Fuzhou

Fuzhou

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Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

. Along with the many counties of Ningde
Ningde
Ningde , also known as Mindong , is a prefecture-level city located along the northeastern coast of Fujian province, China. It borders Fuzhou to the south, Wenzhou City and Zhejiang province to the north, and Nanping City to the west.-Administration:...

, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong (闽东, lit. East of Fujian) linguistic and cultural area.

Fuzhou's core counties lie on the north (or left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, and Ningde's Gutian County
Gutian County
Gutian County , also known as Edible Mushroom County, is a county lying in the southwest of Ningde, Fujian province, China. It is also known as "the town of the former worthy", as Zhuxi, a famous Chinese scholar once lived there...

 lies upriver. Fuzhou's counties south of the Min border on Putian
Putian
Putian is a prefecture-level city in eastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders Fuzhou City to the north, Quanzhou City to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east.-Administration:...

, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Quanzhou is a prefecture-level city in Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders all other prefecture-level cities in Fujian but two and faces the Taiwan Strait...

, Sanming
Sanming
Sanming ) is a prefecture-level city in western Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders Nanping City to the north, Fuzhou City to the east, Quanzhou City to the southeast, Longyan City to the south, and the province of Jiangxi to the west...

 and Nanping
Nanping
Nanping is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders Ningde City to the east, Sanming City to the south, and the provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi to the north and west respectively...

 municipalities. Its population is 7,115,370 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 4,408,076 inhabitants are urban standing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 standing around 38.05%.

Etymology and names


In older publications, the name "Fuzhou" was variously romanized as Foochow, Fuchow, Fuh-chau, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew or Hokchew.

The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties
Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties
The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties compiled by Li Jifu during the Yuanhe era of the Tang Dynasty is one of the earliest and most complete gazetteers of China....

, a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century AD, says that Fuzhou's name came from "Mt. Fu", a mountain located northwest of the city. The mountain's name was then combined with -zhou, meaning "settlement" or "prefecture", in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. During the Warring States Period
Warring States Period
The Warring States Period , also known as the Era of Warring States, or the Warring Kingdoms period, covers the Iron Age period from about 475 BC to the reunification of China under the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC...

, the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 referred to the Fuzhou area as Ye , though they did not conquer the area until the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

. The city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries AD before finally settling on Fuzhou in 948.

In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng .

Pre-Qin History (before 221 BC)



The remains of two Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 cultures - the Huqiutou Culture , from around 5000 BC, and the Tanshi Mountain Culture , from around 3000 BC - have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou area. During the Warring States Period
Warring States Period
The Warring States Period , also known as the Era of Warring States, or the Warring Kingdoms period, covers the Iron Age period from about 475 BC to the reunification of China under the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC...

 (c. 475 - 221 BC), Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 began referring to the modern Fujian area as Min Yue , suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, a family of non-Chinese tribes who once inhabited most of southern China. In 306 BC
306 BC
Year 306 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Tremulus and Arvina...

, the Yue Kingdom
Yue (state)
Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period , in the modern province of Zhejiang. During the Spring and Autumn Period, its capital was in Guiji , near the modern city of Shaoxing...

 (present-day Zhejiang Province) fell to the state of Chu
Chu (state)
The State of Chu was a Zhou Dynasty vassal state in present-day central and southern China during the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States Period . Its ruling house had the surname Nai , and clan name Yan , later evolved to surname Mi , and clan name Xiong...

. Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 historian Sima Qian
Sima Qian
Sima Qian was a Prefect of the Grand Scribes of the Han Dynasty. He is regarded as the father of Chinese historiography for his highly praised work, Records of the Grand Historian , a "Jizhuanti"-style general history of China, covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor to...

 wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Chinese and Yue culture to create Minyue. Their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City.

Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC - 200 AD)


The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule. The Qin Dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" - roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture - and the Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery . The area seems to have continued mostly independent of Chinese control for the next century. The Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 followed the short-lived Qin, and Emperor Gaozu of Han declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue
Nanyue
Nanyue was an ancient kingdom that consisted of parts of the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Nanyue was established in 204 BC at the final collapse of the Qin Dynasty by Zhao Tuo, who was the military commander of Nanhai Commandery at the time, and...

 to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. In 202 BC
202 BC
Year 202 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Geminus and Nero...

 Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu ' onMouseout='HidePop("60362")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Old_Chinese">Old Chinese
Old Chinese
The earliest known written records of the Chinese language were found at a site near modern Anyang identified as Yin, the last capital of the Shang dynasty, and date from about 1200 BC....

: *Matya) as King of Minyue, and a walled city called Ye was built. The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou.

In 110 BC
110 BC
Year 110 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rufus and Albinus...

, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han , , personal name Liu Che , was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty of China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under his reign, as well as the strong and centralized Confucian state he organized...

 defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies and annexed its territory and people into China. Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jiangnan
Jiangnan
Jiangnan or Jiang Nan is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of the Yangtze Delta...

 area, and the Yue ethnic group was mostly assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants. The area was eventually re-organized as a county in 85 BC
85 BC
Year 85 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Cinna and Carbo...

.

Three Kingdoms to Sui Dynasty (200 - 618 AD)


During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu, also known as Sun Wu, was one the three states competing for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period after the fall of the Han Dynasty. It was based in the Jiangnan region of China...

, and the Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 fleets. In 282 AD, during the Jin Dynasty
Jin Dynasty
Jin Dynasty may refer to:* Jin Dynasty , Chinese dynasty, subdivided into the Western and Eastern Jin periods* Later Jin Dynasty , one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China.* Jin Dynasty , a Jurchen kingdom in northern China* Later Jīn Dynasty, or...

, two artificial lakes known simply as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system. The core of modern Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. In 308 AD, during the War of the Eight Princes
War of the Eight Princes
The War of the Eight Princes or Rebellion of the Eight Kings or Rebellion of the Eight Princes was a civil war for power among princes and dukes of the Chinese Jin Dynasty from AD 291 to AD 306. It was fought mostly in northern China and devastated the country, later triggering the Wu Hu ravaging...

 at the end of the Jin Dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Han Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China began, followed by subsequent waves during later periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Chinese heartland. The administrative and economic center of the Fujian area began to shift to the Ye area during the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty was a powerful, but short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it ended nearly four centuries of division between rival regimes. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty....

 (581 - 618 AD).

Tang, Song, and Yuan Dynasties (618 - 1368 AD)


In 725 AD
725
Year 725 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 725 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.- Europe :* Bede writes On the reckoning of time ...

, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian and Guangdong areas. In 879
879
Year 879 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Pope John VIII recognizes the Duchy of Croatia as an independent state....

, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao
Huang Chao
Huang Chao was the leader of the Huang Chao Rebellion , known in mainland China as the Huang Chao Revolution in China that seriously weakened the once mighty Tang Dynasty of China...

 during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893
893
Year 893 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Council of Preslav: Simeon I succeeds Vladimir as prince of Bulgaria; the capital is moved from Pliska to Preslav....

, the warlord brothers Wang Chao
Wang Chao (Tang Dynasty)
Wang Chao , courtesy name Xinchen , formally Duke Guangwu of Qin , was a warlord of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who controlled Fujian Circuit , eventually establishing the base of power for his family members to later establish the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min.-...

 and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou in a rebellion against the Tang Dynasty, successfully gaining control of the entire Fujian Province and eventually proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom
Min (Ten Kingdoms)
Min was one of the Ten Kingdoms which was in existence between the years of 909 and 945. It existed in a mountainous region of modern day Fujian province of China and had a history of quasi-independent rule. Its capital was Fuzhou 福州. It was founded by Wang Shenzhi .-Founding:Wang Shenzhi’s older...

 in 909
909
Year 909 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Africa :* The Aghlabid dynasty in North Africa is overthrown by the Fatimids....

. The Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945
945
Year 945 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Buwayhid Dynasty takes control of Baghdad ....

. In 978
978
Year 978 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Badìa Fiorentina, an abbey in Florence, Italy, is founded by Willa, Margravine of Tuscany....

, Fuzhou was incorporated into the newly founded Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous.

Fuzhou prospered greatly during the Tang Dynasty. Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 was quickly adopted by the citizens who quickly built many Buddhist temples in the area. The Hualin Temple ' onMouseout='HidePop("18710")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Guangzhou">Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

), founded in 964
964
Year 964 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Religion :* May 22 – Pope Benedict V begins his pontificate as the 132nd pope, chosen by the people of Rome over Pope Leo VIII....

, is one of the oldest surviving wooden structures in China. New city walls were built in 282 AD, 901 AD, 905 AD, and 974 AD, so the city had many layers of walls — more so than the Chinese capital. Emperor Taizong
Emperor Taizong of Song
Emperor Taizong , born Zhao Kuangyi, was the second emperor of the Song Dynasty of China from 976 to 997. He was the younger brother of Emperor Taizu. His temple name Taizong means "Grand Ancestor".-Overview:...

 of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 ordered the destruction of all the walls in Fuzhou in 978 AD but new walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371 AD. During the Southern Song Dynasty, Fuzhou became more prosperous; many scholars came to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
Zhū​ Xī​ or Chu Hsi was a Song Dynasty Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China...

 (朱熹), the most celebrated Chinese philosopher after Confucius
Confucius
Confucius , literally "Master Kong", was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period....

, and Xin Qiji
Xin Qiji
Xīn Qìjí was a Chinese poet, military leader, and statesman during the Southern Song dynasty.-Life:During Xin's lifetime, northern China was occupied by the Jin or Jurchen, a nomadic people from what is now north-east China then regarded as barbarians. Only southern China was ruled by the Han...

 (辛弃疾), the greatest composer of the ci
Ci (poetry)
Ci is a kind of lyric Classical Chinese poetry using a poetic meter based upon certain patterns of fixed-rhythm formal types. For speakers of English, the word "ci" is pronounced somewhat like "tsuh"...

 form of poetry.

Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and apparently...

, an Italian guest of the Emperor Kubilai, transcribe
Transcription (linguistics)
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form. The source can either be utterances or preexisting text in another writing system, although some linguists only consider the former as transcription.Transcription should not be confused with...

d, after the conventions of Italian orthography
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

, the place name as Fugiu. This was not the local Min pronunciation but that of the Mandarin administrative class.

Ming Dynasty


Between 1405 and 1433 AD, a fleet of the Ming Imperial
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 navy under Admiral Zheng He
Zheng He
Zheng He , also known as Ma Sanbao and Hajji Mahmud Shamsuddin was a Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa, collectively referred to as the Voyages of Zheng He or Voyages of Cheng Ho from...

 sailed from Fuzhou to the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

 seven times; on three occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

. Before the last sailing, Zheng erected a stele
Stele
A stele , also stela , is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected for funerals or commemorative purposes, most usually decorated with the names and titles of the deceased or living — inscribed, carved in relief , or painted onto the slab...

 dedicated to the goddess Tian-Fei
Matsu (goddess)
Mazu , also spelt Matsu, is the indigenous goddess of the sea who is said to protect fishermen and sailors, and is invoked as the patron deity of all Southern Chinese and East Asian persons...

 (Matsu) near the seaport.

Galeote Pereira
Galeote Pereira
Galeote Pereira was a 16th century Portuguese soldier of fortune who has left us one of the earliest accounts by a westerner of life in China's Ming Dynasty, indeed the first detailed observation of that civilisation by a non-cleric since that of Marco Polo....

, a Portuguese soldier and trader, was taken prisoner during the pirate extermination campaign of 1549 and imprisoned in Fuzhou. Later transferred to a form of internal exile elsewhere in the province, Pereira escaped to Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

 in 1553. The record of his experiences in the Ming Empire, logged by the Jesuits at Goa
Goa
Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

 in 1561, was the first non-clerical account of China to reach the West since Polo's.

Qing Dynasty


In the 19th century, Lin Zexu
Lin Zexu
Lín Zéxú ; 30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing Dynasty.He is most recognized for his conduct and his constant position on the "high moral ground" in his fight, as a "shepherd" of his people, against the opium trade in Guangzhou...

, born in Fuzhou, a high-ranking official of Qing Dynasty, led an attempt to resist British colonialism at Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

. Unsuccessful and reviled by the East India Company
East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

, he was internally exiled to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Xinjiang is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2...

 near the Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n border. By the 1842 peace treaty which concluded the Opium War I
First Opium War
The First Anglo-Chinese War , known popularly as the First Opium War or simply the Opium War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice...

, Fuzhou became one of the five Chinese treaty ports
Treaty ports
The treaty ports was the name given to the port cities in China, Japan, and Korea that were opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties.-Chinese treaty ports:...

, and it became completely open to Western merchants and missionaries.

Fuzhou was one of the most important Protestant mission fields in China. On January 2, 1846, the first Protestant missionary, Rev. Stephen Johnson from ABCFM, entered the city and soon set up the first missionary station there. ABCFM was followed by the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society that was led by Revs. M. C. White and J. D. Collins
Judson Dwight Collins
Rev. Judson Dwight Collins was the first Methodist missionary to China.- Life :On February 12, 1823, Judson Dwight Collins was born into a Methodist family in Rose, Wayne County, New York. His parents, Alpheus and Betsay Collins, were of English and German origin...

, who reached Fuzhou in early September 1847. The Church Missionary Society also arrived in the city in May 1850. These three Protestant agencies remained in Fuzhou until the communist revolution in China in the 1950s, leaving a rich heritage in Fuzhou's Protestant culture.

On August 23, 1884, the Battle of Fuzhou broke out between the French Far East Fleet and the Fujian Fleet
Fujian Fleet
The Fujian Fleet was one of China's four regional fleets during the closing decades of the nineteenth century. The fleet was almost annihilated on 23 August 1884 by Admiral Amédée Courbet's Far East Squadron at the Battle of Fuzhou, the opening engagement of the Sino-French War .-Composition:The...

 of the Qing Dynasty. As the result, the Fujian Fleet, one of the four Chinese regional fleets, was destroyed completely in Mawei Harbor.

Republic of China


On November 8, 1911, revolutionaries staged an uprising in Fuzhou. After an overnight street battle, the Qing
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 (Manchu) army surrendered.

Revolutionary Republic


On November 22, 1933, Eugene Chen and the leaders of the National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
The National Revolutionary Army , pre-1928 sometimes shortened to 革命軍 or Revolutionary Army and between 1928-1947 as 國軍 or National Army was the Military Arm of the Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMT's period of party rule...

's 19th Army set up the short-lived People's Revolutionary Government of Republican China (中華共和國人民革命政府)
Fujian People's Government
The People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China , also known as the Fujian People's Government , was a short-lived anti-Kuomintang government in the Republic of China's Fujian Province...

. Blockaded by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 and left to twist in the wind by the nearby Soviet Republic of China, the PRGRC collapsed within two months.

Japanese Occupation


With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, hostilities commenced in Fujian Province. Xiamen (Amoy) fell to a Japanese landing force on May 13, 1938. "The fall of Amoy instantly threatened the security of Foochow. On May 23, enemy (Japanese) ships bombarded Mei-hua, Huang-chi and Pei-chiao while enemy planes continued to harass our forces. Between May 31 and June 1, our gunboats "Fu-ning", "Chen-ning" and "Suming" defending the blockade line in the estuary of the Min River were successively bombed and sunk. Meanwhile, our ship "Chu-tai" berthed at Nan-tai was damaged. Our Navy's Harbor Command School, barracks, shipyard, hospital and marine barracks at Ma-wei were successively bombed." (4). Fuzhou is recorded as having fallen to Japanese forces in 1938. (5).

The extent of Japanese command and control of the city of Fuzhou itself as opposed to the port at Mawei and the Min River Estuary is uncertain. By 1941 (date unknown), the city is recorded as having returned to Nationalist control. The British Consulate in Fuzhou is noted as operational from 1941-1944 after the United Kingdom Declaration of War on Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 in December 1941. Western visitors to Fuzhou in the period 1941-1944 include the Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett
Wilfred Burchett
Wilfred Graham Burchett was an Australian journalist known for his reporting of conflicts in Asia and his Communist sympathies...

 in 1942 (6). and the British scientist Dr Joseph Needham
Joseph Needham
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham, CH, FRS, FBA , also known as Li Yuese , was a British scientist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1941, and as a fellow of the British...

 in May, 1944. (7). Both visitors record the presence of a British Consul and a Fuzhou Club comprising western businessmen.

In 'Bomb, Book & Compass', author Simon Winchester relates the visit of Dr Needham in 1944. Needham encountered the American government agent (John Caldwell) and the British SIS agent (Murray MacLehose working under cover as the British Vice-Consul in Fuzhou) involved in aid to the Nationalist resistance to Japanese forces in Fujian Province. (8).

As part of Operation Ichi-Go (1944), the last large-scale Japanese offensive in China in World War 2, the Japanese intended to isolate Fuzhou and the Fujian Province corridor to Nationalist forces in western china and the wartime capital of Chongqing. One account of the Japanese re-taking of Fuzhou city itself is narrated by American naval officer, Houghton Freeman. (9). The date is given as October 5, 1944. (10).

Fuzhou remained under Japanese control until the surrender of Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and its armed forces in China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 in September 1945.

Following the restitution of Republic control (1946), the administration divisions of Fuzhou were annexed, and administration level was promoted from county-level to city-level officially.

People's Republic


On December 13, 1993, a raging fire swept through a textile
Textile
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands...

 factory in Fuzhou and claimed the lives of 60 workers.

On October 2, 2005, floodwaters from Typhoon Longwang swept away a military school, killing at least 80 paramilitary
Paramilitary
A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not considered part of a state's formal armed forces....

 officers.

Geography



Fuzhou is located in the northeast coast of Fujian province, in the opposite of North Taiwan, connects jointly northwards with Ningde and Nanping, southwards with Quanzhou and Putian, westwards with Sanming respectively.

Climate


Fuzhou has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Koppen Cfa) influenced by the East Asian Monsoon; the summers are long, very hot and humid, the winters are short, mild and dry. In most years torrential rain occurs during the monsoon in the second half of May. Fuzhou is also liable to typhoons in late summer and early autumn. Monthly daily means range from 10.9 °C (51.6 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84 °F) in July, while extreme temperatures have ranged from −1.7 °C to 41.7 °C (107 °F)

Administrative divisions


The administrative divisions of Fuzhou have been changed frequently throughout history. From 1983, the Fuzhou current administrative divisions were formed officially, namely, 5 districts and 8 counties respectively. In 1990 and 1994, Fuqing (Hók-chiăng) and Changle (Diòng-lŏ̤h) counties were promoted to county-level cities
County-level city
A county-level city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions....

. Despite these changes, the administrative image of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still held popularly among local residents. Fuzhou's entire area only covers 9.65% of Fujian Province.
The city of Fuzhou has direct jurisdiction over 5 districts (区 qu), 2 county-level cities
County-level city
A county-level city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions....

 (市 shi), and 6 counties (县 xian) :
Subdivision
Fuzhou City Proper   Fuzhou Suburban and Rural
Gulou-qu
Gulou District, Fuzhou
Gulou District, Fuzhou is a district of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou city. Gulou District used to be the walled city of Fuzhou....

鼓楼区 Gū-làu   Fuqing-shi 福清市 Hók-chiăng
Taijiang-qu
Taijiang District
Taijiang District is a district of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou city....

台江区 Dài-gĕ̤ng   Changle-shi 长乐市 Diòng-lŏ̤h
Cangshan-qu
Cangshan District
Cangshan District is a district of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou city....

仓山区 Chŏng-săng   Minqing-xian
Minqing County
Minqing County is a county of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou city....

闽清县 Mìng-chiăng
Mawei-qu
Mawei District
Mawei is a district in the municipal region of Fuzhou, FJ.It is famous for its historical Mawei Navy Yard....

马尾区 Mā-muōi   Minhou-xian
Minhou County
Minhou County is a county of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou city....

闽侯县 Mìng-âu
Jin'an-qu
Jin'an District, Fuzhou
Jin'an District is a district of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou city....

晋安区 Céng-ăng   Yongtai-xian
Yongtai County
Yongtai County is a county of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou city....

永泰县 Īng-tái
        Lianjiang-xian 连江县 Lièng-gŏng
        Luoyuan-xian
Luoyuan County
Luoyuan County is a county of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou city....

罗源县 Lò̤-nguòng
        Pingtan-xian
Pingtan County
Pingtan County is a county comprising several islands in the Taiwan Strait, under the administration of Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian province, People's Republic of China...

平潭县 Bìng-tàng

Fuzhou subdivisions (According to 2010 Census)
LocationArea (km²)PopulationDensity
- Gulou District 36.60 687,706 18,790
- Taijiang District 18.28 446,891 24,447
- Cangshan District 139.41 762,746 5,471
- Mawei District 254.33 231,929 912
- Jinan District 566.45 792,491 1,399
Minhou County 2,133.03 662,118 310
Lianjiang County 1,190.67 561,490 472
Louyuan County 1,081.17 207,677 192
Minqing County 1,468.90 237,643 162
Yongtai County 2,243.41 249,455 111
Pingtan County 371.09 357,760 964
Fuqing City 1,932.43 1,234,838 639
Changle City 717.54 682,626 951

Culture



The City of Banyans is distinct from the mainstream inland cultures of central China, and in details vary from other areas of Maritime China

Language and art


Besides Mandarin Chinese, local residents of Fuzhou (Fuzhou people) also speak Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect , also known as Foochow dialect, Foochow, Foochowese, Fuzhounese, or Fuzhouhua, is considered the standard dialect of Min Dong, which is a branch of Min Chinese mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province. Native speakers also call it ' , meaning the language spoken in...

, a language that is considered to be the standard form of the Min Dong
Min Dong
The Eastern Min language, or Min Dong is the language mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province in China, in and near Fuzhou and Ningde. Fuzhou is the province's capital and largest city...

 dialect.

Min opera
Min Opera
Min opera , also called Fuzhou drama , is one of the major traditional opera forms in Fujian Province. It enjoys a good popularity in Fuzhou, Middle Fujian, East Fujian and North Fujian where Fuzhou dialect is spoken, as well as in Taiwan and Malay Archipelago...

, also known as Fuzhou drama, is one of the major operas in Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

 Province. It enjoys popularity in the Fuzhou area and in neighboring parts of Fujian such as the northeast and northwest areas where the Fuzhou dialect is spoken, as well as in Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 and the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago refers to the archipelago between mainland Southeastern Asia and Australia. The name was derived from the anachronistic concept of a Malay race....

. It became a fixed opera in the early 20th century. There are more than 1,000 plays of Min opera, most of which originate from folk tales, historical novels, or ancient legends, including such traditional plays as "Making Seal", "The Purple Jade Hairpin" and "Switching Fairy Peach with Litchi".

Religion


The two traditional mainstream religions practiced in Fuzhou are Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism
Taoism
Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

. Traditionally, many people practice both religions simultaneously. The city is also home to many Buddhist monasteries/Taoist temples and Buddhist monks.

Apart from mainstream religions, a number of religious worship sites of various local religions are situated in the streets and lanes of Fuzhou.

The origins of local religion can be dated back centuries. These diverse religions incorporated elements such as gods and doctrines from other religions and cultures, such as totem worship and traditional legends. For example, Monkey King, originated to monkey worship among local ancients, gradually came to embody the God of Wealth in Fuzhou after the novel Journey to the West
Journey to the West
Journey to the West is one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. It was written by Wu Cheng'en in the 16th century. In English-speaking countries, the tale is also often known simply as Monkey. This was one title used for a popular, abridged translation by Arthur Waley...

was issued in Ming dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

.

As the most popular religion in the Min River Valley, the worship of Lady Linshui (临水夫人) is viewed as one of the three most influential local religions in Fujian, the other two being the worship of Mazu (妈祖) and Baosheng Dadi (保生大帝).

Local cuisine



Fuzhou cuisine
Fuzhou cuisine
Fuzhou cuisine is one of the four styles of Fujian cuisine. Fujian cuisine is considered one of the Eight Great Traditions of Chinese cuisine.- References :*...

 is one of the four traditional cooking styles of Fujian cuisine
Fujian cuisine
Fujian cuisine is one of the native Chinese cuisines derived from the native cooking style of the province of Fujian, China. Fujian style cuisine is known to be light but flavourful, soft, and tender, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as "xiānwèi" , as well as...

, which in turn is one of the eight Chinese regional cuisines. Dishes are light but flavorful, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as "xiānwèi" (traditional Chinese: 鮮味; simplified Chinese: 鲜味), as well as retaining the original flavor of the main ingredients instead of masking them. In Fuzhou cuisine, the taste is light compared to that of some other Chinese cooking styles, and often have a mixed sweet and sour taste. Soup, served as an indispensable dish in meals, is cooked in various ways with local seasonal fresh vegetables and seafood. Distinctive snack foods are also an important part of Fuzhou culture. Production of raw materials according to classification can be divided into many classes: powder, starch, dry fruit, meat and seafood, etc., with rice, beans, and sugar as the main raw materials. Red and white rice cakes (年糕) during the Chinese New Year, stuffed yuanxiao (元宵) during the Lantern Festival, zongzi
Zongzi
Zongzi is a traditional Chinese food, made of glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in bamboo or reed leaves. They are cooked by steaming or boiling. Laotians, Thais, and Cambodians also have similar traditional dishes. In the Western world, they are also known as rice...

 (粽子) during the Dragon Boat Festival, and sweet soy bean powder-covered plain yuanxiao during the winter solstice are just some of the traditional foods enjoyed by the masses of Fuzhou.

Special crafts


Bodiless lacquerware (脱胎漆器), paper umbrellas (纸伞) and horn combs (角梳) are the "Three Treasures" of Fuzhou traditional arts. In addition, bodiless lacquerware, cork pictures (软木画) and Shoushan stone sculptures (寿山石雕) are called "Three Superexcellences" of Fuzhou.

Airports



The city is served by two airports: Fuzhou Changle International Airport
Fuzhou Changle International Airport
Fuzhou Changle International Airport is an airport in Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian Province, China. The airport was inaugurated on June 23, 1997, after being approved to start constructing in 1992. The current handling capacity is approximately 6.5 million people annually. It is one of the...

 and Fuzhou Yixu Airport (old airfield). The former is its main international airport and an air-hub in the southeast China, while the latter was turned into a PLA
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 airbase after 1997.

Railways


Currently, the main railway is the "Wai Fu Railway", running eastwards through the northern districts towards Jiangxi province. The subline "Fuma railway" runs from the city hub to Mawei district. Two more railways are also under construction: The "Wen Fu railway" runs north towards Wenzhou
Wenzhou
Wenzhou is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. The area under its jurisdiction, which includes two satellite cities and six counties, had a population of 9,122,100 as of 2010....

 in southern Zhejiang province, while the "Fuxia railway" runs south towards Xiamen. This later railway was designed to be a high-speed railway with speeds up to 200 km and was opened in April 2010. There are also plans for 2 metro lines, with the first line to be completed by 2014.
  • Railway stations: The Fuzhou Rail Station is located north of city center, near the North Second Ring Road. Construction on the Strait Rail Station, also known as Fuzhou South Station, in Cangshan district, a key landmark of the New City development scheme, began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed in 2010.

Seaport


In 1867 the Fuzhou seaport was the site of one of China's first major experiments with Western technology, when the Fuzhou Navy Yard
Foochow Arsenal
The Foochow Arsenal , also Mawei Arsenal was one of several shipyards in China built under orders of Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, leaders of the Qing government's Self-Strengthening Movement of the mid to late 19th century...

 was established: A shipyard
Shipyard
Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial...

 and an arsenal
Arsenal
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, issued to authorized users, or any combination of those...

 were built under French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 guidance and a naval school was opened. A naval academy
Naval academy
A Naval Academy is a national institution that provides undergraduate level education for prospective naval officers.Naval training commonly took place only at sea until the 20th century, even if those ships were permanently moored...

 was also established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered courses in English, French, engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

, and navigation
Navigation
Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks...

, produced a generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous scholar-reformer Yan Fu
Yan Fu
Yan Fu was a Chinese scholar and translator, most famous for introducing western ideas, including Darwin's "natural selection," to China in the late 19th century.-Life:...

 (1854–1921).

The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen China in the wake of the country's disastrous defeat the second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

 (1856–60). But most talented students continued to pursue a traditional Confucian education, and by the mid-1870s the government began to lose interest in the shipyard, which had trouble securing funds and declined in importance. Fuzhou remained essentially a commercial center and a port until World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

; it had relatively little industry
Industry
Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

. The port was occupied by the Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese during 1940–45.

Since 1949, Fuzhou has grown considerably. Transportation has been improved by the dredging of the Min River for navigation by medium-sized craft upstream to Nanping
Nanping
Nanping is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders Ningde City to the east, Sanming City to the south, and the provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi to the north and west respectively...

. In 1956 the railway linking Fuzhou with the interior of the province and with the main Chinese railway system began operation. The port has also been improved; Fuzhou itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta anchor
Anchor
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, that is used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the vessel from drifting due to wind or current. The word derives from Latin ancora, which itself comes from the Greek ἄγκυρα .Anchors can either be temporary or permanent...

age and the outer harbor at Guantou on the coast of the East China Sea
East China Sea
The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China. It is a part of the Pacific Ocean and covers an area of 1,249,000 km² or 750,000 square miles.-Geography:...

 have been modernized and improved. The chief exports are timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs.

Economy


{| border="0" align=right; style="float:right; margin: 1em;border-collapse:collapse;"
|+ Fuzhou's GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 (Nominal) trend

{|
|-
! style="background:#efefef;" | Year
! style="background:#efefef; width:100px;"| GDP
(billions of CN¥
Renminbi
The Renminbi is the official currency of the People's Republic of China . Renminbi is legal tender in mainland China, but not in Hong Kong or Macau. It is issued by the People's Bank of China, the monetary authority of the PRC...

)
! style="background:#efefef; width:100px;"| Growth (%)
|-
| 2005|| style="text-align:right;"| 172.000 || style="text-align:right;"|9.8
|-
| 2006|| style="text-align:right;"| 165.694 || style="text-align:right;"|12.2
|-
| 2007|| style="text-align:right;"| 197.459 || style="text-align:right;"|15.1
|-
| 2008|| style="text-align:right;"| 228.416 || style="text-align:right;"|13.0
|-
| 2009|| style="text-align:right;"| 252.428 || style="text-align:right;"|12.8
|-
| 2010 || style="text-align:right;"| 306.821 || style="text-align:right;"|14.0
|}
Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the Gutian
Gutian County
Gutian County , also known as Edible Mushroom County, is a county lying in the southwest of Ningde, Fujian province, China. It is also known as "the town of the former worthy", as Zhuxi, a famous Chinese scholar once lived there...

 hydroelectric scheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a center for industrial chemicals and has food-processing, timber
Timber
Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

-working, engineering, papermaking, printing, and textile industries. A small iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984 Fuzhou was designated one of China's "open" cities in the new open-door policy inviting foreign investments. Handicrafts remain important in the rural areas, and the city is famous for its lacquer
Lacquer
In a general sense, lacquer is a somewhat imprecise term for a clear or coloured varnish that dries by solvent evaporation and often a curing process as well that produces a hard, durable finish, in any sheen level from ultra matte to high gloss and that can be further polished as required...

 and wood products.

Its GDP was ¥43,615 (ca. US$6,240) per capita in 2010, ranked no. 21 among 659 Chinese cities.

Fuzhou is undoubtedly the province’s political, economic and cultural center as well as an industrial center and seaport on the Min River. In 2008, Fuzhou’s GDP amounted to ¥228.4 billion, an increase of 13 percent.

Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel, and processed food. Among Fuzhou's exports are fine lacquerware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. The city's trade is mainly with Chinese coastal ports. Its exports of timber, food products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou located about 50 km downstream.

In 2008, exports reached US$13.6 billion, a growth of 10.4 percent while imports amounted to US$6.8 billion. Total retail sales for the same period came to ¥113.4 billion and per capita GDP grew to ¥33,615.

During the same period, Fuzhou approved 155 foreign-invested projects. Contracted foreign investment amounted to US$1.489 billion, while utilized foreign investment increased by 43 percent to US$1.002 billion.

Economic and Technological Zones

  • Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone

The Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in Jan 1985 by State Council, with a total planning area of 22 km2 and now has 10.1 km2 built. It is located close to Fuzhou Changle International Airport and Fuzhou Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, trading and distribution, automobile production/assembly, medical equipment and supplies, shipping/warehousing/logistics and heavy industry.
  • Fuzhou Export Processing Zone

The Fuzhou Export Processing Zone was founded on June 3, 2005 with the approval of the State Council and enjoys all the preferential policies. It is located inside the Chang'an Investment Zone of the Fuzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone (FETDZ) with a planned land area of 1.14 km2.
  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone

The Fuzhou Free Trade Zone was established in 1992 by the State Council, with a planning area of 1.8 km2. Industries encouraged in the free trade zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, heavy industry, instruments & industrial equipment production, shipping/warehousing/logistics, telecommunications equipment, trading, and distribution.
  • Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

The Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995, the Fuzhou Municipal Government decided to build Baiyi Electronic Information City, which covers 1.2 km2 in the zone, making it the lead electronic industrial zone in Fuzhou. The Administrative Commission of Mawei High-tech Park was set up in the zone in 1999. It covers an area of 5.6 km2, and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin Road and Fuma Road.
  • Fuzhou Science and Technology Park

The Fuzhou Science and Technology Park was established in 1988 and was approved to be a national-level zone by the State Council in 1991. The planned area is 5.5 km2 and is divided into 3 parts: the Mawei portion, the Cangshan portion, and the Hongshan portion. The main industries are electronics, information technology, and biotechnology. There are now more than 500 km2 standard factories. The zone is 7 km away from the 316 National Highway and 41 km away from the Fuzhou Changle International Airport.
  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

The Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in the Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a commercial base for Taiwan-related development. The current area is 6 km2. The main industries are IT, metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is 11.5 km away from the 316 National Highway and 52 km away from Fuzhou Changle International Airport.

Historical / cultural


  • Sanfang Qixiang (三坊七巷) "Three Lanes and Seven Alleys" (A cluster of ancient residential buildings dating from the late Jin Dynasty.)
  • Lin Zexu
    Lin Zexu
    Lín Zéxú ; 30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing Dynasty.He is most recognized for his conduct and his constant position on the "high moral ground" in his fight, as a "shepherd" of his people, against the opium trade in Guangzhou...

     Memorial Hall(林则徐纪念馆) (Aomen Rd)
  • West Lake (福州西湖) (An artificial landscape-style lake built in 282 AD.)
  • Hualin Temple (华林寺) (Built in 964 AD, Song Dynasty)

Its main hall is known as the oldest surviving wooden building in south China and was confirmed as an important heritage site under state protection in 1982.
  • Dizang Temple (The Temple of Sacrificing Guardian of the Earth, founded in 527 AD.)
  • Xichan Temple (西禅寺) (Founded in 867 AD.)
  • Wu Ta (乌塔) "Black Pagoda" (Originally built in 799 AD, rebuilt in 936 AD.)
  • Bai Ta (白塔) "White Pagoda" (On the top of Mount Yu, originally built in 905 AD, 67 m in height, collapsed in 1534 AD, rebuilt in 1548 AD, 41 m in height.)
  • Yongquan Temple (涌泉寺) (Founded in 915 AD, and located on the top of Mount Gu.)
  • Gu Shan (鼓山) (Mount Gu)
  • Mount Qi (旗山) (In Nanyu, Minhou County.)
  • Luoxing Tower(罗星塔) (In Mawei district and built in the Song Dynasty. Was called "China Tower".)
  • Tanshishan cultural relics (昙石山文化遗址) (In Ganzhe, Minhou County.)

Recreational

  • Fujian Provincial Museum (福建省博物院) (Near West Lake.)
  • Wulongjiang Shidi Park (乌龙江湿地公园) (A wetland park. However, the park is in distress due to ineffective environmental protection and construction.)
  • Chating Park (茶亭公园)
  • Zuohai Park (左海公园)
  • Minjiang Park (闽江公园) (On the two banks of the Minjiang River.)
  • Pingshan Park (屏山公园)
  • Mount Jinniu Park (金牛山公园) (Near the Fuzhou West Long-Distance Bus Station.)
  • Mount Jinji Park (金鸡山公园)
  • Fuzhou National Forest Park (福州国家森林公园)
  • Sandiejing Forest Park (三叠井森林公园)
  • Fuzhou Zoo (福州动物园) (This new zoo was built in the year 2008 after moving from its old location by West Lake.)


Famous Natives


  • Lin Zexu
    Lin Zexu
    Lín Zéxú ; 30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing Dynasty.He is most recognized for his conduct and his constant position on the "high moral ground" in his fight, as a "shepherd" of his people, against the opium trade in Guangzhou...

     (林则徐, 1785—1850), Chinese scholar and official, considered a national hero for his strong opposition to the trade of opium
    Opium
    Opium is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy . Opium contains up to 12% morphine, an alkaloid, which is frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the illegal drug trade. The latex also includes codeine and non-narcotic alkaloids such as papaverine, thebaine and noscapine...

     before the First Anglo-Chinese War
  • Shen Baozhen (沈葆桢, 1820—1879), Viceroy of Liangjiang
    Viceroy of Liangjiang
    The Viceroy of Liangjiang , fully referred to as the Governor General of the two Yangtze Provinces and surrounding areas; Overseeing Military Affairs, Food Production; Manager of Waterways; Director of Civil Affairs , was one of eight regional viceroys in China proper during the Qing Dynasty of China...

     from 1875 to 1879
  • Zhan Shi Chai
    Zhan Shi Chai
    Zhan Shichai , was a Chinese giant who toured the world as "Chang the Chinese Giant" in the 19th century, the stage name is "Chang Woo Gow"....

     (詹世釵, 1840s-1893), entertainer as "Chang the Chinese giant"
  • Chen Baochen
    Chen Baochen
    Chen Baochen Chinese official, hailing from Fujian province in southeast China. During the last years of the Qing dynasty, he served as sub-chancellor in the Grand Secretariat and as vice president of the Board of Rites...

     (陈宝琛, 1848—1935), Chinese scholar and loyalist to the Qing Dynasty
  • Wong Nai-siong (黄乃裳, 1849—1924), Chinese Christian scholar, and founding father of Malaysian town of Sibu
    Sibu
    Sibu may refer to:*Sibu, Sarawak in Eastern Malaysia*Sibu Division*Sibu , an impact crater on Mars*Pulau Sibu, an island off the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia*Sibu , name of a goddess in the Bribri tribe, in Costa Rica...

    ,in the state of Sarawak
    Sarawak
    Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

  • Lin Shu
    Lin Shu
    Lin Shu , courtesy name Qinnan , was a Chinese man of letters, most famous for his introducing Western literature to a whole generation of Chinese readers, despite his ignorance of any foreign language...

     (林纾, 1852—1924), Chinese scholar and translator, most famous for his translation of Alexandre Dumas
    Alexandre Dumas, fils
    Alexandre Dumas, fils was a French author and dramatist. He was the son of Alexandre Dumas, père, also a writer and playwright.-Biography:...

    ' La Dame aux Camélias
  • Yan Fu
    Yan Fu
    Yan Fu was a Chinese scholar and translator, most famous for introducing western ideas, including Darwin's "natural selection," to China in the late 19th century.-Life:...

     (严复, 1854—1921), Chinese scholar and translator, best known for introducing western ideas such as Darwinian
    Charles Darwin
    Charles Robert Darwin FRS was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.He published his theory...

     evolution
  • Sa Zhenbin (萨镇冰, 1859—1952), high-ranking naval officer of Mongolian
    Mongols
    Mongols ) are a Central-East Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in the countries of Mongolia, China, and Russia. In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia...

     origin
  • Lin Sen
    Lin Sen
    Lin Sen , courtesy name Zichao , sobriquet Changren , was President of the National Government of the Republic of China from 1931 until his death.-Early life:...

     (林森, 1868—1943), President of the Republic of China
    President of the Republic of China
    The President of the Republic of China is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Republic of China . The Republic of China was founded on January 1, 1912, to govern all of China...

     from 1931 to 1943
  • Lin Juemin (林觉民, 1887—1911), one of 72 Revolutionary Martyrs at Huanghuagang, Guangzhou
  • E.A. Coffin
    E.A. Coffin
    E.A. Coffin was a Rear Admiral in the United States Coast Guard.-Biography:Coffin was born Eugene Augusts Coffin on March 10, 1888 in Foochow, China. He married three times. First, to Nancy Jamison in 1911, who died in 1918 and with whom he had two sons. Second, to Peggy Powers in 1919, with whom...

     (1888–1972), U.S. Coast Guard admiral
  • Hou Debang
    Hou Debang
    Hou Debang was a scientist and chemical engineer in China.Graduated from Tsinghua University in 1912, he was one of the scholars sent to the United States to study modern technologies...

     (侯德榜, 1890—1974), Chinese chemical engineer
    Chemical engineer
    In the field of engineering, a chemical engineer is the profession in which one works principally in the chemical industry to convert basic raw materials into a variety of products, and deals with the design and operation of plants and equipment to perform such work...

  • Lin Xiangqian (林详谦, 1892—1923), a martyr, labor movement leader and an early member of the Communist Party of China (CPC)
  • Lu Yin(廬隱, 1898—1934), female Chinese writer
  • Zheng Zhenduo
    Zheng Zhenduo
    Zheng Zhenduo , Chinese courtesy name Xidì , was a journalist, a modern writer, an archeologist and a literature scholar. His pen names were Baofun , Guo Yuanxin and CT....

     (郑振铎, 1898—1958), Chinese journalist and literary scholar
  • Bing Xin
    Bing Xin
    Bingxin was one of the most prolific and esteemed Chinese writers of the 20th Century. Many of her works were written for young readers...

     (冰心, 1900—1999), female Chinese writer
  • Watchman Nee
    Watchman Nee
    Watchman Nee was a Chinese Christian author and church leader during the early 20th century. He spent the last 20 years of his life in prison and was severely persecuted by the Communists in China. Together with Wangzai, Zhou-An Lee, Shang-Jie Song, and others, Nee founded The Church Assembly...

     (倪柝声, 1903—1972), Chinese Christian author and church leader
  • Lin Huiyin
    Lin Huiyin
    Lin Huiyin was a noted 20th century Chinese architect and writer. She is said to be the first female architect in China. Her niece is Maya Lin.-Biography:...

     (林徽因, 1904—1955), female Chinese architect and writer
  • Chen Jingrun
    Chen Jingrun
    Chen Jingrun was a Chinese mathematician who made significant contributions to number theory.- Personal life :Chen was the third son in a large family from Fuzhou, Fujian, China. His father was a postal worker. Chen Jingrun graduated from the Mathematics Department of Xiamen University in 1953...

     (陈景润, 1933—1996), Chinese mathematician who made significant contributions to number theory
    Number theory
    Number theory is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. Number theorists study prime numbers as well...

  • Chen Zhangliang (陈章良, 1962—), Chinese biologist, elected as vice-governor of Guangxi
    Guangxi
    Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China along its border with Vietnam. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.Guangxi's location, in...

     in 2007
  • Wu Qingyuan (吳清源, 1914—), Chinese Weiqi/Go player, considered by many players to be the greatest player of the game in the 20th century and one of the greatest of all time.

Colleges and universities

  • Fujian Normal University
    Fujian Normal University
    Fujian Normal University is a university located in Fuzhou, Fujian, China. It was founded in 1907.- About the University :Fujian Normal University is located in the Cangshan District, Fuzhou, the capital city of Fujian Province and a famous overseas Chinese hometown in southeast China...

     (福建师范大学) (founded in 1907)
  • Fuzhou University
    Fuzhou University
    Fuzhou University is a university located in Fuzhou, China. Split into two campuses by the Min River, Fuzhou University's Old Campus is located on the north bank of the river in the western part of Fuzhou City, while the New Campus is located on the edge of the city on the south bank, at the base...

     (福州大学) (founded in 1958)
  • Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University is a public university in Jinshan, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University's library collection contains more than 1.63 million volumes.-History:The university was founded in 1936...

     (福建农林大学)
  • Fujian Medical University
    Fujian Medical University
    Fujian Medical University is a university located in Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Fujian Medical University was founded 1937, whose precursor was Fujian provincial Medical Vocational school. The name of the school was changed to Fujian Provincial Medical college in 1939 and was called Fujian Medical...

     (福建医科大学)
  • Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (福建中医学院)
  • Minjiang University
    Minjiang University
    Minjiang University is a public university located in Fuzhou, Fujian, China. The university is a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary university accredited by the Chinese Education Ministry the right to confer undergraduate degrees to students in China...

     (闽江学院)
  • Fujian University of Technology
    Fujian University of Technology
    Fujian University of Technology is a public university located in Fuzhou, Fujian, China.The Chinese Ministry of Education established the university in 2002 by merging Fujian College of Architecture and Civil Engineering and Fujian Institute of Technology...

     (福建工程学院)
  • Fujian Seminary (福建神学院)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High Schools

  • Fuzhou Gezhi High School (福州格致中学)
  • Fuzhou No.1 Middle School
    Fuzhou No.1 Middle School
    Fuzhou No.1 Middle School is a High School located in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China. It is one of the top high schools in China...

     (福州第一中学)
  • Fuzhou No.3 Middle School
    Fuzhou No.3 Middle School
    Fuzhou No.3 Middle School is a high school in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China. It enrols around 2,000 students from grades 7-9 and 10-12 ....

     (福州第三中学)
  • Fuzhou No.2 Middle School (福州第二中学)
  • Fuzhou No.4 Middle School (福州第四中学)
  • Fuzhou No.8 Middle School (福州第八中学)

Sister cities


Fuzhou is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with the following cities:

{| class="wikitable"
|-
! style="color: white; background:#811541" | Country
! style="color: white; background:#810001" | City
! style="color: white; background:#811541" | County/District/Province/Region/State
! style="color: white; background:#811541" | Date
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  Japan
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Nagasaki
Nagasaki
is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village, formerly part of Nishisonogi District...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| Nagasaki
Nagasaki Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. The capital is the city of Nagasaki.- History :Nagasaki Prefecture was created by merging of the western half of the former province of Hizen with the island provinces of Tsushima and Iki...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| October 20, 1980
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  Japan
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Naha
Naha, Okinawa
is the capital city of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa.Naha is a coastal city located on the East China Sea coast of the southern part of Okinawa Island, the largest of the Ryukyu Islands...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| Okinawa
Okinawa Prefecture
is one of Japan's southern prefectures. It consists of hundreds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over long, which extends southwest from Kyūshū to Taiwan. Okinawa's capital, Naha, is located in the southern part of Okinawa Island...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| May 20, 1981
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  United States
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Syracuse
Syracuse, New York
Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States, the largest U.S. city with the name "Syracuse", and the fifth most populous city in the state. At the 2010 census, the city population was 145,170, and its metropolitan area had a population of 742,603...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| August 25, 1991
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  United States
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Tacoma
Tacoma, Washington
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, Washington, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, southwest of Seattle, northeast of the state capital, Olympia, and northwest of Mount Rainier National Park. The population was 198,397, according to...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| Washington
| style="background:#ffffef;"| November 16, 1994
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  Brazil
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Campinas
Campinas
Campinas is a city and municipality located in the coastal interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. is the administrative center of the meso-region of the same name, with 3,783,597 inhabitants as of the 2010 Census, consisting of 49 cities....


| style="background:#ffffef;"| São Paulo
São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is a state in Brazil. It is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Brazilian economy. Named after Saint Paul, São Paulo has the largest population, industrial complex, and economic production in the country. It is the richest state in Brazil...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| November 8, 1996
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  Australia
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Shoalhaven
| style="background:#ffffef;"| New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| October 15, 2003
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  Guyana
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Georgetown
Georgetown, Guyana
Georgetown, estimated population 239,227 , is the capital and largest city of Guyana, located in the Demerara-Mahaica region. It is situated on the Atlantic Ocean coast at the mouth of the Demerara River and it was nicknamed 'Garden City of the Caribbean.' Georgetown is located at . The city serves...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| Demerara-Mahaica
Demerara-Mahaica
Demerara-Mahaica is a region of Guyana, bordering the Atlantic Ocean to the north, the region of Mahaica-Berbice to the east, the region of Upper Demerara-Berbice to the south and the region of Essequibo Islands-West Demerara to the west....


| style="background:#ffffef;"| May 17, 2006
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  Poland
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Koszalin
Koszalin
Koszalin ; is the largest city of Middle Pomerania in north-western Poland. It is located 12 km south of the Baltic Sea coast. Koszalin is also a county-status city and capital of Koszalin County of West Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| West Pomeranian Voivodeship
West Pomeranian Voivodeship
West Pomeranian Voivodeship, , is a voivodeship in northwestern Poland. It borders on Pomeranian Voivodeship to the east, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the southeast, Lubusz Voivodeship to the south, the German federal-state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania to the west, and the Baltic Sea to the north...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| May 19, 2007
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  Kenya
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Mombasa
Mombasa
Mombasa is the second-largest city in Kenya. Lying next to the Indian Ocean, it has a major port and an international airport. The city also serves as the centre of the coastal tourism industry....


| style="background:#ffffef;"| Coast Province
Coast Province
Coast Province of Kenya, along the Indian Ocean, is one of Kenya's seven administrative provinces outside Nairobi. It comprises the Indian Ocean coastal strip with the capital city at Mombasa and is inhabited by the Mijikenda and Swahili, among others...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| May 19, 2008
|}

Friendship cities


Fuzhou has the following friendship cities:
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! style="color: white; background:#811541" | Country
! style="color: white; background:#810001" | City
! style="color: white; background:#811541" | County/District/Province/Region/State
! style="color: white; background:#811541" | Date
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  South Korea
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Pyeongtaek
Pyeongtaek
Pyeongtaek is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Located in the southwestern part of the province, Pyeongtaek was founded as a union of two districts in 940 AD, during the Goryeo dynasty. It was elevated to city status in 1986, and is home to a South Korean naval base and a large...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| Gyeonggi-do
Gyeonggi-do
Gyeonggi-do is the most populous province in South Korea. The provincial capital is located at Suwon. Seoul—South Korea's largest city and national capital—is located in the heart of the province, but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| August 26, 2002
|-
| style="background:#ffffef;"|  South Korea
| style="background:#ffffcf;"| Gwangyang
Gwangyang
Gwangyang is a city in South Jeolla Province, South Korea. Gwangyang city is the home of POSCO's Gwangyang Steel Works, the largest facility of its kind in the world.The city is also home to K-League soccer side Chunnam Dragons....


| style="background:#ffffef;"| Jeollanam-do
Jeollanam-do
Jeollanam-do is a province in the southwest of South Korea. The province was formed in 1896 from the southern half of the former Jeolla province, remained a province of Korea until the country's division in 1945, then became part of South Korea...


| style="background:#ffffef;"| Sep 3, 2009
|}

See also

  • Fuzhou people
  • Fuzhou dialect
    Fuzhou dialect
    Fuzhou dialect , also known as Foochow dialect, Foochow, Foochowese, Fuzhounese, or Fuzhouhua, is considered the standard dialect of Min Dong, which is a branch of Min Chinese mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province. Native speakers also call it ' , meaning the language spoken in...

  • Min Dong language
    Min Dong
    The Eastern Min language, or Min Dong is the language mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province in China, in and near Fuzhou and Ningde. Fuzhou is the province's capital and largest city...

  • List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population
  • Battle of Fuzhou
  • Sibu
    Sibu
    Sibu may refer to:*Sibu, Sarawak in Eastern Malaysia*Sibu Division*Sibu , an impact crater on Mars*Pulau Sibu, an island off the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia*Sibu , name of a goddess in the Bribri tribe, in Costa Rica...


Sources

  • A Brief History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Hu Pu-yu, (Chung Wu Publishing Co. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, 1974) pg 142.
  • China at War 1901-1949, Edward L. Dreyer, (Longman, London and New York, 1995) pg 235.
  • Australia's China, Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s, Lachlan Strachan, (Cambridge University Press 1996) pg 107.
  • Bomb, Book & Compass, Joseph Needham and the Great Secrets of China, Simon Winchester, (Penguin *Group Australia, Camberwell, Victoria) pp 143–151.
  • op.cit.
  • http://www.wesleyan.edu/east/mansfieldf/history/freeman5_buck.html
  • http://www.indiana.edu/~league/1944.htm

External links