Italian language

Italian language

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Italian language'
Start a new discussion about 'Italian language'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
{{redirect|Italiano}} '''Italian''' ({{Audio|It-italiano.ogg|''italiano''}} or ''lingua italiana'') is a [[Romance languages|Romance language]] spoken mainly in Europe: [[Italy]], [[Switzerland]], [[San Marino]], [[Vatican City]], by minorities in [[Malta]], [[Monaco]], [[Croatia]], [[Slovenia]], [[France]], [[Libya]], [[Eritrea]], and [[Somalia]], and by immigrant communities in the [[Americas]] and [[Australia]]. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardised Italian and [[Languages of Italy|other regional languages]]. According to the Bologna statistics of the [[European Union]], Italian is spoken as a mother tongue by 65 million people in the EU (13% of the EU population), mainly in Italy, and as a second language by 14 million (3%). Including the Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland and Albania) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is more than 85 million. In [[Switzerland]], Italian is one of four [[Linguistic geography of Switzerland|official language]]s; it is studied and learned in all the confederation schools and spoken, as mother tongue, in the Swiss cantons of [[Canton of Ticino|Ticino]] and [[Graubünden|Grigioni]] and by the Italian immigrants that are present in large numbers in German- and French-speaking cantons. It is also the official language of [[San Marino]], as well as the primary language of [[Vatican City]]. It is co-official in [[Slovenian Istria]] and in part of the [[Istria County]] in [[Croatia]]. The Italian language adopted by the state after the [[unification of Italy]] is based on the [[Tuscan language|Tuscan]] dialect, which beforehand was only available to [[upper class]] Florentine society. Its development was also influenced by other [[Italian dialects]] and by the Germanic language of the [[Migration period|post-Roman invaders]]. Italian derives [[diachronic]]ally from [[Latin]]. Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and [[consonant length|long consonants]]. As in most [[Romance languages]], [[stress (linguistics)|stress]] is distinctive. In particular, among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of [[vocabulary]]. [[Lexical similarity]] is 89% with [[French language|French]], 87% with [[Catalan language|Catalan]], 85% with [[Sardinian]], 82% with [[Spanish language|Spanish]] and [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]], 78% with [[Rhaeto-Romance languages|Rhaeto-Romance]], and 77% with [[Romanian language|Romanian]]. ==History== The standard Italian language has a poetic and literary origin, starting in the twelfth century, and the modern standard of the language was largely shaped by relatively recent events, but Italian as a language used in the [[Italian Peninsula]] has a longer history; in fact the earliest surviving texts that can definitely be called Italian (or more accurately, vernacular, as distinct from its predecessor [[Vulgar Latin]]) are legal formulae from the region of [[province of Benevento|Benevento]] that date from 960–963. What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early fourteenth century through the works of Tuscan writer [[Dante Alighieri]], written in his native Florentine. Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the ''[[Divine Comedy|Commedia]],'' to which another Tuscan poet [[Giovanni Boccaccio]] later affixed the title ''Divina'', were read throughout Italy and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated [[Italians]] could understand. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language and, thus, the dialect of [[Florence]] became the basis for what would become the official language of Italy. Italian often was an official language of the various Italian states predating unification, slowly usurping Latin, even when ruled by foreign powers (such as the Spanish in the [[Kingdom of Naples]], or the Austrians in the [[Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia]]), even though the masses spoke primarily vernacular languages and dialects. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the [[Austro-Hungarian Empire]]. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, since the cities, until recently, were thought of as [[city-state]]s. Those dialects now have considerable [[variety (linguistics)|variety]]. As Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. The most characteristic differences, for instance, between [[Rome|Roman]] Italian and [[Milan]]ese Italian are the [[consonant length|gemination]] of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e", and of "s" in some cases: e.g. ''va bene'' "all right": is pronounced {{IPA|[va ˈbːɛne]}} by a Roman (and by any standard-speaker, like a Florentine), {{IPA|[va ˈbene]}} by a Milanese (and by any speaker whose native dialect lies to the north of [[La Spezia-Rimini Line]]); ''a casa'' "at home" is {{IPA|[a ˈkːasa]}} for Roman and standard, {{IPA|[a ˈkaza]}} for Milanese and generally northern. In contrast to the [[Northern Italian language]], [[southern Italian]] dialects and languages were largely untouched by the Franco-[[Occitan language|Occitan]] influences introduced to Italy, mainly by [[bard]]s from [[France]], during the [[Middle Ages]] but, after the [[Norman conquest of southern Italy]], Sicily became the first Italian land to adopt Occitan lyric moods (and words) in poetry. Even in the case of Northern Italian language, however, scholars are careful not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languages. The economic might and relatively advanced development of [[Tuscany]] at the time ([[Late Middle Ages]]) gave its dialect weight, though the [[Venetian language]] remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life, and [[Ligurian language (Romance)|Ligurian (or Genoese)]] remained in use in maritime trade alongside the Mediterranean. The increasing political and cultural relevance of [[Florence, Italy|Florence]] during the periods of the rise of Medici's bank, [[Humanism]], and the [[Renaissance]] made its dialect, or rather a refined version of it, a standard in the arts. ===Renaissance=== Starting with the Renaissance Italian became the language used in the courts of every state in the peninsula. The rediscovery of Dante's ''[[De vulgari eloquentia]]'' and a renewed interest in linguistics in the sixteenth century, sparked a debate that raged throughout Italy concerning the criteria that should govern the establishment of a modern Italian literary and spoken language. Scholars divided into three factions: * The [[purism|purists]], headed by Venetian [[Pietro Bembo]] (who, in his ''[[Gli Asolani]]'', claimed the language might be based only on the great literary classics, such as [[Petrarch]] and some part of Boccaccio). The purists thought the Divine Comedy not dignified enough, because it used elements from non-lyric registers of the language. *[[Niccolò Machiavelli]] and other [[Florence|Florentine]]s preferred the version spoken by ordinary people in their own times. * The [[courtier]]s, like [[Baldassare Castiglione]] and [[Gian Giorgio Trissino]], insisted that each local vernacular contribute to the new standard. A fourth faction claimed the best Italian was the one that the papal court adopted, which was a mix of Florentine and the dialect of Rome. Eventually, Bembo's ideas prevailed, and the foundation of the [[Accademia della Crusca]] in Florence (1582–1583), the official legislative body of the Italian language led to publication of [[Agnolo Monosini]]'s Latin tome [[Floris italicae linguae libri novem]] in 1604 followed by the first Italian dictionary in 1612. ===Modern era=== An important event that helped the diffusion of Italian was the conquest and occupation of Italy by [[Napoleon]] in the early nineteenth century (who was himself of Italian-Corsican descent). This conquest propelled the unification of Italy some decades after, and pushed the Italian language into a [[lingua franca]] used not only among clerks, nobility and functionaries in the Italian courts but also in the [[bourgeoisie]]. ===Contemporary times=== Italian literature's first modern novel, [[The Betrothed (Manzoni novel)|''I Promessi Sposi'']] (''The Betrothed''), by [[Alessandro Manzoni]] further defined the standard by "rinsing" his Milanese "in the waters of the [[Arno River|Arno]]" ([[Florence]]'s river), as he states in the Preface to his 1840 edition. After unification a huge number of civil servants and soldiers recruited from all over the country introduced many more words and idioms from their home languages ("[[ciao]]" is derived from [[Venetian language|Venetian]] word "S-cia[v]o" (''Slave''), "[[panettone]]" come from [[Lombard language|Lombard]] word "panatton" etc.). Only 2.5% of Italy’s population could speak properly the Italian standardized language when the nation unified in 1861. ==Classification== Italian is related most closely to the other two Italo-Dalmatian languages, [[Sicilian language|Sicilian]] and the extinct [[Dalmatian language|Dalmatian]]. The three are part of the [[Romance languages]], which are a group of the [[Italic languages|Italic]] branch of [[Indo-European language family|Indo-European]]. ==Geographic distribution== [[File:Knowledge Italian Europe map.jpg|thumb|350px|Knowledge of Italian in Europe]] [[File:Map Italophone World.png|thumb|350px|The geographic distribution of the Italian language in the world: large Italian-speaking communities are shown in green; light blue indicates areas where the Italian language was used officially during the Italian colonial period.]] [[File:Lengua italiana.png|thumb|right|200px|Use of the Italian language in Europe and Africa]] The list below shows the geographical distribution of the Italian language around the world. The total number of native speakers of Italian is 62 million people according to Encarta and Ethnologue. But in the statistics of the [[European Union]], Italian is spoken as a mother tongue by 13% of the EU population or 65 million people, mainly in Italy. Also in the EU, it is spoken as a second language by 3% of the population or by 14 million people. Including the Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland and Albania) and on other continents (especially in Argentina, Brazil, the US, Canada, Australia, Venezuela, as is shown below), the total number of speakers is more than 85 million. === Secondary === ([[Transitional Federal Parliament]]) Although Eritrea has no official language, Italian is still well-diffused among older people and in administrative, commercial and teaching-related areas. Although not official, Italian is still widely known among older populations and is used in the commercial and education sectors. === Historically significant === (in [[Corsica]], [[Savoy]], [[County of Nice|Nice]] and some valleys) ([[Istria]], [[Rijeka]], [[Kvarner]], [[Dalmatia]]) ([[Slovenian Littoral]]) (in [[Dodecanese]] 1912–1943) (in [[Crimea]]) === Historically official === (1861–1946 and until 1861 in all the former Italian states before the unification; also in [[Italian Social Republic]] 1943–1945 and in [[Free Territory of Trieste]] 1947–1954) (in [[Istria]] X century-1797, [[Dalmatia]] XII century-1797, [[Rijeka]], [[Zadar]], [[Lastovo]] and [[Palagruža]] 1919–1947, and in the [[Governorship of Dalmatia]] 1941–1943) ([[Free Territory of Trieste]] 1947-1954) ([[Free State of Fiume]] 1920–1924) (1890–1941) ([[Italian Somaliland]] 1895–1960, [[British Somaliland]] 1940–1941) ([[Abissinia]] 1936–1941) (1489–1571) (in [[Tientsin]] 1901–1944) (1911–1943) (in Western part 1940–1942) ([[Kingdom of Montenegro (1941–1944)]]) (in the [[Slovenian Littoral]], western [[Inner Carniola]] 1919–1947, and in the [[Province of Ljubljana]] 1941–1943) (in [[Crete]] XIII century-1699; in the [[Venetian Ionian Islands]] 1204-1797 and 1941–1943; in [[Chios]] 1261-1566; in the [[Dodecanese]] 1912–1943 and in many other islands and cities under the Venetian and Genoese domination between the XII and XVI centuries) (in [[Venetian Albania]] 1420-1797; in [[Sazan Island]] 1920–1947 and in all the country 1938–1945) (until 1934) (in [[Tende]], [[La Brigue]] and other small valleys until 1947, in [[Corsica]] until 1895 and between 1942–1943 and in the territory of [[Nice]] X century-1860 and 1942–1943) (in [[Tabarka]] 1540-1742 and in all the country 1942–1943) (in [[Crimea]] under the Genoese domination between the XIII and XV centuries) (in the [[Austrian Littoral]], [[Rijeka|Fiume]], [[Kingdom of Dalmatia|Dalmatia]] and [[Trentino]] until 1918) (in the district of [[Beyoğlu|Pera]] 1204-1453 and in [[Antalya Province|Territory of Antalya]] 1919–1922) === Used by some immigrant communities === 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,008,370 500,000–1,000,000 661,000 548,000 over 500,000 (mentioned here because related to the German and French speaking areas) 400,000 353,605 250,000 220,000 200,000 72,400 2,250 Italian is the official language of [[Italy]] and [[San Marino]], and one of the official languages of [[Switzerland]], spoken in the cantons of [[Canton Ticino|Ticino]] and part of [[Graubünden]] (Grigioni in Italian), which together are a region referred to as [[Italian Switzerland]]. It is also the official language with Croatian and Slovenian in some areas of [[Istria]], where an Italian minority exists. In the Brazilian cities of [[Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo|Santa Teresa]] and [[Vila Velha]] it enjoys official status alongside Portuguese, being "knighted" as an ethnic language. It is the primary language of the [[Vatican City]] and is widely used and taught in [[Monaco]] and [[Malta]]. It served as Malta's official language until the [[Maltese language]] was enshrined in the 1934 Constitution. It is also spoken to a significant extent in France, with over 1,000,000 speakers (especially in [[Corsica]] and the [[County of Nice]], areas that historically spoke [[Italian dialects]] before annexation to [[France]]), and it is understood by large parts of the populations of [[Albania]], coastal [[Montenegro]] and western Slovenia, reached by many Italian television channels. Italian is also spoken by some in former Italian colonies in [[Africa]] ([[Libya]] and [[Eritrea]]). However, its use has dropped sharply since the colonial period. In [[Eritrea]], Italian is widely understood. In fact, for fifty years, during the colonial period, Italian was the language of education, but {{As of|1997|lc=on}}, there is only one Italian-language school remaining, with four hundred seventy pupils yearly. The name of the only Italian-language school in Eritrea is Scuola Italiana di Asmara, which was also the only Italian-language school in Ethiopia, when Eritrea was a province of Ethiopia. The number of Italian speakers may increase a little when the number of students at that school increases and because it is still spoken in commerce, and Eritrea will be the only African nation where Italian is widely spoken and understood. In Libya, since 1969, Italian has been wiped out by the [[History of Libya under Gaddafi|Libyan Revolution]]’s Arabization programmes in education and media. In Egypt and Tunisia, it is spoken mostly by [[Italian Egyptian]]s, [[Italian Tunisians]], and some professionals of non-Italian descent. In all of the above former Italian African colonies, most of the fluent Italian speakers are people who grew up in officially Italian-speaking nations, especially Italy, and returned to Africa. Italian and [[Italian dialects]] are widely used by Italian immigrants and many of their descendants living throughout [[Western Europe]] (especially [[France]], [[Germany]], [[Belgium]], [[Switzerland]], the [[Britalian|United Kingdom]] and [[Luxembourg]]), the [[Italian Americans|United States]], [[Italian Canadians|Canada]], [[Italian Australians|Australia]], and [[Latin America]] (especially [[Uruguay]], [[Italian Brazilians|Brazil]], [[Argentina]], and [[Venezuela]]). In the [[United States]], the largest Italian-speaking populations are found in five cities: [[Boston]] (7,000), [[Chicago]] (12,000), the [[Miami]] region (27,000), [[New York City]] (140,000), and [[Philadelphia]] (15,000). According to the United States Census in 2000, over 1 million [[Italian Americans]] spoke Italian at home, with the largest concentrations—and nearly half of the total—found in the states of [[New York]] (294,271) and [[New Jersey]] (116,365). In [[Canada]], Italian is the fourth most commonly spoken language, with 661,000 speakers (or about 2.1% of the population) according to the 2006 Census. Particularly large Italian-speaking communities are found in [[Montreal]] (c. 179,000) and [[Toronto]] (c. 262,000). Italian is also strongly visible in the [[Hamilton, Ontario|Hamilton]] area. Italian is the second most commonly spoken language in Australia, where 353,605 [[Italian Australian]]s, or 1.9% of the population, reported speaking Italian at home in the 2001 [[Census in Australia|Census]]. In 2001 there were 130,000 Italian speakers in [[Melbourne]], and 90,000 in [[Sydney]]. ===Education=== Italian is widely taught in many schools around the world, but rarely as the first foreign language; in fact, Italian is considered the fourth- or fifth - most taught foreign language in the world. According to the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, every year more than 200,000 foreign students study Italian in 90 Institutes of Italian Culture in the world, 179 Italian schools abroad and 111 Italian sections in foreign schools.{{Clarify|date=May 2011}} In the [[United States]], Italian is the fourth most taught foreign language after Spanish, French and German, in that order (the fifth, considering also the [[American Sign Language]]). In the anglophone Canada Italian is second after French but in the United Kingdom it is the fourth after French, Spanish and German. In central-east Europe Italian is first in Albania and Montenegro, second in Austria, Slovenia, and Ukraine after English, and third in Hungary, Romania and Russia after English and German. But throughout the world, Italian is the fifth most taught foreign language, after [[English language|English]], Spanish, French, and German. In the [[European Union]] statistics, Italian is spoken as a mother tongue by 13% of the population or 65 million people, mainly in Italy. In the EU, it is spoken as a second language by 3% of the population or by 14 million people. In addition, among EU states, the Italian language is most likely to be learned as a second language in [[Malta]] by 61% of the population, as well as in [[Slovenia]] by 15% of the population, in [[Croatia]] by 14% of the population, [[Austria]] by 11% of the population, [[Romania]] by 8% of the population, and by [[France]] and [[Greece]] by 6% of the population. Italian is also one of the national languages of Switzerland, which is not a part of the European Union. The Italian language is well known and studied in [[Albania]], another non-EU member, due to its historical and geographical proximity with Italy. ===Influence and derived languages=== {{see also|Italian diaspora}} From the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, and Venezuela, where they formed a strong physical and cultural presence. In some cases, colonies were established where variants of regional (i.e. non-central) Italian languages were used, and some continue to use a derived dialect. Examples are [[Rio Grande do Sul]], [[Brazil]], where [[Talian]] is used, and the town of [[Chipilo]] near Puebla, [[Mexico]]; each continues to use a derived form of [[Venetian language|Venetian]] dating back to the nineteenth century. Another example is [[Cocoliche]], an Italian-Spanish [[pidgin]] once spoken in [[Argentina]] and especially in [[Buenos Aires]], and [[Lunfardo]]. [[Rioplatense Spanish]], and particularly the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects, because Argentina has had a continuous large influx of Italian settlers since the second half of the nineteenth century: initially primarily from northern Italy; then, since the beginning of the twentieth century, mostly from southern Italy. ===Lingua franca=== {{See also|Mediterranean Lingua Franca}} Starting in late [[medieval]] times, Italian language variants replaced Latin to become the primary commercial language in much of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea (especially the Tuscan and Venetian variants). These variants were consolidated during the [[Renaissance]] with the strength of Italian and the rise of [[Renaissance humanism|humanism]] in the arts. During the Renaissance, Italy held artistic sway over the rest of Europe. All educated European gentlemen were expected to make the [[Grand Tour]], visiting Italy to see its great historical monuments and works of art. It thus became expected that educated Europeans should learn at least some Italian; the English poet [[John Milton]], for instance, wrote some of his early poetry in Italian. In England, Italian became the second most common modern language to be learned, after [[French language|French]] (though the classical languages, [[Latin]] and [[Greek language|Greek]], came first). However, by the late eighteenth century, Italian tended to be replaced by [[German language|German]] as the second modern language in the curriculum. Yet Italian [[loanword]]s continue to be used in most other [[European languages]] in matters of art and music. Within the [[Catholic church]], Italian is known by a large part of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and is used in substitution for [[Latin]] in some official documents. The presence of Italian as the primary language in the [[Vatican City]] indicates use, not only within the [[Holy See]], but also throughout the world where an episcopal seat is present.{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}} It continues to be used in [[music]] and [[opera]]. Other examples where Italian is sometimes used as a means of communication are in some sports (sometimes in [[football (association)|football]]{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}} and [[motorsports]]) and in the [[design]] and [[fashion]] industries. ==Italian dialects== {{Main|Italian dialects}} [[File:Italian languages.png|thumb|right|250 px|Italian languages]] In Italy, almost all [[Romance languages]] spoken as the vernacular (other than standard Italian and other unrelated, non-Italian languages) are termed "Italian dialects". The only exceptions are [[Sardinian language|Sardinian]] and [[Friulan language|Friulan]], which the law recognises as official regional languages Many Italian dialects may be considered historical languages in their own right. These include recognized language groups such as, [[Neapolitan language|Neapolitan]], [[Sardinian language|Sardinian]], [[Sicilian language|Sicilian]], [[Ligurian language (Romance)|Ligurian]], [[Piedmontese language|Piedmontese]], [[Venetian language|Venetian]], and others, and regional variants of these languages such as [[Calabrian languages|Calabrian]]. The distinction between dialect and language has been made by scholars (such as [[Francesco Bruni]]): on the one hand are the languages that made up the Italian [[koiné language|koine]]; and on the other, those that had little or no part in it, such as [[Albanian language|Albanian]], [[Greek language|Greek]], [[German language|German]], [[Ladin language|Ladin]], and [[Occitan language|Occitan]], which some minorities still speak. The [[Corsican language]] is also related to Italian. Regional differences can be recognized by various factors: the openness of vowels, the length of the consonants, and influence of the local dialect (for example, in informal situations the contraction ''annà'' replaces ''andare'' in the area of Rome for the infinitive "to go"; and ''nare'' is what [[Venice|Venetian]]s say for the infinitive "to go"). ==Phonology== {{Main|Italian phonology}} {{IPA notice}} {| class="wikitable" float="right" |+'''Consonants of Italian''' ! ![[bilabial consonant|Bilabial]] ![[labiodental consonant|Labio-
dental]] ![[Dental consonant|Dental]]/
[[Alveolar consonant|Alveolar]] ![[postalveolar consonant|Post-
alveolar]] ![[palatal consonant|Palatal]] ![[velar consonant|Velar]] |- ![[nasal consonant|Nasal]] | align="center"|{{IPA|m}} | | align="center"|{{IPA|n}} | | align="center"|{{IPA|ɲ}} | |- ![[plosive consonant|Plosive]] | align="center"|{{IPA|p}} {{IPA|b}} | | align="center"|{{IPA|t}} {{IPA|d}} | | | align="center"|{{IPA|k}} {{IPA|ɡ}} |- ![[affricate consonant|Affricate]] | | | align="center"|{{IPA|ts}} {{IPA|dz}} | align="center"|{{IPA|tʃ}} {{IPA|dʒ}} | | |- ![[fricative consonant|Fricative]] | | align="center"|{{IPA|f}} {{IPA|v}} | align="center"|{{IPA|s}} {{IPA|z}} | align="center"|{{IPA|ʃ}} | | |- ![[trill consonant|Trill]] | | | align="center"|{{IPA|r}} | | | |- ![[lateral consonant|Lateral]] | | | align="center"|{{IPA|l}} | | align="center"|{{IPA|ʎ}} | |- ![[approximant consonant|Approximant]] | | | | | align="center"|{{IPA|j}} | align="center"|{{IPA|w}} |} Italian has a typical [[Romance languages|Romance-language]] seven-vowel system, consisting of {{IPA|/a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o u/}}, as well as 23 consonants. Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian phonology is extremely conservative, preserving many words nearly unchanged from [[Vulgar Latin]]. Some examples: *Italian ''quattordici'' "fourteen" < Latin {{sm|quattuordecim}} (cf. [[Spanish language|Spanish]] ''catorce'', [[French language|French]] ''quatorze'' {{IPA|/kaˈtɔʁz/}}) *Italian ''settimana'' "week" < Latin {{sm|septimāna}} (cf. [[Spanish language|Spanish]] ''semana'', [[French language|French]] ''semaine'' {{IPA|/s(ǝ)ˈmɛn/}}) *Italian ''medesimo'' "same" < Vulgar Latin } (cf. [[Spanish language|Spanish]] ''mismo'', [[French language|French]] ''même'' {{IPA|/mɛm/}}) *Italian ''guadagnare'' "to win, earn" < Vulgar Latin } < [[Germanic languages|Germanic]] /waidanjan/ (cf. [[Spanish language|Spanish]] ''ganar'', [[French language|French]] ''gagner'' {{IPA|/gaˈɲe/}}) The conservativeness of Italian phonology is partly explained by its origin. Italian stems from a literary language that is derived from the 13th-century speech of the city of [[Florence]] in the region of [[Tuscany]], and has changed little in the last 700 years or so. Furthermore, the Tuscan dialect is the most conservative of all [[Italian dialects]], radically different from the [[Gallo-Italian languages]] less than 100 miles to the north (across the [[La Spezia-Rimini line]]). The following are some of the conservative phonological features of Italian, as compared with the common [[Western Romance]] languages ([[French language|French]], [[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]], [[Catalan language|Catalan]]). Some of these features are also present in [[Romanian language|Romanian]]. *Little or no [[lenition]] of consonants between vowels, e.g. {{sm|vīta}} > ''vita'' "life" (cf. Spanish ''vida'' {{IPA|[biða]}}, French ''vie''), {{sm|pedem}} > ''piede'' "foot" (cf. Spanish ''pie'', French ''pied'' /pje/). *Preservation of doubled consonants, e.g. {{sm|annum}} > ''anno'' "year" (cf. Spanish ''año'' {{IPA|/aɲo/}}, French ''an'' {{IPA|/ɑ̃/}}). *Preservation of all [[Proto-Romance]] final vowels, e.g. {{sm|pacem}} > ''pace'' "peace" (cf. Spanish ''paz'', French ''paix'' {{IPA|/pɛ/}}), {{sm|octō}} > ''otto'' "eight" (cf. Spanish ''ocho'', French ''huit''), {{sm|fēcī}} > ''feci'' "I did" (cf. Spanish ''hice'', French ''fis'' {{IPA|/fi/}}). *Preservation of intertonic vowels (those between the stressed syllable and either the beginning or ending syllable). This accounts for some of the most noticeable differences, as in the forms ''quattordici'' and ''settimana'' given above. *Lack of various consonant "deformations", e.g. {{sm|folia}} > Italo-Western {{IPA|/fɔʎʎa/}} > ''foglia'' {{IPA|/fɔʎʎa/}} "leaf" (cf. Spanish ''hoja'' {{IPA|/oxa/}}, French ''feuille'' {{IPA|/fœj/}}; but note Portuguese ''folha'' {{IPA|/fɔʎɐ/}}). Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian has a large number of inconsistent outcomes, where the same underlying sound produces different results in different words, e.g. {{sm|laxāre}} > ''lasciare'' and ''lassare'', {{sm|captiāre}} > ''cacciare'' and ''cazzare'', {{sm|(ex)dēroteolāre}} > ''sdrucciolare'' and ''druzzolare'', {{sm|rēgīna}} > ''regina'' and ''reina'', {{sm|-c-}} > /k/ and /g/, {{sm|-t-}} > /t/ and /d/. This is thought to reflect the several-hundred-year period during which Italian developed as a literary language divorced from any native-speaking population, with an origin in 12th/13th-century Tuscan but with many words borrowed from dialects farther to the north, with different sound outcomes. (The [[La Spezia-Rimini line]], the most important [[isogloss]] in the entire Romance-language area, passes only about 20 miles to the north of Florence.) Some other features that distinguish Italian from the Western Romance languages: *Latin {{sm|ce-,ci-}} becomes {{IPA|/tʃe,tʃi/}} rather than {{IPA|/(t)se,(t)si/}}. *Latin {{sm|-ct-}} becomes {{IPA|/tt/}} rather than {{IPA|/jt/}} or {{IPA|/tʃ/}}: {{sm|octō}} > ''otto'' "eight" (cf. Spanish ''ocho'', French ''huit''). *Vulgar Latin {{sm|-cl-}} becomes ''cchi'' {{IPA|/kkj/}} rather than {{IPA|/ʎ/}}: {{sm|oclum}} > ''occhio'' "eye" (cf. Portuguese ''olho'' {{IPA|/oʎu/}}, French ''oeil'' {{IPA|/œj/ < /œʎ/}}). *Final /s/ is not preserved, and vowel changes rather than /s/ are used to mark the plural: ''amico, amici'' "male friend(s)", ''amica, amiche'' "female friend(s)" (cf. Spanish ''amigo(s)'' "male friend(s)", ''amiga(s)'' "female friends"); {{sm|trēs, sex}} > ''tre, sei'' "three, six" (cf. Spanish ''tres, seis''). Standard Italian also differs in some respects from most nearby Italian dialects: *Perhaps most noticeable is the total lack of [[metaphony]], a feature characterizing nearly every other Italian dialect. *No simplification of original /nd/, /mb/ (which often became /nn/, /mm/ elsewhere). ==Writing system== {{Main|Italian alphabet}} The Italian alphabet has only 21 letters. The letters ⟨j, k, w, x, y⟩ are excluded, though they appear in loanwords such as ''jeans'', ''whisky'' and ''taxi''. The letter ⟨x⟩ has become common in standard Italian with the prefix ''extra-'', although ''(e)stra-'' is traditionally used. The letter ⟨j⟩ originated as an archaic orthographic variant of ⟨i⟩. It appears in the first name ''Jacopo'' and in some Italian place-names, such as [[Bajardo]], [[Bojano]], [[Joppolo]], [[Jerzu]], [[Jesolo]], [[Jesi]], [[Ajaccio]], among numerous others. It also appears in ''Mar Jonio'', an alternative spelling of ''Mar Ionio'' (the [[Ionian Sea]]). The letter ⟨j⟩ may appear in dialectal words, but its use is discouraged in contemporary standard Italian. The foreign letters can be substituted with [[phonetics|phonetically]] equivalent native Italian letters and [[digraphs]]: ⟨gi⟩ or ⟨ge⟩ for ⟨j⟩; ⟨c⟩ or ⟨ch⟩ for ⟨k⟩ (including in the standard prefix ''kilo-''); ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or ⟨v⟩ for ⟨w⟩; ⟨s⟩, ⟨ss⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨zz⟩ or ⟨cs⟩ for ⟨x⟩; and ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩ for ⟨y⟩. * The [[acute accent]] is used over ⟨e⟩ to indicate a [[Close-mid front unrounded vowel|front close-mid vowel]], as in ''perché'' "why, because". The [[grave accent]] is used over ⟨e⟩ to indicate a [[Open-mid front unrounded vowel|front open-mid vowel]], as in ''tè'' "tea". The grave accent is used over any vowel to indicate word-final stress, as in ''gioventù'' "youth". The penultimate syllable is typically stressed. If the stressed vowel is the final letter of the word, the accent is mandatory, otherwise it is not mandatory (unlike in [[Spanish language|Spanish]] or in [[Greek language|Greek]]) and virtually always omitted. When a word is potentially ambiguous, the accent is sometimes used for disambiguation, as for ''prìncipi'' "princes" and ''princìpi'' "principles". For monosyllabic words, the rule is different: when two identical monosyllabic words with different meanings exist, the accent is compulsory on one and forbidden on the other (example: ''è'' "is", ''e'' "and"). Rare, polysyllabic words can have doubtful stress. ''[[Istanbul]]'' can be accented on the first (''Ìstanbul'') or second syllable (''Istànbul''). The U.S. state name ''[[Florida]]'' is pronounced in Italian as in Spanish with stress on the second syllable (''Florìda''). Because of an Italian word with the same spelling but different stress (''flòrida'' "flourishing") and because of the English pronunciation, most Italians pronounce ''Florida'' with stress on the first syllable. Dictionaries give the latter as an alternative pronunciation. * The letter ⟨h⟩ distinguishes ''ho'', ''hai'', ''ha'', ''hanno'' (present indicative of ''avere'' "to have") from ''o'' ("or"), ''ai'' ("to the"), ''a'' ("to"), ''anno'' ("year"). In the spoken language, the letter is always silent. The ⟨h⟩ in ''ho'' additionally marks the contrasting open pronunciation of the ⟨o⟩. The letter ⟨h⟩ is also used in combinations with other letters. No [[phoneme]] {{IPA|[h]}} exists in Italian. In nativised foreign words, the ⟨h⟩ is silent. For example, ''hotel'' and ''hovercraft'' are pronounced {{IPA|/oˈtɛl/}} and {{IPA|/ˈɔverkraft/}} respectively. * The letters ⟨s⟩ and ⟨z⟩ can symbolize [[voiced]] or [[voiceless]] consonants. ⟨z⟩ symbolizes {{IPA|/dz/}} or {{IPA|/ts/}} depending on context, with few minimal pairs. For example: ''zanzara'' {{IPA|/dzanˈdzaːra/}} "mosquito" and ''nazione'' {{IPA|/natˈtsjoːne/}} "nation". ⟨s⟩ symbolizes {{IPA|/s/}} word-initially before a vowel, when clustered with a voiceless consonant (⟨p, f, c, ch⟩), and when doubled; it symbolizes {{IPA|/z/}} when between vowels and when clustered with voiced consonants. Intervocalic ⟨s⟩ varies regionally between {{IPA|/s/}} and {{IPA|/z/}}. * The letters ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ vary in pronunciation between [[plosives]] and [[affricates]] depending on following vowels. The letter ⟨c⟩ symbolizes {{IPA|/k/}} when word-final and before the back vowels ⟨a, o, u⟩. It symbolizes {{IPAslink|tʃ}} as in ''chair'' before the front vowels ⟨e, i⟩. The letter ⟨g⟩ symbolizes {{IPA|/ɡ/}} when word-final and before the back vowels ⟨a, o, u⟩. It symbolizes {{IPAslink|dʒ}} as in ''gem'' before the front vowels ⟨e, i⟩. [[French language|French]], [[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[Romanian language|Romanian]] and, to a lesser extent, [[English language|English]] have similar variations for ⟨c, g⟩. Compare [[hard and soft C]], [[hard and soft G]]. (See also [[palatalization]].) * The [[digraphs]] ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨gh⟩ indicate or preserve hardness ({{IPA|/k/}} and {{IPA|/ɡ/}}) before ⟨i, e⟩. The digraphs ⟨ci⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ indicate or preserve softness ({{IPA|/tʃ/}} and {{IPA|/dʒ/}}) before ⟨a, o, u⟩. For example: {| class="wikitable" ! !colspan="2"|Before back vowel (A, O, U) !colspan="2"|Before front vowel (I, E) |- !rowspan="2"| Plosive !'''C''' |caramella {{IPA|/karaˈmɛlla/}} ''[[candy]]'' !'''CH''' |china {{IPA|/ˈkina/}} ''[[India ink]]'' |- !'''G''' |gallo {{IPA|/ˈɡallo/}} ''[[rooster]]'' !'''GH''' |ghiro {{IPA|/ˈɡiro/}} ''[[edible dormouse]]'' |- !rowspan="2"| Affricate !'''CI''' |ciaramella {{IPA|/tʃaraˈmɛlla/}} ''[[shawm]]'' !'''C''' |Cina {{IPA|/ˈtʃina/}} ''[[China]]'' |- !'''GI''' |giallo {{IPA|/ˈdʒallo/}} ''[[yellow]]'' !'''G''' |giro {{IPA|/ˈdʒiro/}} ''[[wikt:round|round]], [[wiktionary:Tour|tour]]'' |} :Note: ⟨h⟩ is [[silent letter|silent]] in the digraphs ''[[ch (digraph)|⟨ch⟩]]'', ''[[gh (digraph)|⟨gh⟩]]''; and ⟨i⟩ is silent in the digraphs ⟨ci⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ before ⟨a, o, u⟩ unless the ⟨i⟩ is stressed. For example, it is silent in ''[[ciao]]'' {{IPA|/ˈtʃa.o/}} and cielo {{IPA|/ˈtʃɛ.lo/}}, but it is pronounced in ''farmacia'' {{IPA|/ˌfar.maˈtʃi.a/}} and ''farmacie'' {{IPA|/ˌfar.maˈtʃi.e/}}. Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by [[Consonant length|length]]. Length is distinctive for all consonants except for {{IPA|/ʃ/}}, {{IPA|/ts/}}, {{IPA|/dz/}}, {{IPA|/ʎ/}}, {{IPA|/ɲ/}}, which are always geminate, and {{IPA|/z/}}, which is always single. Geminate plosives and affricates are realised as lengthened closures. Geminate fricatives, nasals, and {{IPA|/l/}} are realized as lengthened [[continuant]]s. There is only one vibrant phoneme {{IPA|/r/}} but the actual pronunciation depends on context and regional accent. Generally one can find a flap consonant {{IPA|[ɾ]}} in unstressed position while {{IPA|[r]}} is more common in stressed syllables, but there may be exceptions. Especially people from the Northern part of Italy ([[Parma]], [[Aosta Valley]], [[South Tyrol]]) may pronounce {{IPA|/r/}} as {{IPA|[ʀ]}}, {{IPA|[ʁ]}}, or {{IPA|[ʋ]}}. Of special interest to the linguistic study of Italian is the ''[[Tuscan gorgia|gorgia toscana]]'', or "Tuscan Throat", the weakening or [[lenition]] of certain [[:wiktionary:intervocalic|intervocalic]] consonants in [[Tuscan dialect]]s. The [[voiced postalveolar fricative]] {{IPA|/ʒ/}} is only present in loanwords: for example, ''garage'' {{IPA|[ɡaˈraːʒ]}}. ===Assimilation=== Italian has few diphthongs, so most unfamiliar diphthongs that are heard in foreign words (in particular, those beginning with vowel "a", "e", or "o") will be assimilated with [[hiatus (linguistics)|hiatus]] (i.e., the vowel sounds will be pronounced separately). Italian [[phonotactics]] do not usually permit verbs and polysyllabic nouns to end with consonants, excepting poetry and song, so foreign words may receive [[Epenthetic vowel#Epenthesis of a vowel, or anaptyxis|extra terminal vowel sounds]]. ==Grammar== {{Main|Italian grammar}} {{See also|Italian verbs}} Italian grammar is typical of the grammar of [[Romance languages]] in general. [[Grammatical case|Case]]s exist for pronouns ([[Nominative case|nominative]], [[Objective case|objective]], [[Accusative case|accusative]], [[Dative case|dative]]), but not for nouns. There are two [[Grammatical gender|genders]] (masculine and feminine). Nouns, adjectives, and articles [[Inflection|inflect]] for gender and number (singular and plural). Adjectives are sometimes placed before their noun and sometimes after. Subject nouns generally come before the verb. Subjective pronouns are usually dropped, their presence implied by verbal inflections. Noun objects come after the verb, as do pronoun objects after imperative verbs and infinitives, but otherwise pronoun objects come before the verb. There are numerous [[Contraction (grammar)|contraction]]s of [[preposition]]s with subsequent [[Article (grammar)|articles]]. There are numerous productive [[suffix]]es for [[Diminutive#Italian|diminutive]], [[Augmentative#Italian|augmentative]], pejorative, attenuating etc., which are also used to crate [[neologism]]s. There are three regular sets of verbal [[Grammatical conjugation|conjugation]]s, and various verbs are irregularly conjugated. Within each of these sets of conjugations, there are four simple (one-word) verbal conjugations by person/number in the [[indicative mood]] ([[present tense]]; [[past tense]] with [[imperfective aspect]], past tense with [[perfective aspect]], and [[future tense]]), two simple conjugations in the [[subjunctive mood]] (present tense and past tense), one simple conjugation in the [[conditional mood]], and one simple conjugation in the [[imperative mood]]. Corresponding to each of the simple conjugations, there is a compound conjugation involving a simple conjugation of "to be" or "to have" followed by a [[past participle]]. ===Conversation=== {| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed" |- ! English (''inglese'') || Italian (''italiano'') || Pronunciation |- ||Yes || ''Sì''|| ([[Media:It-sì.ogg|listen]]) {{IPA|/si/}} |- ||No || ''No''|| ([[Media:It-no.ogg|listen]]) {{IPA|/nɔ/}} |- ||Of course! || ''Certo! / Certamente! / Naturalmente!''|| |- ||Hello! || ''[[Ciao]]!'' (informal) ''/ [[Salve (greeting)|Salve]]!'' (general)|| ([[Media:It-ciao.ogg|listen]]) {{IPA|/ˈtʃao/}} |- ||Cheers! || ''Salute!'' || {{IPA|/saˈlute/}} |- ||How are you? || ''Come stai?'' (informal) ''/ Come sta?'' (formal) ''/ Come state?'' (plural) ''/ Come va?'' (general) || {{IPA|/ˈkomeˈstai/}} ; {{IPA|/ˈkomeˈsta/}} |- ||Good morning! || ''Buon giorno!'' (= Good day!)|| {{IPA|/bwɔnˈdʒorno/}} |- ||Good evening! || ''Buona sera!''|| {{IPA|/bwɔnaˈsera/}} |- ||Good night! || ''Buona notte!'' (for a good night sleeping) / ''Buona serata!'' (for a good night awake)|| |- ||Have a nice day! || ''Buona giornata!'' (formal)|| |- ||Enjoy the meal! || ''Buon appetito!''|| {{IPA|/ˌbwɔn appeˈtito/}} |- ||Goodbye! || ''Arrivederci'' (general) / ''Arrivederla'' (formal) / ''Ciao!'' (informal)|| ([[Media:It-arrivederci.ogg|listen]]) {{IPA|/arriveˈdertʃi/}} |- ||Good luck! – Thank you! || ''Buona fortuna! – Grazie!'' (general) ''/ In bocca al lupo! – Crepi [il lupo]!'' (to wish someone to overcome a difficulty, similar to "Break a leg!"; literally: "Into the wolf's mouth!" – "May the wolf die!")|| |- ||I love you || ''Ti amo'' (between lovers only) / ''Ti voglio bene'' (in the sense of "I am fond of you"'', between lovers, friends, relatives etc.)|| {{IPA|/ti ˈvɔʎʎo ˈbɛne/}} ; {{IPA|/ti ˈamo/}} |- ||Welcome [to...] || ''Benvenuto/-i'' (for male/males or mixed) ''/ Benvenuta/-e'' (for female/females) [''a / in...'']|| |- ||Please || ''Per piacere / Per favore / Per cortesia''|| ([[Media:It-per favore.ogg|listen]]) |- ||Thank you! || ''Grazie!'' (general) ''/ Ti ringrazio!'' (informal) / ''La ringrazio!'' (formal) / ''Vi ringrazio!'' (plural) || ([[Media:It-grazie.ogg|listen]]) {{IPA|/ˈɡrattsje/}} |- ||You are welcome! || ''Prego!'' || {{IPA|/ˈprɛɡo/}} |- ||Excuse me / I am sorry || ''Mi dispiace'' (only "I am sorry") ''/ Scusa(mi)'' (informal) ''/ Mi scusi'' (formal) ''/ Scusatemi'' (plural) ''/ Sono desolato'' ("I am sorry", if male) ''/ Sono desolata'' ("I am sorry", if female)|| ([[Media:It-scusi.ogg|listen]]) {{IPA|/ˈskuzi/}} ; {{IPA|/ˈskuza/}} ; {{IPA|/mi disˈpjatʃe/}} |- ||Who? || ''Chi?''|| |- ||What? || ''Che cosa? / Cosa? / Che?''|| |- ||When? || ''Quando?''|| {{IPA|/ˈkwando/}} |- ||Where? || ''Dove?''|| {{IPA|/ˈdove/}} |- ||How? || ''Come?''|| {{IPA|/ˈkome/}} |- ||Why / Because || ''perché''|| {{IPA|/perˈke/}} |- ||Again || ''di nuovo'' / ''ancora'' || {{IPA|/di ˈnwɔvo/}}; {{IPA|/anˈkora/}} |- ||How much? / How many? || ''Quanto? / Quanta? / Quanti? / Quante?''|| |- ||What is your name? || ''Come ti chiami?'' (informal) / ''Come si chiama?'' (formal)|| |- ||My name is ... || ''Mi chiamo ...''|| |- ||This is ... || ''Questo è ...'' (masculine) / ''Questa è ...'' (feminine)|| |- ||Yes, I understand. || ''Sì, capisco. / Ho capito.'' || |- ||I do not understand. || ''Non capisco. / Non ho capito.''|| ([[Media:It-non capisco.ogg|listen]]) |- ||Do you speak English? || ''Parli inglese?'' (informal) ''/ Parla inglese?'' (formal) ''/ Parlate inglese?'' (plural)|| ([[Media:It-parlate inglese.ogg|listen]]) {{IPA|/parˈlate.inˈɡlese/}} |- ||I do not understand Italian.|| ''Non capisco l'italiano.''|| {{IPA|/nonkaˈpiskolitaˈljano/}} |- ||Help me!|| ''Aiutami!'' (informal) ''/ Mi aiuti!'' (formal) ''/ Aiutatemi!'' (plural) ''/ Aiuto!'' (general)|| |- ||You are right/wrong! || ''(Tu) hai ragione/torto!'' (informal) ''/ (Lei) ha ragione/torto!'' (formal) ''/ (Voi) avete ragione/torto!'' (plural)|| |- ||What time is it? || ''Che ora è? / Che ore sono?''|| |- ||Where is the bathroom?|| ''Dov'è il bagno?''|| ([[Media:It-dov'è il bagno.ogg|listen]]) |- ||How much is it? || ''Quanto costa?'' || {{IPA|/ˈkwanto ˈkɔsta/}} |- ||The bill, please. || ''Il conto, per favore.''|| |- ||The study of Italian sharpens the mind.|| ''Lo studio dell'italiano aguzza l'ingegno.''|| |} ===Numbers=== {{col-begin}} {{col-break}} {| class="wikitable" |- ! English || Italian || [[International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]] |- ||One||''uno''||{{IPA|/ˈuno/}} |- ||Two||''due''||{{IPA|/ˈdue/}} |- ||Three||''tre''||{{IPA|/tre/}} |- ||Four||''quattro''||{{IPA|/ˈkwattro/}} |- ||Five||''cinque''||{{IPA|/ˈtʃiŋkwe/}} |- ||Six||''sei''||{{IPA|/ˈsɛi/}} |- ||Seven||''sette''||{{IPA|/ˈsɛtte/}} |- ||Eight||''otto''||{{IPA|/ˈɔtto/}} |- ||Nine||''nove''||{{IPA|/ˈnɔve/}} |- ||Ten||''dieci''||{{IPA|/ˈdjɛtʃi/}} |} {{col-break}} {| class="wikitable" |- ! English || Italian || IPA |- ||Eleven||''undici''||{{IPA|/ˈunditʃi/}} |- ||Twelve||''dodici''||{{IPA|/ˈdoditʃi/}} |- ||Thirteen||''tredici''||{{IPA|/ˈtreditʃi/}} |- ||Fourteen||''quattordici''||{{IPA|/kwatˈtorditʃi/}} |- ||Fifteen||''quindici''||{{IPA|/ˈkwinditʃi/}} |- ||Sixteen||''sedici''||{{IPA|/ˈsɛditʃi/}} |- ||Seventeen||''diciassette''||{{IPA|/ditʃasˈsɛtte/}} |- ||Eighteen||''diciotto''||{{IPA|/diˈtʃɔtto/}} |- ||Nineteen||''diciannove''||{{IPA|/ditʃanˈnɔve/}} |- ||Twenty||''venti''||{{IPA|/ˈventi/}} |} {{col-break}} {| class="wikitable" |- ! English || Italian || IPA |- ||Twenty-one||''ventuno''||{{IPA|/venˈtuno/}} |- ||Twenty-two||''ventidue''||{{IPA|/ventiˈdue/}} |- ||Twenty-three||''ventitre''||{{IPA|/ventiˈtre/}} |- ||Twenty-four||''ventiquattro''||{{IPA|/ventiˈkwattro/}} |- ||Twenty-five||''venticinque''||{{IPA|/ventiˈtʃinkwe/}} |- ||Twenty-six||''ventisei''||{{IPA|/ventiˈsɛi/}} |- ||Twenty-seven||''ventisette''||{{IPA|/ventiˈsɛtte/}} |- ||Twenty-eight||''ventotto''||{{IPA|/venˈtɔtto/}} |- ||Twenty-nine||''ventinove''||{{IPA|/ventiˈnɔve/}} |- ||Thirty||''trenta''||{{IPA|/ˈtrenta/}} |} {{col-end}} {| class="wikitable" |- ! English !! Italian |- | one hundred || cento |- | one thousand || mille |- | two thousand || duemila |- | two thousand eleven {2011} || duemilaundici |} ===Days of the week=== {| class="wikitable" |- ! English || Italian || IPA |- ||Monday||''lunedì''||{{IPA|/luneˈdi/}} |- ||Tuesday||''martedì''||{{IPA|/marteˈdi/}} |- ||Wednesday||''mercoledì''||{{IPA|/merkoleˈdi/}} |- ||Thursday||''giovedì''||{{IPA|/dʒoveˈdi/}} |- ||Friday||''venerdì''||{{IPA|/venerˈdi/}} |- ||Saturday||''sabato''||{{IPA|/ˈsabato/}} |- ||Sunday||''domenica''||{{IPA|/doˈmenika/}} |} ==Sample texts== There is a recording of [[Dante]]'s [[Divine Comedy]] read by [[Lino Pertile]] available at http://etcweb.princeton.edu/dante/pdp/ == External links == {{Wiktionary|Italian}} {{Wiktionary|Category:Italian language}} {{Wikibooks|Italian}} {{Wikisourcelang|it|Pagina principale}} {{Commons category}} *[[:wikt:Appendix:Italian Swadesh list|Swadesh list in English and Italian]] *[[:wikiquote:Italian proverbs|Italian proverbs]] *[http://www.dizionario.rai.it The online edition (2007) of the ''Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia'' (''DOP''), a pronouncing dictionary of standard Italian], ''[[RAI]]'' *"[http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/italian/ Learn Italian]," ''[[BBC]]'' * [http://www.fsi-language-courses.org/Content.php?page=Italian USA Foreign Service Institute Italian basic course] {{Official EU languages}} {{Romance languages}} {{ItalianLanguage}} {{Latinunion}} {{Use dmy dates|date=August 2010}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Italian Language}}