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Indore

इंदूर/इंदौर'ಇಂದೂರು
The City of Ahilyabai Holkar
—  industrial town & metropolitan area  —
Rajwada
Rajwada
Rajwada is a historical palace in Indore city. Built by the Holkar about two centuries ago. This seven storied structure is located near the Chhatris and serves today as a fine example of royal grandeur and architectural skills.- Structure :The structure comprises two parts, the first one located...



Temperature

• Summer

• Winter
Cfa
Climatic Regions of India
India has a large variation in climate from region to region, due to its vast size. India experiences climate from four major climate groups. These can be further subdivided into seven climatic types.-Tropical rainy climatic group:...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

)


     945 mm (37.2 in)

     38.0 °C (100.4 °F)

     44 °C (111 °F)

     24 °C (75 °F)
Website www.indore.nic.in

Indore is one of the major city in India, the largest city and commercial center of the state of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 in central India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Indore is located 190 km west of the state capital Bhopal. According to the 2011 Indian census, Indore city has a population of 1,960,631. It is the largest city of Madhya Pradesh, the 15th largest city in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and the 147th largest city in the world.

It is also the financial centre of the state and serves as the headquarters of both Indore District
Indore District
Indore District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The district derived its name from the city of Indore, which serves as its administrative headquarters...

 and Indore Division
Indore Division
Indore Division is an administrative geographical unit of Madhya Pradesh state of India. Indore is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of districts of Barwani, Burhanpur, Dhar, Indore, Jhabua, Khandwa, and Khargone....

. In local language the name Indore is often referred as Indor .It is also called Ahilya nagari.

Indore is the only city of India that has both an Indian Institute of Management (IIM) and an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). These two premier education institutions are located in the city, not very far from the city center. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, a unit of Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, engaged in R&D in non-nuclear front-line research areas of lasers, particle accelerators and related technologies, is located in Rau
Rau
Rau is a sub urb and a nagar panchayat in Indore district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.-Location:Rau is situated on National Highway 3 , Mumbai Agra Road Rau is a sub urb and a nagar panchayat in Indore district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.-Location:Rau is situated on National...

, Indore. It houses two special economic zones: Pithampur
Pithampur
Pithampur is a town in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Governed by Nagar Nigam, it is a well-known industrial estate referred to as the 'Detroit of India'...

 and Sanwer. Pithampur, often called the 'Detroit of India', has many automobile industries and some of the largest pharmaceutical companies. Sanwer, on the other hand, has steel industries, including The Indo-German Tool Room. As Indore expands, it shares its border with two cites, Ujjain
Ujjain
Ujjain , is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River , today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini...

 and an industrial town called Dewas
Dewas
Dewas is an ancient town situated on the Malwa plateau in the West-central part of Indian state called Madhya Pradesh, about 160 km south west from state capital, Bhopal. It is the administrative center of the Dewas District, and was formerly the seat of two princely states during the British...

. Ujjain is one of the seven sacred cites of India, having many famous temples and is a major tourist destination. Dewas is famous for the RBI press and hosts several automobile parts manufacturing companies.

During the days of the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of South Asia, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km²....

 Indore was an important hub between the Deccan and Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

. However after the death of Madhavrao Peshwa
Madhavrao Peshwa
Thorle Madhavrao Peshwa was fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire.-Early life and ascendancy to Peshwa:...

, the Maratha Empire disintegrated and Indore was declared the capital of the Holkar state
Holkar
The Holkar dynasty , whose earliest known clan-man was Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwa in 1721, and quickly rose to the ranks of Subedar...

, until Rani Ahilyabai Holkar moved the capital to Maheshwar
Maheshwar
Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. It is located 13 km east of National Highway 3 and 91 km from Indore, the commercial capital of the state. The town lies on the north bank of the Narmada River.-Etymology:The name Maheshwar comes from...

.

Etymology


Theories explaining the origins and etymology
Etymology
Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during...

 behind Indore's name differ. Formerly, the city of Indore was known by many different names. The first expected name of the city was Indreshwar which was named after the Indreshwar Temple in the city. The present name, Indore, originated from the Indreshwar temple constructed in 1741 by Ved Manuj.

History


The founders of Indore were the ancestors of the present zamindars of the region which spread from the banks of Narmada
Narmada River
The Narmada , also called Rewa is a river in central India and the fifth largest river in the Indian subcontinent. It is the third largest river that completely flows within India after Ganges and Godavari...

 to the borders of Rajputana
Rajputana
Rājputāna was the pre-1949 name of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān, the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. George Thomas was the first in 1800 A.D., to term this region as Rajputana...

. Their headquarters were at a village called Kampel
Kampel, Indore
Kampel is a panchayat village in the Indore block of the Indore district, Madhya Pradesh, India. It was the headquarters of a pargana in Mughal Empire, before the administrative center of the region was shfited the Indore city.- History :...

. In Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 times, the founders of these families received the title of Chaudhari, which established their claim to the land. In the 18th century, the control of Malwa passed to the Peshwa clan, and the Chaudharis came to be known as "Mandloi"s (derived from Mandal
Mandal
is a town and municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The administrative center of the municipality is the town of Mandal.The town of Mandal was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838...

s meaning districts). The Holkar
Holkar
The Holkar dynasty , whose earliest known clan-man was Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwa in 1721, and quickly rose to the ranks of Subedar...

s conferred the title of Rao Raja upon the family. The family retained its possessions of royalty, which included having an elephant, Nishan, Danka and Gadi even after the advent of Holkars and also retained the right of performing the first puja of Dushera (Shami Pujan) before the Holkar rulers.

Under Mughal rule, the family enjoyed great influence and was accorded confirmatory sanad
Sanad
Sanad can refer to:*Isnād, the citations or "backings" used to verify the legitimacy of a hadith*Sanad, In British India, a deed granted to native rulers confirming them in their states, in return for their allegiance...

s by the Emperors Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

, Alamgir
Alamgir
Alamgir may refer to:*Alamgir I, also known as Aurangzeb, ruler of the Mughal Empire 1658–1707*Alamgir II, ruler of the Mughal Empire 1754–1759*Alamgir Hashmi, English avant-garde poet*Alamgir , a pioneer of pop music in Pakistan...

, and Farukhshayar, confirming their 'Jagir' rights. Rao Nandlal Chaudhary Zamindar, upon visiting the court of Delhi, received a special place in the emperor’s court along with two jewel studded swords (now on display in the Royal British Museum under the family's name) and confirmatory sanads. Raja Savai Jai singh of Jaipur, a personal friend of his, gifted him with a special "Gold Langar" which guaranteed a special place to him in all the Durbars of India. The family’s respectability and influence over Malwa was instrumental in the ascent of the Peshwas and Holkars to rulership of this region.

Rao Nandlal Chaudhary, the founder of Indore, was the Chief Zamindar (landlord), and had an army of 2000 soldiers. In 1713, Nizam was appointed as the controller of the Deccan plateau area, which renewed the struggle between the Marathas and the Mughals.

While visiting the temple of Indreshwar near the banks of river Saraswati, Rao Nandlal found the location to be safe and strategically located, being surrounded by rivers on all sides. He started moving his people in, and constructed the fort of Shree Sansthan Bada Rawala to protect them from harassment by Mughals. The city was named Indrapur (after Lord Indreshwar), and eventually came to be known as Indore.

Baji Rao Peshwa finally took control of Malwa in 1733 A.D. Malhar Rao Holkar
Malhar Rao Holkar
Malhar Rao Holkar was a noble of the Maratha Empire, in present day India. Malhar Rao is particularly known for being the first Maratha Subhedar of Malwa in Central India. Born in a Dhangar family he was the first prince from the Holkar family which ruled the state of Indore...

 was one of the four signatories who guaranteed the proper fulfillment of the conditions. Upon victory the Peshwas appointed Malhar Rao Holkar as a “Subhedar”, which marked the beginning of Holkars' reign in Malwa.

Thus, Indore came to be ruled by the Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

 Maharaja
Maharaja
Mahārāja is a Sanskrit title for a "great king" or "high king". The female equivalent title Maharani denotes either the wife of a Maharaja or, in states where that was customary, a woman ruling in her own right. The widow of a Maharaja is known as a Rajamata...

s of the Holkar
Holkar
The Holkar dynasty , whose earliest known clan-man was Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwa in 1721, and quickly rose to the ranks of Subedar...

 dynasty. The dynasty's founder, Malhar Rao Holkar
Malhar Rao Holkar
Malhar Rao Holkar was a noble of the Maratha Empire, in present day India. Malhar Rao is particularly known for being the first Maratha Subhedar of Malwa in Central India. Born in a Dhangar family he was the first prince from the Holkar family which ruled the state of Indore...

, (1694–1766), was granted control of Malwa Maratha armies in 1724, and in 1733, was installed as the Maratha governor of the region. By the end of his reign, the Holkar state was de facto independent. He was succeeded by his daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar
Ahilyabai Holkar
Punyashlok Rajmata Devi Ahilyabai Holkar , also known as the Philosopher Queen, was a Holkar dynasty Queen of the Malwa kingdom, India. She is often compared with Catherine II of Russia, Elizabeth I of England, Margaret I of Denmark...

 who ruled from 1767 to 1795. She ruled from a palace-fort at Maheshwar
Maheshwar
Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. It is located 13 km east of National Highway 3 and 91 km from Indore, the commercial capital of the state. The town lies on the north bank of the Narmada River.-Etymology:The name Maheshwar comes from...

, south of Indore on the Narmada River
Narmada River
The Narmada , also called Rewa is a river in central India and the fifth largest river in the Indian subcontinent. It is the third largest river that completely flows within India after Ganges and Godavari...

. Ahilyabai Holkar was an architectural patron who donated money for the construction of Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 temples across India. In 1818, the Holkars were defeated by the British
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom during the period when what is now the Republic of Ireland formed a part of it....

 in the Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
The Third Anglo-Maratha War was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India. The war left the Company in control of most of India. It began with an invasion of Maratha territory by 110,400 British East India Company troops, the largest...

, and the Holkar kingdom became a part of the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

. As a result of this defeat in the Battle of Mahidpur
Battle of Mahidpur
The Battle of Mahidpur was fought during the Third Anglo-Maratha War between the Marathas and the British led by Sir Thomas Hislop at Mahidpur, a town in the Malwa region, on 20 December 1817....

, the treaty of Mandsaur
Mandsaur
Mandsaur or Mandsour is a city in the Malwa region and district of Madhya Pradesh state of central India. It is the administrative headquarters of Mandsaur District.-Origin of name:...

 was signed, through which the Cantonment
Cantonment
A cantonment is a temporary or semi-permanent military or police quarters. The word cantonment is derived from the French word canton meaning corner or district, as is the name of the Cantons of Switzerland. In South Asia, the term cantonment also describes permanent military stations...

 town of Mhow was handed over to the British. The treaty also decreed that the capital of the Holkar state would shift from Maheshwar to Indore.

Indore is the 'karmbhumi' of Guru Radha Kishan
Guru Radha Kishan
Guru Radha Kishan was born in the year 1925 on Krishna Janmashtami in Bid village of district Harda of Madhya Pradesh in a Brahmin family of farmers. He has to experience the hardships of the life very early as his father was expired while he was a kid...

. There are many respected names from the state who participated in the Indian freedom struggle but his simplicity, selflessness and complete insulation from material desire sets him apart from many others who held high offices in Independent India. His colleagues includes gandhian Prof. Mahesh Dutt Mishr, former Indore MP Homi F Dazi, painter Narayan Shridhar Bendre
Narayan Shridhar Bendre
Narayan Shridhar Bendre was one of India's celebrated artists of the 20th century.-Life and career:...

, freedom fighters Vinayakrao Sahasrbude, Ramchandra Sarvate, Anant Laagu and Padma Vibhushan Vinayak Sarvate.

After India's independence in 1947, Indore, along with a number of neighbouring princely states, became part of the Indian state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Madhya Bharat
Madhya Bharat
Madhya Bharat , also known as Malwa Union was an Indian state in west-central India, created on 28 May 1948 from twenty-five princely states which until 1947 had been part of the Central India Agency, with Jivaji Rao Scindia as its Rajpramukh...

. Indore was designated the summer capital of this newly created state. On 1 November 1956, Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh and Bhopal was chosen as the capital. The city palace was the seat of administration of the rulers of the Malwa region – The Holkars (26 May 1728 to 20 April 1948).

Geography


Indore is located in the western region of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

, on the southern edge of the Malwa plateau, on the Saraswati and Khan rivers, which are tributaries of the Shipra River.

Indore has an average elevation of 553 meter above mean sea level. It is located on an elevated plain, with the Vindhyas range to the south.

Climate


Indore has a transitional climate between a tropical wet and dry climate and a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

. Three distinct seasons are observed: summer, monsoon and winter.

Summers start in mid-March and can be extremely hot in April and May. The daytime temperatures can touch 40 °C on more than one occasion. Average summer temperature may go as high as 36–39 °C (100.4 °F) but humidity is very low.

Winters are moderate and usually dry. Lower temperatures can go as low as 4 °C-6 °C on some nights. Usually the temperature ranges between 26 °C-30 °C during winters.

Rains are due to southwest monsoons. The typical monsoon season goes from 15 June till mid-September, contributing 32–35 inches of annual rains. 95% of rains occur during monsoon season.

Indore gets moderate rainfall of 35 to 38 in (889 to 965.2 mm) during July–September due to the southwest monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

.

Civic Administration


Indore is administered by the Indore Municipal Corporation.

Some of the regions surrounding the city are administered by the Indore Development Authority (IDA). The IMC was established in 1956 under the Madhya Pradesh Nagar Palika Nigam Adhiniyam. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into 69 wards. These wards have been further divided into 11 zones.

The main institution involved in planning and development in Indore is IDA. The jurisdiction of this agency is demarcated clearly not only physically but also functionally. The principal responsibility of IDA is to ensure a holistic development of the Indore agglomeration covering an area of 9.718 km² as per Master plans.

The corporators
Local Governance in India
Urban Local Bodies of India are the constitutionally provided administrative units that provide basic infrastructure and services in cities and towns...

 are elected from each ward, who in turn elect a mayor. The mayor is responsible for the day-to-day running of the city services, municipal school board, the city bus service, the municipal hospital and the city library. Executive powers are vested in the municipal commissioner, who is an IAS
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service is the administrative civil service of the Government of India. It is one of the three All India Services....

 officer appointed by the Madhya Pradesh state government. The Indore City Police are headed by a Inspector General
Inspector General
An Inspector General is an investigative official in a civil or military organization. The plural of the term is Inspectors General.-Bangladesh:...

, an IPS
Indian Police Service
The Indian Police Service , simply known as Indian Police or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India...

 officer.

Demographics


Indore's total population as per the provisional population data for census 2011 is reported to be 1,960,631.

Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%.

As per 2011 census, the city of Indore has an average literacy rate of 87.38%, higher than the national average of 74%. Male literacy was 91.84%, and Female literacy was 82.55%
In Indore, 12.72% of the population is under 6 years of age (as per census 2011).
The average annual growth rate of population is around 2.85% as per the statistics of census 2001. Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 is the main language spoken here with Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

 and Malwi spoken as well.

Transport


Air


Indore is served by the Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport
Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport
Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport is a public airport that principally serves Indore, the largest city of the central Indian state Madhya Pradesh. It is the busiest airport in the state of and is located 8 km south east of Indore....

. Indore airport is about 8 km from the city and currently handles only domestic traffic. It is a major airport in the state of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

. The new terminals are presently under construction, as the airport is expanding. The airport has been operating services by Indian Airlines, Jet Airways Konnect, Jet Lite, Kingfisher Red, IndiGo
Indigo
Indigo is a color named after the purple dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species. The color is placed on the electromagnetic spectrum between about 420 and 450 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet...

, SpiceJet
SpiceJet
SpiceJet is a low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, India. It began service in May 2005 and by 2008, it was India's second-largest low-cost airline in terms of market share. SpiceJet was voted as the best low-cost airline in South Asia and Central Asia region by Skytrax in...

. Indore has a direct connectivity to major cities of India like Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

, Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Jabalpur, Jodhpur
Jodhpur
Jodhpur , is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located west from the state capital, Jaipur and from the city of Ajmer. It was formerly the seat of a princely state of the same name, the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar...

, Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

, Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, Nagpur
Nagpur
Nāgpur is a city and winter capital of the state of Maharashtra, the largest city in central India and third largest city in Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune...

, New Delhi, Pune
Pune
Pune , is the eighth largest metropolis in India, the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after Mumbai, and the largest city in the Western Ghats. Once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire, it is situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the confluence of the Mula ...

, Raipur and Srinagar
Srinagar
Srinagar is the summer seasonal capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated in Kashmir Valley and lies on the banks of the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus. It is one of the largest cities in India not to have a Hindu majority. The city is famous for its gardens, lakes and houseboats...

, .

Rail



The City Railway Division comes under Ratlam Division
Ratlam Junction
Ratlam is a major junction and rail division on Indian Railways on meter and broad gauge lines. It comes under Western Railways zone of Indian Railways.There are Four major Railway Tracks passes through Ratlam City, these are along Mumbai, Delhi,...

 of the Western Railways. Indore Junction BG is the main and terminal station on the broad gauge line connecting it to the rest of the country. In the Railway budget of 2009 Indore main railway station was listed for upgrade along with other 300 stations across India.Indore is directly connected to the metro cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Pune, Lucknow and Jaipur.
Indore is one of the several places in India with both meter gauge and broad gauge railways operational. Regular train services connect Indore to most parts of the country. Electrification of the Indore – Dewas
Dewas
Dewas is an ancient town situated on the Malwa plateau in the West-central part of Indian state called Madhya Pradesh, about 160 km south west from state capital, Bhopal. It is the administrative center of the Dewas District, and was formerly the seat of two princely states during the British...

 – Ujjain
Ujjain
Ujjain , is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River , today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini...

 is currently underway.

Indore lies on the Ratlam
Ratlam
Ratlam , known historically as Ratnapuri, is a city in the Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. The town of Ratlam lies 480 m above sea level. It is the administrative headquarters of Ratlam District....

 and Akola metre gauge railway line, the longest remaining functional meter gauge line in India. This section is scheduled for conversion to standard broad gauge under Indian Railways' projected Unigauge system.

Road


Indore is connected to other parts of India through national and state highways. The major national highways passing through the city are:
  • National Highway No. 3 (NH3 – Agra Bombay)
  • National Highway No. 59 (NH 59 – Indore Ahmedabad)
  • National Highway No. 59A (Indore – Betul – Nagpur
    Nagpur
    Nāgpur is a city and winter capital of the state of Maharashtra, the largest city in central India and third largest city in Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune...

     connecting NH 69 )


The Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

- Indore section of the National Highway No. 3 and the Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

 – Indore section of the National Highway No. 59 are undergoing multi laning under the NHDP program. Other important regional highways are:
  • State Highway No. 27 (Indore to Burhanpur)
  • State Highway No. 34 (Indore to Jhansi)

Local Transport


Indore has a public transport system. Atal Indore City Transport Services Ltd, a PPP scheme operates buses and radio taxis in the city. The buses – designated as City Bus
Indore City Bus
Indore City Bus is a road transport system run by Indore City Transport Services Limited or ICTSL. This transport system runs through 277 kilometers of road network in the Indore city and surrounding areas...

 today operate on 36 Routes, with around 170 bus stop stations. The buses are color coded according to their route.
Some of these buses are also equipped with services like GPS and IVR (around 300) which are used to track the position of the bus with information displayed on LED displays installed on the bus stops.
Local transport also includes Auto rickshaw
Auto rickshaw
An auto rickshaw or three-wheeler is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw...

, Van and Local City Ride Buses called Nagar Seva. Many cab services have recently started serving the city, like Metro taxi, City cabs. The major bus terminals are Sarwate bus terminal, Gangwal bus terminal, Navlakha bus stand .

Economy


Indore is often referred as the commercial capital of Madhya Pradesh with a bulk of its trade coming from Small, Mid and Large scale manufacturing & service industries. These industries range from Automobile to Pharmaceutical and from Software to Retail and from Textile trading to Real estate .
Major industrial areas surrounding the city include the Pithampur Special Economic Zone and the Sanwer Industrial belt. Pithampur is also known as the Detroit of India.

While the Textile manufacturing and Trading is the oldest business to contribute to economy, the Real Estate has emerged very fast in past few years. National Real Estate Players DLF Limited,Omaxe,Sahara, Parsvnath, Ansal API, Emaar MGF have already launched their residential projects in Indore. These projects are generally on the Indore bypass.This road also houses the projects of many local and regional Real estate players like Silver spring, Kalindi, Milan Heights etc.

Major software firms in Indore include Impetus
Impetus Technologies
Impetus Technologies is a Software Product engineering and Software R&D Services provider based in India that creates software products for software and technology companies. Many of these products have been award winning products...

, IBM India
IBM India
IBM India is the Indian subsidiary of IBM. It has facilities in Bangalore, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Pune, Gurgaon, Noida, Chandigarh, Indore and Hyderabad....

 and Computer Sciences Corporation
Computer Sciences Corporation
Computer Sciences Corporation is an American information technology and business services company headquartered in Falls Church, Virginia, USA...

 (CSC). Also many small and medium size software development firms are also established.
In the software front a major event occurred in the first half of 2011 when India's biggest software company Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services Limited is a global IT services, business solutions and outsourcing company headquartered in Mumbai, India. It is the largest provider of information technology in Asia and second largest provider of business process outsourcing services in India...

 decided to open a campus in Indore. Government of MP has also done the land allotment.

Infosys
Infosys
Infosys Limited, formerly Infosys Technologies Limited is a global technology services company headquartered in Bangalore, India. It is the second largest IT exporter in India with 133,560 employees as of March 2011. It has offices in 33 countries and development centers in India, China,...

, country’s second largest information technology services company, plans to set up new development centre at Indore in Madhya Pradesh at an investment of Rs 100 crore in phase one.

Pithampur near Indore houses production plants of various Pharmaceutical companies like Ipca Laboratories
Ipca Laboratories
Ipca Laboratories is an international pharmaceutical company based in Mumbai, India. It is also one of the largest suppliers of these APIs and their intermediates world over. It produces more than 150 formulations that include oral liquids, tablets, dry powders, and capsules...

, Cipla
Cipla
Cipla Limited is a prominent Indian pharmaceutical company, best-known outside its home country for manufacturing low-cost anti-AIDS drugs for HIV-positive patients in developing countries...

, Lupin
Lupin Ltd.
Lupin Ltd. is world's largest manufacturer of the anti-TB drugs based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. The company production contains the Cardiovascular , Diabetology, Asthma, Pediatrics, CNS, GI, Anti-Infectives and NSAIDs therapy and world largest manufacturer of Anti-TB and Cephalosporins...

, Glenmark
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals is one of the leading pharmaceutical company headquarteredin Mumbai, India. It manufactures and markets generic formulation products and active pharmaceutical ingredients , both in the domestic and international markets...

, Unichem
Unichem Laboratories
Unichem Laboratories is one of the India's oldest and largest pharmaceutical company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Its plants located in Roha , Goa, Baddi & Ghaziabad, also new plant coming up in Sikkim. The company has made more than 500 product registrations across the world and...

.

Education




Home to a range of colleges and schools, Indore has a large student population. Most primary and secondary schools in Indore are affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education
Central Board of Secondary Education
The Central Board of Secondary Education is a Board of Education for public and private schools, under the Union Government of India.-History:...

 (CBSE); however, a number of schools have affiliation with ICSE
ICSE
ICSE might be an acronym or abbreviation for:* International Conference on Software Engineering* International Contract Services Expo* International Center for Sustainale Excellence* Indian Certificate of Secondary Education...

 board, NIOS
Nios
Nios may refer to:*National Institute of Open Schooling, Board of Education for school level in India *Nios embedded processor*Nios II*Lake Nyos, a crater lake in the Northwest Province of Cameroon in Africa...

 board and the state level M.P. Board.

Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya
Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya
Devi Ahilya University, also called Indore University, Hindi: इन्दौर विशवविधालय, is a major university in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.-History:...

 (DAVV) offers courses in more than 20 fields which include law, pharmacy and management at both graduate and postgraduate level.

Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College
Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College
Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, Indore is a medical college in Indore, India.-Location:MGMMC is located on A.B. Road near Maharaja Yashwantrao Hospital in Indore. The college was opened in 1948. The teaching hospital is a 1200- bedd 7-storied hospital which includes all clinical and...

, Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Sciences & IET-DAVV
Institute of Engineering and Technology, DAVV
The Institute of Engineering and Technology, commonly referred to as IET, is an engineering college of Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya. The college was founded as an autonomous institute in 1996...

 offers courses in medical sciences & engineering with Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Sciences & IET
Institute of Engineering and Technology, DAVV
The Institute of Engineering and Technology, commonly referred to as IET, is an engineering college of Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya. The college was founded as an autonomous institute in 1996...

 being the 2nd and 3rd ranked engineering colleges of Madhya Pradesh (MANIT being 1st).

The Daly College, Indore is one of the best school's of India and is ranked as the country's 5th best school. It is a very well-known school which is a part of the G20 schools of the world along with The Doon School, Dehra Doon from India. It is also a part of the Round Square.

Indore is the only city in India to have an Indian Institute of Management and an Indian Institute of Technology.

Arts and theater


Ravindra Natya Grah, Abhivyakti Centre of Fine Arts & Performing Arts, Deolalikar Kala Vithika are located in the city. There are also various cultural clubs like Sanand Nyas,Ras Bharati, Kala Abhivyakti, Yeshwant Club and Sayaji Club.

Print media


There are about 19 Hindi dailies, two English dailies, 26 weeklies and monthlies, 3 quarterlies, 1 Bi-monthly Magazine and one annual paper published from the city.
The major Hindi dailies include the :- Raj Express, Nai Dunia, Dainik Bhaskar
Dainik Bhaskar
Dainik Bhaskar is an Indian Hindi-language daily newspaper published by D B Corp Ltd.. It was started in year 1958 from Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh...

, Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran is a Hindi language daily broadsheet newspaper in India. According to the IRS Q1 2010, Dainik Jagran ranks No. 1 among the dailies with a Total Readership of 54,254,000.-Overview:...

, Patrika, BPN Times, Agnibaan, & PrabhatKiran. The major English dailies are The Times of India
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

, Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ....

, The Hindu
The Hindu
The Hindu is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Chennai since 1878. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 1.46 million copies as of December 2009. The enterprise employed over 1,600 workers and gross income reached $40...

, Free Press
Free Press
Free Press may refer to:*Freedom of the press*Free Press , a nonpartisan, non-profit organization founded by media critic Robert McChesney to promote more democratic media policy in the United States...

, Business Standard
Business Standard
Business Standard is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd in two languages, English and Hindi...

& The Economic Times
The Economic Times
The Economic Times is an English-language Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.. The Economic Times was started in 1961. It is the most popular and widely read financial daily in India, read by more than 8 lakh people...

,DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

.

Indore is covered by a large network of optical fibre cables. There are three fixed telephone line
Landline
A landline was originally an overland telegraph wire, as opposed to an undersea cable. Currently, landline refers to a telephone line which travels through a solid medium, either metal wire or optical fibre, as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, where transmission is via radio waves...

 operators in the city: BSNL, Reliance
Reliance Communications
Reliance Communications Ltd. is an Indian broadband and telecommunications company headquartered in Navi Mumbai, India. RCOM is the world's 16th largest mobile phone operator with over 144 million subscribers. Established on 2004, a subsidiary of the Reliance Group...

 and Airtel. There are eight mobile phone companies in which GSM players include BSNL, Reliance, Vodafone
Vodafone
Vodafone Group Plc is a global telecommunications company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest mobile telecommunications company measured by revenues and the world's second-largest measured by subscribers , with around 341 million proportionate subscribers as of...

, Idea
Idea cellular
Idea Cellular, usually referred to as Idea, is an Indian wireless telecom company based in Mumbai, India. Idea is the 3rd largest mobile services operator in India, in revenue terms, and recorded of over 98.4 million customers as of August 2011....

, Airtel, Aircel
Aircel
Aircel group is a mobile phone service provider in India. It offers both prepaid and postpaid GSM cellular phone coverage throughout India. The Aircel group is a joint venture between Maxis Communications Berhad of Malaysia and Sindya Securities & Investments Private Limited, whose current...

, Tata DoCoMo
Tata DoCoMo
TATA DoCoMo, referred to as DoCoMo , is a Tata Teleservices Limited owned cellular service provider on the GSM and CDMA platform-arising out of the Tata Group's strategic joint venture with Japanese telecom giant NTT Docomo in November 2008...

, Videocon Mobile Service
Videocon Mobile Service
Videocon Mobile Service., is a GSM based cellular operator in India based in Mumbai .Videocon Telecommunications Limited which holds a market share of 0.78% in the country, a Videocon group company offers GSM mobile services GSM service under the brand name Videocon.The Videocon Group is a $4...

 while CDMA services offered by BSNL, Virgin Mobile
Virgin Mobile
Virgin Mobile is a brand used by many mobile phone service providers across the globe; its headquarters are based in the United Kingdom. Virgin Mobile has local operations in Australia, Canada, France, India, South Africa, Greece, United Kingdom and the United States. It briefly also had operations...

, Tata Indicom
Tata Indicom
Tata Teleservices Limited is a Indian broadband and telecommunications provider based in Mumbai, India. It is a subsidiary of the Tata Group, an Indian conglomerate...

, and Reliance.

Culture


Indore was included in the Guinness Book of World Records for holding the largest tea party in the world.

Food


Indore has a wide variety of Namkeens and it is believed that it is the only city in the world who make 100 types of Namkeens, Poha & Jalebi, Chaats (snacks), Kachoris and Samosas, cuisines of various types in different restaurants, and Bengali, Muslim, Rajasthani, continental and confectionery sweets, as well as dishes such as Dal-Bafla, Nihari Gosht and Bafla-Gosht. Most important place in Indore for Foodies is Sarafa Bazar, where a wide range of Indian Fast food is available. Chhappan Dukan is an another food junction in Indore, where the youth & family gathers on the road side shops for Indian Snacks.

Indore is also center of food lover's of all over the India, it is famous for it's specialty in all kinds of food from all over the India. Also Indore belongs to the malwa region so it is famous for its malwa taste and delicacies like Dal-Bafla, Sev curry and other.

Main festivals


All national festivals like Holi, Rangpanchmi, Baisakhi, Raksha Bandhan, Navratri,Durga puja, Dussehra, Ganesh Utsav, Deepavali, Ramzan, Gudi Padwa
Gudi Padwa
Gudi Padwa or Gudhi Padwa , is the Marathi name for the Hindu holiday of Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. It is celebrated on the first day of the Chaitra month to mark the beginning of the New year according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar...

, Bhaidooj, Eid
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

, Christmas and other others like Nagpanchmi, Ahilya Utsav, are celebrated with equal enthusiasm.
There are many shiva temples in indore, Mahashivratri is celebrated at a large extent in indore.

Entertainment


Indore is equipped with places like malls and cinema halls to provide relief from all the worries and tensions. These options are very viable and facilitate people to steal time from their work, for pleasure. Tourists coming to the Indore city of India can also avail the opportunity and entertain themselves completely.

Cinema


Cinema is the most popular medium of entertainment in Indore as well as in the whole country. Owing to the fact that Indians are great cinema lovers, Bollywood has emerged out to be one of the biggest film industries in the world. Indian cinema is quite rich in its content and has a great deal to offer to its viewers. People become ignorant of their daily life problems and get refreshed. There are a number of cinema halls in the city where you can enjoy the new releases, namely PVR, Mangal Adlabs, INOX Central ,INOX sapna-sangeeta, Broadway, Satyam, K sera sera, Velocity, Man Mandir, Madhumilan, Neel kamal, Alka etc.

Malls


Malls are the hottest trends in cities today. Apart from being exotic shopping destinations, they are emerging out to be one of the major hang out places of the city crowd. Malls provide a comprehensive package to the people, wherein they can shop, eat and enjoy at the same place. The motto is: everything under one roof. Indore is also host to many such malls, which provide variety and comfort to the visitors. Treasure Island is the largest, with 5 floors and 245 stores. It is the most popular mall around and is located in the heart of the city. There are also other malls namely Mangal City mall, Indore mall, C21 mall, Malhar mega mall, Central mall, Orbit mall, Salaasar market etc.

Khajrana


There are various places in Indore which are worth watching and local people are contributing to make Indore city as a tourist attraction spot.
Citizens of Indore city and other nearby cities have great faith in the Khajrana Temple. This temple is made by Ahilyabai Holkar. This is an important place of Hindus. There is a Dargah in proximity of the temple of Nahar Sayed. It is believed that the headless body of Nahar Sayed is buried in this Dargah. This is an important place of Naita Muslims.

Kaanch Mandir


The Kaanch Mandir also known as Glass Temple is an exquisite example of a marvel in glass. This Jain Temple also known as Jain Mandir was built by Sir Seth Hukum Chand Jain (Kasliwal) in the early 20th century. The specialty of this temple is that its doors, pillars, ceilings and walls are entirely inlaid with glass with minute detailing. It is one of the most famous tourist attraction of the city. The temple also has paintings which are depicting stories from the Jain scriptures. The top of the temple multiplies the three statues of Lord Mahavir which makes this beatiful temple more beautiful.

Bada Ganpati


The Bada Ganpati temple is a very ancient temple and widely known for the size of the Ganesh idol. This temple was built in the year 1875 by Shri Dadhich. The idol is said to be the size of 25 Foot from head to crown. This temple is located near the heart of the city Rajwada also known as Holkar Palace.

Atal Bihari Vajpeyee Regional Park


Also known as Pipliyapala park or Indore regional park, it is developed by the Indore Development Authority (IDA) at an estimated cost of Rs 50 crore. Normal hours of operation are :every day (except Tuesday) from 11 am-9 pm. Tickets have been priced at Rs 25 for adults and Rs 10 for children. Development of the park is on the 80 acres of land of the pond and 42 acres land near this tank. There is a canal, which covers the whole park starting from one point of the pond and ending at the other part. The bridges over canal with the Mist fountain let us feel a special type of peace,mentally as well as physically. Various attractions to the park include Musical Fountain, Jumping jet fountain, Artists' village, Maze, French gardens, Bio-diversity garden, Mist fountain, Fast food zone, Boating.

Central Museum


Central Museum, also known as the Indore Museum, is one of the most interesting buildings in Indore. It is a treat for the people who are genuinely fascinated by the history of India and the rich civilization that flourished here in the pre historic age. It is located near the General Post Office in Indore. The Museum exhibits the finest collection of Parmar sculptures from Hinglajgarh. The Parmar style actually originated here only. Its main features include proportioned figures, careful and intricate ornamentation and depiction in stone.

Rajwada


Rajwada is the historical palace of the Holkars. It was built about two centuries ago and is located near the Chhatris in the main square. It is a seven storied structure, which serves as the living example of the grandeur of the Holkars. Rajwada stands in the centre of the city. The new palace is on the northern side, while the old palace stands in the old part of the town. The old palace is a multi-storied building which also serves as a gateway of the Rajwada. It stands amongst the crowded streets of the Kajuri Bazar and faces the main square of the city.

Chokhi & Nakhrali Dhani


Chokhi Dhani and Nakhrali Dhani are Rajasthani heritage resorts on the outskirts of Indore. These resorts are given the appearance of a Rajasthani village in India. The villages provide people the precise atmosphere of the village, along with the modern day facilities and entertainment. These villages are catching fast with the city people as well as the tourists who visit Indore. At Choki Dhani, people find respite from the busy schedules of daily life. The rustic Rajasthani spirit fills the environment with colours of joy. You can pamper yourself with good food and enjoy traditional Rajasthani delicacies here.

Near By Attractions


There are various places which tourists and citizens of Indore like to visit for weekends and occasion or Holidays.

Ujjain


This pilgrimage town is 56kms from Indore. It is known as the Greenwich for the Hindu Astrologers. This town is situated on the banks of river Kshipra. The legendary king Vikramaditya once ruled this town. From then this town is famous as the center of learning.

Patal Pani


This tourist attraction is famous for its beauty in Monsoon Season. It is 36kms from Indore towards Mhow.

Mandu


This is a very old and famous tourist spot of the State. The fort of Mandu is also known as Madhav Gadh which is about 90kms from Indore. The fort was founded by Parmar Rulers in the 10th Century.

CAT


CAT(Center for Advance Technology) formerly known as Raja Rammanna Center for Advance Technology is the center for scientific research is the seperate colony which is build in west Indore. It is famous for its various kinds of Lasers, there is replica of large hydrogen collider of cern in CAT names as INDUS 1 and INDUS 2.

See also

  • Bijalpur
    Bijalpur
    Bijalpur is in the south-west suburban of Indore city. It has population of 18000 . It was included in Indore in 1983.-Location:...

  • Rau
    Rau
    Rau is a sub urb and a nagar panchayat in Indore district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.-Location:Rau is situated on National Highway 3 , Mumbai Agra Road Rau is a sub urb and a nagar panchayat in Indore district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.-Location:Rau is situated on National...

  • Mhow
  • Kshipra
  • Dewas
    Dewas
    Dewas is an ancient town situated on the Malwa plateau in the West-central part of Indian state called Madhya Pradesh, about 160 km south west from state capital, Bhopal. It is the administrative center of the Dewas District, and was formerly the seat of two princely states during the British...

  • Ujjain
    Ujjain
    Ujjain , is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River , today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini...

  • Rangwasa
    Rangwasa
    Rangwasa is a village situated near Rau, Indore District, India. The village is situated on Rau Navda Road . Indore main city is around 8 km away from the village. Rau is 2 km far from the village...

  • Manpur, Indore
    Manpur, Indore
    See Manpur for disambiguationManpur is a town and a nagar panchayat in Indore district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.-Geography:Manpur is located at . It has an average elevation of 567 metres .-Demographics:...

  • Betma
    Betma
    Betma is a town and a nagar panchayat in Indore district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.-History:It is very old town of Malwa region, As per records, a memento in form of Tamra patra is presented to Raja Bhoja in Year 1020-1056, by people of BetmaBetma is also have link with Samrat Ashok &...

  • Burhanpur
    Burhanpur
    Burhanpur is an important city in Madhya Pradesh state, India. It is the administrative seat of Burhanpur District. It is situated on the north bank of the Tapti River, southwest of Bhopal and northeast of Mumbai...

  • Omkareshwar
    Omkareshwar
    See Omkareshwar, East Nimar for town of the same nameOmkareshwar is a Hindu temple dedicated to God Shiva. It is one of the 12 revered Jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva....

  • Mandu
    Mandu
    Mandu or Mandavgad is a ruined city in the Dhar district in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. The distance between Dhar & Mandu is about 35 km. In the 11th century, Mandu was the sub division of the Tarangagadh or Taranga kingdom...

  • Maheshwar
    Maheshwar
    Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. It is located 13 km east of National Highway 3 and 91 km from Indore, the commercial capital of the state. The town lies on the north bank of the Narmada River.-Etymology:The name Maheshwar comes from...

  • Pithampur
    Pithampur
    Pithampur is a town in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Governed by Nagar Nigam, it is a well-known industrial estate referred to as the 'Detroit of India'...


Further reading

  • Hunter, Cotton, Burn, Meyer. "The Imperial Gazetteer of India", 2006. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1909.
  • Plunkett, Richard. Central India. Lonely Planet
    Lonely Planet
    Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book and digital media publisher in the world. The company is owned by BBC Worldwide, which bought a 75% share from the founders Maureen and Tony Wheeler in 2007 and the final 25% in February 2011...

    , 2001. ISBN 1-86450-161-8
  • "Indore." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911 ed.
  • "Ek Yug Ek Purush" by Om Prakash Sharma

External links