Halifax, West Yorkshire

Halifax, West Yorkshire

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Encyclopedia
Halifax is a minster town, within the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale
Calderdale
The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England, through which the upper part of the River Calder flows, and from which it takes its name...

 in West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972....

, England. It has an urban area
Urban area
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.Urban areas are created and further...

 population of 82,056 in the 2001 Census
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

. It is well-known as a centre of England's woollen manufacture from the 15th century onward, originally dealing through the Halifax Piece Hall
Halifax Piece Hall
The Halifax Piece Hall is a building in the town centre of Halifax, West Yorkshire, England, originally built as a sales centre for woollen handloom weavers. It opened on 1 January 1779, with over 300 separate rooms arranged around a central courtyard. The term piece refers to pieces of cloth that...

. Halifax is internationally famous for its Mackintosh chocolate and toffee (now owned by Nestlé
Nestlé
Nestlé S.A. is the world's largest food and nutrition company. Founded and headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland, Nestlé originated in a 1905 merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1867 by brothers George Page and Charles Page, and Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé, founded in 1866 by Henri...

), the Halifax Bank (formerly Halifax Building Society), and the nearby Shibden Hall
Shibden Hall
Shibden Hall is a historic house located in a public park at Shibden, West Yorkshire, England. It dates back to around 1420, when it was recorded as being inhabited by one William Otes. Prior to 1619, it was then owned by the Savile and Waterhouse families. The three families' armorial symbols are...

.

History


The oldest written mentions of the town have the spelling as Haliflax, apparently meaning "holy flax" (Hair), the second "l" having been subsequently lost by dissimilation
Dissimilation
In phonology, particularly within historical linguistics, dissimilation is a phenomenon whereby similar consonant or vowel sounds in a word become less similar...

. Local legend has it that the head of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

 was buried here after his execution. The legend is almost certainly medieval rather than ancient, though the town's coat of arms
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer. Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth...

 still carries an image of the saint. An alternative explanation for the name of the town could come from a corruption of the Old English words Hay and Ley. Anecdotal evidence for this alternative and plausible explanation can be seen in the presence of Haley Hill, the nearby hamlet of Healey (another corruption). The fact that the surnames Hayley/Haley which are derived from Hay and Ley, for 'hay' and 'clearing' or 'meadow' respectively and are most abundant around the Halifax environs, also gives credibility for this explanation.


The Earldom of Halifax
Earl of Halifax
Earl of Halifax is a title that has been created four times in British history, once in the Peerage of England, twice in the Peerage of Great Britain and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The name of the peerage refers to Halifax, West Yorkshire....

 took the name of the town. The first creation, in the Peerage of England in 1677, was for William Savile, 1st Viscount Halifax
George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax
George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax PC was an English statesman, writer, and politician.-Family and early life, 1633–1667:...

. He had already been made Baron Savile of Eland and Viscount Halifax in 1668 and was later made Marquess of Halifax
Marquess of Halifax
The title Marquess of Halifax was created in the Peerage of England in 1682 for the 1st Earl of Halifax.The 1st Marquess had previously been created Baron Savile, of Eland in the County of York, and Viscount Halifax in 1668 and Earl of Halifax in 1679, all also in the Peerage of England...

 (this creation of the earldom became extinct in 1700; see Marquess of Halifax
Marquess of Halifax
The title Marquess of Halifax was created in the Peerage of England in 1682 for the 1st Earl of Halifax.The 1st Marquess had previously been created Baron Savile, of Eland in the County of York, and Viscount Halifax in 1668 and Earl of Halifax in 1679, all also in the Peerage of England...

 for more information). George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax
George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax
George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, KG, PC was a British statesman of the Georgian era.-Early life:...

, (2nd order of the 3rd creation) became the President of the Board of Trade in 1748. In 1749 he helped to found the town (later city) of Halifax
City of Halifax
Halifax is a city in Canada, which was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia and shire town of Halifax County. It was the largest city in Atlantic Canada until it was amalgamated into Halifax Regional Municipality in 1996...

, the capital of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the most populous province in Atlantic Canada. The name of the province is Latin for "New Scotland," but "Nova Scotia" is the recognized, English-language name of the province. The provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 which was named after him. He helped foster trade, especially with North America. The Halifax River
Halifax River
The Halifax River is part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, located in northeast Volusia County, Florida. The waterway was originally known as the North Mosquito River, but was renamed after George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, during the British occupation of Florida .-Geography:The...

 in Central Florida
Central Florida
Central Florida is a regional designation for the area surrounding Orlando in east central Florida, United States. The area represents the third largest population concentration in Florida, after the South Florida and Tampa Bay regions, respectively....

, United States, was named after him. Halifax Regional Municipality and Halifax County
Halifax County, Nova Scotia
Halifax County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.The Municipality of the County of Halifax was the municipal government of Halifax County, apart from the separately incorporated towns and cities therein...

, in Canada, are also named in his honour.

Halifax Minster, parts of which go back to the 12th century, has always been dedicated to St John the Baptist. The Minster's first organist, in 1766, was William Herschel
William Herschel
Sir Frederick William Herschel, KH, FRS, German: Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel was a German-born British astronomer, technical expert, and composer. Born in Hanover, Wilhelm first followed his father into the Military Band of Hanover, but emigrated to Britain at age 19...

, who went on to discover the planet Uranus
Uranus
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. It is named after the ancient Greek deity of the sky Uranus , the father of Cronus and grandfather of Zeus...

. The coat of arms of Halifax include the chequers from the original coat of arms of the Earls Warenne, who held the town during Norman
Normans
The Normans were the people who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Norse Viking conquerors of the territory and the native population of Frankish and Gallo-Roman stock...

 times.
Halifax was notorious for the Halifax Gibbet
Halifax Gibbet
The Halifax Gibbet was an early guillotine, or decapitating machine, used in the town of Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It was probably installed some time during the 16th century as an alternative to beheading by axe or sword...

, an early form of guillotine
Guillotine
The guillotine is a device used for carrying out :executions by decapitation. It consists of a tall upright frame from which an angled blade is suspended. This blade is raised with a rope and then allowed to drop, severing the head from the body...

 used to execute
Capital punishment
Capital punishment, the death penalty, or execution is the sentence of death upon a person by the state as a punishment for an offence. Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. The term capital originates from the Latin capitalis, literally...

 criminals by decapitation
Decapitation
Decapitation is the separation of the head from the body. Beheading typically refers to the act of intentional decapitation, e.g., as a means of murder or execution; it may be accomplished, for example, with an axe, sword, knife, wire, or by other more sophisticated means such as a guillotine...

, last used in 1650. A replica of the gibbet has been erected on the original site in Gibbet Street. The original gibbet blade is on display at Bankfield Museum, Halifax. Punishment in Halifax was notoriously harsh, as remembered in the Beggar's Litany by John Taylor
John Taylor (poet)
John Taylor was an English poet who dubbed himself "The Water Poet".-Biography:He was born in Gloucester, 24 August 1578....

 (1580–1654), a prayer whose text included "From Hull
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull , usually referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It stands on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea. Hull has a resident population of...

, from Halifax, from Hell
Hell
In many religious traditions, a hell is a place of suffering and punishment in the afterlife. Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations...

, ‘tis thus, From all these three, Good Lord deliver us.".
The town's 19th-century wealth came from the cotton, wool and carpet industries and like most other Yorkshire towns had a large number of weaving
Weaving
Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The other methods are knitting, lace making and felting. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling...

 mills many of which have been lost or converted to alternate use.

In November 1938, in an incident of mass hysteria, many in Halifax believed a serial killer—The Halifax Slasher
The Halifax Slasher
The Halifax Slasher was the supposed attacker in an incident of mass hysteria that occurred in the town of Halifax, England in November 1938 following a series of reported attacks on local people, mostly women.-The incident:...

—was on the loose. Scotland Yard
Scotland Yard
Scotland Yard is a metonym for the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service of London, UK. It derives from the location of the original Metropolitan Police headquarters at 4 Whitehall Place, which had a rear entrance on a street called Great Scotland Yard. The Scotland Yard entrance became...

 was called in, but they concluded there were no "Slasher" attacks after several locals came forward and admitted they had inflicted the wounds upon themselves.

Halifax has given its name to a bank, Halifax plc which started as a building society
Building society
A building society is a financial institution owned by its members as a mutual organization. Building societies offer banking and related financial services, especially mortgage lending. These institutions are found in the United Kingdom and several other countries.The term "building society"...

 in the town. Nowadays Halifax is a trading name of HBOS
HBOS
HBOS plc is a banking and insurance company in the United Kingdom, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Lloyds Banking Group having been taken over in January 2009...

, as part of the Lloyds Banking Group
Lloyds Banking Group
Lloyds Banking Group plc is a major British financial institution, formed through the acquisition of HBOS by Lloyds TSB in 2009. As at February 2010, HM Treasury held a 41% shareholding through UK Financial Investments Limited . The Group headquarters is located at 25 Gresham Street in London, with...

. Halifax is a twin town
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

 in Germany. The A58
A58 road
The A58 is a major road in northern England that runs between Prescot, Merseyside and Wetherby, West Yorkshire.It runs north east from Prescot on the outskirts of Liverpool via St Helens, Ashton-in-Makerfield, Hindley, Westhoughton, Bolton, Bury, Heywood, Rochdale and Littleborough then over the...

 has a stretch called Aachen Way, with a plaque on the town-bound side of the road.

Halifax has benefited from Single Regeneration Budget, European URBAN II and the Home Office’s Community Cohesion Fund money through Action Halifax who have a vision for "a prosperous, vibrant and safe centre where all sections of the community can access opportunities to enhance their quality of life."

Governance



Halifax was incorporated as a municipal borough
Municipal borough
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002...

 in 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
The Municipal Corporations Act 1835  – sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in the incorporated boroughs of England and Wales...

, and with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888
Local Government Act 1888
The Local Government Act 1888 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which established county councils and county borough councils in England and Wales...

 became a County Borough
County borough
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, but continue in use for lieutenancy and shrievalty in...

 in 1889. Since 1974, Halifax has been the administrative centre
Administrative centre
An administrative centre is a term often used in several countries to refer to a county town, or other seat of regional or local government, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located....

 of the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale
Calderdale
The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England, through which the upper part of the River Calder flows, and from which it takes its name...

, once a part of the now-former metropolitan county of West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972....

.

The Calderdale suburbs north of Halifax are noted for its local support of the far-right British National Party
British National Party
The British National Party is a British far-right political party formed as a splinter group from the National Front by John Tyndall in 1982...

; the suburb of Mixenden
Mixenden
Mixenden is a village in Calderdale, on the outskirts of Halifax in the county of West Yorkshire, England. It had a bad reputation during the 1970s...

 became the first area in West Yorkshire to popularly vote in a BNP councillor.

Geography


Topographically, Halifax is located in the south-eastern corner of the moorland region called the South Pennines
South Pennines
South Pennines is a region of moorland and hill country in northern England lying towards the southern end of the Pennines. It is bounded to the west by the Forest of Rossendale and the Yorkshire Dales to the north...

. Halifax is situated about 4 miles (6 km) from the M62 motorway
M62 motorway
The M62 motorway is a west–east trans-Pennine motorway in Northern England, connecting the cities of Liverpool and Hull via Manchester and Leeds. The road also forms part of the unsigned Euroroutes E20 and E22...

 close to Bradford
Bradford
Bradford lies at the heart of the City of Bradford, a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, in Northern England. It is situated in the foothills of the Pennines, west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, and received its charter as a city in 1897...

, Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Huddersfield is a large market town within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England, situated halfway between Leeds and Manchester. It lies north of London, and south of Bradford, the nearest city....

 and Rochdale
Rochdale
Rochdale is a large market town in Greater Manchester, England. It lies amongst the foothills of the Pennines on the River Roch, north-northwest of Oldham, and north-northeast of the city of Manchester. Rochdale is surrounded by several smaller settlements which together form the Metropolitan...

. The Tees-Exe line
Tees-Exe line
The Tees-Exe line is an imaginary line that can be drawn on a map of Great Britain which roughly divides the lowland and upland regions of the country....

 passes through the A641 road, which links nearby Brighouse
Brighouse
Brighouse is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale, in West Yorkshire, England. It is situated on the River Calder, east of Halifax in the Pennines. It is served by Junction 25 of the M62 motorway and Brighouse railway station on the Caldervale Line and Huddersfield Line. In the...

 with Bradford and Huddersfield, The town lies 65 miles (104.6 km) from Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull , usually referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It stands on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea. Hull has a resident population of...

 and Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

, and about 170 miles (273.6 km) from the cities of London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

, Belfast
Belfast
Belfast is the capital of and largest city in Northern Ireland. By population, it is the 14th biggest city in the United Kingdom and second biggest on the island of Ireland . It is the seat of the devolved government and legislative Northern Ireland Assembly...

, Dublin and Cardiff
Cardiff
Cardiff is the capital, largest city and most populous county of Wales and the 10th largest city in the United Kingdom. The city is Wales' chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions, the Welsh national media, and the seat of the National Assembly for...

 as the crow flies. The major waterway is the Hebble Brook. The River Calder
River Calder, West Yorkshire
The River Calder is a river in West Yorkshire, in Northern England.The Calder rises on the green eastern slopes of the Pennines flows through alternating green countryside, former woollen-mill villages, and large and small towns before joining the River Aire near Castleford.The river's valley is...

 into which the Hebble joins it at Salterhebble
Salterhebble
Salterhebble is an area of Halifax, a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale, in West Yorkshire, England. Salterhebble is located where the Hebble Brook flows into the River Calder...

 bypasses the town and nearby Huddersfield.

Demographics


, Calderdale had a population of 192,405, of which 82,500 live in the Halifax urban area
Urban area
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.Urban areas are created and further...

. The main ethnic group in Halifax is White
Caucasian race
The term Caucasian race has been used to denote the general physical type of some or all of the populations of Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia , Central Asia and South Asia...

 (87%), followed by Pakistani (10%). Over 90% of people aged 16–74 were employed, mostly full-time. 64% of residents had qualifications.
Halifax is home to a large South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

n community mainly of British Pakistanis from the Kashmir region. The majority of the community lives in the west central Halifax region of the town, which was previously home to immigrant Irish
Irish people
The Irish people are an ethnic group who originate in Ireland, an island in northwestern Europe. Ireland has been populated for around 9,000 years , with the Irish people's earliest ancestors recorded having legends of being descended from groups such as the Nemedians, Fomorians, Fir Bolg, Tuatha...

 communities who have since moved to the outer suburbs. The Illingworth / Mixenden areas, in contrast to west central Halifax's ethnic diversity, consists mostly of white, indigenous Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 residents. In the 2001 census, 5% stated they were Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

, 16.3% of no religion, and 63.8% of Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 background. 12.8% did not disclose their religion. The population density of the Halifax urban area is 530/km2.

Economy




As well as the significance of the bank Halifax plc which, since 2008, is part of the Lloyds Banking Group
Lloyds Banking Group
Lloyds Banking Group plc is a major British financial institution, formed through the acquisition of HBOS by Lloyds TSB in 2009. As at February 2010, HM Treasury held a 41% shareholding through UK Financial Investments Limited . The Group headquarters is located at 25 Gresham Street in London, with...

, the town has strong associations with confectionery.

John Mackintosh and his wife, Violet, opened a toffee
Toffee
Toffee is a confection made by caramelizing sugar or molasses along with butter, and occasionally flour. The mixture is heated until its temperature reaches the hard crack stage of 300 to 310 °F...

 shop in King Cross
King Cross
King Cross; originally the site of an ancient stone cross is a Ecclesiastical parish created in 1845 in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England. Part of the Diocese of Wakefield. It is located along the top of a ridge above the town of Halifax...

 Lane in 1890. Violet formulated the toffee's recipe. John became known as "The Toffee King". A factory was opened on Queens Road in 1898. A new factory at Albion Mill, at the current site near the railway station, opened in 1909. John died in 1920, and his son Harold not only continued the business but took it to the present size and range of confectionery it has today. Their famous brands, including Rolo
Rolo
Rolo is a brand of truncated-cone-shaped or frustum-shaped chocolates with a caramel centre, the shape resembling that of a shallow inverted bucket or tub or a traditional lampshade. They are made by Nestlé, except in the United States where production has been under licence by The Hershey Company...

, Toffee Crisp
Toffee Crisp
The Toffee Crisp bar is a well known chocolate bar which is produced by Nestlé in the United Kingdom. It consists of puffed rice embedded in soft toffee and shaped into a rectangular cuboid, the whole bar being covered by milk chocolate.- History :...

 and Quality Street of chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate is a raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Mexico, Central and South America. Its earliest documented use is around 1100 BC...

 and confectionery are not just popular in the UK, but around the world including the USA.

In 1969 John Mackintosh & Co Limited
Mackintosh's
Mackintosh's is a confectionery firm that was principally known for Mackintosh's Toffee and for brands such as Quality Street and Rolo.- Origins, Edwardian expansion and War-time contraction :...

 merged with the York
York
York is a walled city, situated at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events throughout much of its two millennia of existence...

-based Rowntree Limited
Rowntree's
Rowntree's was a confectionery business based in York, England. It is now a historic brand owned by Nestlé, used to market a range of fruit gums and pastilles formerly owned by Rowntree's. Following a merger with John Mackintosh & Co., the Company became known as Rowntree Mackintosh, was listed on...

 to form Rowntree Mackintosh. This was, in turn, purchased by Nestlé
Nestlé
Nestlé S.A. is the world's largest food and nutrition company. Founded and headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland, Nestlé originated in a 1905 merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1867 by brothers George Page and Charles Page, and Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé, founded in 1866 by Henri...

 in 1988.

Halifax was a busy industrial town, dealing in and producing wool, carpets, machine tools, and beer. The Crossley family began carpet manufacture in modest premises at Dean Clough
Dean Clough
Dean Clough in Halifax, Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England is a group of large factory buildings built in the 1840s–60s for Crossley's Carpets, becoming one of the world's largest carpet factories...

, on the banks of the Hebble Brook. The family was philanthropic and Joseph and Sir Francis Crossley
Francis Crossley
Sir Francis Crossley, 1st Baronet, of Halifax , was a British carpet manufacturer, philanthropist and Liberal Party politician.-Life:...

 built and endowed almshouse
Almshouse
Almshouses are charitable housing provided to enable people to live in a particular community...

s for their workers, which exist to this day and are run by volunteer trustees.

Halifax is also home to Suma Wholefoods, which was established in 1975 and is the largest workers co-operative in the UK.

Transport



Public bus and train transportation in Halifax is managed and subsidised by the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive
West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive
The West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive is the Passenger Transport Executive for the county of West Yorkshire, England. It is the executive arm of the West Yorkshire Integrated Transport Authority and was originally formed on 1 April 1974 as the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport...

. It was announced in January 2009 that Halifax was to have a direct rail link to London after a long campaign backed by many, including the local paper the Courier; the service began to run on 23 May 2010.

Bus


Most of the bus services in Halifax operate from the town's bus station
Halifax bus station
Halifax bus station serves the town of Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. The bus station is owned and managed by Metro . The bus station was opened in 1989 and is made of up 4 large islands with 20 stands in total. The bus station is situated in the Halifax Town Centre and could be accessed from...

. Unlike many other bus stations, Halifax is noted for having much character, with many listed buildings being incorporated on the site. First Calderdale & Huddersfield
First Calderdale & Huddersfield
First Calderdale & Huddersfield is one of the bus companies serving the area of West Yorkshire, England. It forms part of FirstGroup, a company operating transport services across the British Isles and in North America...

 operate most of the town's services, while Centrebus Holdings
Centrebus Holdings
Centrebus Holdings is a bus company in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire. It is a partnership between Arriva and Centrebus, created in May 2008 to purchase both K-Line Travel and Stagecoach Yorkshire's Huddersfield operations.-Stagecoach:...

 operate many of the south Calderdale services. Arriva Yorkshire
Arriva Yorkshire
Arriva Yorkshire is a division of Arriva which operates bus services around West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, East Riding of Yorkshire and the southern areas of North Yorkshire in England.-History:Arriva Yorkshire was formed as a combination of mergers of previous...

 operate services that link Halifax with the West Yorkshire towns and cities of Dewsbury
Dewsbury
Dewsbury is a minster town in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England. It is to the west of Wakefield, east of Huddersfield and south of Leeds...

 and Wakefield
Wakefield
Wakefield is the main settlement and administrative centre of the City of Wakefield, a metropolitan district of West Yorkshire, England. Located by the River Calder on the eastern edge of the Pennines, the urban area is and had a population of 76,886 in 2001....

. First operate bus services from Halifax to the town of Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Huddersfield is a large market town within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England, situated halfway between Leeds and Manchester. It lies north of London, and south of Bradford, the nearest city....

 and the nearby cities of Bradford
Bradford
Bradford lies at the heart of the City of Bradford, a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, in Northern England. It is situated in the foothills of the Pennines, west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, and received its charter as a city in 1897...

 and Leeds
Leeds
Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. In 2001 Leeds' main urban subdivision had a population of 443,247, while the entire city has a population of 798,800 , making it the 30th-most populous city in the European Union.Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial...

. First also run services into other counties, Rochdale
Rochdale
Rochdale is a large market town in Greater Manchester, England. It lies amongst the foothills of the Pennines on the River Roch, north-northwest of Oldham, and north-northeast of the city of Manchester. Rochdale is surrounded by several smaller settlements which together form the Metropolitan...

 in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.6 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the...

 and Burnley
Burnley
Burnley is a market town in the Burnley borough of Lancashire, England, with a population of around 73,500. It lies north of Manchester and east of Preston, at the confluence of the River Calder and River Brun....

 in Lancashire
Lancashire
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston...

. Other bus operators in the town include T.J. Walsh (also known as The Halifax Bus Company) and Halifax Joint Committee
Halifax Joint Committee
Halifax Joint Committee is an independent bus company operating in and around Halifax, West Yorkshire, England.Its buses are painted in the livery of the former County Borough of Halifax a whose buses and services were taken over by the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive on 1 April...

 which use the livery of the old Halifax Corporation buses, used on the town's buses until 1974.

Rail



Halifax railway station
Halifax railway station
Halifax railway station serves the town of Halifax in West Yorkshire, England. It lies on the Caldervale Line and is west from .The station at Halifax is an example of a single island platform acting as two platforms. Platform 2 heads eastbound, towards Bradford while Platform 1 heads westbound...

 is on the Caldervale Line
Caldervale Line
The Caldervale Line is a railway route in Northern England between the cities of Leeds and Manchester as well as the seaside resort of Blackpool...

, with services to Manchester Victoria
Manchester Victoria station
Manchester Victoria station in Manchester, England is the city's second largest mainline railway station. It is also a Metrolink station, one of eight within the City Zone...

, York
York railway station
York railway station is a main-line railway station in the city of York, England. It lies on the East Coast Main Line north of London's King's Cross station towards Edinburgh's Waverley Station...

, Selby
Selby railway station
Selby railway station serves the town of Selby in North Yorkshire, England. The station is on the Hull-York Line south of York, Leeds-Hull Line east of Leeds and west of Hull....

 via Bradford and Leeds; Blackpool North
Blackpool North railway station
Blackpool North railway station is the main railway station serving the seaside resort of Blackpool in Lancashire, England. It is the terminus of the main Blackpool branch line from Preston....

; via Brighouse
Brighouse railway station
Brighouse railway station serves the town of Brighouse in West Yorkshire, England. The station lies on the Caldervale Line and the Huddersfield Line running west from Leeds. The station reopened in 2000 and is served by local Northern Rail trains.- History :...

 to Huddersfield
Huddersfield railway station
Huddersfield railway station serves the town of Huddersfield in West Yorkshire, England.The station is managed by First TransPennine Express who provide trains between the North East, North and East Yorkshire, and Leeds to the east and Manchester Piccadilly and North West.It is also served by local...

 and Wakefield Westgate
Wakefield Westgate railway station
Wakefield Westgate railway station is the mainline railway station for the city of Wakefield in West Yorkshire, England. It is located on the western edge of the main city centre, on the opposite side from Wakefield's other station, Kirkgate.-Services:...

 and to London Kings Cross via Wakefield Kirkgate
Wakefield Kirkgate railway station
Wakefield Kirkgate railway station is a railway station in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England. Unlike the nearby Wakefield Westgate railway station, Kirkgate is unstaffed and served mostly by local trains...

. All but the London service are operated by Northern Rail
Northern Rail
Northern Rail is a British train operating company that has operated local passenger services in Northern England since 2004. Northern Rail's owner, Serco-Abellio, is a consortium formed of Abellio and Serco, an international operator of public transport systems...

.

Rail passenger representation is organised by the local users' group, the Halifax and District Rail Action Group (HADRAG).

The rail line leading from Halifax due north towards Keighley
Keighley
Keighley is a town and civil parish within the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England. It is situated northwest of Bradford and is at the confluence of the River Aire and the River Worth...

 (and thus towards Skipton
Skipton
Skipton is a market town and civil parish within the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. It is located along the course of both the Leeds and Liverpool Canal and the River Aire, on the south side of the Yorkshire Dales, northwest of Bradford and west of York...

, Morecambe
Morecambe
Morecambe is a resort town and civil parish within the City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. As of 2001 it has a resident population of 38,917. It faces into Morecambe Bay...

 and Carlisle
Carlisle railway station
Carlisle railway station, also known as Carlisle Citadel station, is a railway station whichserves the Cumbrian City of Carlisle, England, and is a major station on the West Coast Main Line, lying south of Glasgow Central, and north of London Euston...

) with a further branch to Bradford
Bradford
Bradford lies at the heart of the City of Bradford, a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, in Northern England. It is situated in the foothills of the Pennines, west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, and received its charter as a city in 1897...

 via Queensbury
Queensbury, West Yorkshire
Queensbury is a village in the metropolitan borough of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. Perched on a high vantage point above Clayton and Thornton and overlooking Bradford itself, Queensbury is one of the highest parishes in England, with fine views beyond the West Yorkshire conurbation to the...

 saw its last through services in May 1955, although parts of the route, which was extremely heavily engineered with long tunnels and high, spectacular, viaduct
Viaduct
A viaduct is a bridge composed of several small spans. The term viaduct is derived from the Latin via for road and ducere to lead something. However, the Ancient Romans did not use that term per se; it is a modern derivation from an analogy with aqueduct. Like the Roman aqueducts, many early...

s, have now been repaired and revived by Sustrans as a walking and cycle route.

Media


Calderdale's local radio station, Phoenix Radio 96.7 FM has its studios in Halifax, and the Evening Courier, Calderdale's local newspaper, has its offices in the town.

Education


The Halifax area is home to two selective state schools, which are The Crossley Heath School, Savile Park and North Halifax Grammar School
North Halifax Grammar School
The North Halifax Grammar School is a grammar school, specialist science college and specialist languages college in Illingworth, Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It is in the east of Illingworth, towards Holmfield and Holdsworth...

 in Illingworth
Illingworth, West Yorkshire
Illingworth is a village within the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale, in West Yorkshire, England.It is situated north-west of Halifax.The village of Illingworth has competitive sports teams within the area including Crossleys Juniors , Illingworth C.C. and Illingworth A.R.L.F.C...

. Both schools achieve excellent GCSE
General Certificate of Secondary Education
The General Certificate of Secondary Education is an academic qualification awarded in a specified subject, generally taken in a number of subjects by students aged 14–16 in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and is equivalent to a Level 2 and Level 1 in Key Skills...

 and A-level results with both schools achieving a large proportion of A* to C grades at GCSE level. In 2005, the Crossley Heath School was the highest ranking co-educational school in the North of England.

The Crossley Heath School was formed when Heath Grammar School
Heath Grammar School
Heath Grammar School, Free School Lane, Halifax, West Yorkshire, England was founded in 1585 by Dr. John Favour. Its full title was The Free Grammar School of Queen Elizabeth at Heath, near Halifax...

, an all boys' school given its charter by Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty...

, and The Crossley and Porter School, a mixed school founded with his brothers by Sir Francis Crossley, 1st Baronet which started as an orphanage, were combined in 1985. There are other schools in the area, including the Holy Trinity Church of England Senior School
Holy Trinity Church of England Senior School
Holy Trinity Church of England Senior School, is the only church aided 11 to 18 co-educational comprehensive school in the Diocese of Wakefield, founded in the 1815 by the then Vicar of Halifax...

, which became an academy in 2010, and St Catherine's Catholic High School
St Catherine's Catholic High School
St Catherine's Catholic High School is a Catholic comprehensive secondary school in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. The school is named after Catherine of Siena....

, both of which are located in Holmfield. In January 2006 Holy Trinity was designated a Specialist College for Business and Enterprise, whilst St Catherine's, was designated a Specialist Technology College.

Calderdale College
Calderdale College
Calderdale College is a further education college based in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England.-External links:*...

 is the local further education college on Francis Street, just off King Cross Road, in the west of the town. In December 2006 it was announced that Calderdale College
Calderdale College
Calderdale College is a further education college based in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England.-External links:*...

, in partnership with Leeds Metropolitan University
Leeds Metropolitan University
Leeds Metropolitan University is a British University with three campuses. Two are situated in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England while the third is situated in Bhopal, India...

, opened a new higher education institution in January 2007 called 'University Centre Calderdale'.

Culture



The 3rd Battalion Yorkshire Regiment (Duke of Wellington's)
Yorkshire Regiment
The Yorkshire Regiment is one of the largest infantry regiments of the British Army. The regiment is currently the only line infantry or rifles unit to represent a single geographical county in the new infantry structure, serving as the county regiment of Yorkshire covering the historical areas...

 formerly the Duke of Wellington's Regiment (West Riding)
Duke of Wellington's Regiment
The Duke of Wellington's Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army, forming part of the King's Division.In 1702 Colonel George Hastings, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, was authorised to raise a new regiment, which he did in and around the city of Gloucester. As was the custom in those days...

 Halifax Area Headquarters is based at Wellesley Park, on the junction of Gibbet Street and Spring Hall Road, in the former Wellesley Barracks Museum and Education Centre building. The Regimental Museum has been re-located within the Bankfield House Textile Museum on Haley Hill. The former barracks
Barracks
Barracks are specialised buildings for permanent military accommodation; the word may apply to separate housing blocks or to complete complexes. Their main object is to separate soldiers from the civilian population and reinforce discipline, training and esprit de corps. They were sometimes called...

 was converted into an educational school in 2005.

Former regimental colours
Colours, standards and guidons
In military organizations, the practice of carrying colours, standards or Guidons, both to act as a rallying point for troops and to mark the location of the commander, is thought to have originated in Ancient Egypt some 5,000 years ago...

 of the 'Duke's' are laid up in the Halifax Minster. These include the stand used by the 33rd Regiment between 1761 and 1771, which is one of the oldest in existence in England, plus those carried by the regiment during the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands...

 and the Crimea. The 1981 stand of colours, was taken out of service in 2002. They were marched through the town from the town hall
Halifax Town Hall
Halifax Town Hall is a grade II listed, 19th century town hall in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It is notable for its design and interiors by Charles Barry and his son, Edward Middleton Barry, and for its sculptures by John Thomas.-History:]...

 to the Minster, which at that time was still a Parish Church
Parish church
A parish church , in Christianity, is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches....

, accompanied by two escorts of 40 troops, the Regimental Drums and the Heavy Cavalry and Cambrai Band on Sunday 31 March 2007. The troops were then inspected by The Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire
Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire
The office of Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974.*Kenneth Hargreaves 1 April 1974 – 1978 *William Bulmer 1978–1985*John Taylor, Baron Ingrow 1985–1992...

, Dr Ingrid Roscoe BA, PhD, FSA
Ingrid Roscoe
Ingrid Mary Roscoe FSA is a writer on English art and Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire.Dr Ingrid Roscoe was born at Rugby School in 1944 to Dr Arthur Allen and Else, who had married after only meeting three times...

 and the Mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

 of Halifax Cllr Colin Stout making a total of eight stands of colours within the Regimental Chapel. The regiment was presented with the "Freedom of Halifax" on 18 June 1945.

Eureka! The Museum for Children
Eureka! (museum)
Eureka! The National Children's Museum is an interactive educational museum for children in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It is run as an educational charity and not-for-profit organisation....

 was inspired and opened by Prince Charles
Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay...

 in the summer of 1992 and is located in part of the railway station. Once the home of the diarist Anne Lister
Anne Lister
Anne Lister was a well-off Yorkshire landowner, diarist, mountaineer and traveller.Throughout her life she kept diaries which chronicled the details of her everyday life, including her lesbian relationships, her financial concerns, her industrial activities and her work improving Shibden Hall...

, Shibden Hall
Shibden Hall
Shibden Hall is a historic house located in a public park at Shibden, West Yorkshire, England. It dates back to around 1420, when it was recorded as being inhabited by one William Otes. Prior to 1619, it was then owned by the Savile and Waterhouse families. The three families' armorial symbols are...

 is located just outside Halifax in the neighbouring Shibden Valley. Dean Clough
Dean Clough
Dean Clough in Halifax, Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England is a group of large factory buildings built in the 1840s–60s for Crossley's Carpets, becoming one of the world's largest carpet factories...

, a refurbished worsted
Worsted
Worsted , is the name of a yarn, the cloth made from this yarn, and a yarn weight category. The name derives from the village of Worstead in the English county of Norfolk...

 spinning mill, is the home of Barrie Rutter
Barrie Rutter
Barrie Rutter is an English actor and the founder and Artistic Director of the Northern Broadsides theatre company based in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England....

's Northern Broadsides
Northern Broadsides
Northern Broadsides is a theatre company formed in 1992 and based at Dean Clough Mill in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. The founder and artistic director is Barrie Rutter. The company performs in Halifax and on tour, a mix of Shakespeare and other productions. Music is specially written for...

 Theatre Company and the IOU theatre company as well as providing space for eight art galleries.

Halifax, and in particular the Victoria Theatre
Victoria Theatre (Halifax)
Victoria Theatre in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England is a large theatre that opened in 1901.- History :The theatre was first opened on 8 February 1901, when it was known as the Victoria Hall...

 (originally the Victoria Hall) is home to the oldest continually running amateur choral society in the country and possibly the world. Halifax Choral Society
The Halifax Choral Society
Halifax Choral Society is an internationally-famous choir based in the town of Halifax in the English county of West Yorkshire. It is notable for being the oldest amateur choral society in Britain , founded in 1817 with an unbroken record of performance.The idea for the Halifax Choral Society was...

 was founded in 1817 and has an unbroken record of performances. The Choral Society has a strong rivalry with the equally eminent nearby Huddersfield Choral Society
Huddersfield Choral Society
Huddersfield Choral Society is an internationally famous choir based in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, England. It was founded in 1836, and is recognised as one of Britain's leading choirs...

. The Victoria Theatre contains a large concert organ built by William Hill & Sons that was installed in 1901. During the 1960s, when the hall was converted into the theatre, The organ was re-located to the back of the stage. The original console was replaced with a Rushworth and Dreaper
Rushworth and Dreaper
Rushworth and Dreaper was a firm of organ builders based in Liverpool, England Upon its bankruptcy, its archives were mostly destroyed, and the Victorian clock in the works tower was removed...

 unit, which consists of three manuals and a 32 note pedal board. A complete rewiring of the organ to add a second touch facility and a hydraulic lift was done, so it could be lowered and stored under the stage. The organ was rarely used, being played for a few orchestras and the choral society's Messiah. But the instrument is still playable and is occasionally used for private practice.

There is plenty to occupy lovers of amateur theatre. Halifax Thespians and the Actors' Workshop present plays of all kinds, and musical theatre is represented by Halifax Amateur Operatic Society, Halifax Light Opera Society, Halifax Gilbert and Sullivan Society, and All Souls Amateur Operatic Society. Halifax YMCA
YMCA
The Young Men's Christian Association is a worldwide organization of more than 45 million members from 125 national federations affiliated through the World Alliance of YMCAs...

 Pantomime Society presents its annual show in late January each year. Young people interested in drama are catered for by Halifax AOS and Halifax LOS, which each have a junior section, and another group, Stagedoor Theatre Co, specialises in dramatic activities and performances by children and young people. The Halifax & District Organists' Association, is one of the oldest organists' fellowships in the country.

As well as conventional cultural attractions, the Calderdale area has also become a centre for folk and traditional music. The Traditions Festival, held at the Halifax Piece Hall
Halifax Piece Hall
The Halifax Piece Hall is a building in the town centre of Halifax, West Yorkshire, England, originally built as a sales centre for woollen handloom weavers. It opened on 1 January 1779, with over 300 separate rooms arranged around a central courtyard. The term piece refers to pieces of cloth that...

 in the town centre, is a celebration of traditional music and dance from around the world, whilst the Rushbearing, held in Sowerby Bridge
Sowerby Bridge
Sowerby Bridge is a market town that lies within the Upper Calder Valley in the district of Calderdale in the county of West Yorkshire, in northern England.-Geography:Sowerby Bridge is situated on the edge of Halifax, about three miles from its centre...

 and the surrounding villages, is a traditional festival which was restarted to celebrate the Queen's Silver Jubilee
Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II
The Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the throne of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and other Commonwealth realms...

 and attracts Morris dance
Morris dance
Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music. It is based on rhythmic stepping and the execution of choreographed figures by a group of dancers. Implements such as sticks, swords, handkerchiefs and bells may also be wielded by the dancers...

rs from all around the country. The Square Chapel
Square Chapel
The Square Chapel in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England, was designed by Thomas Bradley and James Kershaw at the instigation of Titus Knight, a local preacher...

 Centre for the Arts offers music, dance, plays, comedy as well as community events such as tea dance
Tea dance
A tea dance, or thé dansant is a summer or autumn afternoon or early-evening dance from four to seven, sometimes preceded in the English countryside by a garden party. The function evolved from the concept of the afternoon tea, and J. Pettigrew traces its origin to the French colonization of Morocco...

s. The Victoria Theatre
Victoria Theatre (Halifax)
Victoria Theatre in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England is a large theatre that opened in 1901.- History :The theatre was first opened on 8 February 1901, when it was known as the Victoria Hall...

 seats 1,568 people or 1,860 for a standing concert, and hosts a variety of performances.

Halifax town centre has a busy night life with lots of clubs and bars. To help with those who become vulnerable whilst enjoying and using Halifax's night life, Street Angels was launched in November 2005. Street Angels patrol the town centre on Fridays and Saturdays between 9 p.m. and 3 a.m.. In the first year police report violent crime has fallen by 42%. Street Angels work in partnership with St. John Ambulance
St. John Ambulance
St John Ambulance, branded as St John in some territories, is a common name used by a number of affiliated organisations in different countries dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid and the provision of ambulance services, all of which derive their origins from the St John...

, Nightlife Marshals, Police Community Support Officer
Police community support officer
A police community support officer , or community support officer is a uniformed non-warranted officer employed by a territorial police force or the British Transport Police in England and Wales. Police community support officers were introduced in September 2002 by the Police Reform Act 2002...

s, Police and door-staff as well as the Halifax Ambassadors who patrol in the daytime.

Halifax had one of the highest densities of pubs to inhabitants during a study that took place in the late 1990s. One such establishment that gained notoriety during November 2005 was the Zoo Bar
Zoo Bar (Halifax, West Yorkshire)
The Tramshed and Zoo Bars were night clubs in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England brought to national attention by the media as a "haven" for underage drinkers, when it became one of the first establishments to be closed under the auspices of the Licensing Act 2003, which came into effect at midnight...

. The nightclub had a history of under-age drinking, and became the first establishment in the UK to be closed because of the Licensing Act 2003
Licensing Act 2003
The Licensing Act of 2003 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that applies only to England and Wales. The Act establishes a single integrated scheme for licensing premises which are used for the sale or supply of alcohol, to provide regulated entertainment, or to provide late night...

. At the time of the police intervention officers reportedly identified 420 of the 500 people in the club to be under-age drinkers. The nightclub was identified in an American study regarding youths and alcohol and gained European notoriety. The nightclub was subsequently closed and sold to developers to renovate into flats. A recent report showed Halifax to have above average levels of drink-related violence and associated issues.

Landmarks


  • The Piece Hall
    Halifax Piece Hall
    The Halifax Piece Hall is a building in the town centre of Halifax, West Yorkshire, England, originally built as a sales centre for woollen handloom weavers. It opened on 1 January 1779, with over 300 separate rooms arranged around a central courtyard. The term piece refers to pieces of cloth that...

     is the former cloth hall, where the trading of woollen cloth pieces was done. Opened on 1 January 1779, it was only open for business for two hours on a Saturday morning and contained 315 merchant trading rooms. After the mechanisation
    Mechanization
    Mechanization or mechanisation is providing human operators with machinery that assists them with the muscular requirements of work or displaces muscular work. In some fields, mechanization includes the use of hand tools...

     of the cloth industry, the Piece Hall became a public market. The former Calderdale Industrial Museum (now closed) was located beside the Piece Hall.

  • Dean Clough Mill
    Dean Clough
    Dean Clough in Halifax, Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England is a group of large factory buildings built in the 1840s–60s for Crossley's Carpets, becoming one of the world's largest carpet factories...

     located beside the Victorian
    Victorian era
    The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

     Gothic Revival
    Gothic Revival architecture
    The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

     North Bridge
    North Bridge, Halifax
    North Bridge, Halifax is a Victorian iron and stone bridge at Halifax, West Yorkshire in northern England. It crosses the valley of the River Hebble, connecting the town to roads to Bradford and Leeds. Replacing an earlier six arch stone bridge it was raised to allow the subsequent construction of...

     was built in the 1840s–60s for Crossley's Carpets, owned by John Crossley and was once the largest carpet factory in the world. It is now a thriving business park after being converted in the 1980s.

  • Halifax Town Hall
    Halifax Town Hall
    Halifax Town Hall is a grade II listed, 19th century town hall in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It is notable for its design and interiors by Charles Barry and his son, Edward Middleton Barry, and for its sculptures by John Thomas.-History:]...

     was designed by Charles Barry
    Charles Barry
    Sir Charles Barry FRS was an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens.- Background and training :Born on 23 May 1795 in Bridge Street, Westminster...

    , who also designed the Houses of Parliament
    Palace of Westminster
    The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, is the meeting place of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom—the House of Lords and the House of Commons...

    , in 1863.

  • Borough Market
    Borough Market, Halifax
    Borough Market is a Victorian covered market in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. The market occupies a town centre site between Southgate, Albion Street and Market Street. The glass and wrought iron covered marketplace, surrounded by stone built shops and accommodation, was built between 1891 and...

     is an award winning Victorian covered market place in the town centre.

  • The Wainhouse Tower
    Wainhouse tower
    Wainhouse Tower is a folly in the parish of King Cross, on the south west side of Halifax, Calderdale West Yorkshire in England. At , it is the tallest structure in Calderdale and the tallest folly in the world, and was erected in four years between 1871-1875...

    , at King Cross
    King Cross
    King Cross; originally the site of an ancient stone cross is a Ecclesiastical parish created in 1845 in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England. Part of the Diocese of Wakefield. It is located along the top of a ridge above the town of Halifax...

    , is a late Victorian folly
    Folly
    In architecture, a folly is a building constructed primarily for decoration, but either suggesting by its appearance some other purpose, or merely so extravagant that it transcends the normal range of garden ornaments or other class of building to which it belongs...

     constructed between 1871 - 1875. Originally intended to be the chimney for a dye works, it became a folly after the dye works was sold in 1874 and the new owner refused to pay for its completion. It is the tallest folly in the world and the tallest structure in Calderdale
    Calderdale
    The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England, through which the upper part of the River Calder flows, and from which it takes its name...

    .

Sport



The town has relatively successful sport clubs. Its rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 club, Halifax RLFC
Halifax RLFC
Halifax RLFC is one of the most historic rugby league clubs in the game, formed over a century ago, in 1873 in the Yorkshire town of Halifax. Known as 'Fax', the official club colours are blue and white hoops, blue shorts and blue socks . They share The Shay stadium with football club FC Halifax Town...

, plays in Co-operative Championship. The town's football team, F.C. Halifax Town
F.C. Halifax Town
Football Club Halifax Town, otherwise known as FC Halifax Town are an English football team who currently play in the Conference North. The club replaced Halifax Town A.F.C. who went into administration during the 2007–08 season.-Formation:...

 formed from the ashes of Halifax Town A.F.C.
Halifax Town A.F.C.
Halifax Town Association Football Club were an English football team who most recently played in the Conference National, although prior to that they participated in the Football League for over eighty years...

 after the club was liquidated while in the Football Conference
Football Conference
The Football Conference is a football league in England which consists of three divisions called Conference National, Conference North, and Conference South. Some Football Conference clubs are fully professional, such as Luton Town, but most of them are semi-professional...

. They reformed three leagues below and now currently play in the Blue Square Conference North division
Conference North
The Conference North also known as Blue Square Bet North for sponsorship reasons, is a division of the Football Conference in England, taking its place immediately below the Conference National. Along with Conference South it is at Step 2 of the National League System and the sixth overall tier of...

.

Halifax is one of the most historic rugby league clubs in the game, formed over a century ago, in 1873 in the Yorkshire town of Halifax. Known as 'Fax', the official club colours are blue and white hoops, hence the former 1990s nickname: The Blue Sox. Halifax are also one of the original twenty-two rugby clubs that formed the Northern Rugby Football Union
Rugby Football League
The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league football in England. Based at Red Hall in Leeds, it administers the England national rugby league team, the Challenge Cup, Super League and the Rugby League Championships...

 in 1895, making them one of the world's first rugby league clubs. They have rivalries with local neighbours Bradford
Bradford Bulls
Bradford Bulls is a professional rugby league club based in the city of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. They play in the European Super League and are currently joint 10th in the league....

 and Huddersfield
Huddersfield Giants
Huddersfield Giants are a professional rugby league club from Huddersfield, West Yorkshire who play in the European Super League competition. They play their home games at the Galpharm Stadium which is shared with Huddersfield Town F.C....

. Halifax have won the Rugby Football League Championship on four occasions: in 1902–03, 1906–07, 1964–65, 1985–86 and the Challenge Cup
Challenge Cup
The Challenge Cup is a knockout cup competition for rugby league clubs organised by the Rugby Football League. Originally it was contested only by British teams but in recent years has been expanded to allow teams from France and Russia to take part....

 five times: in 1903, 1904, 1931, 1939 and 1987. They won the Co-operative Championship Grand Final in 2010. Halifax played at the Thrum Hall
Thrum Hall
Thrum Hall was a rugby league stadium on Hanson Lane in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It was the home of Halifax RLFC.-Stadium:The site, measuring 55,000 square yards and included a cricket pitch, greyhound track and bowling greens...

 ground from 1886 to 1998. The ground staged rugby for 112 years and closed its gates for the last time after Halifax had won what was misleadingly billed as a friendly against Leeds
Leeds Rhinos
Leeds Rhinos is an English professional rugby league football club based in Leeds, West Yorkshire. The club won the 2011 Super League and became the most successful club in the Super League era, beating St Helens 32-16 on 8th October 2011. Formed in 1890, Leeds competes in Europe's Super League...

 35–28.

Since then both teams share the Shay
The Shay
The Shay is a multi-use sports stadium in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England near Shaw Hill. FC Halifax Town and Halifax both play their home games at the Shay....

 football ground, which is the largest ground used by a non-league football club in England. In the 1960s Halifax Town played Millwall
Millwall F.C.
Millwall Football Club is an English professional football club based in South Bermondsey, south east London, that plays in the Football League Championship, the second tier of English football. Founded as Millwall Rovers in 1885, the club has retained its name despite having last played in the...

 in a Fourth Division match that had the lowest attendance ever recorded for a professional match in England. The Crossley Heath Grammar School normally excels in nationwide school rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 competitions.

Motorcycle speedway
Motorcycle speedway
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually...

 racing has been staged at two venues in Halifax. In the pioneering days of 1928–1930 a track operated at Thrum Hall
Thrum Hall
Thrum Hall was a rugby league stadium on Hanson Lane in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It was the home of Halifax RLFC.-Stadium:The site, measuring 55,000 square yards and included a cricket pitch, greyhound track and bowling greens...

. A Halifax team took part in the English Dirt Track League
Speedway English Dirt Track League
The English Dirt Track League was created in 1929 and was the inaugural season of speedway racing in the United Kingdom for Northern English teams. The season was littered with mid-season withdrawals but eventually the Leeds Lions were crowned champions. In 1930, the league was renamed the Northern...

 of 1929. Speedway returned to Halifax at the Shay Stadium in 1949 and operated until 1951. The team operated as the Halifax Nomads in 1948 racing three away fixtures. The Halifax Dukes, the name they took once the Shay was opened, operated in the National League Third Division in 1949 before moving up to the Second Division in 1950. Riders including Arthur Forrest, moved on to Bradford
Bradford
Bradford lies at the heart of the City of Bradford, a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, in Northern England. It is situated in the foothills of the Pennines, west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, and received its charter as a city in 1897...

. The Dukes re-emerged in 1965 as founder members of the British League and operated there for many years before the team moved en bloc to Odsal Stadium
Odsal Stadium
Odsal Stadium is a stadium situated in Odsal, Bradford in West Yorkshire, England. The venue is used for rugby league and has been the home ground of Bradford Bulls/Bradford Northern since 1934...

, Bradford. The steeply banked bends of the track at the Shay have been buried under stands at either end when the spectator facilities were squared off.

Religious buildings




The 15th century Minster dedicated to St. John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

 did not achieve cathedral
Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

 status when a new diocese was being considered for the West Riding
West Riding of Yorkshire
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county, County of York, West Riding , was based closely on the historic boundaries...

 (Wakefield
Wakefield
Wakefield is the main settlement and administrative centre of the City of Wakefield, a metropolitan district of West Yorkshire, England. Located by the River Calder on the eastern edge of the Pennines, the urban area is and had a population of 76,886 in 2001....

 Parish Church became the cathedral in 1888 and was extensively altered and enlarged). Minster Status was conferred on the Parish Church in a ceremony on 22 November 2009. There is a collection of rare Commonwealth
Commonwealth
Commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically, it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic."More recently it has been used for fraternal associations of some sovereign nations...

 white glass as well as a series of Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 windows. Another feature is the complete array of Jacobean
Jacobean era
The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of King James VI of Scotland, who also inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I...

 box pew
Box pew
Box pew is a type of church pew that is encased in panelling and was prevalent in England and other Protestant countries from the 16th to early 19th century.-History in England:...

s. The pair of Gothic
Gothic art
Gothic art was a Medieval art movement that developed in France out of Romanesque art in the mid-12th century, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture. It spread to all of Western Europe, but took over art more completely north of the Alps, never quite effacing more classical...

 organ cases by John Oldrid Scott now house the four-manual instrument by Harrison & Harrison. The belfry holds fourteen bells and an Angelus
Angelus
The Angelus is a Christian devotion in memory of the Incarnation. The name Angelus is derived from the opening words: Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ The Angelus (Latin for "angel") is a Christian devotion in memory of the Incarnation. The name Angelus is derived from the opening words: Angelus...

.

The Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth in order of seniority after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia...

 dedicated to St. John the Baptist, in the Boothtown area, formerly the Mount Carmel Methodist Chapel, was acquired in 1956 and after extensive refurbishment was opened in the early part of the 1960s by the towns Serbian
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 community.

The currently mothball
Mothball
Mothballs are small balls of chemical pesticide and deodorant used when storing clothing and other articles susceptible to damage from mold or moth larvae ....

ed mid-Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 All Souls Church
All Souls Church, Halifax
All Souls Church, Halifax, is a redundant Anglican church in Haley Hill, Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building, and is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust.-Early history:...

 by Sir George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott
Sir George Gilbert Scott was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches, cathedrals and workhouses...

 standing part way up Haley Hill to the north of the main town centre is now vested in the Historic Churches Preservation Trust. Its lofty 236 feet (71.9 m) spire and white magnesian limestone exterior stand as a very personal statement in 13th century French style of the mill owner Colonel Edward Akroyd, who paid solely for its construction as the centre-piece of a purpose-built model village ("Akroydon"). All Souls' boasts an unusually complete sequence of windows by the leading artists of the 1850s, including William Wailes, John Hardman and Clayton & Bell. The large organ by Forster & Andrews inserted in 1868, ten years after the building was completed, is currently unplayable and many of its surviving parts are in storage awaiting restoration. The tower houses a ring of eight bells.

Other churches include the Georgian
Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United...

 Holy Trinity Church (now converted to office use) and the late neo-Gothic (1911) St. Paul's, King Cross
King Cross
King Cross; originally the site of an ancient stone cross is a Ecclesiastical parish created in 1845 in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale, West Yorkshire, England. Part of the Diocese of Wakefield. It is located along the top of a ridge above the town of Halifax...

, by Sir Charles Nicholson. St Paul's is notable not only for its fine acoustics
Acoustics
Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics...

 but also for an unusual and highly colourful west window, specified by Nicholson, showing the apocalyptic vision of the Holy City descending upon the smoky mills and railway viaducts of Halifax as it was before the First World War.

The spire of the Square Church, not far from the Minster at the bottom of the town, paid for by the carpet manufacturing Crossley family, is all that remains of the Gothic
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 Congregational church
Congregational church
Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs....

 built by Joseph James in 1856–58 as a rival design to All Souls', Haley Hill. The building was closed in 1969 and arsonists caused severe damage to the building two years later leading to its partial demolition. The rather comic story of the rival spires runs that the two buildings' towers were nearing completion simultaneously; the architects were ordered to stop work within a few feet of the top of the spires to see who would finish first. After some time, the Crossleys lost patience and finished their spire at 235 feet (71.6 m), prompting the immediate completion of the rival building one foot higher. The neighbouring and earlier (Georgian) Square Chapel
Square Chapel
The Square Chapel in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England, was designed by Thomas Bradley and James Kershaw at the instigation of Titus Knight, a local preacher...

 (1772) survived a hundred years of use as a church hall and Sunday School
Sunday school
Sunday school is the generic name for many different types of religious education pursued on Sundays by various denominations.-England:The first Sunday school may have been opened in 1751 in St. Mary's Church, Nottingham. Another early start was made by Hannah Ball, a native of High Wycombe in...

 for the larger church: it is currently an arts centre.

There are four Mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

s in Halifax, the main ones being Madni Jamia Mosque on Gibbet Street, and Al Jamia Al Zahra which is co-located with: Zahra Educational and Cultural Centre, on Francis Street. Syed Ahmad Hussain Shah Tirmezi is head Imam
Imam
An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

 of this Mosque.

Notable Haligonians

  • Tom Bailey, singer with the Thompson Twins
    Thompson Twins
    The Thompson Twins were a British pop group that were formed in April 1977 and disbanded in May 1993. They achieved considerable popularity in the mid 1980s, scoring a string of hits in the United Kingdom, the United States and around the globe. The band was named after the two bumbling detectives...

  • Phyllis Bentley
    Phyllis Bentley
    Phyllis Eleanor Bentley, OBE , was an English novelist.The youngest child of a mill owner, she grew up in Halifax in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and was educated at Halifax High School for Girls and Cheltenham Ladies' College. During World War I she worked in the munitions industry...

    , novelist
  • Henry Briggs
    Henry Briggs (mathematician)
    Henry Briggs was an English mathematician notable for changing the original logarithms invented by John Napier into common logarithms, which are sometimes known as Briggsian logarithms in his honour....

    , mathematician
  • John Reginald Halliday Christie
    John Christie (murderer)
    John Reginald Halliday Christie , born in Halifax, West Yorkshire, was a notorious English serial killer active in the 1940s and '50s. He murdered at least eight females – including his wife Ethel – by strangling them in his flat at 10 Rillington Place, Notting Hill, London...

    , the murderer from 10 Rillington Place
  • Keith Clifford
    Keith Clifford
    Keith Clifford in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England, UK is a British actor best known for his role as Billy Hardcastle on Last of the Summer Wine between 1999 and 2006....

    , actor, in Last of the Summer Wine & Coronation Street
  • Shirley Crabtree
    Shirley Crabtree
    Shirley Crabtree, Jr, better known as Big Daddy was a British professional wrestler famous for his record-breaking 64 inch chest...

    , wrestler Known as 'Big Daddy'
  • George Dyson
    George Dyson (composer)
    Sir George Dyson KCVO was a well-known English musician and composer. His son is the physicist and mathematician Freeman Dyson and among his grandchildren are the science historian George Dyson and Esther Dyson...

    , composer
  • Tony Field, footballer
  • Stuart Fielden
    Stuart Fielden
    Stuart Fielden is an English professional rugby league footballer for Wigan of Super League...

    , rugby league footballer
  • David Hartley
    David Hartley (philosopher)
    David Hartley was an English philosopher and founder of the Associationist school of psychology. -Early life and education:...

    , philosopher
  • Charlie Hodgson
    Charlie Hodgson
    Charles Christopher Hodgson is an English rugby union footballer. He plays fly-half for Saracens and England. He is also the leading Premiership points scorer of all time.-Early years:...

     England and saracens fly half
  • Charles Horner
    Charles Horner (jeweller)
    Charles Horner was an English jeweller and founder of the Halifax jewellery business Charles Horner of Halifax. Located in Halifax, West Yorkshire, the Charles Horner factory produced a range of products during the 20th century, together with other items like silverware, tableware and...

    , jeweller and inventor of the Dorcas thimble
    Thimble
    A thimble is a small hard pitted cup worn for protection on the finger that pushes the needle in sewing.The earliest known thimble was Roman and was found at Pompeii. Made of bronze, its creation has been dated to the 1st century AD...

  • Nick Holmes, singer of the band Paradise Lost
    Paradise Lost (band)
    Paradise Lost are a heavy metal band that formed in 1988 in Halifax, England.-History:Their first three full-length albums are examples of the death/doom style, although the latter two incorporated some melodic and gothic elements...

  • Barrie Ingham
    Barrie Ingham
    Barrie Ingham is an English actor in stage, TV and film.-Life and career:Ingham was born in Halifax, West Yorkshire, the son of Irene and Harold Ellis Stead Ingham. He was educated at Heath Grammar School and became a Royal Artillery Officer. His major theatre debut was at Manchester Library...

    , actor
  • Paddy Kenny
    Paddy Kenny
    Patrick Joseph "Paddy" Kenny is a footballer who currently plays as a goalkeeper for Queens Park Rangers in the Barclays Premier League.-Early career:...

    , footballer
  • John Kettley
    John Kettley
    John Graham Kettley is a British freelance weatherman.-Biography:Brought up on Commercial Street and educated at Todmorden Grammar School on Ferney Lee Road in Todmorden, he played cricket for Burnley and Todmorden. A geography teacher at his school sparked his interest in weather forecasting...

    , weatherman
  • Nick Lawrence
    Nick Lawrence
    Nick Lawrence is a radio and TV presenter. From summer 2004 - October 2006, he used to be a radio presenter for the BBC's regional programme for the east of England between 7pm and 10pm every weekday. He now appears on Watchdog and on Radio 4.-Early life:Lawrence was born and brought up in...

    , radio presenter
    Presenter
    A presenter, or host , is a person or organization responsible for running an event. A museum or university, for example, may be the presenter or host of an exhibit. Likewise, a master of ceremonies is a person that hosts or presents a show...

  • Anne Lister
    Anne Lister
    Anne Lister was a well-off Yorkshire landowner, diarist, mountaineer and traveller.Throughout her life she kept diaries which chronicled the details of her everyday life, including her lesbian relationships, her financial concerns, her industrial activities and her work improving Shibden Hall...

    , diarist and former owner of Shibden Hall
    Shibden Hall
    Shibden Hall is a historic house located in a public park at Shibden, West Yorkshire, England. It dates back to around 1420, when it was recorded as being inhabited by one William Otes. Prior to 1619, it was then owned by the Savile and Waterhouse families. The three families' armorial symbols are...

  • John Mackintosh
    Mackintosh's
    Mackintosh's is a confectionery firm that was principally known for Mackintosh's Toffee and for brands such as Quality Street and Rolo.- Origins, Edwardian expansion and War-time contraction :...

    , created Mackintosh's Toffee
    Mackintosh's Toffee
    Mackintosh's Toffee is a sweet created by John Mackintosh.Mackintosh opened up his sweets shop in Halifax, Yorkshire, England in 1890, and the idea for Mackintosh's Toffee, not too hard and not too soft, came soon after...

    , which became Rowntree Mackintosh
    Rowntree's
    Rowntree's was a confectionery business based in York, England. It is now a historic brand owned by Nestlé, used to market a range of fruit gums and pastilles formerly owned by Rowntree's. Following a merger with John Mackintosh & Co., the Company became known as Rowntree Mackintosh, was listed on...

  • Harold Vincent Mackintosh
    Viscount Mackintosh of Halifax
    Viscount Mackintosh of Halifax, of Hethersett in the County of Norfolk, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1957 for the businessman and public servant Harold Mackintosh, 1st Baron Mackintosh of Halifax. He was the owner of the confectionery business of John...

     1st Viscount Mackintosh of Halifax & chocolate
    Chocolate
    Chocolate is a raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Mexico, Central and South America. Its earliest documented use is around 1100 BC...

     manufacturer
  • Jim Mallinder
    Jim Mallinder
    Jim Mallinder is the coach of Northampton Saints and the former head coach of Sale Sharks, England Under 21s and England Saxons.-Biography:In his playing days, Mallinder was a fullback at Sale Sharks, where he stayed for 15 years as a player and a coach...

     Northampton Saints
    Northampton Saints
    Northampton Saints are a professional rugby union club from Northampton, England. The Northampton Saints were formed in 1880. They play in green, black and gold colours. They play their home games at Franklin's Gardens, which has a capacity of 13,591....

     coach
    Coach (sport)
    In sports, a coach is an individual involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople.-Staff:...

  • Thomas Milner
    Thomas Milner
    Thomas Milner is an English actor, born 19 June 1991, in Halifax, West Yorkshire, best known for his role in British television drama series Waterloo Road as student Paul Langley which he has played since 2007...

    , actor
  • Brian Moore, rugby union footballer, TV Presenter, Pundit and Journalist
    Journalist
    A journalist collects and distributes news and other information. A journalist's work is referred to as journalism.A reporter is a type of journalist who researchs, writes, and reports on information to be presented in mass media, including print media , electronic media , and digital media A...

  • Thomas Nettleton
    Thomas Nettleton
    Thomas Nettleton was an English physician who carried out some of the earliest systematic programmes of smallpox vaccination and who went on to statistical investigation of the outcomes....

    , local physician who carried out some of the earliest systematic programs of smallpox vaccination
  • John Noakes
    John Noakes
    John Noakes is a British television presenter and personality, best known for co-presenting the BBC children's magazine programme Blue Peter in the 1960s and 1970s. He remains the show's longest-serving presenter, with a stint that lasted 12 years and 6 months...

    , TV presenter
  • John Pawson
    John Pawson
    John Pawson is a British designer associated with the minimalist aesthetic.-Biography:Pawson studied at Eton College and the Architectural Association School of Architecture and is married to Catherine and has two children, Caius and Benedict.-Selected projects:London's Cannelle Cake Shop, several...

    , architect
  • Carolyn Pickles
    Carolyn Pickles
    Carolyn Pickles is an English actress who has appeared in West End theatre and on British television, perhaps most notably in Emmerdale as Shelly Williams.-Life and career:Pickles was born in Wakefield, Yorkshire, England...

    , actress
  • James Pickles
    James Pickles
    Judge James Pickles was an English Circuit judge famed for his "no nonsense" approach and many controversial decisions, who later became a tabloid columnist.-Early life:...

    , judge
  • Wilfred Pickles
    Wilfred Pickles
    Wilfred Pickles OBE was an English actor and radio presenter.Born in Halifax in the West Riding of Yorkshire, Pickles was a proud Yorkshireman, and having been selected by the BBC as an announcer for its North Regional radio service, went on to be an occasional newsreader on the BBC Home Service...

    , actor, comedian & broadcaster
  • Kathryn Pogson
    Kathryn Pogson
    Kathryn Pogson is a film and stage actress. She appeared in Terry Gilliam's 1985 cult film Brazil. She received a Drama Desk Award nomination for her performance in the 1986 New York production of Aunt Dan and Lemon....

    , actress
  • Eric Portman
    Eric Portman
    Eric Portman was a distinguished English stage and film actor...

    , actor
  • Jesse Ramsden
    Jesse Ramsden
    Jesse Ramsden FRSE was an English astronomical and scientific instrument maker.Ramsden was born at Salterhebble, Halifax, West Riding of Yorkshire, England. After serving his apprenticeship with a cloth-worker in Halifax, he went in 1755 to London, where in 1758 he was apprenticed to a...

    , inventor of the Ramsden theodolite
    Ramsden theodolite
    The Ramsden theodolite is a large theodolite that was specially constructed for use in the first Ordnance Survey of Southern Britain. It was also known as the Great or 36 inch theodolite....

  • Sir Richard Saltonstall
    Richard Saltonstall
    Sir Richard Saltonstall led a group of English settlers up the Charles River to settle in what is now Watertown, Massachusetts in 1630....

    , colonist
  • Sir Henry Savile, bible translator
  • Percy Shaw
    Percy Shaw
    Percy Shaw, OBE was an English inventor and businessman. He patented the reflective road stud or "cat's eye" in 1934, and set up a company to manufacture his invention in 1935.-Biography:...

    , inventor of Cat's Eyes
    Cat's eye (road)
    The cat's eye is a retroreflective safety device used in road marking and was the first of a range of raised pavement markers. It originated in the UK in 1933 and is today used all over the world....

    , used on public roads
  • Ed Sheeran
    Ed Sheeran
    Edward Christopher "Ed" Sheeran is an English singer-songwriter who is currently signed to Asylum / Atlantic Records. Sheeran broke through commercially in June 2011, when his debut single "The A Team" debuted at number 3 on the UK chart.-Early life:Sheeran was born in Halifax, West Yorkshire to...

    , Singer/songwriter
  • Robin Simon
    Robin Simon
    For the art historian and critic Robin Simon, editor of , see Robin JH SimonRobin Simon For the art historian and critic Robin Simon, editor of , see Robin JH SimonRobin Simon For the art historian and critic Robin Simon, editor of , see Robin JH SimonRobin Simon (born Robert Simon 12 July 1956,...

    , guitarist
  • Herbert Akroyd Stuart
    Herbert Akroyd Stuart
    Herbert Akroyd-Stuart was an English inventor who is noted for his invention of the hot bulb engine, or heavy oil engine.-Life:...

    , inventor of the Hot Bulb Engine
    Hot bulb engine
    The hot bulb engine, or hotbulb or heavy oil engine is a type of internal combustion engine. It is an engine in which fuel is ignited by being brought into contact with a red-hot metal surface inside a bulb....

     (ancestor to the diesel engine
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

    )
  • John Tillotson
    John Tillotson
    John Tillotson was an Archbishop of Canterbury .-Curate and rector:Tillotson was the son of a Puritan clothier at Haughend, Sowerby, Yorkshire. He entered as a pensioner of Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 1647, graduated in 1650 and was made fellow of his college in 1651...

    , Archbishop of Canterbury (1691–1694)
  • Brian Turner
    Brian Turner (chef)
    Brian Turner CBE is a British chef, based in London. He has appeared as a cook on BBC2's Ready Steady Cook since 1994 as well as presenting other cookery programmes.-Career:...

    , chef, restaurateur
    Restaurant
    A restaurant is an establishment which prepares and serves food and drink to customers in return for money. Meals are generally served and eaten on premises, but many restaurants also offer take-out and food delivery services...

     and TV personality
  • Séan Walsh
    Séan Walsh
    Séan Michael Walsh born 3 July 1802 in Ogden, Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. He was well known locally as a poet, writer and artist in the rural Pennines often his work was inspired by the local country life. Furthermore, according to several diary entries - he was a good friend of the Brontë...

    , local poet, writer & artist
  • Emma Williams (actress)
    Emma Williams (actress)
    Emma Williams is a British actress. After, going to North Halifax Grammar School and studying at the Stage84 stage school in Idle, West Yorkshire, she has had a successful career in TV, film and on stage....

    , West End musical theatre actress
  • John Wolfenden, Baron Wolfenden
    John Wolfenden, Baron Wolfenden
    John Frederick Wolfenden, Baron Wolfenden, CBE was a British educationalist probably best remembered for chairing the Wolfenden report recommending the decriminalisation of homosexuality, which was published in 1957...

    , chairman of the Wolfenden committee
    Wolfenden report
    The Report of the Departmental Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution was published in Britain on 4 September 1957 after a succession of well-known men, including Lord Montagu, Michael Pitt-Rivers and Peter Wildeblood, were convicted of homosexual offences.-The committee:The...

  • Matthew Wolfenden (actor)
    Matthew Wolfenden (actor)
    Matthew Wolfenden from Norwood Green, Halifax, West Yorkshire is an English actor.Wolfenden attended Brighouse High School.He is a former gymnast who was a member of the British gymnastics squad until he fell whilst practising on the rings and damaged his back...

    , actor in ITV's Emmerdale
    Emmerdale
    Emmerdale, is a long-running British soap opera set in Emmerdale , a fictional village in the Yorkshire Dales. Created by Kevin Laffan, Emmerdale was first broadcast on 16 October 1972...

  • Patrick Woodroffe
    Patrick Woodroffe
    Patrick James Woodroffe is an English artist, etcher and drawer, who specialises in fantasy science-fiction artwork, with images that border on the surreal...

    , science fiction
    Science fiction
    Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, and paranormal abilities...

     and fantasy art
    Fantasy art
    Fantasy art is a genre of art that depicts magical or other supernatural themes, ideas, creatures or settings. While there is some overlap with science fiction, horror and other speculative fiction art, there are unique elements not generally found in other forms of speculative fiction art...

    ist
  • Frank Worthington
    Frank Worthington
    Frank Stewart Worthington is a former English footballer. Frank was born into a footballing family in Shelf near Halifax, West Riding of Yorkshire. Both of his parents had played the game and his two older brothers, Dave and Bob, became professional footballers, both began their careers with...

    , footballer


See also

  • Halifax College
    Halifax College
    Halifax College is the largest and newest college of the University of York. It was founded in 2001 and is named after Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, the 1st Earl of Halifax....

    , a college of the University of York
    University of York
    The University of York , is an academic institution located in the city of York, England. Established in 1963, the campus university has expanded to more than thirty departments and centres, covering a wide range of subjects...

  • Handley Page Halifax
    Handley Page Halifax
    The Handley Page Halifax was one of the British front-line, four-engined heavy bombers of the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. A contemporary of the famous Avro Lancaster, the Halifax remained in service until the end of the war, performing a variety of duties in addition to bombing...

  • Walterclough Hall
    Walterclough Hall
    Walterclough Hall, sometimes known as Water Clough Hall or Upper Walterclough, lies in the Walterclough Valley southeast of Halifax and northeast of the village of Southowram in the West Riding of Yorkshire, alongside the Red Beck.-Origins:...


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