newspaper which offers general news about various subjects such as sports, politics and current affairs.A large, red neon sign displays the B.T. logo at the square Trianglen in Østerbro, a part of Copenhagen....

 are based in Copenhagen. Other important media corporations include Aller Media which is the largest publisher of weekly and monthly magazines in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

, the Egmont
Egmont Publishing
The Egmont Group is a media corporation founded and rooted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The business area of Egmont has traditionally been magazine publishing but has over the years evolved to comprise media generally....

 media group
Media conglomerate
A media conglomerate, media group or media institution is a company that owns large numbers of companies in various mass media such as television, radio, publishing, movies, and the Internet...

 and Gyldendal
Gyldendal
Gyldendal may refer to:*Gyldendal, a Danish publishing house*Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, a Norwegian publishing house founded as a demerger from the Danish one*Søren Gyldendal, the founder of the Danish publishing house...

, the largest Danish publisher of books.

Copenhagen also has a sizable movie and television industry. Filmbyen
Filmbyen
Filmbyen is a film studio complex located in Hvidovre just outside Copenhagen, Denmark.Filmbyen is a former military base. It houses many film-related companies...

, The Movie City, which is located in a former military camp
Military camp
A military camp or bivouac is a semi-permanent facility for the lodging of an army. Camps are erected when a military force travels away from a major installation or fort during training or operations, and often have the form of large campsites. In the Roman era the military camp had highly...

 in the suburb of Hvidovre
Hvidovre
Hvidovre Kommune is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden near Copenhagen on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 22 km², and has a total population of 49,380...

 and houses several movie companies and studio studios
Movie studio
A movie studio is a term used to describe a major entertainment company or production company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to film movies...

. Among the movie companies are Zentropa
Zentropa
Europa is a film directed by Lars von Trier. Released in 1991, it is von Trier's third theatrical feature film and is the final film in the Europa trilogy....

 co-owned by Danish movie director
Film director
A film director is a person who directs the actors and film crew in filmmaking. They control a film's artistic and dramatic nathan roach, while guiding the technical crew and actors.-Responsibilities:...

 Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier is a Danish film director and screenwriter. He is closely associated with the Dogme 95 collective, although his own films have taken a variety of different approaches, and have frequently received strongly divided critical opinion....

 who is behind several international movie productions as well as a founding force behind the Dogma Movement
Dogme 95
Dogme 95 was an avant-garde filmmaking movement started in 1995 by the Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, who created the "Dogme 95 Manifesto" and the "Vow of Chastity". These were rules to create filmmaking based on the traditional values of story, acting, and theme, and...

.

Annual events

  • Copenhagen Marathon
    Copenhagen Marathon
    The CopenhagenMarathon is an annual marathon arranged in Copenhagen, Denmark since 1980. It takes place in May and has around 10,000 participants.-Men:-Women:-External links:* *...

    , Copenhagen's annual marathon
    Marathon
    The marathon is a long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 kilometres , that is usually run as a road race...

     event

  • Copenhagen Fashion Week
    Copenhagen Fashion Week
    Copenhagen Fashion Week is held twice a year in Copenhagen. Copenhagen Fashion Week consists of a market week with 3 big fairs at the locations Bella Center, Oeksnehallen and Forum, and a diverse range of fashion shows at City Hall and a myriad of different locations, as well as showrooms and...

     takes place every year in February and August. It is the largest fashion event in Northern Europe.
  • Copenhagen Carnival
    Copenhagen Carnival
    Copenhagen Carnival is an annual carnival event taking place in Fælledparken and on the streets of Copenhagen, Denmark for three days during the Whitsun Holiday...

     takes place every year since 1982 during the Whitsun
    Whitsun
    Whitsun is the name used in the UK for the Christian festival of Pentecost, the seventh Sunday after Easter, which commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Christ's disciples...

     Holiday in Fælledparken
    Fælledparken
    The park Fælledparken in Copenhagen, Denmark, was created 1906–1914 by landscape architect Edvard Glæsel in cooperation with the Copenhagen Municipality on the commons previously named Nørrefælled and Østerfælled....

     and around the city. 120 bands, 2000 dancers and 100,000 spectators participate.
  • Copenhagen Distortion
    Copenhagen Distortion
    Copenhagen Distortion is a middle-size festival for party/club culture, taking place in the streets of Copenhagen, Denmark, and in dozens of unusual locations around city, every year during the week of the first Saturday in June...

     is a youth culture
    Youth subculture
    A youth subculture is a youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors, and interests. Youth subcultures offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions such as family, work, home and school...

     festival capturing the zeitgeist of the city, gathering every year (5 days up to the first weekend of June) up to 100.000 people in the streets, in shops, galleries, clubs, bars, in boats and buses, with a cultural focus on street culture, art and upfront dance music
    Dance music
    Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement...

    .
  • Roskilde Festival
    Roskilde Festival
    Roskilde Festival is a festival held south of Roskilde in Denmark and is one of the six biggest annual music festivals in Europe . It was created in 1971 by two high school students, Mogens Sandfær and Jesper Switzer Møller, and promoter Carl Fischer...

     is a music festival held every year in Roskilde
    Roskilde
    Roskilde is the main city in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark on the island of Zealand. It is an ancient city, dating from the Viking Age and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network....

     west of Copenhagen. Gathering around 100,000 people every year, it is one of the four largest rock music festivals in Europe.

  • Copenhagen Jazz Festival
    Copenhagen Jazz Festival
    Copenhagen Jazz Festival is an annual Jazz event, taking place in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, each July. The first Copenhagen Jazz Festival was held in 1979. According to reports, around 240,000 people attended the festival in 2004...

    , which begins on the first Friday in July, is a popular annual event that is the result of Copenhagen's significant jazz scene. The festival takes place throughout the city in streets, squares and parks as well as in cafés and concert halls. It embraces around 900 concerts, 100 venues and over 200,000 guests from Denmark and around the world. It is recognized as one of the leading jazz festivals in the World.
  • Copenhagen Pride is a gay pride festival
    Gay pride
    LGBT pride or gay pride is the concept that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity...

     taking place every year in August. Among the events is "Tivoli goes pink" and it ends with a parade.
  • Round Christiansborg Open Water Swim Race is a 2 km open water swimming
    Open water swimming
    Open water swimming takes place in outdoor bodies of water such as open oceans, bays, lakes, rivers, canals, and reservoirs.The beginning of the modern age of open water swimming is sometimes taken to be May 3, 1810, when Lord Byron swam several miles to cross the Hellespont from Europe to Asia.In...

     competition taking place each year in late August. This amateur event is combined with a 10 km Danish championship. In 2009 the event included a 10 km FINA World Cup competition in the morning.
  • Copenhagen Cooking takes place in August every year and is a food festival
    Food festival
    A food festival is a festival, usually held annually, that uses food, often produce, as its central theme. "These festivals have always been a means of uniting communities through celebrations of harvests and giving thanks for a plentiful growing season...

     with a wide array of events all over the city.
  • CPH:PIX
    Cph:pix
    CPH PIX is an annual film festival in Copenhagen, Denmark. The festival resulted from the merger in 2008 of the Copenhagen International Film Festival and the NatFilm Festival to create an organisation called Copenhagen Film Festivals, which also manages the documentary film festival CPH:DOX and...

     is Copenhagen's international feature film festival, established in 2009 as a fusion of the 20-year-old Natfilm festival
    NatFilm Festival
    The NatFilm Festival, staged annually across 16 cinemas in Copenhagen, in addition to several in Odense, Aalborg and Århus, shows the widest programme of films to the largest festival audience in Denmark...

     and the 4-year-old CIFF. The CPH:PIX festival takes place in mid-April.
  • CPH:DOX is Copenhagen's international documentary film festival, every year in November. On top of its documentary film programme of over 100 films, CPH:DOX includes a wide event program
    Programme (booklet)
    A programme or program is a booklet available for patrons attending a live event such as theatre performances, fêtes, sports events, etc. It is a printed leaflet outlining the parts of the event scheduled to take place, principal performers and background information. In the case of theatrical...

    me with dozens of events, concerts, exhibitions and parties all over town.
  • Copenhell is an outdoor metal festival located on Refshaleøen in Copenhagen. Everything from death metal
    Death metal
    Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs heavily distorted guitars, tremolo picking, deep growling vocals, blast beat drumming, minor keys or atonality, and complex song structures with multiple tempo changes....

     to hard rock
    Hard rock
    Hard rock is a loosely defined genre of rock music which has its earliest roots in mid-1960s garage rock, blues rock and psychedelic rock...

     is played on two scenes: Helvíti and Hades.

Economy


Copenhagen is the economic and financial centre
Financial Centre
A financial centre is a global city that is a company and business hub, as well as being home to many world famous banks and/or stock exchanges....

 of Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 and also strong business and economic centre in the Scandinavian-Baltic region. Around 3.5 million inhabitants live within a 50 km (31.1 mi) radius of Copenhagen, making the city centre of the most dense and populated area in Northern Europe. The region generates approximately 25 per cent of both Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

's and Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

's GDP. In 2008, Copenhagen was ranked 4th by Financial Times-owned FDi magazine
FDi magazine
fDi Magazine is an English-language bi-monthly news and foreign direct investment publication owned by The Financial Times Ltd and edited in London. The A4 glossy pages reach a circulation of 14, 768 ABC “senior decision-makers involved in overseas investment” across the world...

 on their list of Top 50 European Cities of the Future after London, Paris and Berlin. In 2006/07 FDi Magazine named Copenhagen Scandinavian City of the Future and in 2004/05 Copenhagen was named Northern European City of the Future ahead of other cities from Scandinavia, UK, Ireland and Benelux. In the 2008 Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index, published by MasterCard
MasterCard
Mastercard Incorporated or MasterCard Worldwide is an American multinational financial services corporation with its headquarters in the MasterCard International Global Headquarters, Purchase, Harrison, New York, United States...

, Copenhagen was ranked 14th in the world and 1st in Scandinavia. Copenhagen is one of the cities in Western Europe attracting most regional headquarters and distribution centres
Distribution center
A distribution center for a set of products is a warehouse or other specialized building, often with refrigeration or air conditioning, which is stocked with products to be redistributed to retailers, to wholesalers, or directly to consumers. A distribution center is a principal part, the order...

. Among the international companies that have chosen to locate their regional headquarters in Copenhagen is Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

. There are 2,100 foreign companies located in the Copenhagen area, of which approx. 500 are Scandinavian head offices, representing a wide range of industries.
Copenhagen has a service oriented
Service-orientation
Service-orientation is a design paradigm to build computer software in the form of services. Like other design paradigms , service-orientation provides a governing approach to automate business logic as distributed systems...

 economy. An important sector is life science
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

 and research & development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

 plays a major role in the economy of the city. The entire Oresund Region
Oresund Region
The Øresund or Öresund Region is a transnational region in northern Europe, centred on the cities of Copenhagen and Malmö. Located by the shores of the Øresund strait and connected by the Oresund Bridge, the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand constitute the Danish side, while Skåne...

 is in cooperation with Sweden being promoted as Medicon Valley
Medicon Valley
Medicon Valley is a leading bi-national life-sciences cluster in Europe, spanning the Øresund Region of eastern Denmark and southern Sweden. It is one of Europe's strongest life science clusters with a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small...

. Major Danish biotech companies like Novo Nordisk
Novo Nordisk
Novo Nordisk manufactures and markets pharmaceutical products and services. Created in 1989 through a merger of two Danish companies dating back to the 1920s, it has become one of the world's leading companies in diabetes care, where Novo Nordisk pursues research into pulmonary delivery systems;...

 and Lundbeck
Lundbeck
H. Lundbeck A/S is a Danish international pharmaceutical company engaged in the research and development, production, marketing, and sale of drugs for the treatment of disorders in the central nervous system , including depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease,...

, both of which are among 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies in the World, are located in the greater Copenhagen area. The region also boasts the largest IT-cluster in Scandinavia with nearly 100,000 employees. Shipping is also an import business with Maersk, the World's largest shipping company, having their world headquarters in Copenhagen.

Several international companies have established their regional headquarters in Copenhagen, for example, Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

. Maersk, the world's largest container shipping
Containerization
Containerization is a system of freight transport based on a range of steel intermodal containers...

 company, has their world headquarters in Copenhagen. A substantial number of Danish pharmaceuticals such as Novo Nordisk
Novo Nordisk
Novo Nordisk manufactures and markets pharmaceutical products and services. Created in 1989 through a merger of two Danish companies dating back to the 1920s, it has become one of the world's leading companies in diabetes care, where Novo Nordisk pursues research into pulmonary delivery systems;...

, Ferring Pharmaceuticals
Ferring Pharmaceuticals
Ferring Pharmaceuticals is a pharmaceutical company that specializes in the development and marketing of drugs for use in human medicine.It was founded by Frederik Paulsen Sr in Malmö, Sweden, in 1950, initially as the Nordiska Hormon Laboratoriet, renamed Ferring in 1954. A ferring in Frisian is a...

 and Bavarian Nordic also operate in the area, having placed their headquarters in or close to Copenhagen.

Copenhagen has some of the highest gross wages in the world. High taxes mean that wages are reduced after mandatory deduction. A beneficial researcher scheme with low taxation of foreign specialists has made Denmark an attractive location for foreign labour
Immigration
Immigration is the act of foreigners passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence...

 to settle. Copenhagen is however also among the most expensive cities in Europe.

Education, science, research


Copenhagen has a well-developed higher education system of public universities
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

. The city has a higher education student population of at least 89,000, combining the numbers of the largest universities and institutions: University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
The University of Copenhagen is the oldest and largest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479, it has more than 37,000 students, the majority of whom are female , and more than 7,000 employees. The university has several campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the...

 (40,000 students), Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School, also known as CBS, is situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. With more than 17,000 students and 1,300 staff members, CBS is also one of the largest business schools in Europe. CBS offers a wide range of business-oriented university programmes and a research environment...

 (17,000 students), Metropolitan University College
Metropolitan University College
Metropolitan University College is one of eight new regional organizations of different study sites in Denmark offering bachelor courses of all kinds in central Copenhagen....

 and University College Copenhagen (10,000 students each), Technical University of Denmark
Technical University of Denmark
The Technical University of Denmark , often simply referred to as DTU, is a university just north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 1829 at the initiative of Hans Christian Ørsted as Denmark's first polytechnic, and is today ranked among Europe's leading engineering institutions, and the...

 (7,000 students), KEA (3,000 students) and IT University of Copenhagen
IT University of Copenhagen
The IT University of Copenhagen is a Danish globally oriented, independent university.The IT University of Copenhagen was established in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1999. At that time, it was - in Danish - called "IT-højskolen"...

 (2,000 students.) Most prominent among these is the University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
The University of Copenhagen is the oldest and largest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479, it has more than 37,000 students, the majority of whom are female , and more than 7,000 employees. The university has several campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the...

. Founded in 1479, it is the oldest university in Denmark. It is a world-renowned research and teaching institution with campuses around the city and forms part of the International Alliance of Research Universities
International Alliance of Research Universities
The International Alliance of Research Universities was launched on 14 January 2006 as a co-operative network of 10 leading, international research-intensive universities who share similar visions for higher education, in particular the education of future leaders...

 (IARU), which is a collaboration between international top universities including Oxford, Cambridge, Yale, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley , is a teaching and research university established in 1868 and located in Berkeley, California, USA...

 and The Australian National University
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a teaching and research university located in the Australian capital, Canberra.As of 2009, the ANU employs 3,945 administrative staff who teach approximately 10,000 undergraduates, and 7,500 postgraduate students...

. The University attracts app. 1500 international and exchange students every year.
It is repeatedly ranked as one of the best universities in Europe. At the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings 2008 list, it was ranked as fourth best in continental Europe
Continental Europe
Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands....

. The Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

 2008 placed it as number 43 worldwide and 8th in Europe. A second all-round university in the Copenhagen area is Roskilde University
Roskilde University
Roskilde University is a Danish public university founded in 1972 and located in Trekroner in the Eastern part of Roskilde. The university awards bachelor and master's degrees as well as Ph.D...

 located in Roskilde
Roskilde
Roskilde is the main city in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark on the island of Zealand. It is an ancient city, dating from the Viking Age and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network....

.

The Technical University of Denmark
Technical University of Denmark
The Technical University of Denmark , often simply referred to as DTU, is a university just north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 1829 at the initiative of Hans Christian Ørsted as Denmark's first polytechnic, and is today ranked among Europe's leading engineering institutions, and the...

 (DTU), Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, is located in Lyngby
Kongens Lyngby
Kongens Lyngby is the main city in the affluent Danish municipality of Lyngby-Taarbæk. Just north of Copenhagen, the city lies in the northern part of Denmark's largest island, Zealand...

 at the northern outskirts of Copenhagen. In 2008 it was ranked third highest in Europe on Times Higher Education's list of the most influential technical universities in the World. The Max Planck Institute
Max Planck Institute for Physics
Max Planck Institute for Physics is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in High Energy Physics and Astroparticle physics. It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director.It was founded as the Kaiser Wilhelm...

 in Germany was ranked 15, ETH Zurich
ETH Zurich
The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich or ETH Zürich is an engineering, science, technology, mathematics and management university in the City of Zurich, Switzerland....

 in Switzerland was ranked 15 and DTU in Denmark was ranked 20.

Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School, also known as CBS, is situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. With more than 17,000 students and 1,300 staff members, CBS is also one of the largest business schools in Europe. CBS offers a wide range of business-oriented university programmes and a research environment...

 (CBS) is an esteemed and EQUIS
European Quality Improvement System
The European Quality Improvement System is a school accreditation system. It specializes in higher education institutions of management and business administration, run by the European Foundation for Management Development...

 accredited business school located in Frederiksberg.

The IT University of Copenhagen
IT University of Copenhagen
The IT University of Copenhagen is a Danish globally oriented, independent university.The IT University of Copenhagen was established in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1999. At that time, it was - in Danish - called "IT-højskolen"...

 is Denmark's youngest university, a mono-faculty institution focusing on technical, societal and business aspects of information technology.

There are also branches of both University College Capital
University College Capital
University College Capital is one of eight new regional organizations of different study sites in Denmark offering bachelor courses of all kinds in Copenhagen and North Zealand....

 and Metropolitan University College
Metropolitan University College
Metropolitan University College is one of eight new regional organizations of different study sites in Denmark offering bachelor courses of all kinds in central Copenhagen....

 inside and outside Copenhagen.

Medicon Valley



Copenhagen is rich in companies and institutions with a focus on research and development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

 within the biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

 and life science
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

 sectors. Two of the 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies in the World are located in the greater Copenhagen area. The biotech and life science cluster
Business cluster
A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Clusters are considered to increase the productivity with which companies can compete, nationally and globally. In urban studies, the term agglomeration is used...

 in Copenhagen and the rest of the Oresund Region
Oresund Region
The Øresund or Öresund Region is a transnational region in northern Europe, centred on the cities of Copenhagen and Malmö. Located by the shores of the Øresund strait and connected by the Oresund Bridge, the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand constitute the Danish side, while Skåne...

 is one of the strongest in Europe. Since 1995 this has been branded as the Medicon Valley
Medicon Valley
Medicon Valley is a leading bi-national life-sciences cluster in Europe, spanning the Øresund Region of eastern Denmark and southern Sweden. It is one of Europe's strongest life science clusters with a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small...

 in a Danish-Swedish cooperation. The aim is to strengthen the region's position and to promote cooperation between companies and academia
Academia
Academia is the community of students and scholars engaged in higher education and research.-Etymology:The word comes from the akademeia in ancient Greece. Outside the city walls of Athens, the gymnasium was made famous by Plato as a center of learning...

. The German biotech giant Sartorius Stedim Biotech is currently creating a Nordic head office in Tåstrup on the outskirts of Copenhagen. The Øresund region is responsible for 60 percent of life science production in Scandinavia and is home to 111 biotech companies.

Cleantech


Copenhagen was mentioned by Clean Edge as one of the key cleantech clusters to watch in their 2008 book The Cleantech Revolution. The city is the focal point for more than 300 cleantech companies drawing on 46 research institutions. The cluster employs more than 60.000 people and is characterized by a close collaboration between universities, business and governing institutions. The regions most important cleantech research institutions are the University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
The University of Copenhagen is the oldest and largest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479, it has more than 37,000 students, the majority of whom are female , and more than 7,000 employees. The university has several campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the...

, Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School, also known as CBS, is situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. With more than 17,000 students and 1,300 staff members, CBS is also one of the largest business schools in Europe. CBS offers a wide range of business-oriented university programmes and a research environment...

, Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy
Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy
Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy is a scientific research organization north of Roskilde, Denmark. From 1 January 2008 it was made an institute under Technical University of Denmark...

 and the Technical University of Denmark
Technical University of Denmark
The Technical University of Denmark , often simply referred to as DTU, is a university just north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 1829 at the initiative of Hans Christian Ørsted as Denmark's first polytechnic, and is today ranked among Europe's leading engineering institutions, and the...

 which Risø is now part of.

Transport


The greater Copenhagen area has a very well established transportation infrastructure making it a hub in Northern Europe.

Roads


Copenhagen has a large network of toll-free motorways and public roads connecting different municipalities of the city together and to Northern Europe. As in many other cities in Europe traffic is increasing in Copenhagen. The radial arterial roads leading to Copenhagen city centre are critically congested during peak hours
Rush hour
A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. Normally, this happens twice a day—once in the morning and once in the evening, the times during when the most people commute...

.

Cycling


Copenhagen is known as one of the most bicycle-friendly
Bicycle-friendly
The term bicycle-friendly describes policies and practices which may help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by bicycle with other traffic...

 cities in the world. Every day 1.1 million km are bicycled in Copenhagen. 36% of all citizens commute to work, school or university by bicycle and it is municipal policy that this number should go up to 40% by 2012 and 50% in 2015. The city's bicycle paths
Segregated cycle facilities
Segregated cycle facilities are marked lanes, tracks, shoulders and paths designated for use by cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded...

 are extensive and well used. Bicycle paths are often separated from the main traffic lanes and sometimes have their own signal systems.

The municipality is also developing a system of interconnected green bicycle routes, greenways, the aim being to facilitate fast, safe, and pleasant bicycle transport from one end of the city to the other. The network will cover more than 100 km (62 mi) and will have 22 routes when finished. The city provides public bicycles
Copenhagen City Bikes
Copenhagen City Bikes or Bycykler København is the bicycle sharing system of Copenhagen, Denmark. Launched in 1995 with 1,000 cycles, the project was the world's first large-scale urban bike-sharing scheme. It features specially designed bikes with parts that cannot not be used on other bikes...

 which can be found throughout the downtown area and used with a returnable deposit of 20 kroner
Danish krone
The krone is the official currency of the Kingdom of Denmark consisting of Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. It is subdivided into 100 øre...

.

Copenhagen's well-developed bicycle culture
Bicycle culture
Bicycle culture can refer to a mainstream culture that supports the use of bicycles or to a subculture. Although "bike culture" is often used to refer to various forms of associated fashion, it is erroneous to call fashion in and of itself a culture....

 is reflected in the use of copenhagenize to describe the practice of other cities adopting Copenhagen-style bike lanes and bicycle infrastructure. In 2007, Copenhagen-based Danish urban design
Urban design
Urban design concerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality of towns and cities, and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public space. It has traditionally been regarded as a disciplinary subset of urban planning, landscape architecture, or architecture and in more recent times has...

 consultant Jan Gehl
Jan Gehl
Jan Gehl is a Danish architect and urban design consultant based in Copenhagen and whose career has focused on improving the quality of urban life by re-orienting city design towards the pedestrian and cyclist.-Biography:...

 was hired by the New York City Department of Transportation
New York City Department of Transportation
The New York City Department of Transportation is responsible for the management of much of New York City's transportation infrastructure...

 to re-imagine New York City streets by introducing designs to improve life for pedestrians and cyclists. In recognition of Copenhagen's emphasis on bicycling, the city has been chosen by the Union Cycliste Internationale
Union Cycliste Internationale
Union Cycliste Internationale is the world governing body for sports cycling and oversees international competitive cycling events. The UCI is based in Aigle, Switzerland....

 as their first official Bike City. Bike City Copenhagen will take place from 2008 to 2011 and consist of large cycling events for professionals as well as amateurs.

Harbour



The harbour of Copenhagen has largely lost its industrial importance. In 2001, Copenhagen Harbour merged with the harbour in Malmö to create Copenhagen-Malmö Port
Copenhagen Malmö Port
The Copenhagen Malmö Port is the trans-national port authority for the cities of Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden....

. It has several functions, the most important being as a major cruise
Cruising (maritime)
Cruising by boat is a lifestyle that involves living for extended time on a boat while traveling from place to place for pleasure. Cruising generally refers to trips of a few days or more, and can extend to round-the-world voyages.- History :...

 destination. In 2007 a record 286 cruise ship
Cruise ship
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way...

s with 420,000 cruise passengers visited Copenhagen. 120 of these ships either started or ended the cruise in Copenhagen. In 2008 these numbers grew further to 310 cruise ships and 560,000 passengers. As a result of the growth in the cruise industry facilities are being expanded and improved. At the World Travel Awards in 2008, Copenhagen Port was named the number one cruise destination in Europe for the fifth year in a row.

Copenhagen is serviced by ferry lines to Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

 in Norway (called "Oslobåden") with a daily connection and to Świnoujście
Swinoujscie
Świnoujście is a city and seaport on the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon, located in the extreme north-west of Poland. It is situated mainly on the islands of Uznam and Wolin, but also occupies smaller islands, of which the largest is Karsibór island, once part of Usedom, now separated by a Piast...

 in Poland (called "Polensfærgerne") with five weekly connections (Passengers are taken by bus to Ystad (Sweden) and ferry starts there).

Copenhagen has four lines of waterbus
Water taxi
A water taxi or water bus, also known as a commuter boat, is a watercraft used to provide public transport, usually but not always in an urban environment. Service may be scheduled with multiple stops, operating in a similar manner to a bus, or on demand to many locations, operating in a similar...

es, known as the Copenhagen Harbour Buses
Copenhagen Harbour Buses
The Copenhagen Harbour Buses is a system of water buses along the harbourfront of Copenhagen, Denmark, operated by Movia which is also operating the regular buses in the city...

, serving ten water bus stops; four on the Amager-side and six on the Zealand-side of the harbour, from Sluseholmen
Sluseholmen
Sluseholmen is a peninsula in the South Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Southern Docklands of the Port of Copenhagen, the area used to house heavy industry, but since the turn of the millennium Sluseholmen has undergone massive redevelopment, transforming it into a mainly residential...

 in the South to Holmen
Holmen, Copenhagen
Holmen is an area in central Copenhagen, Denmark. In spite of its name, deceptively in singular, Holmen is a congregation of small islands, forming a north-eastern extension of Christianshavn between Zealand and the northern tip of Amager....

 in the North.

Airports


Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport
Copenhagen Airport is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark and the Oresund Region. It is located on the island of Amager, south of Copenhagen city centre, and west of Malmö city centre on the other side of the Oresund Bridge. The airport lies mainly in the municipality...

 is the principal airport serving Copenhagen. It is the largest in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

 and the 17th largest in Europe. Located in Kastrup
Kastrup
Kastrup is a suburb of Copenhagen, on the east coast of Amager in the Tårnby Municipality.Kastrup is best known as the site of Copenhagen Airport. In Danish, the airport is often called Kastrup Lufthavn or Københavns Lufthavn, Kastrup .Scandinavian Airlines System has its Denmark offices in Kastrup...

 on the island of Amager
Amager
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is partly situated on Amager, which is connected to the much larger island of Zealand by five bridges.-History:...

, it has efficient connections to downtown Copenhagen, with trip times of 15 minutes to Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, Denmark, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The finest and largest square of the city, it was laid out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city, and has an equestrian statue of...

 via metro (with 4–6 minutes between departures) and 12 minutes to Central Station via regional train (10 minutes between departures). Its location also makes it the most important international airport
International airport
An international airport is any airport that can accommodate flights from other countries and are typically equipped with customs and immigration facilities to handle these flights to and from other countries...

 for large parts of southern Sweden. Over the Øresund Bridge trains go to Malmö South in 14 minutes or Malmö Central Station
Malmö Central Station
Malmö Central Station is a terminus railway station on the Southern Main Line in Malmö, Sweden opened in 1876. It serves approximately 55 000 passengers every day, making it the second busiest in Sweden behind Stockholm Central Station-History:...

 in 22 minutes. Skytrax
Skytrax
Skytrax is a United Kingdom-based consultancy, the public face of Inflight Research Services, which has the largest airline and airport review and ranking site. It conducts research for commercial airlines...

 rates Copenhagen Airport as the tenth best airport in the world, and the fourth best in Europe. The Roskilde
Roskilde
Roskilde is the main city in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark on the island of Zealand. It is an ancient city, dating from the Viking Age and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network....

 airport, 30 km west of city center, has two (crossing) runways with ILS
Instrument Landing System
An instrument landing system is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing during instrument...

 equipment. It is primarily used for general aviation traffic, flight schools, business jets and occasional charter flights, but can be used by medium jets - although not always at full take-off weight. Plans for expanding Roskilde Airport have been approved, making it more suitable for regular flights of medium jets, such as those operated by most low-cost airlines and charter operators. However, a lack of firm commitment from airlines has postponed the expansion indefinitely.

Public transportation






Local transport
The local transportation system of Copenhagen consists of a number of different, but combined, train systems and several types of buses. The four different rail systems are
  1. Re-tog regional train
    Regional rail
    Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city center, and the middle to outer suburbs beyond 15km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis...

    s (stops at major stations only, continues as interregional trains outside Copenhagen local traffic area)
  2. S-train
    S-Train
    The S-train network is a combined urban rapid transit and suburban rail network of Metropolitan Copenhagen, Denmark. It connects the city center with the inner suburbs of Copenhagen, and has close to half of the stations within the urban city. The first line was opened in 1934...

     (a combined urban and suburban rail system with a length of 170 km (105.63 mi)., the distance between stations is approximately 2 km (1.24 mi) within the central parts)
  3. Copenhagen Metro
    Copenhagen Metro
    Copenhagen Metro is a rapid transit system serving Copenhagen, Frederiksberg and Tårnby in Denmark. The system opened between 2002 and 2007, and has two lines, M1 and M2. The driverless light metro supplements the larger S-train rapid transit system, and is integrated with DSB local trains and...

     (under further development, the City Circle Line (M3+M4) is scheduled to be complete in 2018 with plans for three additional lines M5+M6+M7)
  4. Local trains in the periphery of the metropolitan area. (modern but usually driven by diesel or natural gas)


There are 193 rail stations. Most of them have connecting bus services. This link shows all lines, stations and fare zones. The Copenhagen local traffic area is divided in 95 zones. Zones 1,2 and 3 make up the city core of Copenhagen.

Tickets
The same ticket is valid for travel on bus, train, and metro networks. Ticket machines are installed at all stations, and tickets can also be bought on buses and at ticket counters located at major stations. A ticket price inside the Copenhagen local traffic area is distance-dependent and always between two and nine zones (a nine zone ticket goes for all zones). Price is currently (2011) 12 DKK for each zone. There are a number of tickets that can be bought at different discounts, for instance the 10-trip klippekort (variable price) or 24 hour travel card (130 DKK). The fine for not having a valid ticket is 750DKK.

The main junction stations for interchange between system or lines are the stations of Nørreport, Valby, Danshøj, Kastrup Airport, Ny Ellebjerg, Hellerup, Østerport, Ryparken, Ørestaden, Flintholm, and København H (Copenhagen Central Station). The latter is also a hub for trains with destinations outside the Copenhagen local traffic area.

Danish and international trains
Copenhagen Central Station provides Copenhagen with Intercity and Express trains across Denmark, as well as services to several international destinations. The train traffic to Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 is especially heavy, and other distant destinations can also be reached by daily international trains. Trains to southern and western Sweden depart every 20 minutes. (A special ticket fare system exists between the Copenhagen local traffic area and the most southern part of Sweden, Skåne county.)

Environment


Copenhagen is recognized as one of the most environmentally friendly cities in the world. Much of the city's success can be attributed to a strong municipal policy combined with a sound national policy, in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and the first country in the world to implement an environmental law
Environmental law
Environmental law is a complex and interlocking body of treaties, conventions, statutes, regulations, and common law that operates to regulate the interaction of humanity and the natural environment, toward the purpose of reducing the impacts of human activity...

 in 1973. In 2006 Copenhagen Municipality received the European Environmental Management Award. The award was given for long-term holistic environmental planning
Environmental planning
Environmental Planning is the process of facilitating decision making to carry out development with due consideration given to the natural environmental, social, political, economic and governance factors and provides a holistic frame work to achieve sustainable outcomes.-Elements of environmental...

. It is municipal policy to reduce CO2 emissions
Global warming
Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected continuation. In the last 100 years, Earth's average surface temperature increased by about with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades...

 by 20% before the end of 2015. In 2001 a large offshore wind farm
Wind farm
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other...

 was built just off the coast of Copenhagen at Middelgrunden
Middelgrunden
Middelgrunden is an offshore wind farm in the Øresund 3.5 kmoutside Copenhagen, Denmark. When it was built in 2000, it was the world's largest offshore farm, with 20 turbines and a capacity of 40 MW...

. It produces about 4% of the city's energy.

Many years of major investments in sewage treatment
Sewage treatment
Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants...

 has improved water quality
Water quality
Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which...

 in the harbour to an extent that the inner harbour can be used for swimming and facilities for this are provided at a number of locations.

Another municipal policy is that 40% of all citizens should bicycle to and from work by 2012 and a number of initiatives are being taken to implement this policy (see "bicycling" above).

Copenhagen is the capital in the world where organic food
Organic food
Organic foods are foods that are produced using methods that do not involve modern synthetic inputs such as synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers, do not contain genetically modified organisms, and are not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or chemical food additives.For the...

 has the largest market share
Market share
Market share is the percentage of a market accounted for by a specific entity. In a survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, 67 percent responded that they found the "dollar market share" metric very useful, while 61% found "unit market share" very useful.Marketers need to be able to...

. One in every ten purchases is organic in Copenhagen. Within the municipal sector in Copenhagen, 45% of all food consumption is organic but the target is considerably higher. With the environmental strategy "Environment Metropolis: Our Vision 2015" the politicians wish that solely organic food is to be served in 90 per cent of the Copenhagen old-age homes and residential homes for children and young persons in 2015.

International rankings


Copenhagen has placed well in a number of international rankings, some of which are mentioned below.

General rankings and comment

  • In the 2011 Mercer
    Mercer
    A mercer is a merchant or trader, more specifically a merchant who deals in textiles / mercery.Mercer may also refer to:-People:*Bill Mercer, American sportscaster*George Mercer, rapist...

     woldwide survey of 221 cities, Copenhagen was placed ninth for personal safety while it was ranked 11th for quality of living.
  • It was ranked No.1 as Most Livable City in the World by international lifestyle magazine Monocle
    Monocle (2007 magazine)
    Monocle is a lifestyle magazine and website founded by Tyler Brûlé, a Canadian journalist and entrepreneur. Described by CBC News reporter Harry Forestell as a "meeting between Foreign Policy and Vanity Fair", the magazine provides a globalist perspective on issues as fashion, international...

     on their Top 25 Most Livable Cities 2008 list and World's Best Design City 2008 also by Monocle. In 2010, Monocle ranked Copenhagen as the 2nd most liveable city, losing the top spot to Munich.
  • In 2008, Copenhagen was ranked No.4 by Financial Times-owned FDi magazine
    FDi magazine
    fDi Magazine is an English-language bi-monthly news and foreign direct investment publication owned by The Financial Times Ltd and edited in London. The A4 glossy pages reach a circulation of 14, 768 ABC “senior decision-makers involved in overseas investment” across the world...

     on their list of Top50 European Cities of the Future after London, Paris and Berlin. In 2006/07 FDi Magazine named Copenhagen Scandinavian City of the Future and in 2004/05 Copenhagen was named Northern European City of the Future ahead of other cities from Scandinavia, UK, Ireland and Benelux.
  • It is the world's No.7 most expensive city and No.3 most expensive in Europe on the Forbes List.

Business and commerce rankings

  • In 2009, Copenhagen was named an Innovation Nexus City and ranked 12th in Europe and 17th globally for innovation across 31 sectors, out of 256 cities in the Innovation Cities Index published by 2thinknow.
  • In the 2008 Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index, published by MasterCard
    MasterCard
    Mastercard Incorporated or MasterCard Worldwide is an American multinational financial services corporation with its headquarters in the MasterCard International Global Headquarters, Purchase, Harrison, New York, United States...

    , Copenhagen was ranked 14th in the world and 1st in Scandinavia.
  • In The 2008 Global Cities Index, Copenhagen was ranked 36th in the world, 15th in Europe, and 2nd in Scandinavia
    Scandinavia
    Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

    .
  • Copenhagen ranks 3rd in Western Europe and 1st in the Nordic countries for attracting head offices.
  • Copenhagen No.1 out of 254 locations in the Location Ranking Survey performed by ECA International that has asked European experts where they prefer to be stationed worldwide.
  • It is ranked No.7 as Preferred City For Investment Projects.
  • It ranked 3rd in Western Europe in terms of attracting regional headquarters and distribution centres, only surpassed by London and Paris.
  • It ranks No.1 in the 2006 Global Earning Ranking.
  • The city ranks as the 5th most popular city in the world for international meetings and conferences.

Specific rankings and related awards

  • The Copenhagen Metro has been named the Greenest City in Europe by Siemens/Economist Intelligence Unit.
  • It was ranked No.6 in Grist Magazines "15 Green Cities" list in 2007 making Copenhagen the greenest capital of Scandinavia according to Grist Magazine.
  • The Copenhagen Metro has been named the Best Metro in the World by industry experts.
  • Travellers have voted Copenhagen the cleanest city in Europe.
  • Lonely Planet
    Lonely Planet
    Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book and digital media publisher in the world. The company is owned by BBC Worldwide, which bought a 75% share from the founders Maureen and Tony Wheeler in 2007 and the final 25% in February 2011...

     ranks Copenhagen as Scandinavia's 'coolest' capital .
  • Copenhagen was ranked as one of the most attractive cities to live and work in Europe.

Notable residents

  • Herman Bang
    Herman Bang
    Herman Joachim Bang was a Danish author, one of the men of the Modern Breakthrough.-Biography:Bang was born into a noble family of Asserballe, on the small Danish island of Als, the son of a South Jutlandic vicar...

    , journalist and author
  • Niels Bohr
    Niels Bohr
    Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr mentored and collaborated with many of the top physicists of the century at his institute in...

    , physicist and Nobel Prize winner
  • Aage Bohr, physicist and Nobel Prize winner (son of Niels Bohr)
  • Victor Borge
    Victor Borge
    Victor Borge ,born Børge Rosenbaum, was a Danish comedian, conductor and pianist, affectionately known as The Clown Prince of Denmark,The Unmelancholy Dane,and The Great Dane.-Early life and career:...

    , entertainer
  • August Bournonville
    August Bournonville
    August Bournonville was a Danish ballet master and choreographer. August was the son of Antoine Bournonville, a dancer and choreographer trained under the French choreographer, Jean Georges Noverre, and the nephew of Julie Alix de la Fay, née Bournonville, of the Royal Swedish Ballet.August was...

    , ballet choreographer
  • Georg Brandes
    Georg Brandes
    Georg Morris Cohen Brandes was a Danish critic and scholar who had great influence on Scandinavian and European literature from the 1870s through the turn of the 20th century. He is seen as the theorist behind the "Modern Breakthrough" of Scandinavian culture...

    , cultural and literary critic
  • Helena Christensen
    Helena Christensen
    Helena Christensen is a Danish fashion model, Victoria's Secret Angel, beauty queen, and photographer. She has also served as creative director for Nylon magazine, designed clothing, and supported funding for breast cancer organizations and other charities.-Early life:Christensen was born in...

    , supermodel
  • Tove Ditlevsen
    Tove Ditlevsen
    Tove Ditlevsen was a female Danish poet and author.She was born in Copenhagen and grew up in the working-class neighbourhood of Vesterbro. Her childhood experiences were the focal points of her work. Ditlevsen was married four times.She published 29 books including short stories, poetry and...

    , author
  • Carl Th. Dreyer, movie director
  • Rune Glifberg
    Rune Glifberg
    Rune Glifberg is a professional skateboarder who currently resides in the Leucadia district of Encinitas, California. Glifberg began skating at age 11 after a friend brought a board over to his house. In the early 1990s, Glifberg turned professional as a vert skater and made the trek across the...

    , skateboarder
  • Gus Hansen
    Gus Hansen
    Gustav "Gus" Hansen is a professional Danish poker player who lives in Monaco. In his poker career, Hansen has won three World Poker Tour open titles, the 2007 Aussie Millions main event and was the season one winner of the Poker Superstars Invitational Tournament...

    , poker player
  • Iben Hjejle
    Iben Hjejle
    Iben Hjejle is a Danish actress, notable for starring in the John Cusack film High Fidelity . In Denmark, she is perhaps best known for appearing in the Danish television sitcom Langt fra Las Vegas and playing the girlfriend of Danish comedian Casper Christensen, her real life boyfriend...

    , actor
  • Peter Høeg
    Peter Høeg
    Peter Høeg is a Danish writer of fiction. He received a Master of Arts in Literature from the University of Copenhagen in 1984.-Early life:Høeg was born in Copenhagen, Denmark...

    , author
  • Bjarke Ingels
    Bjarke Ingels
    Bjarke Ingels is a Danish architect. He heads the architectural practice Bjarke Ingels Group which he founded in 2006. In 2009 he co-founded the design consultancy KiBiSi...

    , architect and founder of BIG
  • Arne Jacobsen
    Arne Jacobsen
    Arne Emil Jacobsen, usually known as Arne Jacobsen, was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for contributing so much to architectural Functionalism as well as for the worldwide success he enjoyed with simple but effective chair designs.-Early life and education:Arne Jacobsen was born...

    , architect and designer
  • J. C. Jacobsen
    Jacob Christian Jacobsen
    Jacob Christian Jacobsen , mostly known as J. C. Jacobsen, was a Danish industrialist and philanthropist best known for founding the brewery Carlsberg....

    , founder of the Carlsberg Carlsberg Brewery
  • Robert Jacobsen
    Robert Jacobsen
    Robert Julius Tommy Jacobsen was a Danish sculptor and painter. The Danish Robert award was named after him.-Biography:...

     artist
  • C.V. Jørgensen
    C.V. Jørgensen
    C.V. Jørgensen is a Danish rock music composer and singer.- Discography :* En stynet strejfer * T-shirts, terylenebukser og gummisko * Storbyens små oaser * Vild i varmen...

    , singer and songwriter
  • Søren Kierkegaard
    Søren Kierkegaard
    Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was a Danish Christian philosopher, theologian and religious author. He was a critic of idealist intellectuals and philosophers of his time, such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel...

    , philosopher
  • Kim Larsen
    Kim Larsen
    thumb|250px|Kim Larsen, Nibe Festival 2009.Kim Melius Flyvholm Larsen is a Danish rock musician.Inspired by The Beatles and rock and roll, Larsen began as a songwriter and guitarist...

    , singer, guitarist and songwriter
  • Michael Laudrup
    Michael Laudrup
    Michael Laudrup is a retired Danish footballer, who works as a manager and last coached La Liga side RCD Mallorca. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest players in the history of football. His most prominent run of football came with Spanish club Barcelona, with whom he won four straight La...

    , former football player, currently coach
  • Bjørn Lomborg
    Bjørn Lomborg
    Bjørn Lomborg is a Danish author, academic, and environmental writer. He is an adjunct professor at the Copenhagen Business School, director of the Copenhagen Consensus Centre and a former director of the Environmental Assessment Institute in Copenhagen...

    , political scientist and author
  • Lauritz Melchior
    Lauritz Melchior
    Lauritz Melchior was a Danish and later American opera singer. He was the pre-eminent Wagnerian tenor of the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, and has since come to be considered the quintessence of his voice type.-Biography:...

    , opera singer
  • Mads Mikkelsen
    Mads Mikkelsen
    ' is a Danish actor.-Life and career:Mikkelsen was born in the Østerbro area of Copenhagen, the son of Bente Christiansen and Henning Mikkelsen, a cab driver. He is the brother of actor Lars Mikkelsen. After attending Århus Theatre School, he made his film debut in the movie Pusher...

    , actor
  • Dirch Passer
    Dirch Passer
    Dirch Hartvig Passer was a celebrated Danish actor. He was greatly renowned for his improvisational skills and, with a filmography comprising 90 movies, one of Denmark's most prolific actors....

    , comedian and actor
  • Peter Schmeichel
    Peter Schmeichel
    Peter Bolesław Schmeichel MBE is a retired Danish professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper, and was voted the "World's Best Goalkeeper" in 1992 and 1993...

    , TV host, former footballer
  • Julius Thomsen, chemist
  • Lars von Trier
    Lars von Trier
    Lars von Trier is a Danish film director and screenwriter. He is closely associated with the Dogme 95 collective, although his own films have taken a variety of different approaches, and have frequently received strongly divided critical opinion....

    , film director
  • Dan Turèll
    Dan Turèll
    Dan Turèll , affectionately nicknamed "Onkel Danny" , was a popular Danish writer with notable influence on Danish literature.-Overview:...

    , author
  • Lars Ulrich
    Lars Ulrich
    Lars Ulrich is a Danish drummer, and one of the founding members of the American thrash metal band Metallica. He was born in Gentofte, Denmark to an upper-middle class family. A tennis player in his youth, Ulrich moved to Los Angeles, California at age sixteen to pursue his training; though rather...

    , drummer and songwriter for heavy metal
    Heavy metal music
    Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States...

     band Metallica
    Metallica
    Metallica is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1981 when James Hetfield responded to an advertisement that drummer Lars Ulrich had posted in a local newspaper. The current line-up features long-time lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo ...


  • Partnerships


    Copenhagen does not have official sister cities, but maintains cooperation on specific areas with partner cities around the world:
    Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

     in France Marseille
    Marseille
    Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

     in France Prague
    Prague
    Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

     in Czech Republic Reykjavík
    Reykjavík
    Reykjavík is the capital and largest city in Iceland.Its latitude at 64°08' N makes it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxaflói Bay...

     in Iceland Berlin
    Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

     in Germany

    See also


    • Copenhagen Climate Council
      Copenhagen Climate Council
      The Copenhagen Climate Council is a global collaboration between international business and science founded by the leading independent think tank in Scandinavia, , based in Copenhagen...

    • Oresund Region
      Oresund Region
      The Øresund or Öresund Region is a transnational region in northern Europe, centred on the cities of Copenhagen and Malmö. Located by the shores of the Øresund strait and connected by the Oresund Bridge, the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand constitute the Danish side, while Skåne...

    • Ports of the Baltic Sea
      Ports of the Baltic Sea
      There are over 200 ports in the Baltic Sea. When only those ports that handle minimum of 50,000 tonnes of cargo annually, and where at least part of this cargo is international, are taken into account the number of ports reaches approximately 190. In 2008, the total amount of cargo handled in the...

    • Transportation in Denmark
      Transport in Denmark
      Transport in Denmark is developed and modern. The motorway network now covers 1,111 km while the railway network totals 2,667 km of operational track...

    • 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference
      2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference
      The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 December and 18 December. The conference included the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate...

      in Copenhagen

    External links