Cologne

Cologne

Overview
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city (after Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

), and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

 and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area
Rhine-Ruhr
The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with about 10,100,000 inhabitants. It is of polycentric nature and the only megacity in Germany. It covers an area of 7,110 square kilometers and lies entirely within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia...

, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.

Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and is a World Heritage Site...

 (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne.
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Timeline

1647   Thirty Years' War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm.

1880   Construction of Cologne Cathedral, the most famous landmark in Cologne, Germany, is completed.

1945   Cologne is captured by American Troops.

1964   World War II veteran Walter Seifert runs amok in an elementary school in Cologne, Germany, killing at least eight children and two teachers and seriously injuring several more with a home-made flamethrower and a lance.

1977   Hanns Martin Schleyer, is kidnapped in Cologne, West Germany by the Red Army Faction and is later murdered.

2009   The building of the Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln (Historical Archives) in Cologne, Germany, collapses.

 
Encyclopedia
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city (after Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

), and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

 and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area
Rhine-Ruhr
The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with about 10,100,000 inhabitants. It is of polycentric nature and the only megacity in Germany. It covers an area of 7,110 square kilometers and lies entirely within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia...

, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.

Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and is a World Heritage Site...

 (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. The University of Cologne
University of Cologne
The University of Cologne is one of the oldest universities in Europe and, with over 44,000 students, one of the largest universities in Germany. The university is part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, an association of Germany's leading research universities...

 (Universität zu Köln) is one of Europe's oldest and largest universities.

Cologne is a major cultural centre of the Rhineland
Rhineland
Historically, the Rhinelands refers to a loosely-defined region embracing the land on either bank of the River Rhine in central Europe....

 and has a vibrant arts scene. Cologne is home to more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair
Cologne Trade Fair
Koelnmesse is the name of the international trade fair and exhibition center located in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...

 hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne
Art Cologne
Art Cologne is an art fair held annually in Cologne, Germany and was established in 1967 as Kölner Kunstmarkt. It is regarded the world's oldest art fair of its kind. The fair runs for six days and brings together galleries from more than 20 countries...

, imm Cologne
Imm Cologne
The imm Cologne is an international, public open furniture trade show held at koelnmesse exhibition centre Cologne, Germany - every year in January....

, Gamescom
Gamescom
gamescom is a trade fair for video games held annually at the Koelnmesse in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is organised by the Bundesverband Interaktive Unterhaltungssoftware...

 and the Photokina
Photokina
The photokina is the world's largest trade fair for the photographic and imaging industries. The first photokina was held in Cologne, Germany, in 1950, and it is now held biannually in September at the koelnmesse Trade Fair and Exhibition Centre...

.

Roman Cologne


The first urban settlement on the grounds of what today is the center of Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, which was founded in 38 BC by the Ubii
Ubii
thumb|right|350px|The Ubii around AD 30The Ubii were a Germanic tribe first encountered dwelling on the right bank of the Rhine in the time of Julius Caesar, who formed an alliance with them in 55 BC in order to launch attacks across the river...

, a Cisrhenian
Germani cisrhenani
Germani Cisrhenani is a Latin term which refers to that part of the tribal people known as Germani who lived to the west of the Rhine river. Cisrhenane, the English form of the word, means "this side of the Rhine"...

 Germanic tribe
Germanic peoples
The Germanic peoples are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Indo-European Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.Originating about 1800 BCE from the Corded Ware Culture on the North...

. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine  and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior
Germania Inferior
Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in today's Luxembourg, southern Netherlands, parts of Belgium, and North Rhine-Westphalia left of the Rhine....

 in 85 AD. The city was named "Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium was the name of the Roman colony in the Rhineland out of which the German city of Cologne developed.It was the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and the headquarters of the military in the region. With the administrative reforms under Diocletian,...

" in 50 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900 year old Roman boat was made in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
The Gallic Empire is the modern name for a breakaway realm that existed from 260 to 274. It originated during the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century....

 under Postumus
Postumus
Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus was a Roman emperor of Batavian origin. He usurped power from Gallienus in 260 and formed the so-called Gallic Empire...

, Marius
Marcus Aurelius Marius
Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 269 following the assassination of Postumus.-Reign:According to later tradition, he was a blacksmith by trade who rose through the ranks of the Roman army to become an officer. He was present with the army that revolted at Moguntiacum...

 and Victorinus
Victorinus
Marcus Piavonius Victorinus was emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire from 269 to 271, following the brief reign of Marius. He was murdered by a jealous husband whose wife he tried to seduce.-Reign:...

. In 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. The imperial governors of Rome resided in the city and became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps.

Maternus, who was elected as bishop
Bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

 in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Franks in 459. In 785, Cologne became the seat of an archbishop
Archbishop
An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

ric.

Middle Ages


During the time of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven prince-elector
Prince-elector
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

s and one of the three ecclesiastical electors. The archbishops had ruled large temporal domains but in 1288 Sigfried II von Westerburg was defeated in the Battle of Worringen
Battle of Worringen
The Battle of Worringen was fought on June 5, 1288, near the town of Worringen , which is now the northernmost borough of Cologne...

 and forced into exile in Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

.

Cologne's location on the river Rhine placed it at the intersection of the major trade route
Trade route
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. Allowing goods to reach distant markets, a single trade route contains long distance arteries which may further be connected to several smaller networks of commercial...

s between east and west and was the basis of Cologne's growth. Cologne was a member of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
The Hanseatic League was an economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe...

  and became a Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city was a city formally ruled by the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which were governed by one of the many princes of the Empire, such as dukes or prince-bishops...

 in 1475. Interestingly the archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment
Capital punishment
Capital punishment, the death penalty, or execution is the sentence of death upon a person by the state as a punishment for an offence. Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. The term capital originates from the Latin capitalis, literally...

. Thus the municipal council (though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning criminal justice. This included torture, which sentence was only allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called "Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne.

Besides its economic and political significance Cologne also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop Rainald of Dassel
Rainald of Dassel
Rainald of Dassel was archbishop of Cologne from 1159 to 1167 and archchancellor of Italy. He was preceded as archbishop by Friedrich II of Berg and succeeded by Philip I von Heinsberg....

 gave the relics of the Three Wise Men to Cologne's cathedral in 1164 (after they in fact had been captured from Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

). Besides the three magi Cologne preserves the relics of Saint Ursula
Saint Ursula
Saint Ursula is a British Christian saint. Her feast day in the extraordinary form calendar of the Catholic Church is October 21...

 and Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus, O.P. , also known as Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, is a Catholic saint. He was a German Dominican friar and a bishop, who achieved fame for his comprehensive knowledge of and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. Those such as James A. Weisheipl...

.

The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterized by the city's status as a major harbour and transport hub upon the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organized by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.
As a free city Cologne was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) to maintain its own military force. Wearing a red uniform these troops were known as the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 ("Reichskontingent") and fought in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary France, when the small force was almost completely wiped out in combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken.

The free city of Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

. Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were taken from the Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

n dynasty Wittelsbach
Wittelsbach
The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.Members of the family served as Dukes, Electors and Kings of Bavaria , Counts Palatine of the Rhine , Margraves of Brandenburg , Counts of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland , Elector-Archbishops of Cologne , Dukes of...

. Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city. Thus they took up residence in Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

 and later in Brühl
Brühl, North Rhine-Westphalia
Brühl is a town in the Rhineland of Germany. It is located in Rhein-Erft-Kreis, 20 km south of Cologne city center and at the edge of Naturpark Kottenforst-Ville Nature Reserve.-History:...

 on the Rhine. As members of an influential and powerful family and supported by their outstanding status as electors
Prince-elector
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

, the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during the 17th and 18th century, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.

From 19th century until World War II


Cologne lost its status as a free city
Free Imperial City
In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city was a city formally ruled by the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which were governed by one of the many princes of the Empire, such as dukes or prince-bishops...

 during the French period. According to the Peace Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
The Treaty of Lunéville was signed on 9 February 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, negotiating both on behalf of his own domains and of the Holy Roman Empire...

 (1801) all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 on the left bank of the Rhine were officially incorporated into the French Republic (which already had occupied Cologne in 1798). Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 Empire. Cologne was part of the French Département Roer (named after the River Roer, German: Rur
Rur
The Rur , — not to be confused with the Ruhr — is a river which flows through portions of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. It is a right tributary to the river Meuse...

) with Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

 (French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital. The French modernized public life, for example by introducing the Napoleonic code
Napoleonic code
The Napoleonic Code — or Code Napoléon — is the French civil code, established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified...

 and removing the old elites from power. The Napoleonic code
Napoleonic code
The Napoleonic Code — or Code Napoléon — is the French civil code, established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified...

 remained in use on the left bank of the Rhine until 1900, when a unified civil code (the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch
Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch
The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch is the civil code of Germany. In development since 1881, it became effective on January 1, 1900, and was considered a massive and groundbreaking project....

) was introduced in the German Empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

. In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September, 1814 to June, 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars,...

, Cologne was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

, first in the Jülich-Cleves-Berg province
Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
The Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815–22. The province was largely made up of the land held by the former United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg...

 and then the Rhine province
Rhine Province
The Rhine Province , also known as Rhenish Prussia or synonymous to the Rhineland , was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich, from 1822-1946. It was created from the provinces of the Lower Rhine and Jülich-Cleves-Berg...

.

The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic Rhineland
Rhineland
Historically, the Rhinelands refers to a loosely-defined region embracing the land on either bank of the River Rhine in central Europe....

 and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with Cologne being in the focus of the conflict. In 1837 the archbishop of Cologne, Clemens August von Droste-Vischering
Clemens August von Droste-Vischering
Baron Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, German Clemens August Freiherr von Droste-Vischering was an Archbishop of Cologne.-Biography:...

, was arrested and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit). In 1874 during the Kulturkampf
Kulturkampf
The German term refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Prime Minister of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck. The Kulturkampf did not extend to the other German states such as Bavaria...

, Archbishop Paul Melchers
Paul Melchers
Paul Melchers was a Cardinal and Archbishop of Cologne. At the height of the Kulturkampf he took refuge in the Netherlands.-Life:Melchers was born in Münster...

 was imprisoned before taking refuge in the Netherlands. These conflicts alienated the Catholic population from Berlin and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

, became the first West German chancellor.

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Cologne absorbed numerous surrounding towns, and by World War I had already grown to 700,000 inhabitants. Industrialization changed the city and spurred its growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing were especially successful, though heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area
Ruhr Area
The Ruhr, by German-speaking geographers and historians more accurately called Ruhr district or Ruhr region , is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With 4435 km² and a population of some 5.2 million , it is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany...

. The cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and is a World Heritage Site...

, started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560, was eventually finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

 and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's historic heritage with much being demolished (for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral) and sometimes replaced by present-day buildings.

Cologne was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German Confederation
Fortresses of the German Confederation
Under the term of the 1815 Peace of Paris, France was obliged to pay for the construction of a line of fortresses to protect the German Confederation against any future aggression by France.Section C...

. It was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of Verdun
Verdun
Verdun is a city in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is the slightly smaller city of Bar-le-Duc.- History :...

 and Liège) with two fortified belts surrounding the city, the remains of which can be seen to this day. The military demands on what became Germany's largest fortress presented a significant obstacle to urban development, with forts, bunkers and wide defensive dugouts completely encircling the city and preventing expansion; this resulted in a very dense built-up area within the city itself.

During World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 Cologne was the target of several only minor air raids and survived the hostilities without significant damage. Until 1926 Cologne was occupied by the British Army of the Rhine
British Army of the Rhine
There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine . Both were originally occupation forces in Germany, one after the First World War, and the other after the Second World War.-1919–1929:...

 under the terms of the armistice and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty.
Contrary to the harsh measures taken by French occupation troops, the British acted with more tact towards the local population. The mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933 and future West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

 acknowledged the political impact of this approach, especially that the British had opposed French plans for a permanent Allied occupation of the Rhineland.

As part of the de-militarization of the Rhineland
Rhineland
Historically, the Rhinelands refers to a loosely-defined region embracing the land on either bank of the River Rhine in central Europe....

 the fortifications had to be dismantled. This was taken as an opportunity to create two green belts (Grüngürtel) around the city by converting the fortifications and their clear fields of fire into large public parks. However this project was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the University of Cologne
University of Cologne
The University of Cologne is one of the oldest universities in Europe and, with over 44,000 students, one of the largest universities in Germany. The university is part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, an association of Germany's leading research universities...

, closed by the French in 1798, was refounded. This re-foundation was considered a replacement for the loss of the German University of Strasbourg
University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the largest university in France, with about 43,000 students and over 4,000 researchers....

 that became part of France with the rest of Alsace
Alsace
Alsace is the fifth-smallest of the 27 regions of France in land area , and the smallest in metropolitan France. It is also the seventh-most densely populated region in France and third most densely populated region in metropolitan France, with ca. 220 inhabitants per km²...

. Cologne prospered during the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government...

 (1919–1933) and progress was made especially in respect to public governance, city planning, housing and social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and copied by other German cities. As Cologne competed for hosting the Olympics a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf. When the British occupation ended, civil aviation was allowed once again and Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport
Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport
The Butzweilerhof is the former civil airport of Cologne. It was established as a training airfield in 1912 and saw airline service from 1922 until the 1950s. It was replaced by the Cologne Bonn Airport...

 soon became a hub for national and international air traffic: second in Germany only to Berlin Tempelhof Airport
Tempelhof International Airport
Berlin Tempelhof Airport was an airport in Berlin, Germany, situated in the south-central borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg. The airport ceased operating in 2008 in the process of establishing Schönefeld as the sole commercial airport for Berlin....

.

The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne in March 1933 to the NSDAP and other right wing parties. Thereafter Communist as well as Social Democrats
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

 members of the city assembly were imprisoned and Mayor Adenauer was dismissed by the new holders of power. However, compared to other major cities, the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne and the number of votes cast for the Nazi Party in Reichstag
Reichstag (Weimar Republic)
The Reichstag was the parliament of Weimar Republic .German constitution commentators consider only the Reichstag and now the Bundestag the German parliament. Another organ deals with legislation too: in 1867-1918 the Bundesrat, in 1919–1933 the Reichsrat and from 1949 on the Bundesrat...

 elections was always below the national average. By 1939 the population had risen to 772,221 inhabitants.

World War II



During World War II, Cologne was a Military Area Command Headquarters (Militärbereichshauptkommandoquartier) for the Military District
Military district (Germany)
During World War II Germany used the system of military districts to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the Field Army...

 (Wehrkreis) VI of Münster
Münster
Münster is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia region. It is also capital of the local government region Münsterland...

. Cologne was under the command of Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible for military operations in Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

, Siegburg
Siegburg
--122.148.78.228 05:06, 14 November 2011 Siegburg is a city in the district of Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...

, Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

, Jülich
Jülich
Jülich is a town in the district of Düren, in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Jülich is well known as location of a world-famous research centre, the Forschungszentrum Jülich and as shortwave transmission site of Deutsche Welle...

, Düren
Düren
Düren is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of Düren district. It is located between Aachen and Cologne on the river Rur.-Roman era:Celts inhabited Düren's area before the Romans. They called their small settlement Durum . After the Celts other Germanic tribes settled this area...

, and Monschau
Monschau
Monschau is a small resort town in the Eifel region of western Germany, located in the district Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia.-Geography:The town is located in the hills of the North Eifel, within the Hohes Venn – Eifel Nature Park in the narrow valley of the Rur river.The historic town center...

. Cologne was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment.

During the Bombing of Cologne in World War II
Bombing of Cologne in World War II
The City of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids by the Allies during World War II, including 31 times by the Royal Air Force . Air raid alarms went off in the winter/spring of 1940 as enemy bombers passed overhead. However, the first actual bombing took place on 12 May 1940...

, Cologne endured 262 air raids by the Western Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

, which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and almost completely wiped out the centre of the city. During the night of 31 May 1942, Cologne was the target of "Operation Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 in World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were incendiary. This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed 600 acres (243 ha) of built-up area, killed 486 civilians and made 59,000 people homeless. By the end of the war, the population of Cologne had been reduced by 95%. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German cities in the last two years of war. At the end of 1945, the population had already risen to about 500,000 again.

By that time, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 11,000 had been deported or killed by the Nazis. The six synagogues of the city were destroyed. The synagogue on Roonstraße
Roonstrasse Synagogue
Roonstrasse Synagogue, located in Cologne, Germany, is one of the five pre-Nazi synagogues of the locality, which was destroyed on November 9, 1938 during nation-wide attacks on Jewish interests when Germany was under Nazi rule. The synagogue was subsequently rebuilt during the 1950s...

 was rebuilt in 1959.

The outskirts of Cologne were reached by US-troops on 4 March 1945. The inner city at the left bank of the Rhine was captured on 6 March 1945 in half a day, meeting minor resistance only. Because the Hohenzollernbrücke
Hohenzollernbrücke
The Hohenzollern Bridge is a bridge crossing the river Rhine in the German city of Cologne. It crosses the Rhine at kilometre 688.5. Originally, the bridge was both a railway and street bridge, however, after its destruction in 1945 and its subsequent reconstruction, it was only accessible to rail...

 was destroyed on retreat by German pioneers, the boroughs at the right bank of the river remained under German control until mid of April 1945.

Post-war Cologne until today


Despite Cologne's status of being the largest city in the region, nearby Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

 was chosen as the political capital of the federated state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

. With Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

 being chosen as the provisional capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany (then informally West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

), Cologne benefited by being sandwiched between two important political centres. The city became and still is home to a number of Federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990, Berlin was made the capital of Germany.

In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz
Rudolf Schwarz (architect)
Rudolf Schwarz was a German architect known for his work on Kirche St. Fronleichnam, Aachen. He also played a decisive role in the reconstruction of Cologne after the Second World War. After conducting Cologne's reconstruction authority between 1947 and 1952 he contributed to the rebuilding of the...

 called Cologne the "world's greatest heap of rubble." Schwarz designed the master plan of reconstruction in 1947, which called for the construction of several new thoroughfares through the downtown area, especially the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The master plan took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi administration, but the actual construction became easier in times when the majority of downtown lots were undeveloped.

The destruction of 95% of the city centre including the famous Twelve Romanesque churches
Twelve romanesque churches of Cologne
The twelve Romanesque churches of Cologne are twelve landmark churches in the Old town of Cologne, Germany. All twelve churches are Roman Catholic.- Churches :The twelve churches are1:* St. Andreas in Altstadt-Nord, est. 974...

 like St. Gereon
St. Gereon's Basilica
St. Gereon's Basilica is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany, dedicated to Saint Gereon, and designated a minor basilica on June 25, 1920. The first mention of a church at the site, dedicated to St. Gereon, appears in 612...

, Great St. Martin
Great St. Martin Church
The Great Saint Martin Church is a Romanesque Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. Its foundations rest on remnants of a Roman chapel, built on what was then an island in the Rhine. The church was later transformed into a Benedictine monastery...

, St. Maria im Kapitol
St. Maria im Kapitol
St. Maria im Kapitol is an 11th century Romanesque church located in the Kapitol-Viertel in the old town of Cologne, Germany. The Roman Catholic church is based on the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, was dedicated to St. Mary and built between 1040 and 1065...

 and several other monuments in World War II meant a tremendous loss of cultural treasures. The rebuilding of those churches and other landmarks like the Gürzenich event hall was not undisputed among leading architects and art historians at that time, but in most cases, civil intention prevailed. The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when the Romanesque church of St. Kunibert
St. Kunibert (Cologne)
St. Kunibert is the youngest of the Twelve Romanesque churches of Cologne and was consecrated 1247, one year before work on the Gothic Cologne Cathedral began.- History :...

 was finished.

In 1959, the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. It then grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about one year from 1975. It has remained just below that until mid 2010, when it exceeded 1 million again.

In the 1980s and 1990s Cologne's economy prospered for two main reasons. Firstly, a growth in the number of media companies, both in the private and public sectors; they are especially catered for in the newly-developed Media Park, which creates a strongly visual focal point in the Cologne town centre and includes the KölnTurm, one of Cologne's most prominent high-rise buildings. Secondly, a permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure made Cologne one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in Central Europe.

Due to the economic success of the Cologne Trade Fair
Cologne Trade Fair
Koelnmesse is the name of the international trade fair and exhibition center located in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...

, the city arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005. At the same time the original buildings, which date back to the 1920s are rented out to RTL
RTL Group
RTL Group is Europe's largest TV, radio and production company, and is majority-owned by German media conglomerate Bertelsmann. It has 45 television and 32 radio stations in 11 countries...

, Germany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate headquarters.

Districts



Cologne is subdivided into 9 districts (Stadtbezirke) and 85 city parts (Stadtteile):

Innenstadt
Innenstadt, Cologne
Innenstadt is the central city district of the City of Cologne in Germany.The district was established with the last communal land reform in 1975, and comprises Cologne's historic old town , the Gründerzeit era new town plus the right-Rhenish district of Deutz...

 (Stadtbezirk 1)
Altstadt-Nord, Altstadt-Süd, Neustadt-Nord, Neustadt-Süd, Deutz

Rodenkirchen
Rodenkirchen
Rodenkirchen is a southern city district of Cologne in Germany. It has about 100,000 inhabitants and covers as an area of 54.56 square kilometres...

 (Stadtbezirk 2)
Bayenthal
Bayenthal
Bayenthal is a small municipal part of Cologne, Germany and part of the district of Rodenkirchen. Bayenthal lies on the left bank of the river Rhine, between the district of Innenstadt to the North and Marienburg to the South. The borders to these are defined by the Southern Bridge and the...

, Godorf, Hahnwald, Immendorf, Marienburg, Meschenich, Raderberg, Raderthal, Rodenkirchen, Rondorf, Sürth, Weiß, Zollstock

Lindenthal (Stadtbezirk 3)
Braunsfeld, Junkersdorf, Klettenberg, Lindenthal, Lövenich, Müngersdorf, Sülz
Sülz
Sülz is a municipal part of Cologne, Germany and part of the district of Lindenthal. Sülz lies on Luxemburger Straße between Lindenthal and Klettenberg. Sülz has 35.475 inhabitants and covers an area of 5,17 km² .The name Sülz goes back to Sulpece, first mentioned in 1145 as a possession of...

, Weiden, Widdersdorf

Ehrenfeld (Stadtbezirk 4)
Bickendorf, Bocklemünd/Mengenich, Ehrenfeld, Neuehrenfeld, Ossendorf, Vogelsang

Nippes
Nippes, Cologne
Nippes is the Fifth city district of Cologne, Germany. Nippes was merged into the city of Cologne in 1888, the district was formed in 1975...

 (Stadtbezirk 5)
Bilderstöckchen, Longerich, Mauenheim, Niehl, Nippes, Riehl, Weidenpesch

Chorweiler
Chorweiler
Chorweiler is the Sixth city district of Cologne, Germany. Large portion of the district of Chorweiler were incorporated into the city of Cologne in 1922, the quarter of Chorweiler was created in the 1970s...

 (Stadtbezirk 6)
Blumenberg, Chorweiler, Esch/Auweiler, Fühlingen, Heimersdorf, Lindweiler, Merkenich, Pesch, Roggendorf/Thenhoven, Seeberg, Volkhoven/Weiler, Worringen

Porz
Porz
Porz is a city district or Stadtbezirk of Cologne, Germany. It is situated on the right side of the Rhine in the south-east of the city...

 (Stadtbezirk 7)
Eil, Elsdorf, Ensen, Finkenberg, Gremberghoven, Grengel, Langel, Libur, Lind, Poll, Porz, Urbach, Wahn, Wahnheide, Westhoven, Zündorf
Zündorf
Zündorf is a suburb of Cologne, Germany and part of the district of Porz. Zündorf lies on the right bank of the river Rhine, between Langel and Porz. Zündorf has 12.229 inhabitants and covers an area of 8,12 km²....


Kalk (Stadtbezirk 8)
Brück, Höhenberg, Humboldt/Gremberg, Kalk, Merheim, Neubrück, Ostheim, Rath/Heumar, Vingst

Mülheim (Stadtbezirk 9)
Buchforst, Buchheim, Dellbrück, Dünnwald, Flittard, Höhenhaus, Holweide, Mülheim, Stammheim
Stammheim, Cologne
Stammheim is a municipal part of Cologne, Germany and part of the district of Mülheim. Stammheim lies on the right bank of the river Rhine, between Mülheim and Flittard...


Climate


Cologne is one of the warmest cities in Germany. It has a temperate–oceanic
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 climate with relatively mild winters and warm summers. Its average annual temperature is 10 °C (50 °F): 14.5 °C (58 °F) during the day and 5.5 °C (42 °F) at night.

Flood protection



Cologne is regularly affected by flooding from the Rhine and is considered the most flood-prone European city. A city agency (Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln, "Cologne Urban Drainage Operations") manages an extensive flood control system which includes both permanent and mobile flood wall
Flood wall
A flood wall is a primarily vertical artificial barrier designed to temporarily contain the waters of a river or other waterway which may rise to unusual levels during seasonal or extreme weather events...

s, protection from rising waters for buildings close to the river banks, monitoring and forecasting systems, pumping stations and programs to create or protect floodplain
Floodplain
A floodplain, or flood plain, is a flat or nearly flat land adjacent a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge...

s and river embankments. The system was redesigned after a 1993 flood which resulted in heavy damages.

Demographics


Cologne is the fourth-largest city in Germany in terms of inhabitants after Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

. As of 30 June 2011, there were officially 1,010,269 residents. Cologne is the centre of the Cologne/Bonn Region
Cologne/Bonn Region
The Cologne/Bonn Region , also known as Cologne/Bonn Metropolitan Region is a metropolitan area in North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany, covering the cities of Cologne, Bonn and Leverkusen, as well as the districts of Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis, Oberbergischer Kreis, Rhein-Erft-Kreis and Rhein-Sieg-Kreis...

 with around 3 million inhabitants (including the neighboring cities of Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

, Hürth
Hürth
Hürth is a town in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Hürth shares borders with the city of Cologne.-Geography:Hürth is situated about 9 km to the southwest of Cologne city centre, at the northeastern slope of the natural preserve Kottenforst-Ville.The town, consisting of...

, Leverkusen
Leverkusen
Leverkusen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany on the eastern bank of the Rhine. To the South, Leverkusen borders the city of Cologne and to the North is the state capital Düsseldorf....

, and Bergisch Gladbach
Bergisch Gladbach
' is a city in the Cologne/Bonn Region of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and capital of the Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis .-Geography:Bergisch Gladbach is located east of the river Rhine, approx...

).

According to local statistics, in 2006 the population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 in the city was 2,528 inhabitants per square kilometre. 31.4 percent of the population has migrated there, and 17.2 percent of Cologne's population is non-German. The largest group, comprising 6.3 percent of the total population, is Turkish. As of September 2007, there are about 120,000 Muslims living in Cologne, mostly of Turkish origin. Cologne also has the oldest and one of the largest Jewish communities in Germany.

In the city the population was spread out with 15.5% under the age of 18, 67.0% from 18 to 64 and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older.

Government



The city's administration is headed by the mayor and the three deputy mayors. Jürgen Roters
Jürgen Roters
Jürgen Roters is a German politician and member of the SPD. Since 21. October 2009 he is the governing mayor of Cologne. Jürgen Roters studied law from 1968 until 1974, is married and has three children.- External links :* *...

 of the Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

 has been mayor since 20 October 2009.

Political traditions and developments


The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the church and the bourgeoisie (and within it between the patricians and craftsmen) has created its own political climate in Cologne. Various interest groups often form the basis of societal socialization and therefore beyond party boundaries. The resulting network of relationships, the political, economic and cultural links with each other in a system of mutual favors, obligations and dependencies, also called Cologne coterie. This has often led to an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, revealed "waste scandal" over kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions, not only the entrepreneur Hellmut Trienekens in prison brought, but did throw almost the entire leadership staff of the ruling Social Democrats.

The city was connected because of their Catholic tradition in the Empire and the Weimar Republic established the center, joined soon after the war, the political majority of the CDU to the SPD. This ruled for 40 years, in part, by an absolute majority of Council. Because of liberal traditions Cologne was always a stronghold of the FDP, because of its tolerant social climate and the Greens. Both parties do - with varying degrees of success - the increasingly popular parties disputed the majority.

Mayor


Lord Mayor of Cologne is Jürgen Roters
Jürgen Roters
Jürgen Roters is a German politician and member of the SPD. Since 21. October 2009 he is the governing mayor of Cologne. Jürgen Roters studied law from 1968 until 1974, is married and has three children.- External links :* *...

 of the Social Democratic Party. As a common candidate of the SPD and the Greens, he received 54.67% of the vote on 30 August 2009 at the municipal election. He has been Lord Mayor since 21 October 2009.

Make-up of city council

PartySeatsSource
Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

25
Christian Democratic Union
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It is regarded as on the centre-right of the German political spectrum...

25
Green Party
Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party and Alliance 90 in 1993. Its leaders are Claudia Roth and Cem Özdemir...

20
Free Democratic Party
Free Democratic Party (Germany)
The Free Democratic Party , abbreviated to FDP, is a centre-right classical liberal political party in Germany. It is led by Philipp Rösler and currently serves as the junior coalition partner to the Union in the German federal government...

9
pro Cologne 5
The Left
The Left (Germany)
The Left , also commonly referred to as the Left Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Germany. The Left is the most left-wing party of the five represented in the Bundestag....

4
Free Voters
Free Voters
Free Voters is a German concept in which an association of persons participates in an election without having the status of a registered political party. Usually it is a locally organized group of voters in the form of a registered association . In most cases, Free Voters are active only at the...

1
DEINE FREUNDE 1

Cityscape



The inner city of Cologne was completely destroyed during World War II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the 1950s, while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets. Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings, with few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due to their historical importance. Some buildings of the "Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example the opera house by Wilhelm Riphahn
Wilhelm Riphahn
Wilhelm Riphahn was a German architect.Riphahn studied at the technical universities in Berlin-Charlottenburg, Munich, and Karlsruhe. He worked for a Siemens construction office in Berlin and in 1912 for "Gebrüder Taut & Hoffmann"...

, are nowadays regarded as classics of modern architecture. Nevertheless, the uncompromising style of the Cologne Opera
Cologne Opera
The Cologne Opera refers both to the main opera house in Cologne, Germany and to its resident opera company.-History of the company:...

 house and other modern buildings has remained controversial.

Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne which is approximately 75 m² (89.7 sq yd) of public green space for every citizen of the city.

Tourism


Cologne had 4.31 million overnight accommodations booked and 2.38 million arrivals in 2008. The city also has the most pubs per capita in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. The city has 70 clubs and other party spots. The city has "countless" bars, restaurants and pubs.

Landmarks


Churches
  • Cologne Cathedral
    Cologne Cathedral
    Cologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and is a World Heritage Site...

     (German: Kölner Dom) is the city's most famous monument and the Cologne residents' most respected landmark. It is a Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was designated a World Heritage site
    World Heritage Site
    A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

    ; it houses the Shrine of the Three Kings that supposedly contains the relic
    Relic
    In religion, a relic is a part of the body of a saint or a venerated person, or else another type of ancient religious object, carefully preserved for purposes of veneration or as a tangible memorial...

    s of the Three Magi
    Biblical Magi
    The Magi Greek: μάγοι, magoi), also referred to as the Wise Men, Kings, Astrologers, or Kings from the East, were a group of distinguished foreigners who were said to have visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh...

     (see also). Residents of Cologne sometimes refer to the cathedral as "the eternal construction site" (Dauerbaustelle).
  • Twelve Romanesque churches
    Twelve romanesque churches of Cologne
    The twelve Romanesque churches of Cologne are twelve landmark churches in the Old town of Cologne, Germany. All twelve churches are Roman Catholic.- Churches :The twelve churches are1:* St. Andreas in Altstadt-Nord, est. 974...

    : These buildings are outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.

Medieval houses

The Cologne City Hall (Kölner Rathaus), established in the 12th century, is the oldest city hall
City hall
In local government, a city hall, town hall or a municipal building or civic centre, is the chief administrative building of a city...

 in Germany still in use. The Renaissance style loggia and tower were added in the 15th century. Other famous houses include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus.
Medieval city gates

Of the once 12 medieval city gate
City gate
A city gate is a gate which is, or was, set within a city wall. Other terms include port.-Uses:City gates were traditionally built to provide a point of controlled access to and departure from a walled city for people, vehicles, goods and animals...

s, only the Eigelsteintorburg at Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and the Severinstorburg at Chlodwigplatz still stand today.
Streets
  • The Cologne Ring
    Cologne Ring
    The Cologne Ring is a semi-circular, some 6 km long urban boulevard in Innenstadt, Cologne and the city's busiest and most prominent street system...

     boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with their medieval city gates (such as Hahnentorburg on Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life.
  • Hohe Straße
    Hohe Straße
    Hohe Straße is a shopping street in the old town of Cologne, Germany, and one of the city's both oldest and busiest streets. Together with many of its adjacent side streets, Hohe Straße is part of a designated pedestrian zone and spans about 680 meters from Cologne Cathedral on its Northern end to...

     (literally: High Street) is one of the main shopping areas and extends past the cathedral in an approximately southerly direction. The street contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast food restaurants and electronic goods dealers.
  • Schildergasse
    Schildergasse
    The Schildergasse is a shopping street in central Cologne, Germany, and with 13,000 people passing through every hour, it is the busiest shopping street in Europe...

     - connects the Neumarkt plaza on its west end to the southern end of the Hohe Strasse shopping street at its east end and has been named the busiest shopping street in Europe with 13,000 people passing through every hour.
  • Ehrenstraße - the shopping area around Apostelnstrasse, Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little more on the eccentric and stylish side.

Bridges


Several bridges cross the Rhine in Cologne. They are (from South to North): the Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge
Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge
The Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge is a suspension bridge over the Rhine located in Cologne, Germany. Completed in 1954, it has a main span of 378 metres. It was named after the Cologne district of Rodenkirchen.-Planning and construction:...

, Southern Railway Bridge, Severin Bridge, Deutz Bridge, Hohenzollern Bridge, Zoo Bridge (Zoobrücke) and Cologne Mülheim Bridge
Cologne Mulheim Bridge
The Mülheim Bridge in Cologne is a suspension bridge on the river Rhine in Western Germany. Originally completed in 1929 and rebuilt in 1951, it has a main span of 315 metres. It connects the city district Riehl on the west side of the river with Mülheim on the east side, after which the bridge is...

. In particular the iron tied arch
Tied arch bridge
A tied-arch bridge is an arch bridge in which the outward-directed horizontal forces of the arch, or top chord, are borne as tension by the bottom chord , rather than by the ground or the bridge foundations...

 Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrücke) is a dominant landmark along the river embankment. A Rhine river crossing of a special kind is provided by the Cologne Cable Car (German: Kölner Seilbahn), a cableway that runs across the Rhine between the Cologne Zoological Garden
Cologne Zoological Garden
The Aktiengesellschaft Cologne Zoological Garden is the zoo of Cologne, Germany. It features over 7,000 animals of more than 700 species on more than 20 hectares...

 in Niehl and the Rheinpark
Rheinpark
The Rheinpark is a 40 hectare large urban park along the right bank of the River Rhine in Cologne, Germany. The park lies between the Cologne districts of Deutz and Mülheim and includes a beach club, an open air theater and a Roman Thermae styled public bath...

 in Deutz.

High rise structures


Cologne's tallest structure is the Colonius
Colonius
Colonius is the Cologne telecommunications tower, which was finished in 1981. The Colonius possesses a cafeteria, viewing platform, and a restaurant, apart from antennas for radio relay and radio services within the VHF range. Because of a missing leaseholder, the visitor's area including...

 telecommunication tower at 266 m (873 ft). The observation deck has been closed since 1992. A selection of the tallest buildings in Cologne are listed below. Other tall structures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect Jacob Koerfer and completed in 1925 - it was at one time Europe's tallest office building), the Kranhaus buildings at Rheinauhafen
Rheinauhafen
The Rheinauhafen is a urban regeneration project in Cologne, Germany, located along the River Rhine between the Südbrücke and Severinsbrücke , just south of the inner city's historic old town.The project is set around the actual Rheinauhafen, a formerly commercial harbour developed during the...

 and the Messeturm Köln
Messeturm Köln
The Messeturm Köln is a highrise building 80 meters high in Cologne, Germany. Its top floor features a tower restaurant.-External links:*http://www.skyscraperpage.com/diagrams/?b7347...

 (English: Trade Fair tower).
Skyscraper Image Height in metres Floors Year Address Notes
KölnTurm
KölnTurm
At is 148.5 meters tall , the Cologne Tower is the tallest office building in Cologne. Construction of the building lasted from June, 1999 to November, 2001...

148.5 43 2001 Mediapark
MediaPark
The MediaPark is a urban regeneration neighborhood in Cologne, Germany, completed by the turn of the millennium. It was set up to accommodate companies of the media and communication industry, as well as cultural institutions, a hotel and some apartment buildings. The MediaPark is situated in...

 8, Neustadt-Nord
(literally: Cologne Tower), Cologne's second tallest building at 165.48 metres (542.91 ft) in height, second only to the Colonius telecommunication tower. The 30th floor of the building has a restaurant and a terrace with 360° views of the city.
Colonia-Hochhaus
Colonia-Hochhaus
The Colonia-Hochhaus is the tallest building used primarily for residential purposes in Germany. It is located in the Cologne district of Riehl and was completed in 1973. It is 147 meters high...

147 45 1973 An der Schanz 2, Riehl
Riehl
- People :* 16189 Riehl , a Main-belt Asteroid discovered 2000* Riehl melanosis, a form of contact dermatitis* Alois Adolf Riehl , Austrian philosopher* Herbert Riehl* Kevin Riehl , Canadian professional ice hockey player...

tallest building in Germany from 1973 to 1976. Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building.
Rheintower 138 34 1980 Raderberggürtel, Marienburg former headquarters of Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle or DW, is Germany's international broadcaster. The service is aimed at the overseas market. It broadcasts news and information on shortwave, Internet and satellite radio on 98.7 DZFE in 30 languages . It has a satellite television service , that is available in four languages, and...

, since 2007 under renovation with the new name Rheintower Köln-Marienburg.
Uni-Center 133 45 1973 Luxemburger Straße, Sülz
Sülz
Sülz is a municipal part of Cologne, Germany and part of the district of Lindenthal. Sülz lies on Luxemburger Straße between Lindenthal and Klettenberg. Sülz has 35.475 inhabitants and covers an area of 5,17 km² .The name Sülz goes back to Sulpece, first mentioned in 1145 as a possession of...

TÜV Rheinland
TÜV Rheinland
TÜV Rheinland is a global provider of technical, safety and certification services. Originally called the Dampfkessel-Überwachungs-Vereine , TÜV Rheinland was founded in 1872 and has its headquarters in Cologne, Germany...

112 22 1974 Am Grauen Stein, Poll
KölnTriangle
KölnTriangle
KölnTriangle is a tall building in Deutz, Cologne, and a prominent landmark in Cologne. The building was designed by Cologne-based architecture firm Gatermann + Schossig and completed in 2006. It's south facade consists of a double-facade, allowing natural ventilation even at high floors...

103 29 2006 Ottoplatz 1, Deutz opposite to the cathedral with a 103 m (338 ft) high viewing platform and a view of the cathedral over the Rhine; headquarters of the European Aviation Safety Agency
European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Aviation Safety Agency is an agency of the European Union with offices in Cologne, Germany, which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. It was created on 15 July 2002, and it reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions...

 (EASA).
Herkules-Hochhaus 102 31 1969 Graeffstraße 1, Ehrenfeld

Culture



Cologne has several museums. The famous Roman-Germanic Museum features art and architecture from the city's distant past; the Museum Ludwig
Museum Ludwig
Museum Ludwig, located in Cologne, Germany, houses a collection of modern art. It includes works from PopArt, Abstract and Surrealism, and has one of the largest Picasso collections in Europe. It also features many works by Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein....

 houses one of the most important collections of modern art
Modern art
Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of...

 in Europe, including a Picasso collection matched only by the museums in Barcelona
Museu Picasso
The Museu Picasso in Barcelona, Spain, has one of the most extensive collections of artworks by the 20th century Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. This is one of the most popular and most visited museums in Barcelona. The museum is housed in five adjoining medieval palaces in Barcelona's La Ribera.The...

 and Paris
Musée Picasso
The Musée Picasso is an art gallery located in the Hôtel Salé in rue de Thorigny, in the Marais district of Paris dedicated to the work of the artist Pablo Picasso .-Building:...

. The Schnütgen Museum
Schnütgen Museum
The Schnütgen Museum in Cologne , Germany is devoted to Christian religious art, mainly medieval, but some parts of the collection, such as its textiles and prints, extend from antiquity to the modern period...

 of religious art is housed in St. Cecilia, one of Cologne's Twelve Romanesque churches
Twelve romanesque churches of Cologne
The twelve Romanesque churches of Cologne are twelve landmark churches in the Old town of Cologne, Germany. All twelve churches are Roman Catholic.- Churches :The twelve churches are1:* St. Andreas in Altstadt-Nord, est. 974...

. Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the Gürzenich Orchestra
Gürzenich Orchestra
The Gürzenich-Orchester Köln is a symphony orchestra based in Cologne, Germany. On some recordings, the orchestra goes under the name "Gürzenich-Orchester Kölner Philharmoniker"...

 and the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne
WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne
The WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne is a German orchestra based in Cologne. The orchestra was founded in 1947 by Allied occupation authorities after World War II, as the orchestra of Nordwestdeutschen Rundfunk . The orchestra later acquired the names of the Cologne Radio Symphony Orchestra and...

, both based at the Cologne Philharmonic Orchestra Building. Other orchestras are the Musica Antiqua Köln
Musica Antiqua Köln
Musica Antiqua Köln was an early music group that was founded in 1973 by Reinhard Goebel and fellow students from the Conservatory of Music in Cologne. Musica Antiqua Köln devoted itself largely to the performance of the music of the 17th and 18th centuries...

, as well as several choirs, including the WDR Rundfunkchor Köln. Cologne was also an important centre of electronic music in the 1950s (Studio für elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Karlheinz Stockhausen was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Another critic calls him "one of the great visionaries of 20th-century music"...

) and again from the 90s onward. The public radio and TV station WDR was involved in promoting musical movements such as Krautrock
Krautrock
Krautrock is a generic name for the experimental music scenes that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s, especially in Britain. The term is a result of the English-speaking world's reception of the music at the time and not a reference to any one...

 in the 70s; the influential Can
Can (band)
Can was an experimental rock band formed in Cologne, West Germany in 1968. Later labeled as one of the first "krautrock" groups, they transcended mainstream influences and incorporated strong minimalist and world music elements into their often psychedelic music.Can constructed their music largely...

 was formed there in 1968. There are several centres of nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latäng (the student quarter around the Zülpicher Straße) and the nightclub-studded areas around Hohenzollernring, Friesenplatz and Rudolfplatz.

The large annual literary festival Lit.Cologne features regional and international authors. The main literary figure connected with Cologne is writer Heinrich Böll
Heinrich Böll
Heinrich Theodor Böll was one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers. Böll was awarded the Georg Büchner Prize in 1967 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972.- Biography :...

, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Cologne is well known for its beer, called Kölsch
Kölsch (beer)
Kölsch, also written Koelsch, is a local beer specialty brewed in Cologne, Germany. It is a clear beer with a bright straw-yellow hue, and it has a prominent, but not extreme, hoppiness. It is less bitter than the standard German pale lager. Furthermore, Kölsch is warm fermented at a temperature...

. Kölsch is also the name of the local dialect. This has led to the common joke of Kölsch being the only language one can drink.

Cologne is also famous for Eau de Cologne
Eau de Cologne
Eau de Cologne or simply Cologne is a toiletry, a perfume in a style that originated from Cologne, Germany. It is nowadays a generic term for scented formulations in typical concentration of 2-5% essential oils. However as of today cologne is a blend of extracts, alcohol, and water...

 (German: Kölnisch Wasser; lit: Water of Cologne), a perfume created by Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina
Johann Maria Farina
thumb|Johann Maria Farina 1685-1766Giovanni Maria Farina was an Italian perfume designer and maker, born on 8 December 1685, in the town of Santa Maria Maggiore...

 at the beginning of the 18th century. During the 18th century this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported all over Europe by the Farina family and Farina became a household name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm Mülhens entered into a contract with an unrelated person from Italy named Carlo Francesco Farina who granted him the right to use his family name and Mühlens opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years and after various court battles his grandson Ferdinand Mülhens
Ferdinand Mülhens
Ferdinand Mülhens was a land owner and entrepreneur in Königswinter, Germany. Mülhens was born in Cologne....

 had to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product. He decided to use the house number given to the factory at Glockengasse during French occupation in the early 19th century: 4711. Today, original Eau de Cologne is still produced in Cologne by both the Farina family, currently in the eighth generation, and by Mäurer and Wirtz who bought the 4711 brand in 2006.

Carnival


The Cologne carnival
Cologne carnival
The Cologne Carnival is a carnival that takes place every year in Cologne, Germany. Traditionally, the "fifth season" is declared open at 11 minutes past 11 on the 11th of November. The Carnival spirit is then temporarily suspended during the Advent and Christmas period, and picks up again in...

 is one of the biggest street festivals in Europe. In Cologne, the carnival season officially starts on 11 November at 11 minutes past 11 a.m. with the proclamation of the new Carnival Season, and continues until Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday, in the calendar of Western Christianity, is the first day of Lent and occurs 46 days before Easter. It is a moveable fast, falling on a different date each year because it is dependent on the date of Easter...

. But the so-called "Tolle Tage" (crazy days) don't start until Weiberfastnacht (Women's Carnival) or, in dialect, Wieverfastelovend (Thursday before Ash Wednesday), which is the beginning of the street carnival. Zülpicher Strasse and its surroundings, Neumarkt square, Heumarkt and all bars and pubs in the city are crowded with people in costumes dancing and drinking on the streets. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to Cologne during this time. Generally, around a million people celebrate in the streets on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday.

Rivalry with Düsseldorf


Cologne and Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

 have a "fierce regional rivalry"., which includes carnival
Carnival in Germany, Switzerland and Austria
In German-speaking countries, there are essentially two distinct variations of Carnivals: the Rhenish Carnival in the west of Germany centred around the cities of Düsseldorf, Cologne and Mainz, and the Alemannic or Swabian-Alemannic Fastnacht in Swabia , Switzerland, Alsace and Vorarlberg .The...

 parades, football, and beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

. People in Cologne prefer Kölsch
Kölsch (beer)
Kölsch, also written Koelsch, is a local beer specialty brewed in Cologne, Germany. It is a clear beer with a bright straw-yellow hue, and it has a prominent, but not extreme, hoppiness. It is less bitter than the standard German pale lager. Furthermore, Kölsch is warm fermented at a temperature...

 while people in Düsseldorf prefer Alt. Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who order Alt beer in Cologne and Kölsch in Düsseldorf. The rivalry has been described as a "love-hate relationship".

Museums


  • Farina Fragrance Museum
    Fragrance museum
    The Farina Fragrance Museum is situated across from Cologne City Hall, and near the famous Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in the Obenmarspforten in Innenstadt, Cologne...

    , the birthplace of Eau de Cologne
    Eau de Cologne
    Eau de Cologne or simply Cologne is a toiletry, a perfume in a style that originated from Cologne, Germany. It is nowadays a generic term for scented formulations in typical concentration of 2-5% essential oils. However as of today cologne is a blend of extracts, alcohol, and water...

    .
  • Römisch-Germanisches Museum
    Römisch-Germanisches Museum
    The Roman-Germanic Museum is an important archaeological museum in Cologne, Germany. It has a large collection of Roman artifacts from the Roman settlement of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, on which modern Cologne is built...

     (English: Roman-Germanic Museum) for ancient Roman and Germanic culture.
  • Wallraf-Richartz Museum
    Wallraf-Richartz Museum
    The Wallraf-Richartz-Museum is one of the three major museums in Cologne, Germany. It houses an art gallery with a collection of fine art from the medieval period to the early twentieth century...

     for European painting from the 13th to the early 20th century.
  • Museum Ludwig
    Museum Ludwig
    Museum Ludwig, located in Cologne, Germany, houses a collection of modern art. It includes works from PopArt, Abstract and Surrealism, and has one of the largest Picasso collections in Europe. It also features many works by Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein....

     for modern art.
  • Museum Schnütgen for medieval art.
  • Museum für Angewandte Kunst
    Museum für Angewandte Kunst (Cologne)
    The Museum für Angewandte Kunst Köln is a decorative arts museum in Cologne, Germany. The collections include jewellery, porcelain, furniture, weaponry and architectural exhibits...

     for applied art.
  • Kolumba Kunstmuseum des Erzbistums Köln
    Kolumba
    The Kolumba is an art museum in Cologne, Germany. It is located on the site of the former St. Columba church, and run by the Archdiocese of Cologne...

     (Art museum of the archbishopric of Cologne
    Archbishopric of Cologne
    The Electorate of Cologne was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire and existed from the 10th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the temporal possessions of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne . It was ruled by the Archbishop in his function as prince-elector of...

    ), modern art museum built around medieval ruins, completed 2007.
  • Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" in the historic underground vaults of the Cathedral
  • EL-DE Haus
    EL-DE Haus
    EL-DE Haus, officially the Nazism Documentation Center, located in Cologne, is the former headquarters of the Gestapo and now a museum documenting the Third Reich....

    , the former local headquarters of the Gestapo
    Gestapo
    The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

     houses a museum documenting Nazi rule in Cologne with a special focus on the persecution of political dissenters and minorities.
  • German Sports and Olympic Museum, with exhibitions about sports from antiquity until the present.
  • Chocolate Museum, officially called Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum
    Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum
    The Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum was opened by Hans Imhoff on 31 October 1993. It is situated in the Cologne quarter of Altstadt-Süd on the Rheinauhafen peninsula...

    .
  • Forum for Internet Technology in Contemporary Art - collections of Internet based art, corporate part of (NewMediaArtProjectNetwork):cologne - the experimental platform for art and New Media.
  • Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln
    Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln
    The Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln is a municipal formal park and botanical garden located adjacent to Cologne Zoological Garden at Amsterdamer Straße 34, Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...

    , the city's formal park and main botanical garden
    Botanical garden
    A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...

  • Forstbotanischer Garten Köln
    Forstbotanischer Garten Köln
    The Forstbotanischer Garten Köln is an arboretum and woodland botanical garden located at Schillingsrotterstraße 100, Rodenkirchen, Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...

    , an arboretum
    Arboretum
    An arboretum in a narrow sense is a collection of trees only. Related collections include a fruticetum , and a viticetum, a collection of vines. More commonly, today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study...

     and woodland botanical garden
    Botanical garden
    A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...


Music fairs and festivals


The city was home to the internationally famous Ringfest
Ringfest
Ringfest was an annual outdoor music event in Cologne, Germany held for the first time in 1993 and halted in 2006. In various locations of downtown Cologne stages were set up and live bands performed and also other events were presented. The Ringfest used to be held at the Media Park on the rings...

, and now to the C/o pop festival.

Economy


As the largest city in the Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with about 10,100,000 inhabitants. It is of polycentric nature and the only megacity in Germany. It covers an area of 7,110 square kilometers and lies entirely within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia...

 metropolitan region, Cologne benefits from a large market structure
Market structure
In economics, market structure .* Monopolistic competition, also called competitive market, where there are a large number of firms, each having a small proportion of the market share and slightly differentiated products.* Oligopoly, in which a market is dominated by a small number of firms that...

. In competition for location factors with Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

, the economy of Cologne is primarily based on insurance and media industries, while the city is also an important cultural and research centre and home to a number of corporate headquarters
Corporate headquarters
Corporate headquarters is a term used to describe the entity at the top of a corporation to take full responsibility for the overall success of the corporation, ensures Corporate Governance...

.

Among the largest media companies based in Cologne are Westdeutscher Rundfunk
Westdeutscher Rundfunk
Westdeutscher Rundfunk is a German public-broadcasting institution based in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office in Cologne. WDR is a constituent member of the consortium of German public-broadcasting institutions, ARD...

, RTL Television
RTL Television
Rtl.de' redirects here. For other uses, see RTL.RTL Television , or simply RTL, is a German commercial television station distributed via cable and satellite along with DVB-T , in larger population centres...

 (with subsidiaries), n-tv
N-tv
n-tv is a German television news channel owned by the Bertelsmann AG Media's RTL Group and an affiliate network of CNN since the networks creation in 1992....

, Deutschlandradio
Deutschlandradio
Deutschlandradio is a national German public broadcasting radio broadcaster. It operates four national networks, Deutschlandfunk, Deutschlandradio Kultur, Dokumente und Debatten and DRadio Wissen....

, Brainpool TV and publishing houses like J. P. Bachem, Taschen
Taschen
Taschen is an art book publisher founded in 1980 by Benedikt Taschen in Cologne, Germany. It began as Taschen Comics publishing Benedikt's extensive comic collection...

, Tandem Verlag
Tandem Verlag
Tandem Verlag GmbH is a publishing company in Germany, and is one of the country's leading wholesalers and distributors of print and electronic media products...

 and M. DuMont Schauberg
M. DuMont Schauberg
M. DuMont Schauberg is one of Germany's oldest and largest publishing houses. Founded by Bertram Hilden in 1620, Marcus du Mont acquired the "Kölnische Zeitung" in 1805 - then the business's main newspaper...

. Several clusters of media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state agencies work partly with private and government funded cultural instititutions. Among the insurance companies based in Cologne are Central, DEVK, DKV, Generali Deutschland, Gothaer, HDI Gerling and national headquarters of AXA
AXA
AXA S.A. is a French global insurance group headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. AXA is a conglomerate of independently run businesses, operated according to the laws and regulations of many different countries. The AXA group of companies engage in life, health and other forms of...

 Insurance and Zurich Financial Services
Zurich Financial Services
Zurich Financial Services AG is a major financial services group based in Zurich, Switzerland.-History:The Company was founded in 1872 as subsidiary of the Schweiz Marine Insurance Company under the name Versicherung Verein...

.

Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

, the German flag carrier, and Lufthansa CityLine
Lufthansa CityLine
Lufthansa CityLine GmbH is a regional airline based in Cologne, Germany. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Lufthansa and member of the Lufthansa Regional network. It is the largest regional airline in Europe. Its main base is Cologne Bonn Airport, with hubs at Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport...

 have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne. Largest employer in Cologne is Ford Europe
Ford Europe
-History:Ford of Europe was founded in 1967 on the merger of the British and German divisions of the Ford Motor Company. The original Ford Transit range of panel vans launched in 1965, was the first formal co-operation between the two entities, simultaneously developed to replace the German Ford...

, which has its European headquarters and a factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH
Ford Germany
-Ford Motor Co. AG:Until 27 January 1950 all Ford's European operations other than in the USSR were run from Dagenham and owned by Ford Motor Company Limited, Dearborn's 55% owned subsidiary...

). Toyota Motorsport GmbH (TMG), Toyota's official motorsports team, responsible for Toyota rally cars, and then Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 cars has headquarters and workshops in Cologne. Other large companies based in Cologne include the REWE Group
REWE Group
REWE Group is a diversified retail and tourism group based in Germany. Its current turnover is around 50.91 billion euros. It operates in 14 European countries and employs over 325,000 people in its trading and travel divisions.- Trading :...

, TÜV Rheinland
TÜV Rheinland
TÜV Rheinland is a global provider of technical, safety and certification services. Originally called the Dampfkessel-Überwachungs-Vereine , TÜV Rheinland was founded in 1872 and has its headquarters in Cologne, Germany...

, Deutz AG
Deutz AG
Deutz AG is an engine manufacturer, based in Cologne, Germany.-History:The company was founded by Nikolaus Otto, inventor of the four-stroke internal combustion engine, in 1864 as N. A...

 and a number of Kölsch
Kölsch (beer)
Kölsch, also written Koelsch, is a local beer specialty brewed in Cologne, Germany. It is a clear beer with a bright straw-yellow hue, and it has a prominent, but not extreme, hoppiness. It is less bitter than the standard German pale lager. Furthermore, Kölsch is warm fermented at a temperature...

 breweries. Cologne has the country's highest density of pubs per capita. The three largest Kölsch breweries are Reissdorf, Gaffel and Früh.
brewery established annual output in hectolitre
Heinrich Reissdorf 1894 650.000
Gaffel Becker & Co
Gaffel Becker & Co
The private brewery Gaffel Becker & Co was founded in 1908 by the Becker Brothers in Cologne. It produces a top-fermented beer called Gaffel Kölsch.-External links:*...

1908 500.000
Cölner Hofbräu Früh
Cölner Hofbräu Früh
Cölner Hofbräu Früh is a private brewery for top-fermented beer called Kölsch. The brewery was founded in Cologne in 1904 by Peter Joseph Früh.-External links:*...

1904 440.000


Historically, Cologne has always been an important trade city, with land, air, and sea connections. The city has five Rhine ports, the second largest inland port
Inland port
The term inland port is used in two different but related ways to mean either a port on an inland waterway or an inland site carrying out some functions of a seaport.- As a port on an inland waterway :...

 in Germany and one of the largest in Europe. Cologne-Bonn Airport is the second largest freight terminal in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Today, the Cologne trade fair
Cologne Trade Fair
Koelnmesse is the name of the international trade fair and exhibition center located in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...

 (Koelnmesse) ranks as a major European trade fair location with over 50 trade fairs and other large cultural and sports events. In 2008, Cologne had 4.31 million overnight accommodations booked and 2.38 million arrivals. Cologne's largest daily newspaper is the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger
Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger
The Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger is a daily newspaper published in Cologne, Germany, and has the largest circulation in the Cologne/Bonn Metropolitan Region...

.

Road transport



Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the leadership of mayor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

. The first German limited access road was constructed after 1929 between Cologne and Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

. Today, this is the Bundesautobahn 555
Bundesautobahn 555
Bundesautobahn 555 , connecting the cities of Cologne and Bonn, was constructed between 1929 and 1932, and opened to traffic on August 6, 1932....

. In 1965, Cologne became the first German city to be fully encircled by a freeway belt. Roughly at the same time a downtown bypass freeway (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups. The completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a which begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and A 3 at the interchange Cologne East. Nevertheless, it is referred to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive") was actually completed, a new four/six lane downtown thoroughfare, which had already been anticipated by planners like Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.

In 2005, the first stretch of an eight-lane freeway in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

 was opened to traffic on Bundesautobahn 3, part of the eastern section of the Cologne Beltway between the interchanges Cologne East and Heumar.

Cycling


Like most German cities, Cologne has a traffic layout designed to be bicycle-friendly
Bicycle-friendly
The term bicycle-friendly describes policies and practices which may help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by bicycle with other traffic...

. There is an extensive cycle network, featuring pavement-edge cycle lanes linked by cycle priority crossings. In some of the narrow one-way central streets, cyclists are explicitly allowed to cycle both ways.

Rail transport


Cologne has a railway service with Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 Intercity
InterCity
InterCity is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe...

 and ICE
InterCityExpress
The Intercity-Express or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries. It is the highest service category offered by DB Fernverkehr and is the flagship of Deutsche Bahn...

-trains stopping at Köln Hauptbahnhof
Köln Hauptbahnhof
Köln Hauptbahnhof is the central railway station in Cologne, Germany.The station is an important local, national and international hub, with many ICE, Thalys and Intercity trains calling there, as well as regional RegionalExpress, RegionalBahn and local S-Bahn trains...

(Cologne Central Station), Köln Messe/Deutz and Cologne/Bonn Airport. ICE and TGV Thalys
Thalys
Thalys is an international high-speed train operator originally built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. This track is shared with Eurostar trains that go from Paris or Brussels to London via Lille and the Channel Tunnel and with French domestic TGV trains. Thalys reaches...

 high-speed trains link Cologne with Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

, Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 (in 1h47, 6 departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day). There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 via the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
The Channel Tunnel is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in the United Kingdom with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais near Calais in northern France beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point, it is deep...

 are planned for 2013.

The Cologne city railway
Cologne Stadtbahn
The Cologne Stadtbahn is a light rail system in the German city of Cologne, including several surrounding cities...

 operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB) is an extensive light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 system that is partially underground (referred to as U-Bahn) and serves Cologne and a number of neighboring cities. Nearby Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

 is linked by both the city railway and Deutsche Bahn trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

 is also linked by S-Bahn
S-Bahn
S-Bahn refers to an often combined city center and suburban railway system metro in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark...

 trains which are operated by Deutsche Bahn.

There are also frequent buses covering most of the city and surrounding suburbs, and Eurolines
Eurolines
Eurolines is a coach organisation, operating international bus routes within Europe and Morocco to over 500 destinations in over 25 countries. Rather than being a single company, Eurolines is a network of co-operating bus companies from all over Europe, offering integrated ticketing and extensive...

 coaches to London via Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

.

Water transport


Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln (Cologne Ports and Railways) (HGK) is one of the largest operators for inland port
Inland port
The term inland port is used in two different but related ways to mean either a port on an inland waterway or an inland site carrying out some functions of a seaport.- As a port on an inland waterway :...

s in Germany. Ports include Köln-Deutz, Köln-Godorf and Köln-Niehl I and II. Köln-Düsseldorfer offers Rhine river cruise
River cruise
A River cruise is a voyage along inland waterways, often stopping at multiple ports along the way. Since cities and towns often grew up around rivers, river cruise ships frequently dock in the center of cities and towns.- Descriptions :...

s along the entire Rhine.

Air transport


Cologne's international airport is Cologne/Bonn Airport
Cologne Bonn Airport
Cologne/Bonn Airport is an international airport located in the district of Porz in the city of Cologne, Germany, and is surrounded by the Wahner Heide nature reserve. The airport is centrally located in the Cologne/Bonn Region southeast of Cologne city centre and northeast of Bonn...

 (CGN). It is also called Konrad Adenauer Airport after Germany's first post-war Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

, who was born in the city and was mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the neighbouring city of Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

. Cologne is headquarter to the European Aviation Safety Agency
European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Aviation Safety Agency is an agency of the European Union with offices in Cologne, Germany, which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. It was created on 15 July 2002, and it reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions...

 (EASA). The airport is also the main hub of the airline Germanwings
Germanwings
Germanwings GmbH is a low-cost airline based in Cologne, Germany, and is wholly owned by Lufthansa. Cologne Bonn Airport, Stuttgart Airport and Berlin-Schönefeld Airport are the important hubs in the airline's network of approximately 70 destinations...

.

Education


Cologne is home to numerous universities and colleges, and host to some 72,000 students. Its oldest university, the University of Cologne
University of Cologne
The University of Cologne is one of the oldest universities in Europe and, with over 44,000 students, one of the largest universities in Germany. The university is part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, an association of Germany's leading research universities...

 (originally founded in 1388) is the largest university in Germany, as the Cologne University of Applied Sciences
Cologne University of Applied Sciences
Cologne University of Applied Sciences is a higher education institution in Cologne, Germany, established in 1971. It was created from a merger of numerous smaller colleges, the oldest of which was the Royal Provincial Trade School, founded in 1833, and renamed Trade College of the City of Cologne...

 is the largest university of Applied Sciences
Fachhochschule
A Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of tertiary education institution, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas . Fachhochschulen were founded in Germany and later adopted by Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Greece...

 in the country. The Cologne University of Music and Dance is the largest conservatory
Music school
The term music school refers to an educational institution specialized in the study, training and research of music.Different terms refer to this concept such as school of music, music academy, music faculty, college of music, music department or conservatory.Music instruction can be provided...

 in Europe.
  • Public and state universities:
    • University of Cologne
      University of Cologne
      The University of Cologne is one of the oldest universities in Europe and, with over 44,000 students, one of the largest universities in Germany. The university is part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, an association of Germany's leading research universities...

       (Universität zu Köln);
    • German Sport University Cologne
      German Sport University Cologne
      German Sport University Cologne is a sport university in Cologne, Germany. It is the largest sports university in Europe with more than 5,000 students...

       (Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln).
  • Public and state colleges:
    • Cologne University of Applied Sciences
      Cologne University of Applied Sciences
      Cologne University of Applied Sciences is a higher education institution in Cologne, Germany, established in 1971. It was created from a merger of numerous smaller colleges, the oldest of which was the Royal Provincial Trade School, founded in 1833, and renamed Trade College of the City of Cologne...

       (Fachhochschule Köln);
    • Köln International School of Design
      Köln international school of design
      The Köln International School of Design is an institution of the Cologne University of Applied Sciences and offers an interdisciplinary study program in the field of design...

      ;
    • Cologne University of Music and Dance
      Hochschule für Musik Köln
      The Cologne University of Music is a music college in Cologne, and Germany's largest academy of music.-History:The academy was founded by Ferdinand Hiller in 1850 as Conservatorium der Musik in Coeln...

       (Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln);
    • Academy of Media Arts Cologne (Kunsthochschule für Medien Köln);
  • Private colleges:
    • Catholic University of Applied Sciences (Katholische Hochschule Nordrhein-Westfalen);
    • Cologne Business School
      Cologne Business School
      The Cologne Business School is a privately-run business school located in Cologne, Germany. Cologne Business School is a state-recognized University of applied sciences...

      ;
    • international filmschool cologne (internationale filmschule köln);
    • Rhenish University of Applied Sciences (Rheinische Fachhochschule Köln)
  • Research institutes:
    • German Aerospace Center
      German Aerospace Center
      The German Aerospace Center is the national centre for aerospace, energy and transportation research of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has multiple locations throughout Germany. Its headquarters are located in Cologne. It is engaged in a wide range of research and development projects in...

       (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt);
    • European Astronaut Center (EAC) of the European Space Agency
      European Space Agency
      The European Space Agency , established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 18 member states...

      ;
    • European College of Sport Science
      European College of Sport Science
      The European College of Sport Science is a sport scientific society founded in 1995 in Nice, France, dedicated to the collection, generation and dissemination of scientific knowledge...

       (ECSS);
    • Max Planck Institute for the Biology of Ageing
      Max Planck Institute for the Biology of Ageing
      The Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing is located in the building of the Centre for Molecular Medicine Cologne in Köln, Germany. The institute was founded in 2008 and is being developed until 2012. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society ....

       (Max-Planck-Institut für die Biologie des Alterns);
    • Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
      Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
      The Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies is a German social-science research institute within the Max Planck Society located in Cologne. Established in 1985, it was initially headed by sociologist Renate Mayntz , followed by political scientist Fritz W...

       (Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung);
    • Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research (Max-Planck-Institut für neurologische Forschung);
    • Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
      Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
      The Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research is located in Cologne, Germany. The institute was founded as part of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding Research in 1928 in Müncheberg, midway between Berlin and the German-Polish border...

       (Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung).


  • Former colleges include:
    • The Cologne Art and Crafts Schools (Kölner Werkschulen);
    • The Cologne Institute for Religious Art (Kölner Institut für religiöse Kunst)

    Media


    Within Germany, Cologne is known as an important media centre. Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk
    Westdeutscher Rundfunk
    Westdeutscher Rundfunk is a German public-broadcasting institution based in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office in Cologne. WDR is a constituent member of the consortium of German public-broadcasting institutions, ARD...

     (WDR), RTL
    RTL Television
    Rtl.de' redirects here. For other uses, see RTL.RTL Television , or simply RTL, is a German commercial television station distributed via cable and satellite along with DVB-T , in larger population centres...

     and VOX, have their headquarters in the city. Film and TV production is also important. The city is "Germany's capital of TV crime stories". A third of all German TV productions are produced in the Cologne region
    Cologne (region)
    Cologne is one of the five governmental districts of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is located in the south-west of that state and covers the hills of the Eifel as well as the Bergisches Land....

    . Further, the city hosts the Cologne Comedy Festival
    Cologne Comedy Festival
    The Cologne Comedy Festival is an international comedy festival held in Cologne, Germany every year since 1991. The festival initially started by importing comedians from around the world. During the 1990s, stand-up comedy became popular with young German audiences, who had experienced humor...

    , which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe.

    Sports



    Cologne hosts Bundesliga
    Fußball-Bundesliga
    The Fußball-Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany. At the top of Germany's football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. It is contested by 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga...

     club 1. FC Köln
    1. FC Köln
    1. FC Köln is a German association football club based in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia. It was formed in 1948 as a merger of the clubs Kölner Ballspiel-Club 1901 and SpVgg Sülz 07....

    . 1. FC Köln plays its home matches in RheinEnergieStadion
    RheinEnergieStadion
    The RheinEnergieStadion is a football stadium in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was built on the site of the two previous Müngersdorfer stadiums. It is the home of the local Bundesliga team, 1. FC Köln. The stadium was one of the 12 hosting the 2006 FIFA World Cup...

     which also hosted 5 matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup
    2006 FIFA World Cup
    The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

    . The International Olympic Committee
    International Olympic Committee
    The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

     and Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V. gave RheinEnergieStadion a bronze medal for "being one of the best sporting venues in the world".

    The city is also home of the ice hockey team Kölner Haie
    Kölner Haie
    The Kölner Haie are an ice hockey club based in Cologne, Germany that plays in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. The team was one of the founding members of the DEL.The team colours are red and white....

    , in the highest ice hockey league in Germany, the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. They are based at the Lanxess Arena.

    Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse
    Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse
    The Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse is a horse racing track at Weidenpescher Park in Nippes, Cologne. As the only race course in Germany, hosting more than one European pattern Group 1 race, Weidenpesch is one of the most prominent tracks in the country.Cologne-Weidenpesch is also one of Germany's...

     since 1897, the annual Cologne Marathon
    Cologne Marathon
    The Cologne Marathon is an annual marathon held in Cologne, Germany. Since October 1997 the marathon has been held annually in early October, except for 2004 and 2005 when it was held in late September.-Course:...

     was started in 1997. From 2002-2009, the Panasonic Toyota Racing Formula One
    Formula One
    Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

     team was based in the Marsdorf suburb, at the Toyota Motorsport GmbH facility.

    Cologne is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany". The first golf club in North Rhine-Westphalia
    North Rhine-Westphalia
    North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

     was founded in Cologne in 1906. The city offers the most options and top events in Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

    .

    The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup
    2005 FIFA Confederations Cup
    -Group B:---------------------Knockout stage:-Semi-finals:-----Third place playoff:-Final:-Awards:-Goal scorers:5 goals Adriano4 goals Luciano Figueroa John Aloisi Michael Ballack...

    , 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2007 World Men's Handball Championship
    2007 World Men's Handball Championship
    The 20th World Men's Handball Championship took place from January 19 to February 4, 2007 in Germany. 24 national teams played in 12 German cities.The tournament was won by Germany.-Stadiums:...

    , 2010 IIHF World Championship
    2010 IIHF World Championship
    The 2010 IIHF World Championship was the 74th IIHF World Championship, an annual international ice hockey tournament. It took place between 7 and 23 May 2010 in Germany. The games were played in the Lanxess Arena in Cologne, SAP Arena in Mannheim, and one game at Veltins-Arena in Gelsenkirchen...

     and 2010 Gay Games
    2010 Gay Games
    The 2010 Gay Games were held at Cologne, Germany from July 31-August 7, 2010.-The Bidding Process:On 16 March 2005, the Federation of Gay Games announced that Cologne, Johannesburg, and Paris were the official candidate cities for Gay Games VIII in 2010. Cologne was elected in the FGG annual...

    .

    Twin towns — sister cities



    Cologne is "twinned
    Town twinning
    Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

    " with the following cities:
    Liverpool
    Liverpool
    Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

    , England, since 1952 Lille
    Lille
    Lille is a city in northern France . It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country behind those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium...

    , France, since 1958 Liège, Belgium, since 1958 Rotterdam
    Rotterdam
    Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam on the Rotte river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre...

    , Netherlands, since 1958 Turin
    Turin
    Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

    , Italy, since 1958 Burgas
    Burgas
    -History:During the rule of the Ancient Romans, near Burgas, Debeltum was established as a military colony for veterans by Vespasian. In the Middle Ages, a small fortress called Pyrgos was erected where Burgas is today and was most probably used as a watchtower...

    , Bulgaria since 1991 Esch-sur-Alzette
    Esch-sur-Alzette
    Esch-sur-Alzette is a commune with city status, in south-western Luxembourg. It is the country's second city, and its second-most populous commune, with a population of 29,853 people...

    , Luxembourg, since 1958 Kyoto
    Kyoto
    is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan, it is now the capital of Kyoto Prefecture, as well as a major part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.-History:...

    , Japan, since 1963 Tunis
    Tunis
    Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia's largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants....

    , Tunisia, since 1964
    Turku
    Turku
    Turku is a city situated on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River. It is located in the region of Finland Proper. It is believed that Turku came into existence during the end of the 13th century which makes it the oldest city in Finland...

    , Finland, since 1967 Neukölln
    Neukölln
    Neukölln is the eighth borough of Berlin, located in the southeastern part of the city and was part of the former American sector under the Four-Power occupation of the city...

    , Germany, since 1967 Tel Aviv
    Tel Aviv
    Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

    , Israel, since 1979 Barcelona
    Barcelona
    Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

    , Spain, since 1984 Beijing
    Beijing
    Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

    , China
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

    , since 1987 Cork
    Cork (city)
    Cork is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland's third most populous city. It is the principal city and administrative centre of County Cork and the largest city in the province of Munster. Cork has a population of 119,418, while the addition of the suburban...

    , Ireland, since 1988 Thessaloniki
    Thessaloniki
    Thessaloniki , historically also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the region of Central Macedonia as well as the capital of the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace...

    , Greece, since 1988 Corinto
    Corinto, Nicaragua
    Corinto is a town of 17,000 on the northwest Pacific coast of Nicaragua in the province of Chinandega. The municipality was founded in 1863 and was named in honour of the Greek city of Corinth.- Economy :...

    /El Realejo
    El Realejo
    El Realejo is a municipality in the Chinandega department of Nicaragua. The town of El Realejo was constructed in 1532, during the first years of Spanish colonization. During this period it served as Nicaragua's principal port, and remained so until the beginning of the 17th century, when pirate...

    , Nicaragua, since 1988 Indianapolis
    Indianapolis
    Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana, and the county seat of Marion County, Indiana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population is 839,489. It is by far Indiana's largest city and, as of the 2010 U.S...

    , United States, since 1988
    Volgograd
    Volgograd
    Volgograd , formerly called Tsaritsyn and Stalingrad is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River...

    , Russia, since 1988 Treptow-Köpenick
    Treptow-Köpenick
    Treptow-Köpenick is the ninth borough of Berlin, Germany, formed in Berlin's 2001 administrative reform by merging the former boroughs of Treptow and Köpenick.-Overview:...

    , Germany, since 1990 Katowice
    Katowice
    Katowice is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, on the Kłodnica and Rawa rivers . Katowice is located in the Silesian Highlands, about north of the Silesian Beskids and about southeast of the Sudetes Mountains.It is the central district of the Upper Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2...

    , Poland, since 1991 Bethlehem
    Bethlehem
    Bethlehem is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank of the Jordan River, near Israel and approximately south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism...

    , Palestinian Territories
    Palestinian territories
    The Palestinian territories comprise the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988, the region is today recognized by three-quarters of the world's countries as the State of Palestine or simply Palestine, although this status is not recognized by the...

    , since 1996 Istanbul
    Istanbul
    Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

    , Turkey, since 1997 Cluj-Napoca
    Cluj-Napoca
    Cluj-Napoca , commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest , Budapest and Belgrade...

    , Romania, since 1999 Batangas
    Batangas
    Batangas is a first class province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and it is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the...

    , Philippines Saskatoon
    Saskatoon
    Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344....

    , Canada Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

    , Brazil, since 2011


    Additionally, the districts of Rodenkirchen
    Rodenkirchen
    Rodenkirchen is a southern city district of Cologne in Germany. It has about 100,000 inhabitants and covers as an area of 54.56 square kilometres...

    , Lindenthal and Porz
    Porz
    Porz is a city district or Stadtbezirk of Cologne, Germany. It is situated on the right side of the Rhine in the south-east of the city...

     continue to maintain individual town-partnerships, established during their time as independent municipalities.

    Born in Cologne


    Notable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:
    • Adenauer, Konrad
      Konrad Adenauer
      Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

       (5 January 1876 - 19 April 1967), politician, mayor of Cologne (1917–1933, 1945) and first West German Federal Chancellor
    • Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius
      Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa
      Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim was a German magician, occult writer, theologian, astrologer, and alchemist.-Life:Agrippa was born in Cologne in 1486...

       (1486–1535), alchemist, occultist, and author of Three Books of Occult Philosophy
    • Agrippina the Younger
      Agrippina the Younger
      Julia Agrippina, most commonly referred to as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger, and after 50 known as Julia Augusta Agrippina was a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty...

       (6 November 15 - between 19 March and 23 March 59), Roman Empress (wife of Emperor Claudius
      Claudius
      Claudius , was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy...

      ) and mother of Emperor Nero
      Nero
      Nero , was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death....

    • Birnbaum, Heinrich
      Heinrich Birnbaum
      Heinrich Birnbaum , also known as De Piro , was a pious and learned Carthusian German monk....

       (1403–1473), a Catholic monk
    • Blum, Robert
      Robert Blum
      thumb|Painting by August Hunger of Robert Blum between 1845 and 1848Robert Blum was a German democratic politician, publicist, poet, publisher, revolutionist and member of the National Assembly of 1848. In his fight for a strong, unified Germany he opposed ethnocentrism and it was his strong...

       (10 November 1807 - 9 November 1848), politician and martyr of the 19th century democratic movement in Germany
    • Böll, Heinrich
      Heinrich Böll
      Heinrich Theodor Böll was one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers. Böll was awarded the Georg Büchner Prize in 1967 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972.- Biography :...

       (21 December 1917 - 16 July 1985), writer and winner of the Nobel prize for literature in 1972
    • Bruch, Max
      Max Bruch
      Max Christian Friedrich Bruch , also known as Max Karl August Bruch, was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertoire.-Life:Bruch was born in Cologne, Rhine Province, where he...

       (6 January 1838 - 2 October 1920) composer
    • Calatrava, Álex
      Alex Calatrava
      Alex Patricio Calatrava is a former tour tennis player from Spain, who turned professional in 1993. The right-hander won one singles title...

       (born 14 June 1973), Spanish professional tennis player
    • Donnersmarck, Florian Henckel von
      Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck
      Florian Maria Georg Christian, Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck is a German film director, best known for writing and directing the 2007 Oscar-winning film The Lives of Others and the 2010 film The Tourist.-Personal life and family:...

       (born 2 May 1973), Academy Award-winning director and screenwriter
    • Ernst, Max
      Max Ernst
      Max Ernst was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was one of the primary pioneers of the Dada movement and Surrealism.-Early life:...

       (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976), artist
    • Gossow, Angela
      Angela Gossow
      Angela Nathalie Gossow is the lead vocalist for the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy. Her previous bands include Asmodina and Mistress. She is considered to be one of the few successful female metal singers to use growling as her primary singing style...

       (5 November 1974) The lead vocalist of the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy
    • Heidemann, Britta
      Britta Heidemann
      Britta Heidemann is a German épée fencer. Heidemann had her biggest success on 13 August during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, when she defeated Ana Maria Brânză to win the gold medal, just minutes after fellow countryman Benjamin Kleibrink won the men's individual foil competition...

       (born 22 December 1982), épée fencer and Olympic medalist
      Olympic medalist
      An Olympic medal is awarded to successful competitors at one of the Olympic Games. There are three classes of medal: gold, silver and bronze. The winner is awarded the gold medal, the runner-up the silver medal, and the third place competitor is awarded the bronze medal...

    • Herr, Trude (4 May 1927 - 16 March 1991), actress and singer
    • Höner, Stefanie (born 2 August 1969), actress
    • Kier, Udo
      Udo Kier
      Udo Kier is a German actor, known primarily for his work in horror and exploitation movies.-Early life:...

       (born 14 October 1944), actor
    • Jutta Kleinschmidt
      Jutta Kleinschmidt
      Jutta Kleinschmidt is a competitor of offroad automotive racing events. She is known for her numerous showings in the Paris Dakar Rally, and notably for having won the event in 2001, becoming the first woman to win the race....

       (born August 29, 1962), offroad automotive racing
      Off-road racing
      Off-road racing is a format of racing where various classes of specially modified vehicles compete in races through off-road environments.-North America:...

       competitor
    • Klemperer, Werner
      Werner Klemperer
      Werner Klemperer was a comedic and dramatic actor, best known for his role as Colonel Klink on the CBS television sitcom, Hogan's Heroes.-Early life:...

       (22 March 1920 - 6 December 2000), Emmy Award
      Emmy Award
      An Emmy Award, often referred to simply as the Emmy, is a television production award, similar in nature to the Peabody Awards but more focused on entertainment, and is considered the television equivalent to the Academy Awards and the Grammy Awards .A majority of Emmys are presented in various...

      -winning comedy actor
    • Klibansky, Erich
      Erich Klibansky
      Erich Klibansky was headmaster and teacher of Jawne, the first Jewish Gymnasium of Rhineland in Cologne.-Life:...

       (28 November 1900 - 24 July 1942), Jewish headmaster and teacher
    • Kober, Adolf
      Adolf Kober
      Adolf Kober was a rabbi and a historian.- Life :Kober studied History, Philosophy and Oriental Languages at the University of Wrocław and received a PhD there in 1903 with a thesis on the medieval history of the Jews in Cologne...

       (3 September 1870 - 30 December 1958), Jewish rabbi and medievalist
    • Gaby Köster
      Gaby Köster
      - Awards :* 1996: Gilden Kölsch Award* 1998: Bambi in Category Publikumspreis Best Comedy Show for show 7 Tage, 7 Köpfe* 1998: Goldener Löwe for 7 Tage, 7 Köpfe* 1999: Deutscher Comedypreis in category best comedian...

       (born 1961), German actress and comedian
    • Krekel, Hildegard (born 2 June 1952), actress
    • Krekel, Lotti (born 23 August 1941), actress and singer
    • Krupp, Uwe
      Uwe Krupp
      Uwe G. Krupp is a retired German professional hockey defenceman and current coach of the German national ice hockey team. Following Walt Tkaczuk, Krupp was only the second German-born player to have a lasting career in the National Hockey League...

       (born 24 June 1965), professional (ice) hockey
      Ice hockey
      Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

       player
    • Kühn, Heinz
      Heinz Kühn
      Heinz Kühn was a German politician and Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia . He was born in Cologne.- External links :*...

       (18 February 1912 - 12 March 1992), Minister-President
      Minister-President
      A minister-president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments, in which a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government prevails, who presides over the council of ministers...

       of North Rhine-Westphalia
      North Rhine-Westphalia
      North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

       (1966–1978)
    • Lauterbach, Heiner
      Heiner Lauterbach
      Heiner Lauterbach is a German actor.- Life and work :Heiner Lauterbach was married to German actress Katja Flint who is the mother of his son Oscar . Later he had a relationship with Jenny Elvers. Since 7 September 2001 he has been married to Viktoria Skaf. They have two children: Maya and Vito...

       (born 10 April 1953), actor
    • Liebert, Ottmar
      Ottmar Liebert
      Ottmar Liebert is a German-born composer and guitarist, born to a Chinese-German father and a Hungarian mother. As a child, he spent most of his time traveling Europe and Asia with his family...

       (born 1 February 1961), musician
    • Millowitsch, Marie-Luise (born 23 November 1955), actress
    • Millowitsch, Peter (born 1 February 1949), actor, playwright
      Playwright
      A playwright, also called a dramatist, is a person who writes plays.The term is not a variant spelling of "playwrite", but something quite distinct: the word wright is an archaic English term for a craftsman or builder...

       and theatre director
    • Millowitsch, Willy
      Willy Millowitsch
      Willy Millowitsch was a German stage and TV actor and the director of the Volkstheater Millowitsch in Cologne.-Early life:...

       (8 January 1909 - 20 September 1999), actor, playwright and theatre director
    • Niedecken, Wolfgang
      Wolfgang Niedecken
      Wolfgang Niedecken is a German singer, musician and visual artist. He founded the Kölsch speaking rock group BAP at the end of the 1970s. He soon became famous with BAP all over Germany. He is the lead singer and only remaining founding member of BAP.- Life :Niedecken attended boarding school in...

       (born 30 March 1951), singer, musician, artist and bandleader of BAP
      BAP (German band)
      Bap is a German rock group. With ten albums reaching the number one in the German record charts, Bap is one of the most successful rock acts in their home country....

    • Neuhoff, Theodor von (25 August 1694 - 11 December 1756), briefly King Theodore of Corsica
    • Offenbach, Jacques
      Jacques Offenbach
      Jacques Offenbach was a Prussian-born French composer, cellist and impresario. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann. He was a powerful influence on later composers of the operetta genre, particularly Johann Strauss, Jr....

       (20 June 1819 - 5 October 1880), composer
    • Ostermann, Wilhelm (1 October 1876 - 6 August 1936) composer
    • Petras, Kim
      Kim Petras
      Kim Petras is a German teen pop singer. She creates electronic dance pop music and is signed to independent record label Joyce Records. She has been the subject of extensive worldwide news media reporting regarding her transgender medical history in the context of her young age.-Early life:Kim...

       (born 27 August 1992), singer
    • Prausnitz, Frederik William
      Frederik Prausnitz
      Frederik William Prausnitz was a German-born American conductor and teacher. His grandfather, Wilhelm Prausnitz, was the dean of the medical school at Graz, as well as a Privy Counsellor...

       (26 August 1920 - 12 November 2004), American conductor and teacher
    • Päffgen, Christa aka Nico
      Nico
      Nico was a German singer, lyricist, composer, musician, fashion model, and actress, who initially rose to fame as a Warhol Superstar in the 1960s...

       (16 October 1938 - 18 July 1988), model, actress, singer and songwriter (see Velvet Underground) and Warhol Superstar
      Warhol superstar
      Warhol superstars were a clique of New York City personalities promoted by Andy Warhol during the 1960s and early 1970s. These personalities appeared in Warhol's artworks and accompanied him in his social life...

    • Raab, Stefan
      Stefan Raab
      Stefan Konrad Raab is a German entertainer, television host, comedian and musician. Raab began his television career hosting the comedy show Vivasion in 1993 and has been hosting the late-night comedy show TV total since 1999. He became well-known in 1994 after composing a hit single spoofing...

       (born 20 October 1966), German
      Germany
      Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

       entertainer and host of ESC 2011
      Eurovision Song Contest 2011
      The Eurovision Song Contest 2011 was the 56th annual Eurovision Song Contest and was won by Eldar & Nigar performing "Running Scared" for Azerbaijan. The event took place in the Esprit Arena in Düsseldorf, Germany, following Germany's win in the previous year...

    • Rüttgers, Jürgen
      Jürgen Rüttgers
      Jürgen Rüttgers is a German politician and former Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia, widely known for his views on immigration and the much-discussed phrase "Kinder statt Inder" which was a media interpretation of "Statt Inder an die Computer müssen unsere Kinder an die Computer"...

       (born 26 June 1951), Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia 2005-2010
    • Stockhausen, Markus
      Markus Stockhausen
      Markus Pirol Stockhausen is a German trumpeter and composer.-Biography:Born in Cologne, he is the son of composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. At age four he appeared as "child at play" in his father's theatre piece Originals. He received his first piano lessons at age six, and at age twelve he began to...

       (born 2 May 1957), musician and composer
    • Trips, Wolfgang Graf Berghe von, Formula One racing driver
    • Vondel, Joost van den
      Joost van den Vondel
      Joost van den Vondel was a Dutch writer and playwright. He is considered the most prominent Dutch poet and playwright of the 17th century. His plays are the ones from that period that are still most frequently performed, and his epic Joannes de Boetgezant , on the life of John the Baptist, has...

       (17 November 1587 - 5 February 1679), Dutch poet and playwright
    • Weimar, Robert
      Robert Weimar
      Robert Weimar is a German professor of law and psychologist.Weimar is particularly concerned with German and European commercial law, and deals with the psychological and neuro-scientific fundamentals of thinking and decision-making...

       (born 13 May 1932), legal scientist and psychologist

    See also

    • Stadtwerke Köln
      Stadtwerke Köln
      Stadtwerke Köln GmbH. is the infrastructure and services company of the City of Cologne.The company undertakes water supply and electrical, gas, heat and steam energy supply through the subsidiary RheinEnergie. Other subsidiaries provice waste management and housing services for the city, in...

      , the municipal infrastructure company, operator of the city's railways, ports and utilities.
    • History of the Jews in Cologne
      History of the Jews in Cologne
      The history of the Jews in Cologne is documented from the year 321 AD, almost as long as the history of Cologne. Because of this historical continuity, today’s Jewish synagogue community calls itself the "oldest Jewish congregation North of the Alps"....


    External links