Ghent

Ghent

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Ghent (ˈɡɛnt; , ʝɛnt; , ɡɑ̃; and formerly Gaunt in English; from the Classic Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 term Candia or Gandia meaning landlock by the confluence of rivers by the union of the Celtic term "Cand" and Latin "ia" land) is a city and a municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 located in the Flemish region
Flemish Region
The Flemish Region is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. Colloquially, it is usually simply referred to as Flanders, of which it is the institutional iteration within the context of the Belgian political system...

 of Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

. It is the capital and biggest city of the East Flanders
East Flanders
East Flanders is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. It borders on the Netherlands and in Belgium on the provinces of Antwerp, Flemish Brabant , of Hainaut and of West Flanders...

 province. The city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt
Scheldt
The Scheldt is a 350 km long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands...

 and Lys
Lys River
The Leie or Lys is a river in France and Belgium, and a left tributary of the Scheldt. Its source is in Pas-de-Calais, France, and it flows into the river Scheldt in Ghent, Belgium. Its total length is ....

 and in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe. Today it is a busy city with a port
Port of Ghent
The port of Ghent is the third biggest port in Belgium. The first port of Ghent was situated at the Scheldt river and later on at the Lys river. Since the Middle Ages Ghent has sought for a connection to the sea. In the 13th century via the Lieve canal to the Zwin near Damme, in the 16th century...

 and a university. Although many of Belgium's visitors overlook Ghent, its beauty is often compared to the more well-known Bruges
Bruges
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

.

The municipality comprises the city of Ghent proper and the towns of Afsnee
Afsnee
Afsnee is a village in the Belgian province of East-Flanders. It is part of the urban area of the province's capital city Ghent.Its population is 1,445 . It is situated at the banks of the river Lys....

, Desteldonk
Desteldonk
Desteldonk is a parish in the municipality of Ghent in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The first historical record of Desteldonk dates back to 967. The area has a population of 900. It became part of Ghent in 1965.-External links:...

, Drongen
Drongen
Drongen is a submunicipality of the city of Ghent .Drongen is divided into three parishes: Drongen, Luchteren and Baarle....

, Gentbrugge
Gentbrugge
Gentbrugge is one of 25 districts of the city of Ghent, Belgium in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Gentbrugge together with Oud Gentbrugge had been a separate municipality before January 1, 1977, when it fused with Ghent.- Neighborhoods :...

, Ledeberg
Ledeberg
Ledeberg is a submunicipality of the city of Ghent. It lies south-east of downtown Ghent and has direct access to the E17 road.Its population is 13,974 inhabitants ....

, Mariakerke
Mariakerke
Mariakerke is a village in the Belgian province of East-Flanders. It is part of the urban area of the province's capital city Ghent. Its population is of 11,883 people .- History :...

, Mendonk
Mendonk
Mendonk is a village in the Belgian Province of East-Flanders, a part of the urban area of the province's capital city Ghent.It is situated near the canal that connects the cities of Ghent and Terneuzen, which puts Mendonk in the middle of an industrial area. Its population is 243 ....

, Oostakker
Oostakker
Oostakker, formerly spelled Oostacker, is one of the smaller former municipalities which were merged into Ghent , the capital of the Belgian province of East Flanders...

, Sint-Amandsberg
Sint-Amandsberg
Sint-Amandsberg is a sub-municipality of Ghent, Belgium. The municipality was formed in 1872 after splitting from Oostakker.During the First World War, on 7 June 1915, the German airschip LZ37 crashed after being destroyed by Reginald Warneford. A street was named Reginald Warnefordstreet in...

, Sint-Denijs-Westrem
Sint-Denijs-Westrem
Sint-Denijs-Westrem is a village in the Belgian province of East Flanders. It is part of the city of Ghent, lying to the southwest of the city center, between Sint-Martens-Latem, De Pinte, Zwijnaarde and Afsnee.-History:...

, Sint-Kruis-Winkel
Sint-Kruis-Winkel
Sint-Kruis-Winkel is a sub-municipality of Ghent, Belgium.-External links:...

, Wondelgem
Wondelgem
Wondelgem used to be a village in East Flanders, Belgium. It is now part of the city of Ghent.-History:In the 9th century the Carolingian emperors owned a large estate in Wondelgem. Ghent has a total population of about 230,000, of which about 12,407 people live in Wondelgem.-External links:...

 and Zwijnaarde
Zwijnaarde
Zwijnaarde is a village in the municipality of Ghent, Belgium. It is known for its fair and its Zwijntjes beer. A cluster of biotech companies is located at the Zwijnaarde science park, with biotech companies such as Innogenetics, and DevGen....

. With 240,191 inhabitants in the beginning of 2009, Ghent is Belgium's second largest municipality by number of inhabitants. The metropolitan area
Metropolitan areas in Belgium
National statistics differ between five Metropolitan areas in Belgium. These five metropolitan areas are also covered by Eurostat statistics as separate Larger Urban Zones .- Metropolitan areas :...

, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1205 km² (465 sq mi) and has a total population of 594,582 as of 1 January 2008, which ranks it as the fourth most populous in Belgium. The current mayor of Ghent, Daniël Termont
Daniël Termont
Daniël Termont is a Flemish politician, member of the Different Socialist Party and the mayor of Ghent, Belgium.He has been elected in the city council since 1976. From 1995 till 2006 he was alderman of the harbour...

, leads a coalition of the sp.a, Open VLD
Flemish Liberals and Democrats
' , commonly known as Open VLD and also simply as the VLD, is a Flemish liberal political party in Belgium, created in 1992 from the former Party for Freedom and Progress and a few other politicians from other parties. The party led the government for three cabinets under Guy Verhofstadt from 1999...

 and Pro Gent.

Every year the ten-day-long "Ghent Festival" (Gentse Feesten
Gentse Feesten
The Gentse Feesten is a music and theatre festival in the city of Ghent . Besides stage events there are random small street acts such as mimickers, buskers, etc. It starts on the Saturday before July 21 and lasts ten days...

in Dutch) is held. About two million visitors attend every year.

History



Archaeological evidence shows human presence in the region of the confluence of Scheldt and Lys going back as far as the Stone Age
Stone Age
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years , during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the...

 and the Iron Age
Iron Age
The Iron Age is the archaeological period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron. The early period of the age is characterized by the widespread use of iron or steel. The adoption of such material coincided with other changes in society, including differing...

. Most historians believe that the older name for Ghent, 'Ganda', is derived from the Celtic word 'ganda' which means confluence
Confluence (geography)
In geography, a confluence is the meeting of two or more bodies of water. It usually refers to the point where two streams flow together, merging into a single stream...

. There are no written records of the Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 period but archaeological research confirms that the region of Ghent was further inhabited.

When the Franks
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

 invaded the Roman territories (from the end of the 4th century and well into the 5th century) they brought their language with them and Celtic and Latin were replaced by Old Dutch
Old Dutch
In linguistics, Old Dutch denotes the forms of West Franconian spoken and written in the Netherlands and present-day northern Belgium during the Early Middle Ages. It is regarded as the primary stage in the development of a separate Dutch language...

.

Around 650 Saint Amand
Saint Amand
Saint Amand or Amandus was a French Christian saint, one of the great Christian Saints of Flanders.-Biography:...

 founded two abbey
Abbey
An abbey is a Catholic monastery or convent, under the authority of an Abbot or an Abbess, who serves as the spiritual father or mother of the community.The term can also refer to an establishment which has long ceased to function as an abbey,...

s in Ghent: the Saint Peter Abbey and the St. Bavo's Abbey
Saint Bavo Cathedral
thumb|right|225px|Sint-Baafs CathedralThe Saint Bavo Cathedral is the seat of the diocese of Ghent. It is named for Saint Bavo of Ghent....

. The city grew from several nuclei, the abbeys and a commercial centre. Around 800 Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious , also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781. He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor with his father, Charlemagne, from 813...

, son of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...

, appointed Einhard
Einhard
Einhard was a Frankish scholar and courtier. Einhard was a dedicated servant of Charlemagne and his son Louis the Pious; his main work is a biography of Charlemagne, the Vita Karoli Magni, "one of the most precious literary bequests of the early Middle Ages."-Public life:Einhard was from the eastern...

, the biographer of Charlemagne, as abbot of both abbeys. In 851 and 879 the city was however attacked and plundered twice by the Viking
Viking
The term Viking is customarily used to refer to the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century.These Norsemen used their famed longships to...

s.

The city recovered and flourished from the 11th century on. Until the 13th century Ghent was the biggest city in Europe after Paris; it was bigger than London, Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 or Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. Within the city walls lived up to 65,000 people. Today, the belfry
Belfry of Ghent
The 91-metre-high belfry of Ghent is one of three medieval towers that overlook the old city centre of Ghent, Belgium, the other two belonging to Saint Bavo Cathedral and Saint Nicholas' Church...

 and the towers of the Saint Bavo Cathedral
Saint Bavo Cathedral
thumb|right|225px|Sint-Baafs CathedralThe Saint Bavo Cathedral is the seat of the diocese of Ghent. It is named for Saint Bavo of Ghent....

 and Saint Nicholas' Church
Saint Nicholas' Church, Ghent
St. Nicholas' Church is one of the oldest and most prominent landmarks in Ghent, Belgium. Begun in the early 13th century as a replacement for an earlier Romanesque church, construction continued through the rest of the century in the local Scheldt Gothic style...

 are just a few examples of the skyline of the period.

The rivers flowed in an area where a lot of land was periodically inundated. These richly grassed 'meersen' ("water-meadows": a word related to the English 'marsh
Marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

', but not meaning exactly the same: a 'meers' is not permanently under water) were ideally suited for herding sheep, the wool of which was used for making cloth. In fact, Ghent was, during the Middle Ages, the most important city for cloth.

The wool industry, originally established at Bruges
Bruges
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

, created the first European industrialized zone in Ghent in the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

. The mercantile zone was so highly developed that wool had to be imported from Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 and England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

. This was one of the reasons for Flanders' good relationship with Scotland and England. Ghent was the birthplace of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th Centuries. See also Duchy of Lancaster.There were three creations of the Dukedom of Lancaster....

. The trade with England (but not Scotland) suffered significantly during the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of separate wars waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, also known as the House of Anjou, for the French throne, which had become vacant upon the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings...

.

The city recovered in the 14th century, while Flanders was united with neighbouring provinces under the Dukes of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

. High taxes led to a rebellion and eventually the Battle of Gavere
Battle of Gavere
The Battle of Gavere was fought near Semmerzake in Belgium on July 23, 1453 between an army under the Philip III, Duke of Burgundy and the rebelling city of Ghent. The army of the duke came out victorious and around 16,000 citizens of Ghent died...

 in 1453, in which Ghent suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of Philip the Good. Around this time the center of political and social importance in the Low Countries started to shift from Flanders (Bruges–Ghent) to Brabant
Duchy of Brabant
The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries. Its territory consisted essentially of the three modern-day Belgian provinces of Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant and Antwerp, the Brussels-Capital Region and most of the present-day Dutch province of North Brabant.The Flag of...

 (AntwerpBrussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

), although Ghent would continue to play an important role.

In 1500 Juana of Castile gave birth to Charles V
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.As...

, who became Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

 and King of Spain. Although native to Ghent, he punished the city after the 1539 Revolt of Ghent
Revolt of Ghent
The Revolt of Ghent was an uprising by the citizens of Ghent against the regime of the Holy Roman Emperor and Spanish King Charles V in 1539. The revolt was a reaction to high taxes, which the Flemish felt were only used to fight wars abroad, in particular the Italian War of 1536–1538. The rebels...

 and obliged the city's nobles to walk in front of the emperor barefoot with a noose (Dutch: strop) around the neck; since this incident, the people of Ghent have been called "Stroppendragers" (noose bearers). The Saint Bavo Abbey was abolished, torn down, and replaced with a fortress for Spanish troops. Only a small portion of the abbey was spared demolition.

The late 16th and the 17th century brought devastation because of the Religious wars. At one time Ghent was a Calvinistic
Calvinism
Calvinism is a Protestant theological system and an approach to the Christian life...

 republic, but eventually the Spanish army reinstated Catholicism
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

. The wars ended the role of Ghent as a center of international importance. In 1745 the city was captured
Fall of Ghent
The Fall of Ghent occurred on 15 July 1745 during the War of the Austrian Succession when a 5,000 strong French force under Ulrich Frédéric Woldemar, Comte de Lowendal surprised and captured the town of Ghent in the Austrian Netherlands. The Allied garrison offered little resistance.Coming in the...

 by French forces during the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
The War of the Austrian Succession  – including King George's War in North America, the Anglo-Spanish War of Jenkins' Ear, and two of the three Silesian wars – involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg.The...

 before being returned to Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 following the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled at the Imperial Free City of Aachen—Aix-la-Chapelle in French—in the west of the Holy Roman Empire, on 24 April 1748...

.

In the 18th and 19th century the textile industry flourished again in Ghent. In 1800 Lieven Bauwens
Lieven Bauwens
Lieven Bauwens was a Belgian entrepreneur and industrial spy who was sent to Great Britain at a young age and brought a spinning mule and skilled workers to the European continent....

, having smuggled the plans out of England, introduced the first mechanical weaving machine on the European continent.

Ghent was also the site of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent
The Treaty of Ghent , signed on 24 December 1814, in Ghent , was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland...

 which formally ended the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

 between Britain and the United States. After the battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands...

 Ghent became a part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
United Kingdom of the Netherlands is the unofficial name used to refer to Kingdom of the Netherlands during the period after it was first created from part of the First French Empire and before the new kingdom of Belgium split out in 1830...

 for 15 years. In this period Ghent established its own university
Ghent University
Ghent University is a Dutch-speaking public university located in Ghent, Belgium. It is one of the larger Flemish universities, consisting of 32,000 students and 7,100 staff members. The current rector is Paul Van Cauwenberge.It was established in 1817 by King William I of the Netherlands...

 (1817) and a new connection to the sea
Ghent-Terneuzen Canal
The Ghent-Terneuzen Canal , also known as the "Sea Canal" is a canal linking Ghent in Belgium to the port of Terneuzen on the Westerschelde estuary in the Netherlands, thereby providing the former with better access to the sea.-History:The canal was constructed between 1823 and 1827 on the...

 (1824–27).

After the Belgian Revolution
Belgian Revolution
The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the Southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and established an independent Kingdom of Belgium....

, with the loss of port access to the sea for more than a decade, the local economy collapsed and the first Belgian trade-union originated in Ghent. In 1913 there was a World exhibition in Ghent
Exposition universelle et internationale (1913)
The Exposition universelle et internationale of 1913 was a World's Fair held in Ghent from 6 April to October.-Background:A number of buildings were completed for the occasion. Notably, Gent-Sint-Pieters railway station was completed in 1912 in time for the exposition, and was situated opposite the...

. As a preparation for these festivities, the Sint-Pieters railway station
Sint-Pieters railway station
Gent-Sint-Pieters is the main railway station in Ghent and – depending upon the measure used – the second or third busiest railway station in Belgium. Its NMBS/SNCB internal code is FGSP.-History:...

 was completed in 1912.

Municipality



After the 1965 and 1977 fusions the city is made up of:
  • I Ghent
  • II Mariakerke
  • III Drongen
    Drongen
    Drongen is a submunicipality of the city of Ghent .Drongen is divided into three parishes: Drongen, Luchteren and Baarle....

  • IV Wondelgem
    Wondelgem
    Wondelgem used to be a village in East Flanders, Belgium. It is now part of the city of Ghent.-History:In the 9th century the Carolingian emperors owned a large estate in Wondelgem. Ghent has a total population of about 230,000, of which about 12,407 people live in Wondelgem.-External links:...

  • V Sint-Amandsberg
    Sint-Amandsberg
    Sint-Amandsberg is a sub-municipality of Ghent, Belgium. The municipality was formed in 1872 after splitting from Oostakker.During the First World War, on 7 June 1915, the German airschip LZ37 crashed after being destroyed by Reginald Warneford. A street was named Reginald Warnefordstreet in...

  • VI Oostakker
    Oostakker
    Oostakker, formerly spelled Oostacker, is one of the smaller former municipalities which were merged into Ghent , the capital of the Belgian province of East Flanders...

  • VII Desteldonk
    Desteldonk
    Desteldonk is a parish in the municipality of Ghent in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The first historical record of Desteldonk dates back to 967. The area has a population of 900. It became part of Ghent in 1965.-External links:...

  • VIII Mendonk
    Mendonk
    Mendonk is a village in the Belgian Province of East-Flanders, a part of the urban area of the province's capital city Ghent.It is situated near the canal that connects the cities of Ghent and Terneuzen, which puts Mendonk in the middle of an industrial area. Its population is 243 ....

  • IX Sint-Kruis-Winkel
    Sint-Kruis-Winkel
    Sint-Kruis-Winkel is a sub-municipality of Ghent, Belgium.-External links:...

  • X Ledeberg
    Ledeberg
    Ledeberg is a submunicipality of the city of Ghent. It lies south-east of downtown Ghent and has direct access to the E17 road.Its population is 13,974 inhabitants ....

  • XI Gentbrugge
    Gentbrugge
    Gentbrugge is one of 25 districts of the city of Ghent, Belgium in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Gentbrugge together with Oud Gentbrugge had been a separate municipality before January 1, 1977, when it fused with Ghent.- Neighborhoods :...

  • XII Afsnee
    Afsnee
    Afsnee is a village in the Belgian province of East-Flanders. It is part of the urban area of the province's capital city Ghent.Its population is 1,445 . It is situated at the banks of the river Lys....

  • XIII Sint-Denijs-Westrem
    Sint-Denijs-Westrem
    Sint-Denijs-Westrem is a village in the Belgian province of East Flanders. It is part of the city of Ghent, lying to the southwest of the city center, between Sint-Martens-Latem, De Pinte, Zwijnaarde and Afsnee.-History:...

  • XIV Zwijnaarde
    Zwijnaarde
    Zwijnaarde is a village in the municipality of Ghent, Belgium. It is known for its fair and its Zwijntjes beer. A cluster of biotech companies is located at the Zwijnaarde science park, with biotech companies such as Innogenetics, and DevGen....


Neighbouring municipalities

  • Wachtebeke
    Wachtebeke
    Wachtebeke is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the town of Wachtebeke proper, and a smaller town: Overslag. On January 1, 2006 Wachtebeke had a total population of 6,881...

  • Lochristi
    Lochristi
    Lochristi is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the towns of Beervelde, Lochristi proper, Zaffelare and Zeveneken. On January 1, 2010 Lochristi had a total population of 21,386. The total area is 60.34 km² which gives a population density of...

  • Destelbergen
    Destelbergen
    Destelbergen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the towns of Destelbergen proper and Heusden and was created on January 1, 1977 by the fusion of these two municipalities...

  • Melle
    Melle, Belgium
    Melle is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the villages of Gontrode and Melle proper. On January 1, 2006 Melle had a total population of 10,585...

  • Merelbeke
    Merelbeke
    Merelbeke is a municipality located in the Flemish province of East Flanders, in Belgium. The municipality comprises the villages of Bottelare, Lemberge, Melsen, Merelbeke proper, Munte and Schelderode. On January 1, 2006, Merelbeke had a total population of 22,353. The total area is 36.65 km²...

  • De Pinte
    De Pinte
    De Pinte is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. Before its existence as an independent municipality in 1868, De Pinte was a part of Nazareth. The municipality comprises the towns of De Pinte proper and Zevergem. On January 1, 2006 De Pinte had a total population of 10,235...

  • Sint-Martens-Latem
    Sint-Martens-Latem
    Sint-Martens-Latem is a municipality located in the Flemish province of East Flanders, in Belgium. The municipality comprises the towns of Deurle and Sint-Martens-Latem proper. On January 1, 2006 Sint-Martens-Latem had a total population of 8,280...

  • Deinze
    Deinze
    Deinze is a city and a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Deinze proper and the towns of Astene, Bachte-Maria-Leerne, Gottem, Grammene, Meigem, Petegem-aan-de-Leie, Sint-Martens-Leerne, Vinkt, Wontergem and Zeveren. On January 1,...

  • Nevele
    Nevele
    Nevele is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the towns of Hansbeke, Landegem, Merendree, Nevele proper, Poesele and Vosselare. On January 1, 2006 Nevele had a total population of 11,217...

  • Lovendegem
    Lovendegem
    Lovendegem is a municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the towns of Lovendegem proper and Vinderhoute. On January 1, 2006 Lovendegem had a total population of 9,358...

  • Evergem
    Evergem
    Evergem is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the towns of Belzele, Doornzele, Ertvelde, Evergem proper, Kerkbrugge-Langerbrugge, Kluizen, Rieme, Sleidinge and Wippelgem. On January 1, 2006 Evergem had a total population of 32,244...

  • Zelzate
    Zelzate
    Zelzate is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality only comprises the town of Zelzate proper. On January 1, 2006 Zelzate had a total population of 12,176. The total area is 13.71 km² which gives a population density of 888 inhabitants per km².Zelzate is...


Tourism



Architecture





Much of the city's medieval architecture
Architecture
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

 remains intact and is remarkably well preserved and restored. Its centre is the largest carfree area in Belgium. Interesting highlights are the Saint Bavo Cathedral
Saint Bavo Cathedral
thumb|right|225px|Sint-Baafs CathedralThe Saint Bavo Cathedral is the seat of the diocese of Ghent. It is named for Saint Bavo of Ghent....

 with the Ghent Altarpiece
Ghent Altarpiece
The Ghent Altarpiece or Adoration of the Mystic Lamb is a very large and complex Early Netherlandish polyptych panel painting which is considered to be one of Belgium's masterpieces and one of the world's treasures.It was once in the Joost Vijdt chapel at Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, but...

, the belfry
Belfry of Ghent
The 91-metre-high belfry of Ghent is one of three medieval towers that overlook the old city centre of Ghent, Belgium, the other two belonging to Saint Bavo Cathedral and Saint Nicholas' Church...

, the Gravensteen castle, and the splendid architecture along the old Graslei harbour. Ghent established a nice blend between comfort of living and history – it is not a city-museum. The city of Ghent houses also three béguinage
Béguinage
A béguinage or begijnhof is a collection of small buildings used by Beguines. These were various lay sisterhoods of the Roman Catholic Church, founded in the 13th century in the Low Countries, comprising religious women who sought to serve God without retiring from the world.-Description:A...

s and numerous churches, among which the Saint-Jacob's church, the Saint-Nicolas' church
Saint Nicholas' Church, Ghent
St. Nicholas' Church is one of the oldest and most prominent landmarks in Ghent, Belgium. Begun in the early 13th century as a replacement for an earlier Romanesque church, construction continued through the rest of the century in the local Scheldt Gothic style...

 and the Saint Michael's church are the most beautiful examples.

In the nineteenth century Ghent's most famous architect, Louis Roelandt
Louis Roelandt
Louis Roelandt or Lodewijk Joseph Adriaan Roelandt with his full Dutch name, was a Belgian architect that played an important role in the evolution of Neo-Renaissance and Neo-Classical architecture in Belgium....

, built the university hall Aula, the opera house and the main courthouse. Highlights of modern architecture are the university buildings (the Boekentoren
Boekentoren
The Boekentoren, is a famous building located in Ghent, Belgium, designed by the Belgian architect Henry Van de Velde...

or Book Tower) by Henry Van de Velde
Henry van de Velde
Henry Clemens Van de Velde was a Belgian Flemish painter, architect and interior designer. Together with Victor Horta and Paul Hankar he could be considered one of the main founders and representatives of Art Nouveau in Belgium...

. There are also a few theatres from diverse periods.

The beguinages, as well as the belfry and adjacent cloth hall, were recognized by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 as World Heritage Sites in 1998 and 1999.

Museums


Important museums in Ghent are the Museum voor Schone Kunsten
Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent
The Museum of Fine Arts ) in Ghent, Belgium, is situated at the East side of the Citadelpark .The museum holds a large permanent collection of art from the Middle Ages until mid 20th Century. The collection focuses on Flemish Art but also has several European- especially French- paintings...

 (Museum of Fine Arts), with paintings by Hieronymus Bosch, Peter Paul Rubens, and many Flemish masters; the SMAK or Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst (City Museum for Contemporary Art), with works of the 20th century, including Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys was a German performance artist, sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.His extensive work is grounded in concepts of humanism, social philosophy and anthroposophy; it culminates in his "extended definition of art" and the idea of social...

 and Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andrew Warhola , known as Andy Warhol, was an American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art...

; and the Design Museum with masterpieces of Victor Horta
Victor Horta
Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that...

 and Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier , was a Swiss-born French architect, designer, urbanist, writer and painter, famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930...

. The Huis van Alijn (House of the Alijn family) was originally a beguinage
Béguinage
A béguinage or begijnhof is a collection of small buildings used by Beguines. These were various lay sisterhoods of the Roman Catholic Church, founded in the 13th century in the Low Countries, comprising religious women who sought to serve God without retiring from the world.-Description:A...

 and is now a museum for folk art where theatre and puppet shows for children are presented. The Museum voor Industriële Archeologie en Textiel or MIAT displays the industrial strength of Ghent with recreations of workshops and stores from the 1800s and original spinning and weaving machines that remain from the time when the building was a weaving mill. STAM
STAM
Signal transducing adapter molecule 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAM gene.-Interactions:Signal transducing adaptor molecule has been shown to interact with STAMBP, HGS, TIMM8A and Janus kinase 2.-Further reading:...

, the new Ghent City Museum, is committed to recording and explaining the past of the city and its inhabitants, and to preserve the present for future generations.

Restaurants and culinary traditions


As with most Belgian
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 cities, Ghent offers a rich variety of local and foreign cuisine. The city centre and quarter called "Patershol" has a huge concentration of restaurants. The "Sleepstraat" a little bit further north houses a number of Turkish restaurants and food bars. By contrast, restaurants are rather sparse beyond the "historic centre".

In Ghent and other regions of East-Flanders, bakeries sell a donut-shaped bun called a "mastel" (plural "mastellen"), which is basically a bagel. "Mastellen" are also called "Saint Hubert bread", because on the Saint's feast day, which is 3 November, the bakers bring their batches to the early Mass to be blessed. Traditionally, it is thought that blessed mastellen immunize against rabies
Rabies
Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis in warm-blooded animals. It is zoonotic , most commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms...

.

As with many areas of northern Belgium the diet centres around hearty stews and soups. Flemish beef stew (stoverij) is available almost everywhere as is "Waterzooi
Waterzooi
Waterzooi is a classic stew of Flanders. Its name is Dutch, "zooien" meaning "to boil". It is sometimes called Gentse Waterzooi which refers to Ghent, a city in Belgium....

", a local stew originally made from freshwater fish caught in the rivers and creeks of Ghent, but nowadays often made with chicken instead of fish. It is usually served nouvelle-cuisine-style, and will be supplemented by a large pot on the side.

The city promotes a meat-free day on Thursdays called Donderdag Veggiedag with vegetarian food being promoted in public canteens for civil servants and elected councillors, in all city funded schools, and promotion of vegetarian eating options in town (through the distribution of "veggie street maps"). This campaign is linked to the recognition of the detrimental environmental effects of meat production, which the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

' Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a specialised agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and...

 has established to represent nearly one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Festivities


The city is host to some big cultural events such as the Gentse Feesten
Gentse Feesten
The Gentse Feesten is a music and theatre festival in the city of Ghent . Besides stage events there are random small street acts such as mimickers, buskers, etc. It starts on the Saturday before July 21 and lasts ten days...

, I Love Techno
I Love Techno
I Love Techno is an international techno event that takes place in Flanders Expo in Ghent, Belgium.Famous national and international DJs perform every year at this event...

, "10 Days Off" musical festival, Flanders International Film Festival Ghent (with the World Soundtrack Awards) and the Gent Festival van Vlaanderen. Also, every five years, a huge botanical exhibition (Gentse Floraliën) takes place in Ghent, attracting numerous visitors to the city.

The Festival of Flanders
Festival of Flanders
Festival of Flanders is an annual music event at different locations in Flanders. It started initially as a "Summer Festival", but now its activities are spread from January to May, with a peak in the late summer and early autumn.-History :The Festival of Flanders has its roots in Tongeren,...

 had its 50th celebration in 2008. In Ghent it opens with the OdeGand City festivities that takes place on the second Saturday of September. Some 50 concerts take place in diverse locations throughout the medieval inner-city and some 250 international artists performs. Other major Flemish cities hold similar events, all of which form part of the Festival of Flanders (Antwerp with Laus Polyphoniae
Laus Polyphoniae
Laus Polyphoniae is the summer edition of the Festival van Vlaanderen -Antwerp. Since 1994 this early music and polyphony festival takes place in the last weeks of August.Every edition has its central theme or compositor...

; Bruges with MAfestival; Brussels with KlaraFestival; Limburg with Basilica, Mechelen and Brabant with Novecento and Transit).

Economy


The port of Ghent
Port of Ghent
The port of Ghent is the third biggest port in Belgium. The first port of Ghent was situated at the Scheldt river and later on at the Lys river. Since the Middle Ages Ghent has sought for a connection to the sea. In the 13th century via the Lieve canal to the Zwin near Damme, in the 16th century...

, in the north of the city, is the third largest port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 of Belgium. It is accessed by the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal
Ghent-Terneuzen Canal
The Ghent-Terneuzen Canal , also known as the "Sea Canal" is a canal linking Ghent in Belgium to the port of Terneuzen on the Westerschelde estuary in the Netherlands, thereby providing the former with better access to the sea.-History:The canal was constructed between 1823 and 1827 on the...

, which ends near the Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 of Terneuzen
Terneuzen
Terneuzen is a city and municipality in the southwestern Netherlands, in the province of Zeeland, in the middle of Zeelandic Flanders. With over 55,000 inhabitants, it is the most populous municipality of Zeeland.-Population centres :...

 on the Western Scheldt
Western Scheldt
The Western Scheldt in the province Zeeland in the southwestern Netherlands, is the estuary of the Scheldt river. This river once had several estuaries, but the others are disconnected from the Scheldt, leaving the Westerschelde as its only direct way to the sea. It is an important shipping route...

. The port houses, among others, big companies like Arcelor-Mittal
Arcelor-Mittal
ArcelorMittal S.A. is a global steel company headquartered in Avenue de la Liberté, Luxembourg, Luxembourg. It is the largest steel producing company in the world and is the market leader in steel for use in automotive, construction, household appliances and packaging. It holds sizeable captive...

, Volvo Cars
Volvo Cars
Volvo Car Corporation, or Volvo Personvagnar AB, is a Swedish automobile manufacturer founded in 1927, in Gothenburg, Sweden. It is owned by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Volvo was originally formed as a subsidiary company to the ball bearing maker SKF. When Volvo AB was introduced on the Swedish...

, Volvo Trucks
Volvo Trucks
Volvo Trucks is a global truck manufacturer based in Sweden, owned by Volvo Group - AB Volvo it is the world's second largest heavy-duty truck brand....

, Volvo Parts, Honda
Honda
is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles.Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than...

, and Stora Enso
Stora Enso
Stora Enso Oyj is a Finnish pulp and paper manufacturer, formed by the merger of Swedish mining and forestry products company Stora and Finnish forestry products company Enso-Gutzeit Oy in 1998. It is headquartered in Helsinki, and it has approximately 29,000 employees...

.

The Ghent University
Ghent University
Ghent University is a Dutch-speaking public university located in Ghent, Belgium. It is one of the larger Flemish universities, consisting of 32,000 students and 7,100 staff members. The current rector is Paul Van Cauwenberge.It was established in 1817 by King William I of the Netherlands...

 and a number of research oriented companies are situated in the central and southern part of the city, such as Ablynx, Innogenetics, Cropdesign, Bayer Cropscience.

As the biggest city of East-Flanders, Ghent has many hospitals, schools and shopping streets.

Tourism is increasingly becoming a major employer in the local area.

Transport


As one of the largest cities in Belgium, Ghent has a highly developed transportation system.
  • By car the city is accessible by two of the country's main roads:
    • The E40
      European route E40
      European route E 40 is the longest European route, more than long, connecting Calais in France via Belgium, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan, with Ridder in Kazakhstan near the border to China....

      : connects Ghent with Bruges
      Bruges
      Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country....

       and Ostend
      Ostend
      Ostend  is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke , Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend proper – the largest on the Belgian coast....

       to the west, and with Brussels
      Brussels
      Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

      , Leuven
      Leuven
      Leuven is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region, Belgium...

       and Liège
      Liège
      Liège is a major city and municipality of Belgium located in the province of Liège, of which it is the economic capital, in Wallonia, the French-speaking region of Belgium....

       to the east.
    • The E17
      European route E17
      European route E 17 passes through the following cities:** Antwerp → Sint-Niklaas → Ghent → Kortrijk** Tourcoing → Lille** Lille → Arras** Arras → Cambrai → Saint-Quentin → Laon → Reims...

      : connects Ghent with Sint-Niklaas
      Sint-Niklaas
      Sint-Niklaas is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Sint-Niklaas proper and the towns of Belsele, Nieuwkerken-Waas, and Sinaai....

       and Antwerp to the north, and with Kortrijk
      Kortrijk
      Kortrijk ; , ; ) is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province West Flanders...

       and Lille
      Lille
      Lille is a city in northern France . It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country behind those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium...

       to the south.

  • In addition Ghent also has two ringways:
    • The R4: connects the outskirts of Ghent with each other and the surrounding villages, and also leads to the E40
      European route E40
      European route E 40 is the longest European route, more than long, connecting Calais in France via Belgium, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan, with Ridder in Kazakhstan near the border to China....

       and E17
      European route E17
      European route E 17 passes through the following cities:** Antwerp → Sint-Niklaas → Ghent → Kortrijk** Tourcoing → Lille** Lille → Arras** Arras → Cambrai → Saint-Quentin → Laon → Reims...

       roads.
    • The R40: connects the different downtown quarters with each other, and provides access to the main avenues.

  • The municipality of Ghent comprises five train stations:
    • Gent-Sint-Pieters Station: an international train station with connections to Bruges, Brussels, Antwerp, Kortrijk, other Belgian towns and Lille. The station also offers a direct connection to Brussels Airport
      Brussels Airport
      Brussels Airport is an international airport northeast of Brussels, Belgium. The airport is partially in Zaventem and partially in the Diegem area of Machelen, both located in the Flemish Region of Belgium.Brussels Airport currently consists of 54 contact gates, and a total of 109 gates...

      .
    • Gent-Dampoort Station
      Gent-Dampoort railway station
      Gent-Dampoort is the second largest railway station in Ghent. It is situated on Belgian railway line 59 and Belgian railway line 58 . The current building was built in 1973 by architects Dirk Servaes and Johan Beyne. The railway station is situated in the neighbourhood Dampoort in Ghent....

      : an intercity train station with connections to Sint-Niklaas, Antwerp, Kortrijk and Eeklo
      Eeklo
      Eeklo is a Belgian municipality in the Flemish province of East Flanders. The municipality only comprises the city of Eeklo proper. The name Eeklo comes from the contraction of “eke” and “lo”, two Old German words meaning “oak” and “sparse woods”....

      .
    • Gentbrugge Station: a regional train station in between the two main train stations, Sint-Pieters and Dampoort.
    • Wondelgem Station: a regional train station with connections to Eeklo once an hour.
    • Drongen Station: a regional train station in the village of Drongen
      Drongen
      Drongen is a submunicipality of the city of Ghent .Drongen is divided into three parishes: Drongen, Luchteren and Baarle....

       with only a limited number of trains a day.

  • Ghent has an extensive web of public transport lines, operated by De Lijn
    De Lijn
    Vlaamse Vervoersmaatschappij De Lijn , usually known as simply De Lijn , is a company run by the Flemish government in Belgium to provide public transportation, similar to the way in which Belgian railroads or the postal system is run. It runs about 3650 buses and 359 trams...

    :
    • Ghent Tram
      Ghent Tram
      The Ghent tram is public transport in the city of Ghent, Belgium. Since 1991, it has been operated by De Lijn, the public transport entity responsible for buses and trams in Flanders. As of the end of 2008, there were 40 HermeLijn trams and 43 PCC trams, running on three routes.-General...

       (see pictures below):
      • Line 1: Flanders Expo - Sint-Pieters-Station - Korenmarkt (city centre) - Evergem
        Evergem
        Evergem is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the towns of Belzele, Doornzele, Ertvelde, Evergem proper, Kerkbrugge-Langerbrugge, Kluizen, Rieme, Sleidinge and Wippelgem. On January 1, 2006 Evergem had a total population of 32,244...

      • Line 21: Zwijnaardebrug - UZ - Sint-Pieters-Station - Zonnestraat (city centre) - Zuid - Melle Leeuw
        Melle, Belgium
        Melle is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the villages of Gontrode and Melle proper. On January 1, 2006 Melle had a total population of 10,585...

      • Line 22: Zwijnaardebrug - UZ - Sint-Pieters-Station - Zonnestraat (city centre) - Zuid - Gentbrugge
        Gentbrugge
        Gentbrugge is one of 25 districts of the city of Ghent, Belgium in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Gentbrugge together with Oud Gentbrugge had been a separate municipality before January 1, 1977, when it fused with Ghent.- Neighborhoods :...

      • Line 4: Sint-Pieters-Station - Muide - Korenmarkt (city centre) - Zuid - Moscou
        Moscou (Ghent)
        Moscou is a densely populated, largely suburban neighbourhood of the Belgian city of Ghent, which owes its peculiar name to the presence of the Russian army in 1814-1815.- History :...


    • City buses (see picture below):
      • Line 3: Mariakerke
        Mariakerke
        Mariakerke is a village in the Belgian province of East-Flanders. It is part of the urban area of the province's capital city Ghent. Its population is of 11,883 people .- History :...

         - Korenmarkt (city centre) - Dampoort-Station - Gentbrugge (former Trolleybus (see picture below))
      • Line 5: Van Beverenplein - Sint-Jacobs (city centre) - Zuid - UZ - Zwijnaarde
        Zwijnaarde
        Zwijnaarde is a village in the municipality of Ghent, Belgium. It is known for its fair and its Zwijntjes beer. A cluster of biotech companies is located at the Zwijnaarde science park, with biotech companies such as Innogenetics, and DevGen....

      • Line 6: Watersportbaan - Zuid - Dampoort-Station - Wondelgem - Mariakerke
      • Line 8: Zuid - University - Sint-Pieters-Station - Blaarmeersen
      • Line 9: Mariakerke - Malem
        Malem, Ghent
        Malem is a garden-city neighbourhood in the city of Ghent, Belgium. The neighbourhood was built between 1948 and 1953 in a very homogeneous garden-city idea, with uniform white houses, that were designed to house victims of World War II. The neighbourhood has kept its original character. The area...

         - Sint-Pieters-Station - Gentbrugge
      • Line 17/18: Drongen - Korenmarkt (city centre) - Dampoort-Station - Oostakker
        Oostakker
        Oostakker, formerly spelled Oostacker, is one of the smaller former municipalities which were merged into Ghent , the capital of the Belgian province of East Flanders...

      • Line 38/39: Blaarmeersen - Korenmarkt (city centre) - Dampoort-Station - Sint-Amandsberg
        Sint-Amandsberg
        Sint-Amandsberg is a sub-municipality of Ghent, Belgium. The municipality was formed in 1872 after splitting from Oostakker.During the First World War, on 7 June 1915, the German airschip LZ37 crashed after being destroyed by Reginald Warneford. A street was named Reginald Warnefordstreet in...

    • At Sint-Pieters-Station and the Zuid bus station there are several regional buses as well.


When arriving in Ghent, it is best to leave cars in Park & Ride zones next to the road. The actual city centre is a car free area, and parking is difficult and expensive in the city. On weekends, night buses provide free transportation through the night.

Sports


In the Belgian first football division Ghent is represented by K.A.A. Gent. Another Ghent football club is KRC Gent-Zeehaven, playing in the Belgian fourth division.

Every year the Six Days of Flanders
Six Days of Ghent
The Six Days of Ghent is a six-day track cycling race held annually in Ghent, Belgium.It takes place in the Kuipke velodrome in Ghent's Citadelpark.The 2006 event from 21 November to 26 November was marred by the death of one of the riders...

, a six-day track cycling race
Six-day racing
A six or six-day is a track cycling race that lasts six days. Six-day races started in Britain, spread to many regions of the world, were brought to their modern style in the United States and are now mainly a European event. Initially, individuals competed alone, the winner being the individual...

, is held in Ghent. It takes place in the Kuipke velodrome.

The city also hosts an annual track and field
Track and field
Track and field is a sport comprising various competitive athletic contests based around the activities of running, jumping and throwing. The name of the sport derives from the venue for the competitions: a stadium which features an oval running track surrounding a grassy area...

 meet at the Flanders Sports Arena
Flanders Sports Arena
The Flanders Sports Arena is a multi-purpose Indoor arena in Ghent, Belgium. Opened in 2000, the Flanders Sports Arena can hold up to 5,000 people in sporting events....

: the Indoor Flanders meeting
Indoor Flanders Meeting
The Indoor Flanders meeting is an annual indoor track and field meeting which takes place at the Flanders Sports Arena arena in Ghent, Belgium. It is one of foremost meetings on the indoor European circuit and is one of nine events which hold IAAF Indoor Permit Meeting status.First held in 1990,...

. It is one of the IAAF's foremost indoor track and field events and two-time Olympic champion Hicham El Guerrouj
Hicham El Guerrouj
Hicham El Guerrouj "King of the Mile" is a Moroccan former middle distance runner...

 set a world record at the event in 1997.

Famous people



  • Saint Bavo
    Saint Bavo
    Saint Bavo of Ghent is a Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox saint.-Life:Bavo was born near Liège, Belgium, to a Frankish noble family that gave him the name Allowin...

    , patron saint
    Patron saint
    A patron saint is a saint who is regarded as the intercessor and advocate in heaven of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person...

     of Ghent (589–654)
  • Saint Livinus of Ghent, (580–657)
  • Henry of Ghent
    Henry of Ghent
    Henry of Ghent , scholastic philosopher, known as Doctor Solemnis , also known as Henricus de Gandavo and Henricus Gandavensis, was born in the district of Mude, near Ghent, and died at Tournai...

    , scholastic
    Scholasticism
    Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100–1500, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context...

     philosopher (c. 1217–1293)
  • Jacob van Artevelde
    Jacob van Artevelde
    Jacob van Artevelde , also known as the Wise Man and the Brewer of Ghent, was a Flemish statesman and political leader....

    , statesman and political leader (c. 1290–1345)
  • John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster , KG was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault...

     (1340–1399)
  • Jan van Eyck
    Jan van Eyck
    Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century....

    , painter (c. 1385–1441)
  • Hugo van der Goes
    Hugo van der Goes
    Hugo van der Goes was a Flemish painter. He was, along with Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Hans Memling and Gerard David, one of the most important of the Early Netherlandish painters.-Biography:...

    , painter (c. 1440–1482)
  • Jacob Obrecht
    Jacob Obrecht
    Jacob Obrecht was a Flemish composer of the Renaissance. He was the most famous composer of masses in Europe in the late 15th century, being eclipsed by only Josquin des Prez after his death.-Life:...

    , composer of the Renaissance
    Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

     (c. 1457–1505)
  • Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
    Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
    Charles V was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.As...

    , Karel V, Charles Quint (1500–1558)
  • Cornelius Canis
    Cornelius Canis
    Cornelius Canis was a Franco-Flemish composer, singer, and choir director of the Renaissance, active for much of his life in the Grande Chapelle, the imperial Habsburg music establishment during the reign of Emperor Charles V...

    , composer of the Renaissance, music director for the chapel of Charles V in the 1540s–1550s
  • Daniel Heinsius
    Daniel Heinsius
    Daniel Heinsius was one of the most famous scholars of the Dutch Renaissance.-His youth and student years:...

    , scholar of the Dutch Renaissance
    Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

     (1580–1655)
  • Caspar de Crayer
    Caspar de Crayer
    Gaspar de Crayer , sometimes called Gaspard or Caspar de Crayer was a Flemish painter.Crayer was born in Antwerp. He learned the art of painting from Michael Coxcie. He matriculated in the Guild of St Luke at Brussels in 1607, resided in the capital of Brabant till after 1660, and finally settled...

    , painter (1582–1669)
  • Josse Boutmy
    Josse Boutmy
    Josse Boutmy was a composer, organist and harpsichordist of the Austrian Netherlands who established himself in Brussels. Born into a musical family, his grandfather, father, brother and sons were all musicians, also called the Boutmy Dynasty.-Background:He worked with the Prince of Thurn and...

    , composer, organist and harpsichordist (1697–1779)
  • Frans de Potter
    Frans de Potter
    Frans de Potter was a Belgian writer.He was Chief Clerk of the Fondsenblad of Ghent, and from 1886 onwards secretary of the Flemish Academy...

    , writer, (1834–1904)
  • Jan Frans Willems
    Jan Frans Willems
    Jan Frans Willems , Flemish writer and father of the Flemish movement.Willems was born in the Belgian city of Boechout, while that was under French occupation. He started his career in the office of a notary in Antwerp....

    , writer (1793–1846)
  • Joseph Guislain
    Joseph Guislain
    Joseph Guislain was a Belgian physician and a pioneer in psychiatry.-Education:Guislain started his medical studies at Ecole de Médicine and he was one of the first students to the University of Ghent; he graduated as a medical doctor in 1819.-Career:In 1828 Guislain became head of the psychiatric...

    , physician (1797–1860)
  • Hippolyte Metdepenningen
    Hippolyte Metdepenningen
    Hippolyte Désiré Metdepenningen was a Belgian lawyer, president of the Ghent Bar Association and a politician.After Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 he became a municipal councilor on the Orangist list. In 1846 he was co-founder of the Liberal Party, which was the first...

    , lawyer and politician (1799–1881)
  • Louis XVIII of France
    Louis XVIII of France
    Louis XVIII , known as "the Unavoidable", was King of France and of Navarre from 1814 to 1824, omitting the Hundred Days in 1815...

     was exiled in Ghent during the Hundred Days
    Hundred Days
    The Hundred Days, sometimes known as the Hundred Days of Napoleon or Napoleon's Hundred Days for specificity, marked the period between Emperor Napoleon I of France's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815...

     in 1815
  • Charles John Seghers
    Charles John Seghers
    Charles John Seghers was a Belgian clergyman and missionary bishop. He is considered to be the founder of the Alaska Mission.-Early years and formation:...

    , Jesuit clergyman and missionary (1839–1886)
  • Victor Horta
    Victor Horta
    Victor, Baron Horta was a Belgian architect and designer. John Julius Norwich described him as "undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect." Indeed, Horta is one of the most important names in Art Nouveau architecture; the construction of his Hôtel Tassel in Brussels in 1892-3 means that...

    , Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

     architect (1861–1947)
  • Maurice Maeterlinck
    Maurice Maeterlinck
    Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, also called Comte Maeterlinck from 1932, was a Belgian playwright, poet, and essayist who wrote in French. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1911. The main themes in his work are death and the meaning of life...

    , poet, playwright, essayist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature
    Nobel Prize in Literature
    Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words from the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction"...

     (1862–1949)
  • Frans Rens
    Frans Rens
    Frans Rens was a Flemish writer.From 1823 up to 1843, he was an inspector of gold and silver work at Ghent, and head of lower education for the school area Lokeren.-Source:...

    , writer, (1805–1874)
  • Leo Baekeland
    Leo Baekeland
    Leo Hendrik Baekeland was a Belgian chemist who invented Velox photographic paper and Bakelite , an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile, and popular plastic, which marks the beginning of the modern plastics industry.-Career:Leo Baekeland was born in Sint-Martens-Latem near Ghent, Belgium,...

    , chemist and inventor of Bakelite (1863–1944)
  • Pierre Louÿs
    Pierre Louÿs
    Pierre Louÿs was a French poet and writer, most renowned for lesbian and classical themes in some of his writings. He is known as a writer who "expressed pagan sensuality with stylistic perfection."-Life:...

    , poet and romantic writer (1870–1925)
  • Marthe Boël, feminist (1877–1956)
  • Karel van de Woestijne
    Karel van de Woestijne
    Karel van de Woestijne was a Flemish writer and brother of the painter Gustave van de Woestijne. He went to highschool at the Koninklijk Athenaeum at the Ottogracht in Ghent. He also studied Germanic philology at the University of Ghent, where he came into contact with French symbolism...

    , writer (1878–1929)
  • Corneille Jean François Heymans, physiologist and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the field of life science and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will...

     (1892–1968)
  • Gustave Van de Woestijne
    Gustave Van de Woestijne
    Gustave Van de Woestijne was a Belgian expressionist painter.He belonged to the so-called "First Group of Latem", a group of artists who worked in the rural village of Sint-Martens-Latem on the banks of the Lys, near Ghent. He was the brother of the Flemish poet Karel Van de Woestijne....

    , painter (1881–1947)
  • Suzanne Lilar
    Suzanne Lilar
    Suzanne, Baroness Lilar was a Flemish Belgian essayist, novelist, and playwright writing in French...

    , essayist, novelist, and playwright (1901–1992)
  • Jean Daskalidès
    Jean Daskalidès
    Jean Daskalidès , was a Belgian of Greek descent who became famous for his chocolates under the name Daskalidès and Leonidas. He was also a gynecologist, film director, jazz musician, hospital director and lecturer at the University of Ghent.-Source:*...

    , gynecologist and founder of Leonidas chocolates (1922–1992)
  • Willy De Clercq
    Willy De Clercq
    Willy Clarisse Elvire Hector, Viscount De Clercq was a Belgian liberal politician.De Clercq was born in Ghent...

    , liberal politician and European Commissioner (1927–2011)
  • Jacques Rogge
    Jacques Rogge
    Jacques Rogge, Count Rogge , is a Belgian sports bureaucrat. He is the eighth and current President of the International Olympic Committee .-Life and career:...

    , International Olympic Committee
    International Olympic Committee
    The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

     President (1942–)
  • Marc Mortier
    Marc Mortier
    Marc Mortier was CEO of Flanders Expo from its foundation in 1986 to 2002. Flanders Expo is the biggest event hall in Flanders, and the second biggest in Belgium . Mortier later became president of Febelux, the Federation of Exhibitions in Belgium and Luxemburg...

    , first CEO (1986 - 2002) of Flanders Expo
    Flanders Expo
    Flanders Expo is a multi-purpose indoor arena in Ghent, Belgium. Flanders Expo is founded in 1986. The first CEO was Marc Mortier from 1986 till 2002. Flanders Expo is the biggest event hall in Flanders, and the second biggest in Belgium. A lot of big fairs take place.Till 2002, a lot of concerts...

      (1948-2004)
  • Gabriel Ríos
    Gabriel Rios
    Gabriel Ríos is a Puerto Rican musician currently residing in Brooklyn.-Biography:As a child Ríos was member of his church choir, and in addition to this early exposure to music his father also taught him to play the guitar. After finishing his studies at the Academia del Perpetuo Socorro high...

    , musician
  • Cédric Van Branteghem
    Cédric Van Branteghem
    Cédric Marie Carlos Thérèse Van Branteghem is a Belgian sprinter, who specializes in the 400 metres.-Achievements:-Personal bests:*100 metres - 10.54 s *200 metres - 20.60 s *400 metres - 45.02 s...

    , sprinter athlete
  • Soulwax
    Soulwax
    Soulwax, headed by David and Stephen Dewaele, are an alternative rock/electronic band from Ghent, Belgium. Next to the Dewaele brothers, Soulwax consists of bassist Stefaan Van Leuven and drummer Steve Slingeneyer. They were first noticed after the release of their album Much Against Everyone's...

    , electronic/rock band: brothers David and Stephen Dewaele
  • Xavier Henry
    Xavier Henry
    Xavier Henry is an American professional basketball shooting guard with the Memphis Grizzlies of the Xavier Henry is an American professional [[basketball]] [[shooting guard]] with the [[Memphis Grizzlies]] of the Xavier Henry is an American professional [[basketball]] [[shooting guard]] with...

    , shooting guard
    Shooting guard
    The shooting guard , also known as the two or off guard, is one of five traditional positions on a basketball team. Players of the position are often shorter, leaner, and quicker than forwards. A shooting guard's main objective is to score points for his team...

     for the NBA
    National Basketball Association
    The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

    's Memphis Grizzlies
    Memphis Grizzlies
    The Memphis Grizzlies are a professional basketball team based in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. The team is part of the Southwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association . Along with the Toronto Raptors, the Grizzlies were established in 1995 as part of the NBA's...

  • Bradley Wiggins
    Bradley Wiggins
    Bradley Marc Wiggins, CBE is a British professional track and road bicycle racer, currently riding for Team Sky. Wiggins' career began on the track, where he specialised in the pursuit and madison disciplines....

    , British cyclist

Twin towns — Sister cities


Ghent is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Nottingham
Nottingham
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England. It is located in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire and represents one of eight members of the English Core Cities Group...

, England, United Kingdom Tallinn
Tallinn
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It occupies an area of with a population of 414,940. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the banks of the Gulf of Finland, south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg. Tallinn's Old Town is in the list...

, Estonia
Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

 Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden is a city in southwest Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. It has about 275,400 inhabitants, plus approximately 10,000 United States citizens...

, Germany Kanazawa
Kanazawa, Ishikawa
is the capital city of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.-Geography, climate, and population:Kanazawa sits on the Sea of Japan, bordered by the Japan Alps, Hakusan National Park and Noto Peninsula National Park. The city sits between the Sai and Asano rivers. Its total area is 467.77 km².Kanazawa's...

, Japan
Melle
Melle, Germany
Melle is a city in the district of Osnabrück, Lower Saxony, Germany. The city corresponds to what used to be the district of Melle until regional territorial reform in 1972. Since then Melle is the third largest city in Lower Saxony in terms of surface area....

, Germany Mohammedia
Mohammedia
Mohammedia is a port city on the west coast of Morocco located between Casablanca and Rabat in the region of Greater Casablanca. It hosts the most important oil refinery of Morocco, Samir, which makes it the center of the Moroccan petrol...

, Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 Saint-Raphaël
Saint-Raphaël, Var
Saint-Raphaël is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.Immediately to the west of Saint-Raphaël lies another, older, town called Fréjus, and together they form an urban agglomeration known as Fréjus Saint-Raphaël...

, France

External links