Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans
Roman Emperor
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period . The Romans had no single term for the office although at any given time, a given title was associated with the emperor...

" from the Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

. After the 16th century, this elected monarch governed the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 (later called Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation), a Central European union of territories of the Medieval and Early Modern period.
The title of Emperor (Imperator
The Latin word Imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen. The English word emperor derives from imperator via Old French Empreur...

) carried with it an important role as protector of the Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...


800    Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome.

881    Pope John VIII crowns Charles the Fat, the King of Italy: Emperor

962    ''Translatio imperii'': Pope John XII crowns Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor in nearly 40 years.

982    Holy Roman Emperor Otto II is defeated by the Saracens in the battle of Capo Colonna, in Calabria

996    Sixteen-year-old Otto III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1026    Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor.

1039    Henry III becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

1111    Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1186    Henry VI, the son and heir of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, marries Constance of Sicily.

1227    Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, is excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for his failure to participate in the Crusades.