Rouen

Rouen

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Rouen in northern France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 on the River Seine
Seine
The Seine is a -long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Saint-Seine near Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre . It is navigable by ocean-going vessels...

, is the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) region
Régions of France
France is divided into 27 administrative regions , 22 of which are in Metropolitan France, and five of which are overseas. Corsica is a territorial collectivity , but is considered a region in mainstream usage, and is even shown as such on the INSEE website...

 and the historic capital city of Normandy
Normandy
Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. It is in France.The continental territory covers 30,627 km² and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France. It is divided for administrative purposes into two régions:...

. Once one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 , it was the seat of the Exchequer
Exchequer
The Exchequer is a government department of the United Kingdom responsible for the management and collection of taxation and other government revenues. The historical Exchequer developed judicial roles...

 of Normandy
Normandy
Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. It is in France.The continental territory covers 30,627 km² and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France. It is divided for administrative purposes into two régions:...

 in the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman
Anglo-Norman
The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the Norman conquest by William the Conqueror in 1066. A small number of Normans were already settled in England prior to the conquest...

 dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries. It was here that Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
Saint Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" , is a national heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. A peasant girl born in eastern France who claimed divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the...

 was burnt in 1431. People from Rouen are called Rouennais.

The population of the metropolitan area (in French: agglomération) at the 1999 census was 518,316, and 532,559 at the 2007 estimate. The city proper had an estimated population of 110,276 in 2007.

Administration


Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région, as well as a commune
Communes of France
The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to incorporated municipalities or villages in the United States or Gemeinden in Germany...

 and the préfecture (capital) of the Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime
Seine-Maritime is a French department in the Haute-Normandie region in northern France. It is situated on the northern coast of France, at the mouth of the Seine, and includes the cities of Rouen and Le Havre...

 département.

Rouen and 70 suburban communes of the metropolitan area form the Agglomeration community of Rouen-Elbeuf-Austreberthe (CREA)
Agglomeration community of Rouen-Elbeuf-Austreberthe
The Agglomeration community of Rouen-Elbeuf-Austreberthe is the intercommunal structure gathering the commune of Rouen and that part of the Rouen metropolitan area that lies in France....

, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. In descending order of population, the largest of these suburbs are Sotteville-lès-Rouen
Sotteville-lès-Rouen
- Transportation :The métro connects the commune with Rouen and Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray.The commune used to be a railway town in the days of the old Rouen tramway.- Population :- Places of interest :* The three churches of Notre-Dame, St...

, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray
Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray
-Population:-Twin towns:Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray is twinned with Nordenham , Nova Kakhovka , and Gateshead, Tyne and Wear .-Places of interest:* The sixteenth century church of St.Étienne.* The church of St...

, Le Grand-Quevilly
Le Grand-Quevilly
- Heraldry :-Places of interest:* The ‘Zénith de Rouen’ concert hall.* The fifteenth century manor house at Grand Aulnay.* The church of St. Pierre, dating from the sixteenth century.-Notable people:* Laurent Fabius, politician....

, Le Petit-Quevilly
Le Petit-Quevilly
-Places of interest:* The recently restored church of St. Pierre, dating from the sixteenth century.* The church of St. Antoine.* The church of St. Bernadette, dating from the sixteenth century.* The recently restored chapel of St...

, and Mont-Saint-Aignan
Mont-Saint-Aignan
-People:*Birthplace of Jacques Anquetil , the first cyclist to win the Tour de France five times.*Viviane Asseyi footballer*Jackson Mendy footballer*Matthieu Louis-Jean footballer*Mohamed Sissoko, Juventus F.C footballer, was born here....

, each with a population exceeding 20,000.

History


Unknown to Julius Caesar, Rouen was founded by the Gaul
Gaul
Gaul was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, the western part of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine. The Gauls were the speakers of...

ish tribe of the Veliocasses
Veliocasses
In pre-Roman Gaul the Gaulish tribe of Veliocasses or Velocasses controlled a large area in the lower Seine valley, which retains a trace of their name, as the Vexin. According to Julius Caesar' Commentary on the Gallic Wars the Veliocasses participated in the tribal coalition of Belgae that...

, who controlled a large area in the lower Seine valley
Seine
The Seine is a -long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Saint-Seine near Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre . It is navigable by ocean-going vessels...

, which retains a trace of their name as the Vexin
Vexin
The Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France. It covers a verdant plateau on the right bank of the Seine comprising an area east-to-west between Pontoise and Romilly-sur-Andelle , and north-to-south between Auneuil and the Seine near Vernon...

. They called it Ratumacos; the Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 called it Rotomagus. Roman Rotomagus was the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis
Gallia Lugdunensis
Gallia Lugdunensis was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic territory of Gaul. It is named after its capital Lugdunum , possibly Roman Europe's major city west of Italy, and a major imperial mint...

 after Lugdunum
Lugdunum
Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum was an important Roman city in Gaul. The city was founded in 43 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus. It served as the capital of the Roman province Gallia Lugdunensis. To 300 years after its foundation Lugdunum was the most important city to the west part of Roman...

 (Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

) itself. Under the reorganisation of the empire by Diocletian
Diocletian
Diocletian |latinized]] upon his accession to Diocletian . c. 22 December 244  – 3 December 311), was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305....

, Rouen became the chief city of the divided province of Gallia Lugdunensis II and reached the apogee of its Roman development, with an amphitheatre and thermae
Thermae
In ancient Rome, thermae and balnea were facilities for bathing...

of which the foundations remain. In the 5th century, it became the seat of a bishopric (though the names of early bishops are purely legendary) and later a capital of Merovingian
Merovingian dynasty
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region largely corresponding to ancient Gaul from the middle of the 5th century. Their politics involved frequent civil warfare among branches of the family...

 Neustria
Neustria
The territory of Neustria or Neustrasia, meaning "new [western] land", originated in 511, made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, approximating most of the north of present-day France, with Paris and Soissons as its main cities...

.

The Middle Ages


From their first incursion into the lower valley of the Seine in 841, the Vikings overran Rouen until some of them finally settled and founded a colony led by Rollo
Rollo
Rollo has multiple meanings. It may mean:a first name*Rollo Armstrong, member of British dance act Faithless* Rollo May, American psychologist...

 (Hrolfr), who was nominated count of Rouen by the king of the Franks in 911. In the 10th century Rouen became the capital of the Duchy of Normandy
Duchy of Normandy
The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Norwegian, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish invasions of France in the 9th century...

 and residence of the dukes
Duke of Normandy
The Duke of Normandy is the title of the reigning monarch of the British Crown Dependancies of the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey. The title traces its roots to the Duchy of Normandy . Whether the reigning sovereign is a male or female, they are always titled as the "Duke of...

, until William the Conqueror
William I of England
William I , also known as William the Conqueror , was the first Norman King of England from Christmas 1066 until his death. He was also Duke of Normandy from 3 July 1035 until his death, under the name William II...

 established his castle at Caen
Caen
Caen is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the Basse-Normandie region. It is located inland from the English Channel....

.

In 1150, Rouen received its founding charter, which permitted self-government. During the 12th century, Rouen was probably the site of a yeshiva
Yeshiva
Yeshiva is a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and Torah study. Study is usually done through daily shiurim and in study pairs called chavrutas...

. At that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town, comprising about 20% of the population. In addition, there were a large number of Jews scattered about another 100 communities in Normandy
Normandy
Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. It is in France.The continental territory covers 30,627 km² and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France. It is divided for administrative purposes into two régions:...

. The well-preserved remains of the yeshiva were discovered in the 1970s under the Rouen Law Courts and the community has begun a project to restore them.
In 1200, a fire destroyed part of the old Romanesque cathedral, leaving St Romain's tower, the side porches of the front, and part of the nave.
New work on the present Gothic cathedral of Rouen
Rouen Cathedral
Rouen Cathedral is a Roman Catholic Gothic cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Rouen and Normandy.-History:...

 was begun, in the nave, transept, choir, and the lowest section of the lantern tower. On 24 June 1204, Philip II Augustus of France
Philip II of France
Philip II Augustus was the King of France from 1180 until his death. A member of the House of Capet, Philip Augustus was born at Gonesse in the Val-d'Oise, the son of Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne...

 entered Rouen and annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom
France in the Middle Ages
France in the Middle Ages covers an area roughly corresponding to modern day France, from the death of Louis the Pious in 840 to the middle of the 15th century...

. The fall of Rouen meant the end of an independent Normandy. He demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre. A textile industry developed based on wool imported from England, for which the northern County of Flanders and Duchy of Brabant were constantly fierce but worthy competitors, and finding its market in the Champagne fairs
Champagne fairs
The Champagne fairs were an annual cycle of trading fairs held in towns in the Champagne and Brie regions of France in the Middle Ages. From their origins in local agricultural and stock fairs, the Champagne fairs became an important engine in the reviving economic history of medieval Europe,...

. Rouen also depended for its prosperity on the river traffic of the Seine, on which it enjoyed a monopoly that reached as far upstream as Paris. Wine and wheat were exported to England, with tin and wool received in return. In the 14th century urban strife threatened the city: in 1291, the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged. Philip IV
Philip IV of France
Philip the Fair was, as Philip IV, King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.-Youth:A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of...

 reimposed order and suppressed the city's charter and the lucrative monopoly on river traffic, but he was quite willing to allow the Rouennais to repurchase their old liberties in 1294. In 1306, he decided to expel the Jewish community of Rouen, which then numbered some five or six thousand citizens. In 1389, another urban revolt of the underclass broke out, the Harelle
Harelle
The Harelle was a revolt that occurred in the French city of Rouen in 1382 followed by the Maillotins Revolt a few days later in Paris, and numerous other revolts across France in the subsequent week. France was in the midst of the Hundred Years War, and had seen decades of warfare, widespread...

. It was part of a widespread rebellion in France that year and was suppressed with the withdrawal of Rouen's charter and river-traffic privileges once more.
During the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of separate wars waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, also known as the House of Anjou, for the French throne, which had become vacant upon the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings...

, on 19 January 1419, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England
Henry V of England
Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 35 in 1422. He was the second monarch belonging to the House of Lancaster....

, who annexed Normandy
Normandy
Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. It is in France.The continental territory covers 30,627 km² and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France. It is divided for administrative purposes into two régions:...

 once again to the Plantagenet domains
House of Plantagenet
The House of Plantagenet , a branch of the Angevins, was a royal house founded by Geoffrey V of Anjou, father of Henry II of England. Plantagenet kings first ruled the Kingdom of England in the 12th century. Their paternal ancestors originated in the French province of Gâtinais and gained the...

. But Rouen did not go quietly: Alain Blanchard
Alain Blanchard
Alain Blanchard was a commander of the crossbowmen of Rouen during the Hundred Years' War.He was active in the defence of the city during its siege by king Henry V of England. When the city capitulated on January 20, 1419 the English demanded that three notable inhabitants be surrendered to be...

 hung English prisoners from the walls, for which he was summarily executed; Canon
Canon (priest)
A canon is a priest or minister who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to an ecclesiastical rule ....

 and Vicar General
Vicar general
A vicar general is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority. As vicar of the bishop, the vicar general exercises the bishop's ordinary executive power over the entire diocese and, thus, is the highest official in a diocese or other particular...

 of Rouen Robert de Livet became a hero for excommunicating the English king, resulting in de Livet's imprisonment for five years in England. Rouen became the capital city of English power in occupied France and when the duke of Bedford, John of Lancaster
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, KG , also known as John Plantagenet, was the third surviving son of King Henry IV of England by Mary de Bohun, and acted as Regent of France for his nephew, King Henry VI....

 bought Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
Saint Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" , is a national heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. A peasant girl born in eastern France who claimed divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the...

 from his ally, the duke of Burgundy who had been keeping her in jail since May 1430, she was logically sent to this city for Christmas 1430 and after a long trial by a church court, sentenced to be burned at the stake on 30 May 1431 in this city, where most inhabitants supported the duke of Burgundy, Joan of Arc's royal enemy. The king of France Charles VII
Charles VII of France
Charles VII , called the Victorious or the Well-Served , was King of France from 1422 to his death, though he was initially opposed by Henry VI of England, whose Regent, the Duke of Bedford, ruled much of France including the capital, Paris...

 recaptured the town in 1449, 18 years after the death of Joan of Arc and after 30 years of English occupation.
In that same year the young Henry VI was crowned king of England and France in Paris before coming to Rouen where he was acclaimed by the crowds.

The Renaissance Period


The naval dockyards, where activity had been slowed down by the 100 years war, developed again as did the church of Saint-Maclou which had been started under the English occupation, and was finally finished during the Renaissance period. The nave of the church of Saint Ouen was completed at last, but without the facade flanked by twin towers. The salle des pas-perdus (a sort of waiting room or ante-room) of the present law courts was built during this time. The whole building was built in a famboyant style into which the first decorative elements typical of the Renaissance style right at the beginning of the 16th century had been incorporated. At that time Rouen was the most populous city in the realm after Paris, Marseille and Lyon. Rouen was also one of the Norman cradles of the artistic Renaissance, in particular the one under the patronage of the archbishops and financiers of the town.
The economic upturn of the town at the end of the 15th century was mainly due to the cloth industry, but also to the development of the silk industry and metallurgy. The fishermen of Rouen went as far afield as the Baltic to fish for herrings. Salt was imported from Portugal and Guérande. Cloth was sold in Spain which also provided wool, and the Medici family made Rouen into the main port for the resale of Roman alum.
At the beginning of the 16th century Rouen became the main French port through which trade was conducted with Brasil, principally for the import of cloth dyes. By 1500 ten printing presses had been installed in the town following the installation of the first one sixteen years earlier.

The Wars of Religion


In the years following 1530, part of the population of Rouen embraced Calvinism. The members of the Reformed Church who represented a quarter to a third of the total population thus found themselves in a minority. From 1560 onwards tensions rose between the Protestant and Catholic communities. The massacre of Wassy set off the first war of religion. On 15 April 1562 the Protestants entered the town hall and ejected the kings personal representative. In May there was an outbreak of statue smashing. On the May 10th the Catholic members of the town council left Rouen. The Catholics captured the fort of Saint Catherine which overlooked the town. Both sides resorted to terror tactics. At this juncture the town authorities requested help from the Queen of England. In accordance with the Hampton Court Treaty which they had signed with Condé on 20 September 1562, the English sent troops to support the Protestants, and these occupied Le Havre. On 26 October 1562 French royalist troops captured Rouen and pillaged it for three days.
The news of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Eve reached Rouen at the end of August 1572. Hennequier tried to avoid a massacre of the Protestants by shutting them up in various prisons. But between 17 and 20 September the crowds forced the gates of the prisons and murdered the Protestants that they found inside. The town was attacked on several occasions by Henry IV, but it resisted, notably during the siege of December 1591 to May 1592, with the help of a Spanish army led by the Duke of Parma.

The Classical Age


The permanent exchequer of Normandy, which had been installed in Rouen in 1499 by George of Amboise, was transformed into a regional administrative assembly by Francis I in 1515 and up to the time of the Revolution was the administrative centre of the region. It had judicial, legislative and executive powers in Norman affairs and was only subordinate to the Privy Council. It also had power to govern French Canada.
The 16th and the 18th centuries brought prosperity to the town through the textile trade and the increased use of the port facilities. In 1703 the Norman Chamber of Commerce was created.
Although it did not have a university, Rouen became an important intellectual centre by reason of its reputed schools of higher learning. In 1734, a school of surgery (second only to that of Paris founded in 1724) was founded. In 1758 a new hospital was opened to the West of the town which replaced the old medieval one which had grown too small, and which had been situated on the south side of the cathedral.

The Modern Period


During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Rouen was occupied by the Prussians.

During the First World War the British used Rouen as a supply base and there were many military hospitals.

The city was heavily damaged (approximately 45% was destroyed) during World War II: In June 1940 first, when the area between the Notre-Dame Cathedral and the Seine river burned for 48 hours, because the Germans did not allow the firemen to come and extinguish the fire. Then, other areas were destroyed between March and August 1944 just before and during the Battle of Normandy
Battle of Normandy
The Invasion of Normandy was the invasion and establishment of Allied forces in Normandy, France, during Operation Overlord in World War II. It was the largest amphibious operation in history...

, that ended on the left Seine bank of Rouen with the destruction of several regiments, belonging to the German 7th Army. Its cathedral and several significant monuments were partly damaged by Allied bombing. During the German
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 occupation, the German Navy
German Navy
The German Navy is the navy of Germany and is part of the unified Bundeswehr .The German Navy traces its roots back to the Imperial Fleet of the revolutionary era of 1848 – 52 and more directly to the Prussian Navy, which later evolved into the Northern German Federal Navy...

 had its headquarters located in a chateau on what is now the Rouen Business School (École Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen)
École Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen
The Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen is a leading French business school.ESC Rouen's quality is recognized at European level through its EQUIS accreditation and its Financial Times' ranking 13th position best European Master in Management...

.

Main sights


Rouen is known for its Notre Dame cathedral
Rouen Cathedral
Rouen Cathedral is a Roman Catholic Gothic cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Rouen and Normandy.-History:...

, with its Tour de Beurre (butter tower). The cathedral was the subject of a series of paintings by Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. . Retrieved 6 January 2007...

, some of which are exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay
Musée d'Orsay
The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine. It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, an impressive Beaux-Arts railway station built between 1898 and 1900. The museum holds mainly French art dating from 1848 to 1915, including paintings, sculptures, furniture,...

 in Paris.

The Gros Horloge is an astronomical clock
Astronomical clock
An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.-Definition:...

 dating back to the 16th century, though the movement is considerably older (1389). It is located in the Gros Horloge street.

Other famous structures include the Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 Church of St Maclou
Church of Saint-Maclou
The Church of Saint-Maclou is a Roman Catholic Flamboyant church in Rouen, France. Along with Rouen Cathedral and the Church of St. Ouen, Saint-Maclou is considered one of the best examples of Gothic architecture in Rouen and is cited as a church of monumental design in...

 (15th century); the Tour Jeanne d'Arc, where Joan of Arc was brought in 1431 to be threatened with torture (contrary to popular belief, she was not imprisoned there); the Church of Saint Ouen (12th–15th century); the Palais de Justice, which was once the seat of the Parlement
Parlement
Parlements were regional legislative bodies in Ancien Régime France.The political institutions of the Parlement in Ancien Régime France developed out of the previous council of the king, the Conseil du roi or curia regis, and consequently had ancient and customary rights of consultation and...

(French court of law) of Normandy and the Museum of Fine Arts and Ceramics which contains a splendid collection of faïence
Faience
Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale buff earthenware body, originally associated with Faenza in northern Italy. The invention of a white pottery glaze suitable for painted decoration, by the addition of an oxide of tin to the slip...

 and porcelain
Porcelain
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between and...

 for which Rouen was renowned during the 16th to 18th centuries.

Rouen is noted for its surviving half-timbered
Timber framing
Timber framing , or half-timbering, also called in North America "post-and-beam" construction, is the method of creating structures using heavy squared off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs . It is commonplace in large barns...

 buildings.

There are many museums in Rouen: Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen
The musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen is an art museum in Rouen, northern France. Founded in 1801 by Napoleon I, its current building was built between 1880 and 1888 and completely renovated in 1994...

, an art museum with pictures of well-known painters such as Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. . Retrieved 6 January 2007...

 and Géricault
Théodore Géricault
Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault was a profoundly influential French artist, painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings...

; Musée maritime fluvial et portuaire
Maritime, Fluvial and Harbour Museum of Rouen
The musée maritime fluvial et portuaire de Rouen is a museum dedicated to the history of the port of Rouen, which is one the greatest port of France...

, a museum on the history of the port of Rouen and navigation; Musée des antiquités, an art and history museum with antic or gothic works; Musée de la céramique, Musée Le Secq des Tournelles...

The Jardin des Plantes de Rouen
Jardin des Plantes de Rouen
The Jardin des Plantes de Rouen is a municipal botanical garden located at 7, rue de Trianon, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France. It is open daily without charge....

 is a notable botanical garden
Botanical garden
A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...

 dating to 1840 in its present form. It was previously owned by Scottish banker John Law
John Law (economist)
John Law was a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade...

 and was the site of several historic balloon ascents.

In the centre of the Place du Vieux Marché (the site of Joan Of Arc's pyre) is the modern church of Saint Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
Saint Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" , is a national heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. A peasant girl born in eastern France who claimed divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the...

. This is a large, modern structure which dominates the square. The form of the building represents an upturned viking
Viking
The term Viking is customarily used to refer to the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century.These Norsemen used their famed longships to...

 boat and fish shape.

Rouen was also home to the French Grand Prix
French Grand Prix
The French Grand Prix was a race held as part of Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's annual Formula One automobile racing championships....

, hosting the race at the nearby Rouen-Les-Essarts
Rouen-Les-Essarts
Rouen-Les-Essarts was a race track in Grand-Couronne, near Rouen, France.From its opening in 1950, Rouen-Les-Essarts was recognized as one of Europe's finest circuits, with modern pits, a wide track, and spectator grandstands...

 track sporadically between 1952 and 1968. There was a campaign in 1999 by Rouen authorities to obliterate remainders of Rouen's racing past. Today, little remains beyond the public roads that formed the circuit.

Transport




Mainline trains operate from Gare de Rouen-Rive-Droite to Le Havre
Le Havre
Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

 and Paris, and regional trains to Caen
Caen
Caen is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the Basse-Normandie region. It is located inland from the English Channel....

, Dieppe
Dieppe, Seine-Maritime
Dieppe is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in France. In 1999, the population of the whole Dieppe urban area was 81,419.A port on the English Channel, famous for its scallops, and with a regular ferry service from the Gare Maritime to Newhaven in England, Dieppe also has a popular pebbled...

 and other local destinations in Normandy
Normandy
Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. It is in France.The continental territory covers 30,627 km² and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France. It is divided for administrative purposes into two régions:...

. Daily direct trains operate to Amiens
Amiens
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Picardy...

 and Lille
Lille
Lille is a city in northern France . It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country behind those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium...

, and direct TGV
TGV
The TGV is France's high-speed rail service, currently operated by SNCF Voyages, the long-distance rail branch of SNCF, the French national rail operator....

s (high-speed trains) connect daily with Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

 and Marseille
Marseille
Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

.

City transportation in Rouen consists of a tram and a bus system. The tramway branches into two lines out of a tunnel under the city centre. Rouen is also served by TEOR (Transport Est-Ouest Rouennais
Transport Est-Ouest Rouennais
The TEOR is a bus rapid transit system operating in the city of Rouen, France. The service was inaugurated on February, 2001. TEOR was the second BRT system implemented in France ....

) and by buses run in conjunction with the tramway by TCAR (Transports en commun de l'agglomération rouennaise)
Transports en Commun de l'Agglomération Rouennaise
Two public transportation agencies serve the city of Rouen.The Transports en Commun de l'Agglomération Rouennaise is the Rouen public transport agency. TCAR is a subsidiary of Veolia Transport and covers 45 communes of the CREA.TCAR, provides public transportation in the form of light rail, TEOR...

, a subsidiary of Veolia Transport
Veolia Transport
Veolia Transport is the international transport services division of the French-based multinational company Veolia Environnement...

.

Rouen has its own airport
Rouen Airport
Rouen Airport or Aéroport de Rouen - Vallée de Seine is an airport located in Boos and 10 km southeast of Rouen, both communes of the Seine-Maritime département in the Haute-Normandie région of France.- Airlines and destinations :...

, serving major domestic destinations as well as international destinations in Europe.

The Seine
Seine
The Seine is a -long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Saint-Seine near Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre . It is navigable by ocean-going vessels...

 is a major axis for maritime cargo links in the Port of Rouen. The Cross-Channel ferry ports of Caen
Caen
Caen is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the Basse-Normandie region. It is located inland from the English Channel....

, Le Havre
Le Havre
Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

, Dieppe
Dieppe, Seine-Maritime
Dieppe is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in France. In 1999, the population of the whole Dieppe urban area was 81,419.A port on the English Channel, famous for its scallops, and with a regular ferry service from the Gare Maritime to Newhaven in England, Dieppe also has a popular pebbled...

 (50 minutes) and Calais
Calais
Calais is a town in Northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's capital is its third-largest city of Arras....

, and the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
The Channel Tunnel is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in the United Kingdom with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais near Calais in northern France beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point, it is deep...

 are within easy driving distance (two and a half hours or less).

Education


The University of Rouen
University of Rouen
The University of Rouen is a French university, in the Academy of Rouen.-See also:* List of public universities in France by academy...

, the École Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen
École Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen
The Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen is a leading French business school.ESC Rouen's quality is recognized at European level through its EQUIS accreditation and its Financial Times' ranking 13th position best European Master in Management...

 (Rouen Business School) and ésitpa (agronomy and agriculture) – all centred or located at nearby Mont-Saint-Aignan
Mont-Saint-Aignan
-People:*Birthplace of Jacques Anquetil , the first cyclist to win the Tour de France five times.*Viviane Asseyi footballer*Jackson Mendy footballer*Matthieu Louis-Jean footballer*Mohamed Sissoko, Juventus F.C footballer, was born here....

, and INSA Rouen
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen
INSA de Rouen is a French grande école, that is to say a five-year curriculum which aims at training engineers who possess humane qualities and are well versed in the primary areas of science and engineering...

 and ESIGELEC – both at nearby Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray
Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray
-Population:-Twin towns:Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray is twinned with Nordenham , Nova Kakhovka , and Gateshead, Tyne and Wear .-Places of interest:* The sixteenth century church of St.Étienne.* The church of St...

 are schools of higher education located in the Rouen area.

Performing arts


The main opera company in Rouen is the Opéra de Rouen Haute Normandie. The company performs in the Théâtre des Arts, 7 rue du Docteur Rambert. The company presents opera, classical and other types of music, both vocal and instrumental, as well as dance performances.

Births


Rouen was the birthplace of:
  • Edward IV (1442–1483), king of England
  • Thomas Aubert (Born 1500's), navigator and one of the first French explorers of the New World
    New World
    The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically America and sometimes Oceania . The term originated in the late 15th century, when America had been recently discovered by European explorers, expanding the geographical horizon of the people of the European middle...

  • Guillaume Guéroult (1507–1569), editor, translator and poet
  • François de Civille (1537–1610), Calvinist's chief under Gabriel, comte de Montgomery
    Gabriel, comte de Montgomery
    Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, seigneur de Lorges , a French nobleman, was a captain in Henry II's Scots Guards...

  • Isaac Oliver
    Isaac Oliver
    Isaac Oliver was a French-born English portrait miniature painter.-Life and work:Born in Rouen, he moved to London in 1568 with his Huguenot parents Peter and Epiphany Oliver to escape the Wars of Religion in France...

     (c.1560–1617), French-born English portrait miniature
    Portrait miniature
    A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait painting, usually executed in gouache, watercolour, or enamel.Portrait miniatures began to flourish in 16th century Europe and the art was practiced during the 17th century and 18th century...

     painter
  • Guy de la Brosse
    Guy de La Brosse
    Guy de La Brosse , was a French botanist, doctor, and pharmacist. A physician to King Louis XIII of France, he is also notable for the creation of a major botanical garden of medicinal herbs, which was commissioned by the king...

     (1586–1641), botanist and pharmacist
  • Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant (1594–1661), Protestant poet converted to Catholicism
  • Samuel Bochart
    Samuel Bochart
    Samuel Bochart was a French Protestant biblical scholar, a student of Thomas Erpenius and the teacher of Pierre Daniel Huet...

     (1599–1667), Protestant theologian and Orientalist
    Oriental studies
    Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies...

  • Jean Dubuc
    Jean Dubuc
    Jean Joseph Octave "Chauncey" Dubuc was a Major League Baseball pitcher. He played with the Cincinnati Reds, Detroit Tigers, Boston Red Sox, and New York Giants during his nine year career. Dubuc had an overall record of 85–76 with a 3.04 ERA.-Early life and amateur career:Born in St. Johnsbury,...

     (Born 1600's), Great Grandfather of Julien Dubuque
    Julien Dubuque
    Julien Dubuque was a French Canadian from the area of Champlain, Quebec who arrived near what now is known as Dubuque, Iowa - which was named after him. He was one of the first men to settle in the area. He initially received permission from the Meskwaki Native American tribe to mine the lead in...

     (1762–1810, French-Canadian explorer) and founder of Dubuque, Iowa
    Dubuque, Iowa
    Dubuque is a city in and the county seat of Dubuque County, Iowa, United States, located along the Mississippi River. In 2010 its population was 57,637, making it the ninth-largest city in the state and the county's population was 93,653....

    , USA.
  • Pierre Corneille
    Pierre Corneille
    Pierre Corneille was a French tragedian who was one of the three great seventeenth-century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine...

     (1606–1684), tragedian
    Tragedy
    Tragedy is a form of art based on human suffering that offers its audience pleasure. While most cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of...

  • Guillaume Couture
    Guillaume Couture
    Guillaume Cousture was a citizen of New France. During his life he was a lay missonary with the Jesuits, a survivor of torture, a member of an Iroquois council, a translator, a diplomat, a militia captain, and a lay leader among the colonists of the Pointe-Lévy in the Seigneury of Lauzon...

     (1617-1701-04-04), Lay Missionary and diplomat who moved to Quebec around 1640
  • Adrien Auzout
    Adrien Auzout
    Adrien Auzout was a French astronomer.He was born in Rouen, France, the son of a clerk in the court of Rouen. His educational background is unknown. In 1664–1665 he made observations of comets, and argued in favor of their following elliptical or parabolic orbits...

     (1622–1691), astronomer
    Astronomer
    An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

  • Thomas Corneille
    Thomas Corneille
    Thomas Corneille was a French dramatist.- Personal life :Born in Rouen nearly twenty years after his brother Pierre, the "great Corneille", Thomas's skill as a poet seems to have shown itself early. At the age of fifteen he composed a play in Latin which was performed by his fellow-pupils at the...

     (1625–1709), dramatist, brother of Pierre Corneille
  • Noel Alexandre
    Noel Alexandre
    Noël Alexandre, or Natalis Alexander was a French theologian and ecclesiastical historian.-Biography:In 1654, Alexandre joined the Dominicans in his hometown...

     (1630–1724), theologian
    Theology
    Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...

     and ecclesiastical historian
  • Catherine Primot-Thiéry (1640- ?), Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
    Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
    Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienvillepronounce] was a colonizer, born in Montreal, Quebec and an early, repeated governor of French Louisiana, appointed 4 separate times during 1701-1743. He was a younger brother of explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville...

    's mother, both Canadian explorers
  • Marie Champmeslé
    Marie Champmeslé
    Marie Champmeslé was a French actress.She was born in Rouen of a wealthy family; her father's name was Desmares. She made her first appearance on the stage at Rouen with Charles Chevillet Champmeslé , who called himself sieur de Champmeslé, and they were married in 1666...

     (1642–1698), actress
  • René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
    René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
    René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico...

     (1643–1687), cleric and explorer
  • Gabriel Daniel
    Gabriel Daniel
    Gabriel Daniel , French Jesuit historian, was born in Rouen.He was educated by the Jesuits, entered the order at the age of eighteen, and became superior at Paris.-Works:...

     (1649–1728), Jesuit
    Society of Jesus
    The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

     historian
  • Nicolas Lemery
    Nicolas Lemery
    Nicolas Lémery , French chemist, was born at Rouen. He was one of the first to develop theories on acid-base chemistry....

     (1645–1715), chemist
  • Jean Jouvenet
    Jean Jouvenet
    Jean-Baptiste Jouvenet was a French painter, especially of religious subjects.He was born into an artistic family in Rouen...

     (1647–1717), painter
  • Nicolas Gueudeville (1652–1721), catholic translator, journalist, historian an writer, converted to Protestantism
  • Jacques Basnages
    Jacques Basnages
    Jacques Basnage De Beauval was a celebrated Protestant divine, preacher, linguist, writer and man of affairs. He wrote a History of the Reformed Churches and on Jewish Antiquities.-Biography:...

     (1653–1723), Protestant theologian
  • Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle
    Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle
    Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle , also called Bernard Le Bouyer de Fontenelle, was a French author.Fontenelle was born in Rouen, France and died in Paris just one month before his 100th birthday. His mother was the sister of great French dramatists Pierre and Thomas Corneille...

     (1657–1757), author, nephew of Pierre Corneille
  • Pierre Antoine Motteux (1663–1718), French born English translator
    Translation
    Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Whereas interpreting undoubtedly antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature; there exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of...

     and dramatist
  • Pierre Dangicourt
    Pierre Dangicourt
    Pierre Dangicourt was a French mathematician. As a Protestant, he left France after the Edict of Fontainebleau and settled in Prussia, where he was made an associate member of the Academy of Berlin. Dangicourt became a student and friend of Gottfried Leibniz, and the two shared a long...

     (1664–1727), mathematician
  • Pierre François le Courayer
    Pierre François le Courayer
    Pierre François le Courayer was a French Catholic theological writer, for many years an expatriate in England.-Life:Pierre François le Courayer was born at Rouen...

     (1681–1776), Catholic theologian
    Theology
    Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...

     and supporter of the church of England
  • François d'Agincourt
    François d'Agincourt
    François d'Agincourt was a French harpsichordist, organist, and composer. He spent most of his life in Rouen, his native city, where he worked as organist of the Rouen Cathedral and of three smaller churches. Highly regarded during his lifetime, d'Agincourt was one of the organists of the royal...

     (1684–1758), composer, harpsichordist
    Harpsichordist
    A harpsichordist is a person who plays the harpsichord.Many baroque composers played the harpsichord, including Johann Sebastian Bach, Domenico Scarlatti, George Frideric Handel, François Couperin and Jean-Philippe Rameau...

     and organist
    Organist
    An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. An organist may play solo organ works, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers or instrumental soloists...

  • Jean II Restout
    Jean II Restout
    Jean II Restout was a French painter, whose late baroque classicism rendered his altarpieces, such as the Death of Saint Scholastica an "isolated achievement" that ran counter to his rococo contemporaries.-Biography:...

     (1692–1768), painter
  • Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont (1711–1780), novelist
  • Jacques-François Blondel
    Jacques-François Blondel
    Jacques-François Blondel was a French architect. He was the grandson of François Blondel , whose course of architecture had appeared in four volumes in 1683 -Biography:...

     (1705–1774), architect, urbanist
  • Marie-Madeleine Hachard (1708–1760), nun at Couvent des Ursulines, founder of a sister monastery in New-Orleans
  • Jacques Duphly
    Jacques Duphly
    Jacques Duphly was a French harpsichordist and organist, and the composer of bright, lively, and attractive keyboard music.- Biography :...

     (1715–1789), harpsichord
    Harpsichord
    A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. It produces sound by plucking a string when a key is pressed.In the narrow sense, "harpsichord" designates only the large wing-shaped instruments in which the strings are perpendicular to the keyboard...

    ist and composer
  • Pierre Levieux (1702–1796), capitaine
    Capitaine
    Capitaine, derived from the French for Captain, may also refer to:-Fish:* Hogfish , an edible marine fish in the Labridae family, found in the western Atlantic...

     du navire
  • François-Adrien Boïeldieu
    François-Adrien Boïeldieu
    François-Adrien Boieldieu was a French composer, mainly of operas, often called "the French Mozart".-Biography:...

     (1775–1834), composer, mainly of operas
  • Pierre Louis Dulong
    Pierre Louis Dulong
    Pierre Louis Dulong was a French physicist and chemist, remembered today largely for the law of Dulong and Petit. He worked on the specific heat capacity and the expansion and refractive indices of gases....

     (1785–1838), physicist
    Physicist
    A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic particles of which all ordinary matter is made to the behavior of the material Universe as a whole...

     and chemist
    Chemist
    A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties such as density and acidity. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms...

  • Théodore Géricault
    Théodore Géricault
    Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault was a profoundly influential French artist, painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings...

     (1791–1824), painter, painted The Raft of the Medusa
  • Armand Carrel
    Armand Carrel
    Armand Carrel was a French journalist and political writer.-Biography:Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Armand Carrel was born at Rouen. His father was a wealthy merchant, and he received a liberal education at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen. , afterwards attending the military school at St Cyr...

     (1800–1836), writer
  • Pierre Adolphe Chéruel
    Pierre Adolphe Chéruel
    Pierre Adolphe Chéruel was a French historian.He was born at Rouen and educated at the École Normale Supérieure, becoming a fellow in 1830. His early studies were concerned with local history...

     (1809–1891), historian
  • Gustave Flaubert
    Gustave Flaubert
    Gustave Flaubert was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary , and for his scrupulous devotion to his art and style.-Early life and education:Flaubert was born on December 12, 1821, in Rouen,...

     (1821–1880), novelist, who wrote Madame Bovary
    Madame Bovary
    Madame Bovary is Gustave Flaubert's first published novel and is considered his masterpiece. The story focuses on a doctor's wife, Emma Bovary, who has adulterous affairs and lives beyond her means in order to escape the banalities and emptiness of provincial life...

  • Eugène Ketterer
    Eugène Ketterer
    Eugène Ketterer was a French composer and pianist.In early youth he was a student at the Paris Conservatoire, where he won Second Prize for solfege in 1847 and a premier accessit in 1852, under Antoine François Marmontel...

     (1831–1870), composer and pianist
  • Maurice Leblanc
    Maurice Leblanc
    Maurice Marie Émile Leblanc was a French novelist and writer of short stories, known primarily as the creator of the fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, often described as a French counterpart to Arthur Conan Doyle's creation Sherlock Holmes.- Biography :Leblanc was born in...

     (1864–1941), novelist, creator of the character Arsène Lupin
    Arsène Lupin
    Arsène Lupin is a fictional character who appears in a book series of detective fiction / crime fiction novels written by French writer Maurice Leblanc, as well as a number of non-canonical sequels and numerous film, television such as Night Hood, stage play and comic book adaptations.- Overview :A...

  • Charles Nicolle
    Charles Nicolle
    Charles Jules Henry Nicolle was a French bacteriologist who received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his identification of lice as the transmitter of epidemic typhus.- Biography :...

     (1866–1936), bacteriologist who earned the 1928 Nobel Prize in Medicine
  • Georges Guillain
    Georges Guillain
    Georges Charles Guillain was a French neurologist born in Rouen.He studied medicine in Rouen and Paris, where he learned clinical education at several hospitals. He developed an interest in neurology, and his first important scientific work involved lesions of the plexus brachialis...

     (1876–1961), neurologist
    Neurologist
    A neurologist is a physician who specializes in neurology, and is trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders.Neurology is the medical specialty related to the human nervous system. The nervous system encompasses the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. A specialist...

  • Marcel Dupré
    Marcel Dupré
    Marcel Dupré , was a French organist, pianist, composer, and pedagogue.-Biography:Marcel Dupré was born in Rouen . Born into a musical family, he was a child prodigy. His father Albert Dupré was organist in Rouen and a friend of Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, who built an organ in the family house when...

     (1886–1971), organist
    Organist
    An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. An organist may play solo organ works, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers or instrumental soloists...

     and composer
  • Philippe Étancelin
    Philippe Étancelin
    Philippe Étancelin was a French Grand Prix motor racing driver who joined the new Formula One circuit at its inception.-Biography:...

     (1896–1981), Grand Prix motor racing
    Grand Prix motor racing
    Grand Prix motor racing has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as far back as 1894. It quickly evolved from a simple road race from one town to the next, to endurance tests for car and driver...

  • Roger Apéry
    Roger Apéry
    Roger Apéry was a Greek-French mathematician most remembered for Apéry's theorem, that ζ is an irrational number where ζ denotes the Riemann zeta function....

     (1916–1994), mathematician
  • Jacques Rivette
    Jacques Rivette
    Jacques Rivette is a French film director. His most well known films include Celine and Julie Go Boating, La Belle Noiseuse and the cult film Out 1....

     (born 1928), film director
  • Anny Duperey
    Anny Duperey
    -External links:*...

     (born 1947), actress and novelist
  • François Hollande
    François Hollande
    François Gérard Georges Hollande is a French politician. From 1997 to 2008, he was the First Secretary of the French Socialist Party. He has also served as a Deputy of the National Assembly of France, representing the first constituency of Corrèze, since 1997. He previously represented that seat...

     (born 1953), politician and former Parti Socialiste
    Socialist Party (France)
    The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in France and the largest party of the French centre-left. It is one of the two major contemporary political parties in France, along with the center-right Union for a Popular Movement...

    's first secretary (from 1997 to 2008)
  • Élise Lucet
    Élise Lucet
    Élise Lucet, born 30 May 1963 in Rouen , France, is a French investigative journalist and television host. She has worked on France 3 on the prime time investigative journalism program Pieces a Conviction, and began working for France 2 on 6 September 2005, to host the program 13 heures le...

     (born 1963), journalist
  • Stéphan Caron
    Stéphan Caron
    Stéphan Caron, sometimes spelled Stéphane Caron, is a former freestyle swimmer from France.Caron won the bronze medal in the men's 100 m freestyle at the Summer Olympics twice in a row, starting in 1988. In 1985, he won the European title in the 100 m freestyle.-References:*...

     (born 1966), freestyle swimmer
    Freestyle swimming
    Freestyle is an unregulated swimming style used in swimming competitions according to the rules of FINA. The front crawl stroke is almost universally used during a freestyle race, as this style is generally the fastest...

  • Karin Viard
    Karin Viard
    Karin Viard is a multi-award-winning French actress. She made her film debut in Tatie Danielle in 1990.Since then she has appeared in such films as Delicatessen, L'Emploi du temps , Adultère, mode d'emploi and La parenthèse enchantée.She was a member of the 2003 Cannes Film Festival...

     (born 1966), actress
  • Vincent Delerm
    Vincent Delerm
    Vincent Delerm is a French singer-songwriter, pianist and composer. He is the son of the writer Philippe Delerm....

     (born 1976), singer-songwriter, pianist
  • David Trezeguet
    David Trézéguet
    David Sergio Trezeguet is a World Cup winning French international footballer who currently is a free agent after being released by Baniyas SC on 21 Nov 2011....

     (born 1977), football striker
  • Nathalie Péchalat
    Nathalie Péchalat
    Nathalie Péchalat is a French ice dancer who competes with Fabian Bourzat. They are the 2011 European Champions, the 2010–2011 Grand Prix Final silver and 2009–2010 bronze medalists, 2010 Cup of China champions, 2010 Trophée Eric Bompard champions, and two-time French national champions .- Career...

     (born 1983), ice dancer.
  • Frederic Cissokho
    Frederic Cissokho
    Frederic Cissokho is a French footballer who played 36 matches in Ligue 2 for Wasquehal in the 1997-1998 season .-References:...

    , footballer
  • Dominique Lokoli
    Dominique Lokoli
    Dominique Lokoli is a former French footballer who played for Paris Saint-Germain F.C., AS Nancy, AJ Auxerre and Stade de Reims.-Playing career:...

    , footballer
  • Ian Mahinmi
    Ian Mahinmi
    Ian Mahinmi is a French professional basketball player, currently playing for the Dallas Mavericks of the NBA. At 6'11" and 230 lbs, he plays the position of power forward and center...

     basketball, player
  • Christophe Mendy
    Christophe Mendy
    Christophe Mendy is a retired boxer who competed for France in the heavyweight division during the 1990s. He won the bronze medal at the 1995 World Amateur Boxing Championships in Berlin, Germany, where he was defeated in the semifinals by Cuban legend Félix Savón...

    , boxer
  • Darnel Situ
    Darnel Situ
    Darnel Situ-Buyente is a French football player of Congolese descent who currently plays for Swansea City in the Premier League. He is a French youth international and has captained at all levels of youth he has played at...

    , footballer
  • Erik The Phantom Of The Opera

Twin towns – Sister cities


Rouen is twinned with: Gdańsk
Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...

, Poland, since 1992 Cleveland, United States of America Hanover
Hanover
Hanover or Hannover, on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony , Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg...

, Germany Norwich
Norwich
Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

, United Kingdom Ningbo
Ningbo
Ningbo is a seaport city of northeastern Zhejiang province, Eastern China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, the municipality has a population of 7,605,700 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 3,089,180 in the built up area made of 6 urban districts. It lies south of the Hangzhou Bay,...

, China Salerno
Salerno
Salerno is a city and comune in Campania and is the capital of the province of the same name. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea....

, Italy, since 2003 Wejherowo
Wejherowo
Wejherowo is a town in Gdańsk Pomerania, northern Poland, with 47,435 inhabitants . It has been the capital of Wejherowo County in Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999; previously, it was a town in Gdańsk Voivodeship .-History:...

, Poland Jeju City
Jeju City
Jeju is the capital of Jeju province in South Korea and the largest city on the island of Jeju. Its geographical location is . The city is served by Jeju International Airport ....

, South Korea, since 2004

Fine art



Rouen Cathedral is the subject of a series of paintings by the Impressionist
Impressionism
Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s...

 painter Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. . Retrieved 6 January 2007...

, who painted the same scene at different times of the day. Two paintings are in the National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art
The National Gallery of Art and its Sculpture Garden is a national art museum, located on the National Mall between 3rd and 9th Streets at Constitution Avenue NW, in Washington, DC...

 in Washington, D.C.; one is in the National Museum of Serbia
National Museum of Serbia
The National Museum is the largest and oldest museum in Serbia. It is located in Republic Square, Belgrade, Serbia. The museum was established on May 10, 1844. Since it was founded, its collections have to over 400,000 objects including many foreign masterpieces...

 in Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

. The estimated value of one painting is over $40 million.

Literature

  • The character Erik, The Opera Ghost of Gaston Leroux
    Gaston Leroux
    Gaston Louis Alfred Leroux was a French journalist and author of detective fiction.In the English-speaking world, he is best known for writing the novel The Phantom of the Opera , which has been made into several film and stage productions of the same name, notably the 1925 film starring Lon...

    's novel The Phantom of the Opera
    The Phantom of the Opera
    Le Fantôme de l'Opéra is a novel by French writer Gaston Leroux. It was first published as a serialisation in "Le Gaulois" from September 23, 1909 to January 8, 1910...

    , was supposedly born "in a small town not far from Rouen".
  • Rouen played a major part in the Flaubert novel Madame Bovary
    Madame Bovary
    Madame Bovary is Gustave Flaubert's first published novel and is considered his masterpiece. The story focuses on a doctor's wife, Emma Bovary, who has adulterous affairs and lives beyond her means in order to escape the banalities and emptiness of provincial life...

    .
  • Maupassant, a student of Flaubert, wrote a number of short stories based in and around Rouen.
  • In book two of The Strongbow Saga
    The Strongbow Saga
    The Strongbow Saga is a historical young adult series by Judson Roberts. The Saga tells the story of Halfdan Hroriksson, a young Viking trying to avenge his brother's murder...

    , the Vikings invade and conquer Ruda, also known as Rouen, and make it their base in Frankia.

The Rouen area is an integral part of the work of French writer Annie Ernaux.
  • May Wedderburn Cannan wrote of Rouen in her 1915 poem on World War I "Rouen".

Music


The British rock band Supergrass
Supergrass
Supergrass was an English alternative rock band from Oxford. The band consisted of brothers Gaz and Rob Coombes , Mick Quinn and Danny Goffey ....

 named their fifth studio album Road to Rouen
Road to Rouen
Road to Rouen is the fifth studio album by English rock band Supergrass. The album was released in the UK on 15 August 2005 by Parlophone, and in the US on 27 September 2005 by Capitol Records...

, punning on an Anglicised pronunciation of the city's name.

Film


In the 2001 movie A Knight's Tale
A Knight's Tale (film)
A Knight's Tale is a 2001 American action-adventure film directed, produced, and written by Brian Helgeland. The film stars Heath Ledger, Shannyn Sossamon, Mark Addy, Alan Tudyk, Rufus Sewell, Paul Bettany as Geoffrey Chaucer, and James Purefoy as Sir Thomas Colville/Edward, the Black Prince.The...

, the protagonist William Thatcher (played by Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
Heath Andrew Ledger was an Australian television and film actor. After performing roles in Australian television and film during the 1990s, Ledger moved to the United States in 1998 to develop his film career...

) poses as a noble and competes in his first jousting tournament at Rouen.

Computer games

  • The game Call of Duty 3 features a map set in Rouen. The map, entitled Rouen, is mainly city and offers fierce city fighting, much like that seen in World War II.
  • In the Soul Calibur
    Soul Calibur
    is a 3D, weapons-based fighting game developed by Project Soul and produced by Namco. It is the second game in the Soul series, preceeded by Soul Edge. It was released in arcades in 1998, and it ran on the Namco System 12 hardware. In 1999 it was ported to the Dreamcast with improved graphics and...

    series of fighting games, Raphael, a playable character, is explained as being born in Rouen. Interestingly, his fighting style involves an English rapier
    Rapier
    A rapier is a slender, sharply pointed sword, ideally used for thrusting attacks, used mainly in Early Modern Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries.-Description:...

    . His adopted daughter Amy is also from Rouen, having been a street child
    Street Child
    Street Child is a debut album by Mexican alternative rock vocalist, Elan. It contains her biggest hit, Midnight.Ricardo Burgos from Sony Music called Street Child "a history making release in Latin America".-Re-edition track listing:...

     living there.
  • Rouen appears as an important location to protagonist Alice Elliot in the game Shadow Hearts
    Shadow Hearts
    is a series of role playing games for the PlayStation 2. The original Shadow Hearts was developed by Sacnoth and released by Midway in the United States on December 11, 2001. The sequel, Shadow Hearts: Covenant , was also made by the same group, although Sacnoth reformed itself into a company...

    .
  • The Rouen-Les-Essarts
    Rouen-Les-Essarts
    Rouen-Les-Essarts was a race track in Grand-Couronne, near Rouen, France.From its opening in 1950, Rouen-Les-Essarts was recognized as one of Europe's finest circuits, with modern pits, a wide track, and spectator grandstands...

    Grand Prix circuit is featured in both Grand Prix Legends
    Grand Prix Legends
    Grand Prix Legends is a computer racing simulator developed by Papyrus Design Group and published in 1998 by Sierra Entertainment...

    and RFactor
    RFactor
    rFactor is a computer racing simulator, designed with the ability to run any type of four-wheeled vehicle from street cars to open wheel cars of any era. rFactor aimed to be the most accurate race simulator of its time...

    .
  • The PC adventure game Touché: The Adventures of the Fifth Musketeer
    Touché: The Adventures of the Fifth Musketeer
    Touché: The Adventures of the Fifth Musketeer is an adventure game developed by the British software company Clipper Software.The game is about Geoffroi Le Brun who wants to become a musketeer. It take place in the 16th century and you travel through France. The game starts out in Rouen with a...

     starts in Rouen.

Heraldry



External links


Rouen Seine valley Tourist Board's Website City council website Objectif Rouen : Pictures and descriptions of the most famous monuments The Catholic Encyclopedia 1908 detailed ecclesiastical history Rouen, Its History and Monuments, by Théodore Licquet, 1840, from Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". Founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart, it is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books...