Guangxi

Guangxi

Overview
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 along its border with Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.

Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of China's history
History of China
Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest...

.
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Encyclopedia
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 along its border with Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.

Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of China's history
History of China
Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest...

. The current name "Guang" means "expanse" and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. It was given provincial level status during the Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

, but even into the 20th century it was considered an open, wild territory.

The abbreviation of the province is "桂" (Pinyin: Gui; Zhuang: Gvei), which comes from the city of Guilin
Guilin
Guilin is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of far southern China, sitting on the west bank of the Li River. Its name means "forest of Sweet Osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant Sweet Osmanthus trees located in the city...

, the former capital, center of much of Guangxi's culture, politics, and history, and currently a major city in the autonomous region.

History


Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Hundred Yue (Baiyue), the region first became part of China during the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

. In 214 BC, the Han
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 general Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo , was the founder of the kingdom of Nanyue |Zhao]]. The state of Zhao was defeated and absorbed by the state of Qin in 222 BC, whereupon Zhao Tuo became a citizen of the state of Qin. He later served in a Qin expeditionary force that was sent south...

 (Vietnamese: Triệu Đà) claimed most of southern China for Qin Shihuang before the emperor's death and the ensuing civil war permitted Zhao to establishment a separate kingdom at Panyu
Panyu
Panyu District or Pun Yue District is a district in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. It used to be a county-level city before it was incorporated in the administration of Guangzhou. The name of Panyu dates back to the completion of the conquest of Guangdong by Qin Shi Huang. It was the old name of...

 known as Southern Yue
Nanyue
Nanyue was an ancient kingdom that consisted of parts of the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Nanyue was established in 204 BC at the final collapse of the Qin Dynasty by Zhao Tuo, who was the military commander of Nanhai Commandery at the time, and...

 (Nanyue). Alternatively submissive to and independent of Han
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 control, Southern Yue expanded colonization and Sinification under its policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue" (和集百越) until its collapse in 111 BC.

The name "Guangxi" can be traced to the "Expansive" or "Wide" province (廣州) of the Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu, also known as Sun Wu, was one the three states competing for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period after the fall of the Han Dynasty. It was based in the Jiangnan region of China...

, who controlled southeastern China during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
The Three Kingdoms period was a period in Chinese history, part of an era of disunity called the "Six Dynasties" following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty rulers. In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the...

 period. Guilin formed one of its commanderies.

Under the Tang
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

, the Zhuang moved to support Piluoge's kingdom of Southern Zhao (Nanzhao) in Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 which successfully repulsed imperial armies in 751 and 754. Guangxi was then divided into an area of Zhuang ascendancy west of Nanning and an area of Han ascendancy east of Nanning.

After the collapse of the Southern Zhao, Liu Yan
Liu Yan
Liu Yan , courtesy name Bosheng , was a general of one of the major uprisings against China's Xin Dynasty and its emperor, Wang Mang. Although he would have military successes, he would die early as a victim of political intrigue...

 established the Southern Han (Nanhan) in Xingwangfu (modern Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

). Although this state gained minimal control over Guangxi, it was plagued by instability and annexed by the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 in 971. The name "Guangxi" itself can be traced to the Song, who administered the area as the Guangnanxi ("West Southern Expanse") Circuit. Harrassed by both Song and the Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi was the name of all or part of Vietnam's territory, from the Hùng Vương era to the middle of the Third Chinese domination, and during the Fourth Chinese domination.-Giao Chỉ in the Văn Lang era:...

 in modern Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao
Nong Zhigao
Nong Zhigao is a hero admired by the Zhuang people. His father was the head of local Zhuang people. According to the History of the Song Dynasty: Guangyuan Zhou Man Zhuan , as he became an adult he followed his father as the head of local Zhuang people in Quảng Nguyên...

 led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people. His independent kingdom was short-lived, however, and the tattooed Song general Di Qing
Di Qing
Di Qing , style name Hanchen , was a military general of the Northern Song Dynasty. He was born to a poor family in Xihe, Fenzhou . He sported tattoos on his face and excelled in mounted archery...

 returned Guangxi to China.

The Mongolian Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

 established control over Yunnan during its conquest of Dali
Kingdom of Dali
Dali or Great Li was a Bai kingdom centred in what is now Yunnan Province of China. Established by Duan Siping in 937, it was ruled by a succession of 22 kings until the year 1253, when it was conquered by an invasion of the Mongol Empire. The capital city was at Dali.- History :The Kingdom of...

 in 1253 and eliminated the Southern Song following the Battle of Yamen
Battle of Yamen
The naval Battle of Yamen took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song Dynasty against the invading Mongol-controlled Yuan Dynasty...

 in 1279. Rather than ruling Lingnan
Lingnan
Lingnan is a geographic area referring to lands in the south of China's "Five Ranges" which are Tayu, Qitian, Dupang, Mengzhu, Yuecheng. The region covers the Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces of modern China and northern Vietnam...

 as a subject territory or military district, the Mongolians then established Guangxi ("Western Expanse") as a proper province. The area nonetheless continued to be unruly, leading the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 to employ the different local groups against one another. At the Battle of Big Rattan Gorge between the Zhuang and the Yao
Yao people
The Yao nationality is a government classification for various minorities in China. They form one of the 55 ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China, where they reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south...

 in 1465, 20,000 deaths were reported.

The Manchurian Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 left the region alone until the imposition of direct rule in 1726, but the 19th century was one of constant unrest. A Yao revolt in 1831 was followed by the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty...

 in 1850 and the Jintian Uprising
Jintian Uprising
The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan on 11 February 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty. The uprising was named after Jintian , the place where it took place...

 on 11 January 1851. The execution of St. Auguste Chapdelaine
Auguste Chapdelaine
Father Auguste Chapdelaine was a French Christian missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society.-Biography:He was born in La Rochelle-Normande, France...

 by local officials in Guangxi provoked the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

 in 1858 and the legalization of foreign interference in the interior. Although Brière de l'Isle was unable to invade its depot at Longzhou, the Guangxi Army saw a great deal of action in the 1884 Franco-Chinese War. Largely ineffective within Vietnam, it was still able to repulse the French from China itself at the Battle of Zhennan Pass
Battle of Zhennan Pass
The Battle of Bang Bo, known in China as the battle of Zhennan Pass , was an important Chinese victory during the Sino-French War...

 (modern Youyi Pass) on 23 March 1885.

Following the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city...

, Guangxi seceded from the Qing Empire on 6 November 1911. The Qing governor, Shen Bingdan, initially remained in place, but was subsequently removed by a mutiny commanded by General Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting was born in Wuming, Guangxi, China. Originating as a common bandit, Lu became a military commander in Guangxi in the Qing dynasty and suppressed the revolutionary uprising at Zhennan Pass on the Sino-Vietnam border in Pingxiang, Guangxi led by Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing.However, when...

. General Lu's Guangxi Clique
Old Guangxi clique
After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi Clique. Led by Lu Rongting, the clique was able to take control of neighbouring Hunan and Guangdong provinces as well...

 overran Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 and Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 as well and helped lead the resistance
National Protection War
The National Protection War , also known as the anti-Monarchy War, was a civil war that took place in China between 1915 and 1916. The cause of this war was Yuan Shikai's proclamation of himself as Emperor. Only three years earlier, the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, had been overthrown...

 to Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai was an important Chinese general and politician famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor of China, his autocratic rule as the second President of the Republic of China , and his short-lived...

's attempt to reestablish an imperial government. Zhuang loyalty made his Self-Government Army
Self-government Army
The Self-Government Army was a regional army in Guangxi during the Warlord era of the early 1920s. The soldiers were primarily from the southwest of Guangxi and were largely Zhuang. Their commanders were warlords like Lu Rongting of the Old Guangxi clique...

 cohesive but reluctant to move far beyond its own provinces. Subsequent feuding with Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

 led to defeat in the 1920 and 1921 Yue-Gui Wars. After a brief occupation by Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming was a revolutionary figure in the early periods of the Republic of China. Chen Jiongming was born in 1878 at Haifeng, Guangdong, China....

's Cantonese forces, Guangxi fell into disunity and profound banditry for several years until Li Zongren
Li Zongren
Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen , courtesy name Delin , was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War...

's Guangxi Pacification Army established the New Guangxi Clique
New Guangxi clique
After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi clique. Led by Lu Rongting and others, the clique was able to take control of neighbouring Hunan and Guangdong provinces as well...

 dominated by Li, Huang Shaohong, and Bai Chongxi
Bai Chongxi
Bai Chongxi , , also spelled Pai Chung-hsi, was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China and a prominent Chinese Nationalist Muslim leader. He was of Hui ethnicity and of the Muslim faith...

.

Successful action in Hunan against Wu Peifu
Wu Peifu
Wu Peifu or Wu P'ei-fu , was a major figure in the struggles between the warlords who dominated Republican China from 1916 to 1927.- Early career :...

 led to the Zhuang GPA becoming known as the "Flying Army" and the "Army of Steel." After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Li also repulsed Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao was a Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of Republican China. Tang Jiyao was military governor of Yunnan from 1913-1927.-Life:...

's revolt and joined the Northern Expedition establishing Republican
Republic of China (1912–1949)
In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism...

 control over other warlords. His was one of the few Nationalist units free from serious Communist influence and was therefore employed by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 for the Shanghai Massacre of 1927
Shanghai massacre of 1927
The April 12 Incident of 1927 refers to the violent suppression of Chinese Communist Party organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang...

. Within Communist China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, Guangxi is also noted for the Baise Uprising, a failed Communist revolt led by Chen Zhaoli and Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician, statesman, and diplomat. As leader of the Communist Party of China, Deng was a reformer who led China towards a market economy...

 in 1929.

After his own falling out with Chiang, Li joined Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan, was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. Yan effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War...

's revolt in the Central Plains War
Central Plains War
Central Plains War was a civil war within the factionalised Kuomintang that broke out in 1930. It was fought between the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the coalition of three military commanders who had previously allied with Chiang: Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, and Li Zongren...

. His defeat did not remove him from control of Guangxi and the Mukden Incident
Mukden Incident
The Mukden Incident, also known as the Manchurian Incident, was a staged event that was engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for invading the northern part of China known as Manchuria in 1931....

 and Japanese invasion kept Chiang and the Communists from removing his influence until 1949. The 1944 Operation Ichi-Go successfully expanded Japanese control along the rail lines through Guangxi into French Indochina
French Indochina
French Indochina was part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia. A federation of the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin , Annam , and Cochinchina , as well as Cambodia, was formed in 1887....

, although the line remained harassed by American bombers and Zhuang guerrillas under Bai Chongxi.

Being in the far south, Guangxi did not fall during the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang , the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China , for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China and People's Republic of...

, but joined the People's Republic in December 1949, two months after its founding. In 1958, Guangxi was converted into an autonomous region for the Zhuang at the recommendation of Premier Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976...

. This decision was made because the Zhuang were the biggest minority group in China and were mostly concentrated in the province.

For most of its history, Guangxi was landlocked. In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, then restored in 1965. During Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

, Guangxi was the site of thousands of incidences of cannibalism
Cannibalism
Cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh of other human beings. It is also called anthropophagy...

.

While some development of heavy industry
Heavy industry
Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning as compared to light industry. It can mean production of products which are either heavy in weight or in the processes leading to their production. In general, it is a popular term used within the name of many Japanese and Korean firms, meaning...

 occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, the province remained largely a scenic tourist destination. Even the economic growth of the 1990s seemed to leave Guangxi behind. However, in recent years, there has been a growing amount of industrialization and increasing concentration on cash crops. Per capita GDP has begun rising more rapidly, as industries in Guangdong seek a way to locate production to lower-wage areas.

Geography


Located in the southern part of the country, Guangxi is bordered by Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country spanning approximately and with a population of 45.7 million . The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with...

 to the west, Guizhou
Guizhou
' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

 to the north, Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 to the northeast, and Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 to the east and southeast. It is also bounded by Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 in the southwest and the Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
The Gulf of Tonkin is an arm of the South China Sea, lying off the coast of northeastern Vietnam.-Etymology:The name Tonkin, written "東京" in Hán tự and Đông Kinh in romanised Vietnamese, means "Eastern Capital", and is the former toponym for Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam...

 in the south.

Guangxi is a mountainous region. The Nanling Mountains form the northeast border, with the Yuecheng and Haiyang Mountains branching from them. Also in the north are the Duyao and Fenghuang Mountains. Near the center of the region are the Da Yao and Da Ming Mountains. On the southeastern border are the Yunkai Mountains.

The highest point is Mount Mao'er in the Yuecheng, at 2141 metres (7,024.3 ft).

Many rivers cut valleys through the mountains. Most of these rivers form the tributary basin of the West River
Xijiang River
The Xi River is the western tributary of the Pearl River in China. It is formed by the confluence of the Gui and Xun Rivers in Wuzhou, Guangxi. It then flows east through Guangdong, and enters the Pearl River Delta just east of the Lingyang Gorge in Zhaoqing. The main branch of the Xi flows...

:
Xijiang River system schematic
Schematic
A schematic diagram represents the elements of a system using abstract, graphic symbols rather than realistic pictures. A schematic usually omits all details that are not relevant to the information the schematic is intended to convey, and may add unrealistic elements that aid comprehension...


贺江 He River 西江 Xi River
漓江 Li River 桂江 Gui River
Gui River
The Gui River is a river in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, and a tributary of the Xi Jiang....

北盘江 Beipan River
Beipan River
Beipan River is a river in the Guizhou province, China, and part of the great Pearl River basin.-Other names:The upper reaches in Yunnan and Guizhou were once known as the Zangke River.-Course:...

红水河 Hongshui River
Hongshui River
The Hongshui River is a major river in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in Southern China. It is one of the main rivers in the basin of the Xi River, which in its turn is one of the main tributaries of the Pearl River....

黔江 Qian River
Qian River
The Qian River is the name of a short section of the Xi River system and, thus, the greater Pearl River system in Guangxi, China. It is formed by where the Liu Jiang meets the larger Hongshui He east of Laibin, then flows southeast through Wuxuan. At Guiping it is joined by the more southerly Yu...

浔江 Xun River
Xun River
The Xun River is the name of a short section of the main branch of the Pearl River system upstream from the Xi Jiang in China. Although less than 150 km long, it is of considerable importance in Guangxi Province as it drains the majority of the province...

南盘江 Nanpan River
Nanpan River
The Nanpan River has its source in the Yungui Plateau of eastern Yunnan Province. It then flows east, forming part of the border between Guizhou and Guangxi provinces. It joins with the Beipan River to become the Hongshui River....

融江 Rong River 柳江 Liu River
Liu River
The Liu River is a tributary within the Pearl River system in Guangxi, China. It is formed by the confluence of the Rong and Long rivers in Fengshan. It flows south through Liuzhou and is joined by the Luoqing Jiang to the south. It meets the larger Hongshui He east of Laibin where it becomes...

龙江 Long River
Long River (Guangxi)
The Long River is a river system in northern Guangxi Province, China. It is a part of the larger Pearl River system by way of the Liu, Qian, Xun, and Xi Rivers. Its true source is near Dushan, Guizhou, where it is known as the Dagou He...

右江 You River
You River
The You River may refer to different rivers within China.* The You River is a tributary of the Yongjiang in Guangxi Province in southern China.* The You River was a Song-dynasty river in northern China....

邕江 Yong River
Yongjiang
Yongjiang is a river of China, located in Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It join into the Yu River and flows into the South China Sea.-See also:*Yong River *List of rivers in China...

郁江 Yu River
左江 Zuo River


Guangxi has a short coastline on the Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
The Gulf of Tonkin is an arm of the South China Sea, lying off the coast of northeastern Vietnam.-Etymology:The name Tonkin, written "東京" in Hán tự and Đông Kinh in romanised Vietnamese, means "Eastern Capital", and is the former toponym for Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam...

. Important seaports include Beihai
Beihai
Beihai is a prefecture-level city of Guangxi, China. Beihai means "north of the sea" in Chinese, signifying its status as a seaport on the north shore of the Gulf of Tonkin. Between the years 2006 and 2020, Beihai is predicted to be the world's fastest growing city...

, Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Qinzhou is a municipal region in Guangxi, People's Republic of China.The municipality lies on the Gulf of Tonkin and has a population of 944, 000.-Administration:The Qinzhou municipal region comprises two districts and two counties....

 and Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang , formerly Fangcheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County , is a prefecture-level city in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.-Geography and climate:...

.

Along the border with Vietnam there is the Detian waterfall (德天瀑布, Dé Tiān Pùbù), which separates the two countries.

Guangxi has a subtropical climate. Summers are generally long and hot. Average annual temperature is 17 to 23°C
Celsius
Celsius is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius , who developed a similar temperature scale two years before his death...

, while average annual precipitation is 1250 to 1750 mm.

Major cities include: Nanning
Nanning
Nanning is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush tropical foliage.-History:...

, Liuzhou
Liuzhou
-History:thumb|Liuchow in 1945.Liuzhou has a history of more than 2,100 years. The city was founded in 111 B.C. when it was known as Tanzhong....

, Guilin
Guilin
Guilin is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of far southern China, sitting on the west bank of the Li River. Its name means "forest of Sweet Osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant Sweet Osmanthus trees located in the city...

, Beihai
Beihai
Beihai is a prefecture-level city of Guangxi, China. Beihai means "north of the sea" in Chinese, signifying its status as a seaport on the north shore of the Gulf of Tonkin. Between the years 2006 and 2020, Beihai is predicted to be the world's fastest growing city...

.

Notable towns include: Longmen
Longmen
Longmen may refer to the following locations in China:*Longmen Grottoes , collection of Buddhist cave art in Luoyang*Longmen Mountains , mountain range in Sichuan*Longmen County , of Huizhou, Guangdong...

, Sanjiang, Yangshuo
Yangshuo
Yangshuo County is a county in Guilin, Guangxi Province, China. Its seat is located in Yangshuo Town. Surrounded by karst peaks and bordered on one side by the Li River it is easily accessible by bus or by boat from nearby Guilin...

.

Administrative divisions



Guangxi is divided into fourteen prefecture-level cities, fifty-six counties, thirty-four districts, twelve ethnic autonomous counties and seven county-level cities
County-level city
A county-level city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions....

. The fourteen prefecture-level cities are:
Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Zhuang
Standard Zhuang
The standard Zhuang language is the variety of Zhuang spoken in Wuming County in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, where it is an official language.-Classification:...

Administrative Seat Population (2010
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010....

)
Prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 —
1 Baise 百色市 Bǎisè Shì Baksaek Si Youjiang District
Youjiang District
Youjiang District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Baise city....

3,466,800
2 Hechi
Hechi
-Administration:Hechi has 1 urban district, 1 city, 4 counties, and 5 autonomous counties.City:*Yizhou Urban District:*Jinchengjiang District Counties:*Nandan County -Administration:Hechi has 1 urban district, 1 city, 4 counties, and 5 autonomous counties.City:*Yizhou (宜州市)Urban...

河池市 Héchí Shì Hozciz Si Jinchengjiang District
Jinchengjiang District
Jinchengjiang District is in the province of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Hechi City....

3,369,200
3 Liuzhou
Liuzhou
-History:thumb|Liuchow in 1945.Liuzhou has a history of more than 2,100 years. The city was founded in 111 B.C. when it was known as Tanzhong....

柳州市 Liǔzhōu Shì Liujcouh Si Chengzhong District
Chengzhong District, Liuzhou
Chengzhong District, Liuzhou is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Liuzhou city....

3,758,700
4 Guilin
Guilin
Guilin is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of far southern China, sitting on the west bank of the Li River. Its name means "forest of Sweet Osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant Sweet Osmanthus trees located in the city...

桂林市 Guìlín Shì Gveilinz Si Xiangshan District
Xiangshan District, Guilin
Xiangshan District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Guilin city....

4,748,000
5 Hezhou
Hezhou
-Administration:Hezhou has 2 urban district, 2 counties, and 1 autonomous county.Urban District:*Babu District *Pinggui District Counties:*Zhongshan County *Zhaoping County -Administration:Hezhou has 2 urban district, 2 counties, and 1 autonomous county.Urban District:*Babu District (八步区)*Pinggui...

贺州市 Hézhōu Shì Hohcouh Si Babu District
Babu District
Babu District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Hezhou city....

1,954,100
6 Chongzuo
Chongzuo
Chongzuo is a prefecture-level city in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is home to one of China’s largest Zhuang populations.- Geography and climate :...

崇左市 Chóngzuǒ Shì Cungzcoj Si Jiangzhou District
Jiangzhou District
Jiangzhou District is a district of Guangxi, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Chongzuo city....

1,994,300
7 Nanning
Nanning
Nanning is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush tropical foliage.-History:...

南宁市 Nánníng Shì Namzningz Si Qingxiu District
Qingxiu District
Qingxiu District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Nanning city....

6,661,600
8 Laibin
Laibin
Laibin is a prefecture-level city in the central part of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.-Geography and climate:Laibin is located in central Guangxi province. The Hongshui River or Red River and Rongjiang, both tributaries of the Xijiang, meet in Laibin. Its area is 13,400 km²...

来宾市 Láibīn Shì Leizbingz Si Xingbin District
Xingbin District
Xingbin District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Laibin city....

2,099,700
9 Guigang
Guigang
Guigang is a prefecture-level city in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.-Geography and climate:Guigang is located in central Guangxi province. It is located between Guangxi's five major cities, Nanning, Guilin, Liuzhou, Beihai, and Wuzhou. Its location makes it a major transportation and...

贵港市 Guìgǎng Shì Gveigangj Si Gangbei District
Gangbei District
Gangbei District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Guigang city....

4,118,800
10 Wuzhou
Wuzhou
Wuzhou , historically known as Wuchow, is a prefecture-level city in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.-Geography and climate:Wuzhou is located in eastern Guangxi bordering Guangdong province. It is at the confluence of the Gui River and the Xun River where they form the Xi River; 85% of all...

梧州市 Wúzhōu Shì Ngouzcouh Si Wanxiu District
Wanxiu District
Wanxiu District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Wuzhou city....

2,882,200
11 Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang , formerly Fangcheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County , is a prefecture-level city in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.-Geography and climate:...

防城港市 Fángchénggǎng Shì Fangzcwngzgangj Si Gangkou District
Gangkou District
Gangkou District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Fangchenggang city....

866,900
12 Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Qinzhou is a municipal region in Guangxi, People's Republic of China.The municipality lies on the Gulf of Tonkin and has a population of 944, 000.-Administration:The Qinzhou municipal region comprises two districts and two counties....

钦州市 Qīnzhōu Shì Ginhcouh Si Qinnan District
Qinnan District
Qinnan District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Qinzhou city....

3,079,700
13 Beihai
Beihai
Beihai is a prefecture-level city of Guangxi, China. Beihai means "north of the sea" in Chinese, signifying its status as a seaport on the north shore of the Gulf of Tonkin. Between the years 2006 and 2020, Beihai is predicted to be the world's fastest growing city...

北海市 Běihǎi Shì Baekhaij Si Haicheng District
Haicheng District
Haicheng District is the seat of Beihai City, Guangxi, China. It has 51 neighborhood committees and 20 village committees.* Area: 140 km²* Population: 240,000* District seat: at Gulf of Tonkin Way - Subdivisions :* Dongjie Sub-district...

1,539,300
14 Yulin
Yulin, Guangxi
Yulin is one of the fourteen prefecture-level cities of Guangxi autonomous region, in China.-Geography and climate:Yulin is located in southeastern Guangxi province along the border with Guangdong. It is a hilly basin with a total area of 12,838 sq. km....

玉林市 Yùlín Shì Yoglinz Si Yuzhou District
Yuzhou District
Yuzhou District is a district of Guangxi, China. It is under the administration of Yulin city....

5,487,400

Politics


Secretaries of the CPC
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

 Guangxi Committee:
  1. Zhang Yunyi (张云逸): 1949-1953
  2. Chen Manyuan (陈漫远): 1953-1957
  3. Liu Jianxun (刘建勋): 1957-1961
  4. Wei Guoqing
    Wei Guoqing
    Wei Guoqing was a Chinese government official, military officer and political commissar. He served on the Communist Party of China's Politburo and as Director of the People’s Liberation Army’s General Political Department...

     (韦国清): 1960-1966
  5. Qiao Xiaoguang (乔晓光): 1966-1967
  6. Wei Guoqing
    Wei Guoqing
    Wei Guoqing was a Chinese government official, military officer and political commissar. He served on the Communist Party of China's Politburo and as Director of the People’s Liberation Army’s General Political Department...

     (韦国清): 1970-1975
  7. An Pingsheng (安平生): 1975-1977.
  8. Qiao Xiaoguang (乔晓光): 1977-1985
  9. Chen Huiguang (陈辉光): 1985-1990
  10. Zhao Fulin (赵富林): 1990-1997
  11. Cao Bochun
    Cao Bochun
    Cao Bochun is a politician of the People's Republic of China. He was the secretary of CPC Guangxi committee, and currently serves as vice director of environment and resources protection committee of 11th National People's Congress.Born in Zhuzhou, Hunan Province, Cao graduated from aeronautic...

     (曹伯纯): 1997-2006
  12. Liu Qibao
    Liu Qibao
    Liu Qibao is a Chinese politician. He was elected the chairman of the Standing Committee of the Sichuan Provincial People's Congress on January 27, 2008. He also currently serves as the chief of the Communist Party of China Sichuan Committee, the province's first-in-charge.Liu Qibao was born in...

     (刘奇葆): 2006-2007
  13. Guo Shengkun (郭声琨): 2007-incumbent


Chairmen of Government:
  1. Zhang Yunyi (张云逸): 1949-1953
  2. Chen Manyuan (陈漫远): 1953.08-1955
  3. Chen Manyuan (陈漫远): 1955-1958
  4. Wei Guoqing
    Wei Guoqing
    Wei Guoqing was a Chinese government official, military officer and political commissar. He served on the Communist Party of China's Politburo and as Director of the People’s Liberation Army’s General Political Department...

     (韦国清): 1958-1975
  5. An Pingsheng (安平生): 1975-1977
  6. Qiao Xiaoguang (乔晓光): 1977-1979
  7. Tan Yingji (覃应机): 1979-1983
  8. Wei Chunshu (韦纯束): 1983-1990
  9. Cheng Kejie (成克杰): 1990-1998
  10. Li Zhaozhuo
    Li Zhaozhuo
    Li Zhaozhuo is a politician of the People's Republic of China. He currently serves as vice chairman of the 11th Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference ....

     (李兆焯): 1998-2003
  11. Lu Bing
    Lu Bing
    Lu Bing , Zhuang nationality, is a politician of the People's Republic of China, and the former chairman of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.- Biography :...

     (陆兵): 2003-December 2007
  12. Ma Biao (马飚): December 2007-incumbent

Economy



Important crops in Guangxi include rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

, maize
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

, sweet potato
Sweet potato
The sweet potato is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Its large, starchy, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. The young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. Of the approximately 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of...

es, and wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

. Cash crops include sugar cane, peanut
Peanut
The peanut, or groundnut , is a species in the legume or "bean" family , so it is not a nut. The peanut was probably first cultivated in the valleys of Peru. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing tall...

s, tobacco
Tobacco
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

, and kenaf
Kenaf
Kenaf [Etymology: Persian], Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the Malvaceae family. Hibiscus cannabinus is in the genus Hibiscus and is probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown. The name also applies to the fibre obtained from this plant...

.

85% of the world's star anise
Star anise
Illicium verum, commonly called Star anise, star aniseed, or Chinese star anise, is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of northeast Vietnam and southwest China...

 is grown in Guangxi. It is a major ingredient in the antiviral Tamiflu.

Guangxi is one of China's key production centers for nonferrous metals. The province holds approximately 1/3 of all tin
Tin
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4...

 and manganese
Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

 deposits in China.

Liuzhou is the main industrial center and is a major motor vehicle manufacturing center. General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 have a manufacturing base here in a joint venture as SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile
SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile
SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile is a joint venture between General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China and Liuzhou Wuling Motors Co., Ltd...

. The city also has a large steel factory and several related industries. The local government of Guangxi hopes to expand the province's manufacturing sector, and during the drafting of China's Five Year Plan in 2011, earmarked 2.6 trillion RMB for investment in the province's Beibu Gulf Economic Zone(See Below).

In recent years Guangxi's economy has languished behind that of its wealthy neighbor and twin, Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

.
Guangxi's 2009 nominal GDP was about 775.9 billion yuan (US$114 billion) and ranked 18th in China. Its per capita GDP was 15,800 yuan (US$2,300).

Due to its lack of a major manufacturing industry in comparison to other provinces, Guangxi is the fourth most energy efficient province in China, helping to further boost its green image.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Beihai Silver Beach National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Beihai Export Processing Zone

Approved by the State Council, Beihai Export Processing Zone (BHEPZ) was established in March 2003. Total planned area is 1.454 square kilometers. The first phase of developed area is 1.135 square kilometers. It was verified and accepted by Customs General Administration and eight ministries of the state, on December 26, 2003. It is the Export Processing Zone nearest to ASEAN in China and also the only one bordering the sea in western China. It is situated next to Beihai Port.
  • Dongxing Border Economic Cooperation Area
  • Guilin National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Guilin Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in May 1988. In 1991, it was approved as a national-level industrial zone. It has an area of 12.07 Square Kilometers. Encouraged industries include electronic information, biomedical, new materials and environmental protection.
  • Nanning Economic & Technological Development Area

Established in 1992, Nanning Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved to be a national level zone in May 2001. Its total planned area of 10.796 square kilometers. It is located in the south of Nanning. It has become the new developing zone with fine chemical engineering, auto parts, aluminum processing, biological medicine and other industries.
  • Nanning National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Nanning Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1988 and was approved as a national-level industrial zone in 1992. The zone has a planned area of 43.7 Square Kilometers, and it encourages industries that do electronic information, bioengineering and pharmaceutical, mechanical and electrical integration and new materials industry.
  • Pingxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone

In 1992, Pinxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone was established. It has a total area of 7.2 Square Kilometers. It focuses on development of hardware mechanical and electrical products, daily-use chemical processing, the services, and international logistics-based storage and information industry.
  • Yongning Economic Development Zone

Investment


Seventy-one Taiwanese ventures started up in Guangxi in 2007, with contracts bringing in up to US$149 million of investment, while gross exports surpassed US$1 billion. There are a total of 1182 Taiwan ventures in Guangxi, and by the end of 2006, they have brought a total of US$4.27 billion of investment into the autonomous region. During the first half of 2007, 43 projects worthy of RMB2.6 billion (US$342 million) have already been contracted between Guangxi and Taiwan investors. Cooperation between Guangxi and Taiwan companies mainly relates to manufacturing, high-tech electronic industries, agriculture, energy resources and tourism.

Power


Guangxi Power Grid invested 180 million yuan in 2007 in projects to bring power to areas that still lacked access to electricity
Electricity
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

. The areas affected include Nanning
Nanning
Nanning is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush tropical foliage.-History:...

, Hechi
Hechi
-Administration:Hechi has 1 urban district, 1 city, 4 counties, and 5 autonomous counties.City:*Yizhou Urban District:*Jinchengjiang District Counties:*Nandan County -Administration:Hechi has 1 urban district, 1 city, 4 counties, and 5 autonomous counties.City:*Yizhou (宜州市)Urban...

, Bose and Guigang
Guigang
Guigang is a prefecture-level city in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.-Geography and climate:Guigang is located in central Guangxi province. It is located between Guangxi's five major cities, Nanning, Guilin, Liuzhou, Beihai, and Wuzhou. Its location makes it a major transportation and...

. Around 125,000 people have gained access to electricity. The money has been used to build or alter 738 10-kilovolt distribution units with a total length of wire reaching 1,831.8 kilometers.

Due to lack of investment in construction in the power grid net in rural areas, more than 400 villages in Guangxi Province were not included in the projects. Around 500,000 cannot participate in the policy known as "The Same Grid, the Same Price." Guangxi Power Grid will invest 4.6 billion yuan in improving the power grid during the 11th Five Year Plan.

Guangxi Power Grid has invested 2.5 billion yuan in building electric power system in the first half of 2007. Of the total investment, 2.3 billion yuan has been put into the project of the main power grid. So far, four new transformer substations in Guangxi are in various stages of completion. Wenfu substation went into operation in the city of Hechi on January 2007, and since then it has become a major hub of the electrical power system of the surrounding three counties. When Cangwu substation was completed, it doubled the local transformer capacity. In June 2007, the new substation in Chongzuo passed its operation tests. And in the same month, Qiulong commenced production too. This shall support the power supply system of Qiulong
Qiulong
Qiulong or qiu was a Chinese dragon that is contradictorily defined as "horned dragon" and "hornless dragon".-Name:This Chinese dragon name can be pronounced qiu or jiu and written 虯 or 虬.-Characters:...

 City, as well as the northern part of Guangxi province, and facilitate the nationwide project to transmit power from west to east.

Beibu Gulf Economic Zone


In late February 2008, the central government approved China's first international and regional economic cooperation zone in Guangxi. The construction of the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone began in 2006. With the approval, the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone will be formally incorporated into national development strategies.

The Beibu Gulf Economic Zone covers six coastal cities along the Beibu Gulf. It integrates the cities of Nanning
Nanning
Nanning is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush tropical foliage.-History:...

, the region's capital, Beihai
Beihai
Beihai is a prefecture-level city of Guangxi, China. Beihai means "north of the sea" in Chinese, signifying its status as a seaport on the north shore of the Gulf of Tonkin. Between the years 2006 and 2020, Beihai is predicted to be the world's fastest growing city...

, Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Qinzhou is a municipal region in Guangxi, People's Republic of China.The municipality lies on the Gulf of Tonkin and has a population of 944, 000.-Administration:The Qinzhou municipal region comprises two districts and two counties....

, Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang
Fangchenggang , formerly Fangcheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County , is a prefecture-level city in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.-Geography and climate:...

, Chongzuo
Chongzuo
Chongzuo is a prefecture-level city in China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is home to one of China’s largest Zhuang populations.- Geography and climate :...

 and Yulin
Yulin, Guangxi
Yulin is one of the fourteen prefecture-level cities of Guangxi autonomous region, in China.-Geography and climate:Yulin is located in southeastern Guangxi province along the border with Guangdong. It is a hilly basin with a total area of 12,838 sq. km....

. The state will adopt policies and measures to support mechanism innovation, rational industry layout and infrastructure construction in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone.

Guangxi municipality has pledged a 100 billion yuan (US$ 14 billion) investment over the next five years for building and repairing 2,500 km railways to form a network hub in the area. Beibu Gulf Zone will serve as the logistics
Logistics
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet the requirements of customers or corporations. Logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, and packaging, and...

 base, business base, processing and manufacturing base and information exchange center for China-ASEAN cooperation. Beibu Gulf Zone promises broad prospects for further development and its growth potential is rapidly released. But the shortage of talent and professionals in petrochemicals, iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

 and steel
Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

, electricity
Electricity
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

, finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

, tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

, port planning, logistics and marine
Marine (ocean)
Marine is an umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology...

 industries are bottlenecks.

The regional government is also working on speeding up key cooperation projects including transportation, the marine industry, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy development, cross-border tourism, and environmental protection. Beibu Gulf has already attracted a number of major projects such as Qinzhou oil refinery
Oil refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas...

 projects and Stora Enso
Stora Enso
Stora Enso Oyj is a Finnish pulp and paper manufacturer, formed by the merger of Swedish mining and forestry products company Stora and Finnish forestry products company Enso-Gutzeit Oy in 1998. It is headquartered in Helsinki, and it has approximately 29,000 employees...

, a Fortune 500
Fortune 500
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks the top 500 U.S. closely held and public corporations as ranked by their gross revenue after adjustments made by Fortune to exclude the impact of excise taxes companies collect. The list includes publicly and...

 forest products company based in Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

. In January 2008 trade import and export in the Beibu Gulf zone exceeded US$1.3 billion, a record high.

Bauxite reserves


In September 2007, China's Ministry of Commerce
Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China , formerly Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Co-operation is an executive agency of the State Council of China...

 said that it has found 120 million tons of new bauxite
Bauxite
Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al3, boehmite γ-AlO, and diaspore α-AlO, in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite, and small amounts of anatase TiO2...

 reserves in Guangxi. The ministry said that the new reserves, which are located in Chongzhou
Chongzhou
Chongzhou is a satellite city near Cheng Du - Capital of Sichuan Province, P.R China....

 in the southern region of Youjiang, have a very high-quality of bauxite, a raw material for making aluminum. Currently, the proven reserves of bauxite in Guangxi are about 1 billion tons, making the province one of the country's biggest bauxite sources.

Demographics



The Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 are the largest ethnic group. Of these, the main subgroups are those that speak the Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin , also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin , is a primary branch of Mandarin Chinese spoken by Han Chinese people throughout many regions of central and southwestern China, such as Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Guizhou, most parts of Hubei, the western part of Hunan, the northern...

 and Cantonese varieties of Chinese
Sinitic languages
The Sinitic languages, often called the Chinese languages or the Chinese language, are a language family frequently postulated as one of two primary branches of Sino-Tibetan...

.

The region has over 14 million Zhuang, the largest minority ethnicity of China. Over 90% of Zhuang in China live in Guangxi, especially in the central and western regions. There is also a significant number of both Dong
Dong people
The Dong , a Kam–Sui people of southern China, are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. They are famed for their native-bred Kam Sweet Rice , carpentry skills, and unique architecture, in particular a form of covered bridge known as the "wind and rain...

 and Miao
Miao people
The Miao or ม้ง ; ) is an ethnic group recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China as one of the 55 official minority groups. Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component nations of people, which include Hmong, Hmu, A Hmao, and Kho Xiong...

 minority peoples. Other ethnic groups include: Yao
Yao people
The Yao nationality is a government classification for various minorities in China. They form one of the 55 ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China, where they reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south...

, Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

, Yi
Yi people
The Yi or Lolo people are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. Numbering 8 million, they are the seventh largest of the 55 ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China...

 (Lolo), Shui, and Gin (Vietnamese). There is a minor Christian population, which is subject to rigorous official regulations.

Culture


"Guangxi" and neighbouring Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 literally mean "Western" and "Eastern Expanse". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called the "Two Expanses" (两广, Liǎngguǎng
Liangguang
Liangguang is a term referring to the province of Guangdong and autonomous region of Guangxi on the southern coast of China. Before 1988, Guangdong province also included what is now the province of Hainan.-History:...

; 兩廣, Loeng Gwong). Its culture and language are reflected in this. Though now associated with the Zhuang ethnic minority, Guangxi's culture traditionally has had a close connection with the Cantonese. Cantonese culture and language followed the Xi River valley from Guangdong and is still predominate in the eastern half of Guangxi today. Outside of this area there is a huge variety of ethnicities and language groups represented.

Guangxi is known for its ethno-linguistic diversity. In the capital of Nanning
Nanning
Nanning is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush tropical foliage.-History:...

, for example, three varieties of Chinese are spoken locally: Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin , also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin , is a primary branch of Mandarin Chinese spoken by Han Chinese people throughout many regions of central and southwestern China, such as Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Guizhou, most parts of Hubei, the western part of Hunan, the northern...

, Cantonese, and Pinghua, in addition to various Zhuang languages.

Tourism



The major tourist attraction of Guangxi is Guilin
Guilin
Guilin is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of far southern China, sitting on the west bank of the Li River. Its name means "forest of Sweet Osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant Sweet Osmanthus trees located in the city...

, a town famed across China and the world for its spectacular setting by the Li Jiang
Lijiang River
The Li River or Lijiang River is a river in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.-Background:The Li River originates in the Mao'er Mountains in Xing'an County and flows in the general southern direction through Guilin, Yangshuo and Pingle....

 (Li River) among severe karst
KARST
Kilometer-square Area Radio Synthesis Telescope is a Chinese telescope project to which FAST is a forerunner. KARST is a set of large spherical reflectors on karst landforms, which are bowlshaped limestone sinkholes named after the Kras region in Slovenia and Northern Italy. It will consist of...

 peaks. It also used to be the capital of Guangxi and Jingjiang Princes' City, the old princes' residence, is open to the public. South of Guilin down the river is the town of Yangshuo
Yangshuo
Yangshuo County is a county in Guilin, Guangxi Province, China. Its seat is located in Yangshuo Town. Surrounded by karst peaks and bordered on one side by the Li River it is easily accessible by bus or by boat from nearby Guilin...

, which has become another favourite destination for foreign tourists.

Ethnic minorities in Guangxi, such as the Zhuang and Dong
Dong people
The Dong , a Kam–Sui people of southern China, are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. They are famed for their native-bred Kam Sweet Rice , carpentry skills, and unique architecture, in particular a form of covered bridge known as the "wind and rain...

, are also interesting for tourists. The northern part of the province, bordering with Guizhou
Guizhou
' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its provincial capital city is Guiyang.- History :...

, is home to the Longsheng Rice Terrace
Longsheng Rice Terrace
The Longsheng Rice Terraces are located in Longsheng County, about 100 km from Guilin, Guangxi, China. The most popular are Ping An Rice Terrace and Jinkeng Rice Terrace....

s, some of the steepest in the world. Nearby is Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County.

Education



  • Guangxi University
    Guangxi University
    Guangxi University is a provincial university, located in Nanning, capital of Guangxi, China. It is also commonly abbreviated as .-History:Guangxi University was established in October 1928...

  • Guangxi Medical University
    Guangxi Medical University
    Guangxi Medical University is located in Nanning, Guangxi, China and is one of the oldest higher education medical institutions in China. In 2010, the university was voted one of the top 20 universities in China for medicine study -History:...

  • Guangxi Normal University
    Guangxi Normal University
    -External links:* * *...

  • Guilin University of Electronic Technology
    Guilin University of Electronic Technology
    The Guilin University of Electronic Technology is a state university, located in Guilin, Guangxi, China.-Campus:The university is divided into three campuses:*East Campus*West Campus*Yaoshan Campus- History :...

  • Guangxi Education and Research Network
  • Nanning Science & Information Network
  • GuangXi University for Nationalities

Sister regions

Kumamoto Prefecture
Kumamoto Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located on Kyushu Island. The capital is the city of Kumamoto.- History :Historically the area was called Higo Province; and the province was renamed Kumamoto during the Meiji Restoration. The creation of prefectures was part of the abolition of the feudal system...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 (1982) Carinthia
Carinthia (state)
Carinthia is the southernmost Austrian state or Land. Situated within the Eastern Alps it is chiefly noted for its mountains and lakes.The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Austro-Bavarian group...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 (1987) Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Norte is one of the states of Brazil, located in the northeastern region of the country, occupying the northeasternmost tip of the South American continent. Because of its geographic position, Rio Grande do Norte has a strategic importance. The capital and largest city is Natal...

, Brasil (1995) Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . It was established on June 13, 1934.-Main rivers:*Don*Voronezh*Bityug*Khopyor-Economy:...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (1997) Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

, United States of America (1999) Poitou-Charentes
Poitou-Charentes
Poitou-Charentes is an administrative region in central western France comprising four departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Deux-Sèvres and Vienne. The regional capital is Poitiers.-Politics:The regional council is composed of 56 members...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 (2002) Surat Thani Province
Surat Thani Province
Surat Thani is the largest of the southern provinces of Thailand, on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand. Surat Thani means City of Good People, the title given to the city by King Vajiravudh ....

, Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 (2004) Newport
Newport
Newport is a city and unitary authority area in Wales. Standing on the banks of the River Usk, it is located about east of Cardiff and is the largest urban area within the historic county boundaries of Monmouthshire and the preserved county of Gwent...

, Wales
Wales
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

  (1996)

External links