Changchun

Changchun

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Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin
Jilin
Jilin , is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west...

 province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, in the center of the Songliao Plain
Songliao Plain
Songliao Plain is the part of the Northeastern Plain, located in Manchuria, China.-External links:*...

. It is administered as a sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

 with a population of 7,677,089 at the 2010 census under its jurisdiction, including counties and county-level cities. The name, which means "Long Spring", originated from the Jurchen language
Jurchen language
Jurchen language is an extinct language. It was spoken by Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria, the creators of the Jin Empire in the northeastern China of the 12th–13th centuries. It is classified as a Southwestern Tungusic language.-Writing:...

. The 6 urban districts of Changchun's city proper have a total population of 3,341,700 in 2010 which correspond to the built up area.

Early history


Changchun started as a minor trading town. In 1800, Emperor Jiaqing of the Qing Dynasty selected a small village on the east bank of the Yitong River and named it "Changchun Ting." In 1889, it was promoted as "Changchun Fu".

Railway era


In May 1898, as Russians were building a railway from Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

 to Lüshun (the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
The Chinese Eastern Railway or was a railway in northeastern China . It connected Chita and the Russian Far East. English-speakers have sometimes referred to this line as the Manchurian Railway...

), Changchun got its first railway station, located in Kuancheng
Kuancheng District
Kuancheng District is one of the administrative Districts of Changchun, the capital ofJilin province, People's Republic of China. It is part of Changchun's main urban area, located north of downtown.-History:...

.

After Russia's loss of the southernmost section of this branch as a result of the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

 of 1904-1905, the Kuancheng station (Kuanchengtze, in contemporary spelling) became the last Russian station on this branch. The next station to the south - the new "Japanese" Changchun station, just a short distance to the south - became the first station of the South Manchuria Railway
South Manchuria Railway
The , and operated within China in the Japanese-controlled South Manchuria Railway Zone. The railway itself ran from Lüshun Port at the southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula to Harbin, where it connected to the Chinese Eastern Railway.-History:...

, which now owned all the tracks running farther south, to Lüshun, which they re-gauged to the standard gauge
Standard gauge
The standard gauge is a widely-used track gauge . Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge...

 (after a short stint of using the narrow Japanese gauge during the war).

A special Russo-Japanese agreement of 1907 provided that Russian gauge
Russian gauge
In railway terminology, Russian gauge refers to railway track with a gauge between 1,520 mm and . In a narrow sense as defined by Russian Railways it refers to gauge....

 tracks would continue from the "Russian" Kuancheng Station to the "Japanese" Changchun Station, and vice versa, tracks on the "gauge adapted by the South Manchuria Railway" (i.e. the standard gauge
Standard gauge
The standard gauge is a widely-used track gauge . Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge...

) would continue from the Changchun Station to the Kuancheng Station.
Changchun expanded rapidly as the junction between of the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railway and the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
The Chinese Eastern Railway or was a railway in northeastern China . It connected Chita and the Russian Far East. English-speakers have sometimes referred to this line as the Manchurian Railway...

 which continued to have different rail gauge
Rail gauge
Track gauge or rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the heads of the two load bearing rails that make up a single railway line. Sixty percent of the world's railways use a standard gauge of . Wider gauges are called broad gauge; smaller gauges, narrow gauge. Break-of-gauge refers...

s, as well as permit licences until 1935. Changchun had railway repair shops, and branch lines originating in Changchun extended into Korea
Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

 and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern region of the country. Inner Mongolia shares an international border with the countries of Mongolia and the Russian Federation...

.

An epidemic of pneumonic plague occurred in surrounding Manchuria from 1910 to 1911. Later, the Japanese established Unit 100
Unit 100
Unit 100 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police...

 to develop plague biological weapons.

Manchukuo and World War II


In 1932 the capital of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Manchukuo or Manshū-koku was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The region was the historical homeland of the Manchus, who founded the Qing Empire in China...

, a Japan-controlled puppet state in Manchuria
Manchuria
Manchuria is a historical name given to a large geographic region in northeast Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria usually falls entirely within the People's Republic of China, or is sometimes divided between China and Russia. The region is commonly referred to as Northeast...

, was moved to Changchun from Jilin City
Jilin City
Jilin City is the second largest city of Jilin province in Northeast China. At the 2010 census, 4,414,681 people resided within its administrative area of and 1,975,803 in its built up area...

 (Kirin city) (located within less than 200 km to the east). Then known as Hsinking , the capital was a well-planned city with broad avenues and modern public works. The city underwent rapid expansion in both its economy and infrastructure. Many of buildings built during the Japanese colonial era still stand today, including those of the Eight Major Bureaus of Manchukuo as well as the Headquarters of the Japanese Kwantung Army .

From 1931 to 1945 China's last emperor Pu Yi was installed as the Manchukuo government head by the Japanese authority. He resided in the Imperial Palace which is now the Museum of the Manchu State Imperial Palace .

During the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

 (1937–1945) and World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
-Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

 implemented in Changchun the headquarters of Unit 100 ("Wakamatsu Unit")
Unit 100
Unit 100 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police...

, under command of veterinarian
Veterinary medicine
Veterinary Medicine is the branch of science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals...

 Yujiro Wakamatsu. This facility dedicated itself to both the study of animal vaccine
Vaccine
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins...

s to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, veterinary biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock
Livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

. In addition to these tests, Unit 100 ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction.

Severely damaged during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the city was taken by the Soviet Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 in 1945. The Russians maintained a presence in the city during the Chinese civil war
Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang , the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China , for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China and People's Republic of...

 until 1946.

Siege of Changchun



Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 forces occupied the city in 1946, but were unable to hold the countryside against communist forces.
The city fell to the communists in 1948 after a 5-month-long siege
Siege of Changchun
The Siege of Changchun was a siege operation launched by the People's Liberation Army during the Chinese Civil War against the city of Changchun, defended by the Nationalist forces...

 by the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 that resulted in a massive famine with a civilian death toll of 100,000 to 300,000. The facts of the siege are still subject to official censorship in PRC.

People's Republic


Renamed Changchun by the People's Republic of China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 government, it became the capital of Jilin
Jilin
Jilin , is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west...

 in 1954. The Changchun Film Studio
Changchun Film Group Corporation
Changchun Film Group Corporation is a Chinese film production company in Changchun, Jilin province, China. It is one of the studios transitioned from the 1940s, and has been considered one of the cornerstones of the Chinese film industry...

 is also one of the remaining film studios of the era.

From the 1950s, Changchun was designated to become a center for China's automotive industry
Automotive industry
The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue....

. Construction of the First Automobile Works began in 1953 and production of the Jiefang CA-10 truck, based on the Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 ZIS-150
ZIS-150
The ZIS-150 was a Soviet truck. In 1947 it replaced the ZIS-5 on assembly line. ZIS-150 together with GAZ-51 was the main Soviet truck of '50s, judging by their quantity. The cabin of ZIS-150 was similar with the cabin of International Harvester KR11 truck. A tractor-trailer version of the...

 started in 1956. In 1958, FAW introduced the famous Hongqi (Red Flag) limousines
FAW Hongqi
Hongqi is a luxury car brand of First Automobile Works. These cars were the first domestically produced Chinese passenger vehicles.First manufactured in 1958, the original Hongqi models were only for high-ranking party elite and remained in production until 1981...

.

Changchun hosted the 2007 Winter Asian Games
2007 Winter Asian Games
The 6th Asian Winter Games were held in Changchun, People's Republic of China from January 28 to February 4, 2007. The Winter Games are a smaller version of the Winter Olympics, a celebration of Winter sports in Asia. This is the second time that China hosted the Winter Asiad; the first was in...

.

Geography


Changchun lies in the middle portion of the Northeast China Plain
Northeast China Plain
The Northeast China Plain , also known as the Manchurian Plain, is located in Northeast China. It lies between the Greater and Lesser Khinggan and Changbai mountains. Covering 350,000 km2, it is China's largest plain, with an elevation of lower than 200 meters...

. The city is situated at a moderate elevation, ranging from 250 metres (820.2 ft) to 350 metres (1,148.3 ft) within its administrative region. In the eastern portion of the city, there lies a small area of low mountains.

Climate


Changchun has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dwa). Winters are long (lasting from November to March), cold, and windy, but dry, due to the influence of the Siberian anticyclone, with a January mean temperature of -15.1 °C. Spring and fall are somewhat short transitional periods, with some precipitation, but are usually dry and windy. Summers are hot and humid, with a prevailing southeasterly wind due to the East Asian monsoon; July averages 23.1 °C (73.6 °F). Snow is usually light during the winter, and annual rainfall is heavily concentrated from June to August. A typical year will see upwards of 2,600 hours of sunshine, and a frost-free period of 140 to 150 days.

Administrative divisions


The sub-provincial city of Changchun has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (区 qu), 3 county-level cities
County-level city
A county-level city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions....

 (市 shi) and 1 County (县 xian):
Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km2) Density (/km2)
City proper
1 Chaoyang District
Chaoyang District, Changchun
Chaoyang District is a district under the administration of Changchun, the capital of Jilin province, Chaoyang District is a district under the administration of [[Changchun]], the capital of [[Jilin]] province,...

朝阳区 Cháoyáng Qū 740,000 379 1,953
2 Nanguan District
Nanguan District
Nanguan District is a district of Changchun, the capital of Jilin province, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 12 subdistricts, 3 towns, and 2 townships.Subdistricts:...

南关区 Nánguān Qū 610,000 497 1,227
3 Kuancheng District
Kuancheng District
Kuancheng District is one of the administrative Districts of Changchun, the capital ofJilin province, People's Republic of China. It is part of Changchun's main urban area, located north of downtown.-History:...

宽城区 Kuānchéng Qū 470,000 877 536
4 Erdao District
Erdao District
-Administrative Divisions:There are 7 subdistricts, 2 towns, and 3 townships.Subdistricts:*Heshun Subdistrict , Dongsheng Subdistrict , Rongguang Subdistrict , Jilin Subdistrict , Dongzhan Subdistrict , Yuanda Subdistrict , Balibao Subdistrict Towns:*Sandao , Quannongshan Townships:*Yingjun...

二道区 Èrdào Qū 390,000 965 404
5 Luyuan District
Luyuan District
Luyuan District is a district of Changchun, the capital of Jilin province, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 7 subdistricts, 1 town, and 2 townships.Subdistricts:...

绿园区 Lùyuán Qū 570,000 301 1,894
Suburb
6 Shuangyang District
Shuangyang District
Shuangyang District is a district of Changchun, the capital of Jilin province, People's Republic of China. Despite its name, it lies more than southeast of the urban centre.-Administrative Divisions:There are 4 subdistricts, 4 towns, and 1 ethnic township....

双阳区 Shuāngyáng Qū 380,000 1,663 229
Satellite cities
7 Dehui
Dehui
Dehui is a city in northwestern Jilin province in Northeast China, located in the middle of the Songliao Plain. It has a total population of 906,000 and an urban population of 753,000...

德惠市 Déhuì Shì 920,000 3,096 297
8 Jiutai
Jiutai
Jiutai is a county-level city administered by Changchun in northwestern Jilin province of Northeast China. The city is surrounded by agricultural areas and is located around northeast of downtown Changchun...

九台市 Jiǔtái Shì 830,000 2,875 289
9 Yushu
Yushu, Jilin
Yushu is a city in the northern Jilin province of Northeast China. It is a county-level city under the administration of Changchun , more than to the southwest, and around south of Harbin...

榆树市 Yúshù Shì 1,230,000 4,691 262
Rural
10 Nong'an County
Nong'an County
Nong'an County is a county of Jilin, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Changchun, the provincial capital.-Administrative Divisions:There are 10 towns and 11 townships.Towns:...

农安县 Nóng'ān Xiàn 1,120,000 5,221 215

Economy



Changchun achieved a GDP of RMB208.9 billion in 2007, having increased two-fold over 5 years. Primary industry output increased by 8.6 percent to RMB20 billion. Secondary industry output experienced an increase of 22.1 percent, reaching RMB104.9 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 14.5 percent to RMB84 billion.

The city’s leading industries are foodstuffs, photoelectronic information, biology and medicine, and automotive. Changchun is the largest automobile manufacturing base in China, producing 9% of the country's automobiles in 2009. As cradle of the auto industry, and home to FAW, China’s biggest vehicle producer, one of Changchun’s better known nicknames is "China's Detroit".

Changchun has great potential, but like many northern cities it still is trying to resolve major difficulties. It is increasingly faced with competition from nearby cities, seeing its dominance of the northeast as a regional industrial powerhouse diminish as other nearby cities continue to narrow the gap.

FDI
Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment or foreign investment refers to the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor.. It is the sum of equity capital,other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in...

 in the city remains small - only US$1.69 billion was used in 2007 - but is steadily increasing, showing a 20 percent rise from the previous year. However, investors still need to be convinced. Big players of the likes of Coca-Cola, may help with this. The company set up a bottling plant in the city’s ETDZ in 2004 with an investment of US$20 million.

Changchun is situated as the Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia and Northeastern Asia refers to the northeastern subregion of Asia. Though the precise definition of Northeast Asia changes according to context, it always includes Japan and the Korean Peninsula, and is sometimes used to refer to these two regions exclusively.-Definitions:The...

's geometric center. South Liaodong peninsula coastline, north to Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

, east to North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

, Russia, and west to Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest...

. Changchun is an important transportation and communication hub of Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

.

Changchun's main industry is the manufacturing of transportation facilities and machinery. It produces 50 percent of passenger trains, and 10 percent of tractor
Tractor
A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction...

s made in China.

Changchun is the biggest automobile research and development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

 center in China. The first Chinese truck and car was made in Changchun. FAW (First Automotive Works) Group is based in Changchun. The automaker's factories and associated housing and services occupies a substantial portion of the city's southwest end. Specific brands produced in Changchun includes the Red Flag
Red flag
In politics, a red flag is a symbol of Socialism, or Communism, or sometimes left-wing politics in general. It has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution. Socialists adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848 and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its...

 luxury brand, as well as joint ventures with Audi
Audi
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer, from supermini to crossover SUVs in various body styles and price ranges that are marketed under the Audi brand , positioned as the premium brand within the Volkswagen Group....

, Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

, and Toyota.

The GDP per capita was ¥
Renminbi
The Renminbi is the official currency of the People's Republic of China . Renminbi is legal tender in mainland China, but not in Hong Kong or Macau. It is issued by the People's Bank of China, the monetary authority of the PRC...

28,131 (ca. US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

4,050) in 2007, ranked no. 52 among 659 Chinese cities.

Changchun hosts the yearly Changchun International Automobile Fair, Changchun Film Festival
Changchun Film Festival
The Changchun Film Festival is a biennial international film festival held in the Chinese city of Changchun. Ostensibly international, its award for best film, the Golden Deer has nevertheless primarily been awarded to Chinese and other East Asia-region films...

, Changchun Agricultural Fair, Education Exhibition and the Sculpture Exhibition.

Changchun's largest companies include FAW, one of China's leading domestic producers of cars, trucks and buses, Yatai Group
Yatai Group
Jilin Yatai Group Company Limited is a private conglomerate enterprise in Changchun, Jilin, China. It was established in 1993 and it was listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 1995. Its core businesses include property development, cement manufacturing and securities. Others include coal mining,...

, a major conglomerate involved in wide range of industries and Jilin Grain Group, a major processor of grains.

Development zones


Changchun High Technology Development Zone
The zone is one of the first 27 state-level advanced technology development zones and is situated in the southern part of the city, covering a total area of 49 square kilometers. Within the zone, one can find 18 full-time universities and colleges, 39 state and provincial-level scientific research institutions, and 11 key national laboratories.
The zone is presently focusing on developing its five main industries, namely bio-engineering, automobile engineering, new material fabrication, photo-electricity, and information technology.
  • Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone

Established in April 1993, the zone enjoys all the preferential policies stipulated for economic and technological development zones of coastal open cities. The total area of CETDZ is 112.72 sqkm, of which 30 sqkm has been set aside for development and utilization.
It is located five kilometers from downtown Changchun, two kilometers from the freight railway station and 15 kilometers from the Changchun international airport. The zone is devoted to developing five leading industries, namely automotive parts and components, photoelectric information, bio-pharmaceutical, fine processing of foods, and new building materials. In particular, high-tech and high value added projects account for over 80 percent of total output.
In 2006 the zone's total fixed assets investment rose to RMB38.4 billion. Among the total of 1656 enterprises registered are 179 that are foreign-funded. The zone also witnessed a total industrial output of RMB 277 billion in 2007.
  • Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone

Founded in 1993, the Changchun Automotive Trade Center was re-established as the Changchun Automotive Economic Trade and Development Zone in 1996. The development zone is situated in the southwest of the city and is adjacent to the China First Automobile Works Group Corporation and the Changchun Film ThemeCity. It covers a total area of approximately 300,000 square meters.
Within the development zone lies an exhibition center and five specially demarcated industrial centers. The famous Changchun Automobile Wholesale Center began operations in 1994 and is the largest auto-vehicle and spare parts wholesale center in China. The other centers include a resale center for used auto-vehicles, a specialized center for industrial/commercial vehicles, and a tire wholesale center.

Infrastructure


Changchun is developing its city layout in a long-term bid to alleviate pressure on limited land, aid economic development and absorb a rising population. According to a draft plan up until 2020, the downtown area will expand southwards to form a new city center around Changchun World Sculpture Park, Weixing Square and their outskirts, and the new development zone.

Road


Changchun is linked to the national highway network through the Changchun–Harbin Expressway, the Changchun–Jilin-Huichun Expressway and the busiest section in the province, the Changchun-Jilin North Highway. This section connects the two biggest cities in Jilin and is the trunk line for the social and economic communication of the two cities.

Railways




Changchun is served by a comprehensive bus system, as well as one traditional tram route
Changchun Tram
The Changchun Tram is an historic tram line in Changchun, Jilin, China. It was first opened November 11, 1941, and was constructed by the Manchukuo government. On August 15, 1945 the tram had 7 lines and 73 trains. At its peak in 1960, the tram had 6 lines and 88 trains covering almost...

 (route 54). Most buses and the tram charge 1 Yuan (元) per ride. Changchun also has as a modern light rail line
Changchun Light Rail Transit
Changchun Light Rail Transit is a on-ground rail mass transit system in the city of Changchun, Jilin province, China. It is said to be the first light rail transit system in Mainland China. The initial phase of Line 3 was completed in 2001, the 2nd phase was completed in 2007. Thus the...

 that began revenue service in 2002 and is undergoing extension. Private automobiles are becoming very common on the city's congested streets. Bicycles are relatively rare compared to other northeastern Chinese cities, but mopeds, as well as pedal and even animal-drawn carts are relatively common.

Changchun has three passenger rail stations, though most trains only stop at the central Changchun Railway Station , where there are multiple daily departures to other northeast cities such as Jilin City
Jilin City
Jilin City is the second largest city of Jilin province in Northeast China. At the 2010 census, 4,414,681 people resided within its administrative area of and 1,975,803 in its built up area...

, Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

, Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

, and Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

, as well as Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

.

Air


Changchun Longjia International Airport
Changchun Longjia International Airport
Changchun Longjia International Airport is an airport in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China , for which it is an aviation hub in China's Civil Airport System...

  opened in 2005 and serves as the main civilian airport for both Changchun and Jilin
Jilin City
Jilin City is the second largest city of Jilin province in Northeast China. At the 2010 census, 4,414,681 people resided within its administrative area of and 1,975,803 in its built up area...

. By Taxi, it takes about 45 minutes to reach downtown from the airport. A new high speed train which started service in 2011 takes about 10 minutes to reach the downtown train station. Domestic flights are available to 20 cities including Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

 and Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

. Currently international and regional flights are available to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 and Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

, but the airport hopes to create more domestic and international flights, setting its sights on flights to the Americas
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

.

City infrastructure


Changchun is a very compact city, planned by the Japanese with a layout of open avenues and public squares. Despite once having the most complex tram system in Northern China, there is now only one remaining route open. However, Changchun is notable for having China’s first urban light rail system, opened in 2002, which was developed from the existing tramway system. There is currently one line encompassing 14.6 kilometers of track with plans to expand the system to an eventual 179 kilometers of track.

Military


Changchun is headquarters of the 16th Group Army
16th Army (People's Republic of China)
The 16th Army was a military formation of the People's Liberation Army Chinese Communist Forces ).-Organization :It was composed of the 69th, 46th, 48th, and 4th Armored Divisions, the 68th brigade and an artillery brigade. The formation is still active as the 16th Group Army in the Shenyang...

 of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

, one of the three group armies that comprise the Shenyang Military Region
Shenyang Military Region
The Shenyang Military Region |16th Group Army]], with three divisions, including an armoured division, in Jilin, the 23rd Group Army headquartered at Harbin, and the 39th Group Army in Liaoning.-Current Officers:* Zhang Youxia , since October 2007...

 responsible for defending China's northeastern borders with Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

.

Universities and colleges

  • Jilin University
    Jilin University
    Jilin University is a leading national university under the direct jurisdiction of China's Ministry of Education.-History:Founded in 1946 as the Northeast College of Administration in Harbin, Heilongjiang, Jilin University merged with many Universities and colleges and changed its name many times...

     
  • Northeast Normal University
    Northeast Normal University
    Northeast Normal University is one of the six national universities in People's Republic of China located in Changchun, Jilin.- History :Northeast Normal University is an institution of higher learning under the direct administration of the Ministry of Education, being selected as one of the...

     
  • Jilin University of Finance and Economics 
  • Changchun University of Technology 
  • Changchun University of Science and Technology
    Changchun University of Science and Technology
    Changchun University of Science and Technology is a provincial key university, previously known as Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, 1960-2002...

     
  • Jilin Agricultural University 
  • Changchun Normal University
    Changchun Normal University
    Changchun Normal University is a university in Changchun, Jilin, People's Republic of China.-External links:* *...

     
  • Jilin Huaqiao Institute [web site http://www.hqwy.com/hqwy/]

Sport

  • Changchun Yatai Football Club , who play home soccer matches at Changchun City Stadium
    Changchun City Stadium
    Changchun City Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Changchun, China. It is predominately used for football matches. The stadium holds 38,500. It is currently the home of Changchun Yatai of the Chinese Super League....

     
  • China Sharks
    China Sharks
    The China Dragon are a professional ice hockey team based in Shanghai, China, and a member of Asia League Ice Hockey. The team was formed in 1954 as two different clubs, Harbin and Qiqihar, as part of the China League...

     (ice hockey)
  • Changchun Wuhuan Gymnasium
    Changchun Wuhuan Gymnasium
    The Changchun Wuhuan Gymnasium is an indoor arena in Changchun, China. The arena used mainly for indoor sports. The facility has a capacity of 11,428 people and was opened in 1994. It hosted the figure skating as well as the opening and closing ceremonies for the 2007 Asian Winter...

     hosted the 2007 Asian Winter Games

Sister cities


Changchun is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Minsk
Minsk
- Ecological situation :The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Center of Radioactive and Environmental Control .During 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tons. The change of gas as industrial fuel to mazut for financial reasons has worsened...

, Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

 (since 1992) Quebec City
Quebec City
Quebec , also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec and is located within the Capitale-Nationale region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about to the southwest...

, Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 Windsor
Windsor, Ontario
Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and is located in Southwestern Ontario at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. It is within Essex County, Ontario, although administratively separated from the county government. Separated by the Detroit River, Windsor...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 Wolfsburg
Wolfsburg
Wolfsburg is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located on the River Aller northeast of Braunschweig , and is mainly notable as the headquarters of Volkswagen AG...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 (since 2006) Sendai, Miyagi
Miyagi Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan in the Tōhoku Region on Honshu island. The capital is Sendai.- History :Miyagi Prefecture was formerly part of the province of Mutsu. Mutsu Province, on northern Honshu, was one of the last provinces to be formed as land was taken from the indigenous Emishi, and became the...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 (since 1980) Masterton
Masterton
Masterton is a large town and local government district in the Wellington Region of New Zealand. It is the largest town in the Wairarapa, a region separated from Wellington by the Rimutaka ranges...

, New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

 Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northwestern side of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River. Population: -History:...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk is the third-largest city in Russia, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and the largest city of Siberia, with a population of 1,473,737 . It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 St. Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Ulan Ude, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (since 2000) Novi Sad
Novi Sad
Novi Sad is the capital of the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina, and the administrative centre of the South Bačka District. The city is located in the southern part of Pannonian Plain on the Danube river....

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 Žilina
Žilina
Žilina is a city in north-western Slovakia, around from the capital Bratislava, close to both the Czech and Polish borders. It is the fourth largest city of Slovakia with a population of approximately 85,000, an important industrial center, the largest city on the Váh river, and the seat of a...

, Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

 Ulsan
Ulsan
Ulsan , officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million. It is located in the south-east of the country, neighboring Busan to the south and facing Gyeongju to the north and the Sea of Japan to the east.Ulsan is the...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 (since 1994) Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 Flint
Flint, Michigan
Flint is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and is located along the Flint River, northwest of Detroit. The U.S. Census Bureau reports the 2010 population to be placed at 102,434, making Flint the seventh largest city in Michigan. It is the county seat of Genesee County which lies in the...

, Michigan
Michigan
Michigan is a U.S. state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake"....

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Little Rock
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and the largest city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 699,757 people in the 2010 census...

, Arkansas
Arkansas
Arkansas is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Its name is an Algonquian name of the Quapaw Indians. Arkansas shares borders with six states , and its eastern border is largely defined by the Mississippi River...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Stonington
Stonington, Connecticut
The Town of Stonington is located in New London County, Connecticut, in the state's southeastern corner. It includes the borough of Stonington, the villages of Pawcatuck, Lords Point, Wequetequock, the eastern halves of the villages of Mystic and Old Mystic...

, Connecticut
Connecticut
Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Nuuk
Nuuk
Nuuk, is the capital of Greenland, the northernmost capital in North America and the largest city in Greenland. Located in the Nuup Kangerlua fjord, the city lies on the eastern shore of the Labrador Sea and on the west coast of Sermersooq. Nuuk is the largest cultural and economic center in...

, Greenland
Greenland
Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for...


See also

  • Changchun Light Rail Transit
    Changchun Light Rail Transit
    Changchun Light Rail Transit is a on-ground rail mass transit system in the city of Changchun, Jilin province, China. It is said to be the first light rail transit system in Mainland China. The initial phase of Line 3 was completed in 2001, the 2nd phase was completed in 2007. Thus the...

  • Changchun Tram
    Changchun Tram
    The Changchun Tram is an historic tram line in Changchun, Jilin, China. It was first opened November 11, 1941, and was constructed by the Manchukuo government. On August 15, 1945 the tram had 7 lines and 73 trains. At its peak in 1960, the tram had 6 lines and 88 trains covering almost...

  • Jilin City
    Jilin City
    Jilin City is the second largest city of Jilin province in Northeast China. At the 2010 census, 4,414,681 people resided within its administrative area of and 1,975,803 in its built up area...

  • Harbin
    Harbin
    Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

  • Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

  • Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

  • Tonghua
    Tonghua
    -Economy:Traditionally, Tonghua occupied a railhub position in a region of China noted for trade in only three agricultural commodities. These were ginseng, marten furs and deer antler products. In the 1980s Tonghua had some success with a wine distillery producing sweet, sticky red wines that...


Resources


External links