Hibiscus

Hibiscus

Overview
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plant
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

s in the mallow
Malva
Malva is a genus of about 25–30 species of herbaceous annual, biennial, and perennial plants in the family Malvaceae , one of several closely related genera in the family to bear the common English name mallow. The genus is widespread throughout the temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of...

 family, Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species. Judd & al. Well known members of this family include okra, jute and cacao...

. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate
Temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

, subtropical
Subtropics
The subtropics are the geographical and climatical zone of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropical zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitudes 23.5°N and 23.5°S...

 and tropical
Tropics
The tropics is a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. It is limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately  N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere at  S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth...

 regions throughout the world. Member species are often noted for their showy flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s and are commonly known as hibiscus, sorrel, and flor de Jamaica, or less widely known as rosemallow. The genus includes both annual
Annual plant
An annual plant is a plant that usually germinates, flowers, and dies in a year or season. True annuals will only live longer than a year if they are prevented from setting seed...

 and perennial
Perennial plant
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives for more than two years. The term is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter lived annuals and biennials. The term is sometimes misused by commercial gardeners or horticulturalists to describe only herbaceous perennials...

 herbaceous plant
Herbaceous plant
A herbaceous plant is a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level. They have no persistent woody stem above ground...

s, as well as woody
Woody plant
A woody plant is a plant that uses wood as its structural tissue. These are typically perennial plants whose stems and larger roots are reinforced with wood produced adjacent to the vascular tissues. The main stem, larger branches, and roots of these plants are usually covered by a layer of...

 shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s and small tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Hibiscus'
Start a new discussion about 'Hibiscus'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Recent Discussions
Encyclopedia
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plant
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

s in the mallow
Malva
Malva is a genus of about 25–30 species of herbaceous annual, biennial, and perennial plants in the family Malvaceae , one of several closely related genera in the family to bear the common English name mallow. The genus is widespread throughout the temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of...

 family, Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species. Judd & al. Well known members of this family include okra, jute and cacao...

. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate
Temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

, subtropical
Subtropics
The subtropics are the geographical and climatical zone of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropical zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitudes 23.5°N and 23.5°S...

 and tropical
Tropics
The tropics is a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. It is limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately  N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere at  S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth...

 regions throughout the world. Member species are often noted for their showy flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s and are commonly known as hibiscus, sorrel, and flor de Jamaica, or less widely known as rosemallow. The genus includes both annual
Annual plant
An annual plant is a plant that usually germinates, flowers, and dies in a year or season. True annuals will only live longer than a year if they are prevented from setting seed...

 and perennial
Perennial plant
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives for more than two years. The term is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter lived annuals and biennials. The term is sometimes misused by commercial gardeners or horticulturalists to describe only herbaceous perennials...

 herbaceous plant
Herbaceous plant
A herbaceous plant is a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level. They have no persistent woody stem above ground...

s, as well as woody
Woody plant
A woody plant is a plant that uses wood as its structural tissue. These are typically perennial plants whose stems and larger roots are reinforced with wood produced adjacent to the vascular tissues. The main stem, larger branches, and roots of these plants are usually covered by a layer of...

 shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s and small tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s. The generic name is derived from the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 word ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the name Pedanius Dioscorides
Pedanius Dioscorides
Pedanius Dioscorides was a Greek physician, pharmacologist and botanist, the author of a 5-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances , that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.-Life:...

 (ca. 40-90) gave to Althaea officinalis
Althaea officinalis
Althaea officinalis is a species indigenous to Africa, which is used as a medicinal plant and ornamental plant...

.

Description


The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are alternate
Phyllotaxis
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem .- Pattern structure :...

, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or more petal
Petal
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They often are brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals lying...

s, color from white to pink, red, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower color in certain species, such as H. mutabilis
Hibiscus mutabilis
Hibiscus mutabilis, also known as the Confederate rose or the cotton rosemallow, is a plant noted for its flowers.Confederate roses tend to be shrubby or treelike in Zones 9 and 10, though it behaves more like a perennial further north. Flowers can be double or single and are 4 to 6 inches in...

and H. tiliaceus, changes with age. The fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

 is a dry five-lobed capsule
Capsule (fruit)
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels that in most cases is dehiscent, i.e. at maturity, it splits apart to release the seeds within. A few capsules are indehiscent, for example...

, containing several seed
Seed
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

s in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces
Dehiscence (botany)
Dehiscence is the opening, at maturity, in a pre-defined way, of a plant structure, such as a fruit, anther, or sporangium, to release its contents. Sometimes this involves the complete detachment of a part. Structures that open in this way are said to be dehiscent...

 (splits open) at maturity.

Uses


Hibiscus has many uses.


Landscaping


Many species are grown for their showy flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s or used as landscape shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s, and are used to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds. .

Paper


One species of Hibiscus, known as Kenaf
Kenaf
Kenaf [Etymology: Persian], Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the Malvaceae family. Hibiscus cannabinus is in the genus Hibiscus and is probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown. The name also applies to the fibre obtained from this plant...

 (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively used in paper
Paper
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets....

-making.

Beverage


The tea made from hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its color, tanginess and flavor.

It is known as bissap in West Africa, karkadé in Egypt and Sudan, flor de Jamaica in Mexico, gudhal (गुड़हल) in India and gongura in Brazil. Some refer to it as roselle, a common name for the hibiscus flower.

In Jamaica and many other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is known as sorrel
Hibiscus tea
Hibiscus tea is the infusion made from the calyces of the Hibiscus sabdariffa flower, an herbal tea drink consumed both hot and cold by people around the world...

 (Hibiscus sabdariffa; not to be confused with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the common name sorrel). The drink is popular at Christmas time. It is served cold, mixed with other herbs, roots, spices and cane sugar. Often it is served mixed with Jamaican rum
Rum
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak barrels...

 or wine.

Roselle is typically boiled in an enamel-coated large stock pot as most West Indians believe the metal from aluminum, steel or copper pots will destroy the natural minerals and vitamins.

In Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

, a cold beverage can be prepared by first steeping the petals in hot water until the colors are leached from the petals, then adding lime juice (which turns the beverage from dark brown/red to a bright red), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and finally cold water/ice cubes.

Food


Dried hibiscus is edible, and is often a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and used as a garnish.

The roselle
Roselle (plant)
The roselle is a species of Hibiscus native to the Old World tropics, used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusion. It is an annual or perennial herb or woody-based subshrub, growing to tall...

 (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is used as a vegetable
Vegetable
The noun vegetable usually means an edible plant or part of a plant other than a sweet fruit or seed. This typically means the leaf, stem, or root of a plant....



Certain species of hibiscus are also beginning to be used more widely as a natural source of food coloring
Food coloring
Food coloring is a substance, liquid or powder, that is added to food or drink to change its color. Food coloring is used both in commercial food production and in domestic cooking...

 (E163
Anthocyanin
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue according to pH...

), and replacement of Red #3 / E127
Erythrosine
Erythrosine, also known as Red No. 3, is an organoiodine compound, specifically a derivative of fluorone. It is cherry-pink synthetic, primarily used for food coloring. It is the disodium salt of 2,4,5,7-tetraiodofluorescein...

.

Hibiscus species are used as food plants by the larvae
Caterpillar
Caterpillars are the larval form of members of the order Lepidoptera . They are mostly herbivorous in food habit, although some species are insectivorous. Caterpillars are voracious feeders and many of them are considered to be pests in agriculture...

 of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies . It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies...

 species including Chionodes hibiscella
Chionodes
Chionodes is a genus of moths of the family Gelechiidae. Members of this group can be found in most parts of the world. Many species of this genus utilize Douglas-fir as a host plant for their larvae.-Species:Species in this genus include:...

, Hypercompe hambletoni
Hypercompe
Hypercompe is a genus of moths of the family Arctiidae. There are over 80 species found throughout the Americas. Several species were formerly separated in Ecpantheria which is now regarded as a junior synonym. They are typically large moths with white forewings heavily spotted with black, and...

, the Nutmeg moth
Nutmeg (moth)
The nutmeg , also known as the clover cutworm, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is found throughout Europe although in the north of its range it is a summer migrant, not being able to survive the cold winters.This is a small to medium species with cryptically coloured forewings, varying from...

, and the Turnip Moth
Turnip Moth
The Turnip Moth is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is a common European species, but it is also found in Asia and Africa, very likely having been spread by the international trade in nursery stock...

.

Symbolism and culture


Hibiscus species represent nations: Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus syriacus is a widely cultivated ornamental shrub in the genus Hibiscus. Common names include Rose of Sharon , Shrub Althea and Rose Althea.-Growth:...

is the national flower of South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia. The red hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 goddess
Goddess
A goddess is a female deity. In some cultures goddesses are associated with Earth, motherhood, love, and the household. In other cultures, goddesses also rule over war, death, and destruction as well as healing....

 Kali
Kali
' , also known as ' , is the Hindu goddess associated with power, shakti. The name Kali comes from kāla, which means black, time, death, lord of death, Shiva. Kali means "the black one". Since Shiva is called Kāla - the eternal time, Kālī, his consort, also means "Time" or "Death" . Hence, Kāli is...

, and appears frequently in depictions of her in the art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

 of Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, often with the goddess and the flower merging in form.
The hibiscus is used as an offering to goddess Kali
Kali
' , also known as ' , is the Hindu goddess associated with power, shakti. The name Kali comes from kāla, which means black, time, death, lord of death, Shiva. Kali means "the black one". Since Shiva is called Kāla - the eternal time, Kālī, his consort, also means "Time" or "Death" . Hence, Kāli is...

 and Lord Ganesha
Ganesha
Ganesha , also spelled Ganesa or Ganesh, also known as Ganapati , Vinayaka , and Pillaiyar , is one of the deities best-known and most widely worshipped in the Hindu pantheon. His image is found throughout India and Nepal. Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations...

 in Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 worship.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is considered to have a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology
Chinese herbology
Chinese Herbology is the theory of Traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in Traditional Chinese medicine ....

.

In the Philippines, the gumamela (local name for hibiscus) is used by children as part of a bubble-making pasttime. The flowers and leaves are crushed until the sticky juices come out. Hollow papaya
Papaya
The papaya , papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae...

 stalks are then dipped into this and used as straws for blowing bubbles.

The red hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahiti
Tahiti
Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. It is the economic, cultural and political centre of French Polynesia. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous...

an women. A single flower, tucked behind the ear, is used to indicate the wearer's availability for marriage.

The bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibre
Bast fibre
Bast fibre or skin fibre is plant fibre collected from the phloem or bast surrounding the stem of certain, mainly dicotyledonous, plants. They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem...

s that can be obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic material rot away. In Polynesia
Polynesia
Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians and they share many similar traits including language, culture and beliefs...

, these fibers (fau, pūrau) are used for making grass skirt
Grass skirt
A grass skirt is a traditional part of dress wear on tropical islands all over the world . This is referred to many kinds of dress wear. These are popular with Hula girls on Hawaii. Many of these are seen at Hawaiian parties....

s. They have also been known to be used to make wigs.

Health benefits


The tea is popular as a natural diuretic; it contains vitamin C
Vitamin C
Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress...

 and minerals, and is used traditionally as a mild medicine.

Dieters or people with kidney problems often take it without adding sugar for its beneficial properties and as a natural diuretic
Diuretic
A diuretic provides a means of forced diuresis which elevates the rate of urination. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way.- Medical uses :...

.

A 2008 USDA study shows consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure
Blood pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, BP varies...

 in a group of prehypertensive
Hypertension
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. What that means is that the heart is having to work harder than it should to pump the blood around the body. Blood pressure involves two measurements, systolic and...

 and mildly hypertensive adults. Three cups of tea daily resulted in an average drop of 8.1 points in their systolic blood pressure, compared to a 1.3 point drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study participants with higher blood pressure readings (129 or above) had a greater response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood pressure went down by 13.2 points. These data support the idea that drinking hibiscus tea in an amount readily incorporated into the diet may play a role in controlling blood pressure, although more research is required.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology
Chinese herbology
Chinese Herbology is the theory of Traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in Traditional Chinese medicine ....

.

In the Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda
Ayurveda
Ayurveda or ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicine native to India and a form of alternative medicine. In Sanskrit, words , meaning "longevity", and , meaning "knowledge" or "science". The earliest literature on Indian medical practice appeared during the Vedic period in India,...

, hibiscus, especially white hibiscus and red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is considered to have medicinal properties. The roots are used to make various concoctions believed to cure ailments such as cough, hair loss or hair greying. As a hair treatment, the flowers are boiled in oil along with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and flowers are ground into a fine paste with a little water, and the resulting lathery paste is used as a shampoo plus conditioner.

Species


In temperate zones, probably the most commonly grown ornamental
Ornamental plant
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as house plants, for cut flowers and specimen display...

 species is Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus syriacus is a widely cultivated ornamental shrub in the genus Hibiscus. Common names include Rose of Sharon , Shrub Althea and Rose Althea.-Growth:...

, the common garden hibiscus, also known in some areas as the "Rose of Althea" or "Rose of Sharon" (but not to be confused with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum
Hypericum calycinum
Hypericum calycinum is a prostrate or low-growing shrub species of the genus Hypericum . Widely cultivated for its large yellow flowers, its names as a garden plant include Rose of Sharon in Britain and Australia, and Aaron's beard, Great St-John's wort, and Jerusalem star.Grown in Mediterranean...

, also called "Rose of Sharon"). In tropical and subtropical areas, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its many showy hybrids, is the most popular hibiscus.

Several hundred species are known, including:

  • Hibiscus acetosella
    Hibiscus acetosella
    False Roselle has red leaves reminiscent of a Japanese maple. The flowers, which are open only a day, are used in salads. Young leaves can be added to salads or chopped and used in stir fries. Note the leaves are NOT sweet. A close relative, Hibiscus sabdariffa, the true Roselle, is also called...

    Welw. ex Hiern.
    William Philip Hiern
    William Philip Hiern was a British mathematician and botanist.Hiern attended St. John's College, Cambridge, from 1857 to 1861 and attained a "first class degree" in mathematics...

    - False Roselle
  • Hibiscus aponeurus
  • Hibiscus arnottianus
    Hawaiian hibiscus
    Hawaiian hibiscus are the seven known species of hibiscus regarded as native to Hawaii. Although tourists regularly associate the hibiscus flower with their experiences visiting the US state of Hawaii, and the plant family Malvaceae includes a relatively large number of species that are native to...

    A.Gray
    Asa Gray
    -References:*Asa Gray. Dictionary of American Biography. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928–1936.*Asa Gray. Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. Gale Research, 1998.*Asa Gray. Plant Sciences. 4 vols. Macmillan Reference USA, 2001....

    - Kokio ula (Hawaii
    Hawaii
    Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

    )
  • Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray - Hawaiian hibiscus
    Hawaiian hibiscus
    Hawaiian hibiscus are the seven known species of hibiscus regarded as native to Hawaii. Although tourists regularly associate the hibiscus flower with their experiences visiting the US state of Hawaii, and the plant family Malvaceae includes a relatively large number of species that are native to...

     Mao hau hele
  • Hibiscus calyphyllus
    Hibiscus calyphyllus
    Hibiscus calyphyllus is a shrub from tropical Africa belonging to the Hibiscus genus.Hibiscus calyphyllus grows to 1-1.8 meters tall. It has flowers which grow to 8-10 cm wide, with a yellow color and a brownish center....

    (Tropical Africa
    Tropical Africa
    Although tropical Africa is most familiar in the West as depicted by its rain forests, this region of Africa is far more diverse. While the tropics are thought of as regions with warm to hot moist climates caused by latitude and the tropical rain belt, the geology of areas, particularly mountain...

    )
  • Hibiscus cameronii
  • Hibiscus cannabinus L. - Kenaf
    Kenaf
    Kenaf [Etymology: Persian], Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the Malvaceae family. Hibiscus cannabinus is in the genus Hibiscus and is probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown. The name also applies to the fibre obtained from this plant...

  • Hibiscus clayi
    Hawaiian hibiscus
    Hawaiian hibiscus are the seven known species of hibiscus regarded as native to Hawaii. Although tourists regularly associate the hibiscus flower with their experiences visiting the US state of Hawaii, and the plant family Malvaceae includes a relatively large number of species that are native to...

    O.Deg.
    Otto Degener
    Otto Degener was a botanist and conservationist who specialized in identifying plants of the Hawaiian Islands.-Life:Otto Degener was born May 13, 1899 in East Orange, New Jersey. Degener graduated from the Massachusetts Agricultural College...

     & I.Deg.
    - Hawaiian red hibiscus (Hawaii)
  • Hibiscus coccineus
    Hibiscus coccineus
    Hibiscus coccineus or Scarlet Rose Mallow, is a hardy Hibiscus species that looks much like Cannabis sativa . It is also known as brilliant hibiscus, scarlet hibiscus and scarlet rose mallow....

    (Medik.
    Friedrich Kasimir Medikus
    Friedrich Kasimir Medikus was a German physician and botanist.He was born at Grambach and became director of the University of Heidelberg and curator of the botanical garden at Mannheim...

    ) Walter
    Thomas Walter (botanist)
    Thomas Walter was a British-born American botanist. He is best known for his book Flora Caroliniana , an early yet fairly complete catalog of the flowering plants of South Carolina.-References:...

  • Hibiscus dasycalyx - Neches River rosemallow
  • Hibiscus denudatus
    Hibiscus denudatus
    Hibiscus denudatus is a perennial shrub of the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is in the rosemallow genus, Hibiscus....

    Benth.
    George Bentham
    George Bentham CMG FRS was an English botanist, characterized by Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century".- Formative years :...

    - Pale Face (Southwestern United States
    Southwestern United States
    The Southwestern United States is a region defined in different ways by different sources. Broad definitions include nearly a quarter of the United States, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah...

    , Northwestern Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

    )
  • Hibiscus dioscorides
    Hibiscus dioscorides
    Hibiscus dioscorides is a species of flowering plant in the Malvaceae family.It is found only in Yemen.Its natural habitat is rocky areas.-Source:* Miller, A. 2004. . Downloaded on 19 July 2007....

    A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
  • Hibiscus diriffan
    Hibiscus diriffan
    Hibiscus diriffan is a species of flowering plant in the Malvaceae family.It is found only in Yemen.Its natural habitat is rocky areas.-References:* Miller, A. 2004. . Downloaded on 19 July 2007....

    A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
  • Hibiscus diversifolius
    Hibiscus diversifolius
    Hibiscus diversifolius is a widespread species of hibiscus. It grows to between 1 and 2 metres in height, with prickly stems and yellow flowers with a maroon basal spot during spring summer...

  • Hibiscus elatus
  • Hibiscus escobariae
    Hibiscus escobariae
    Hibiscus escobariae is a species of flowering plant in the Malvaceae family.It is found only in Ecuador.Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests.-Source:* Montúfar, R. & Pitman, N. 2004. . Downloaded on 19 July 2007....

  • Hibiscus ficulneus
  • Hibiscus fragilis DC. - Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands
    Mascarene Islands
    The Mascarene Islands is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar comprising Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, Cargados Carajos shoals, plus the former islands of the Saya de Malha, Nazareth and Soudan banks...

    )
  • Hibiscus furcellatus
    Hawaiian hibiscus
    Hawaiian hibiscus are the seven known species of hibiscus regarded as native to Hawaii. Although tourists regularly associate the hibiscus flower with their experiences visiting the US state of Hawaii, and the plant family Malvaceae includes a relatively large number of species that are native to...

    Desr. - Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean
    Caribbean
    The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

    , Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

    , Central America
    Central America
    Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. It is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. When considered part of the unified continental model, it is considered a subcontinent...

    , South America
    South America
    South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

    , Hawaii
    Hawaii
    Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

    )
  • Hibiscus fuscus
  • Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
  • Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.
    André Michaux
    André Michaux was a French botanist and explorer.-Biography:Michaux was born in Satory, now part of Versailles, Yvelines. After the death of his wife within a year of their marriage he took up the study of botany and was a student of Bernard de Jussieu...

    - Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States
    Southeastern United States
    The Southeastern United States, colloquially referred to as the Southeast, is the eastern portion of the Southern United States. It is one of the most populous regions in the United States of America....

    )
  • Hibiscus hamabo
  • Hibiscus hastatus
    Hibiscus hastatus
    Hibiscus hastatus is a large shrub or tree in the family Malvaceae. H. hastatus is known by its common name of Purau teruere or Tahiti hibiscus....

  • Hibiscus heterophyllus
    Hibiscus heterophyllus
    Hibiscus heterophyllus, also known as Native Rosella, is a species of hibiscus that is endemic to New South Wales and Queensland in Australia....

    - Native rosella
  • Hibiscus indicus
  • Hibiscus insularis
    Hibiscus insularis
    The Philip Island Hibiscus is a species of hibiscus that is endemic to Phillip Island, a small island to the south of Norfolk Island. The entire natural extent of this species is just two small clumps, and each clump apparently consists of multiple separate stems of a single genotype...

    Endl.
    Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher
    Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher was an Austrian botanist, numismatist and Sinologist. He was a director of the Botanical Garden of Vienna. He was born in Pressburg and died in Vienna....

    - Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island
    Phillip Island (Norfolk Island)
    Phillip Island is an uninhabited island located south of Norfolk Island in the Southwest Pacific, and part of the Norfolk Island group. It was named in 1788 by Lieutenant Philip Gidley King for Arthur Phillip, the first Governor of New South Wales. It is part of the Australian territory of Norfolk...

    )

  • Hibiscus laevis All.
    Carlo Allioni
    Carlo Allioni was an Italian physician and professor of botany at the University of Turin. His most important work was Flora Pedemontana, sive enumeratio methodica stirpium indigenarum Pedemontii 1755, a study of the plant world in Piedmont, in which he listed 2813 species of plants, of which 237...

    (=H. militaris) - Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and eastern North America
    North America
    North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

    )
  • Hibiscus lasiocarpos
    Hibiscus lasiocarpos
    Hibiscus lasiocarpos is a species of hibiscus known by the common name hairy-fruited hibiscus. It is also one of several hibiscus called rosemallow. It is native to much of the southeastern United States, as well as parts of California and northern Mexico. It is a large, bushy perennial herb with...

  • Hibiscus lavaterioides
  • Hibiscus ludwigii
  • Hibiscus macrophyllus
    Hibiscus macrophyllus
    Hibiscus macrophyllus is an ornamental plant which can be made into Hibiscus tea....

  • Hibiscus macropodus
    Hibiscus macropodus
    Hibiscus macropodus is a species of flowering plant in the Malvaceae family.It is found only in Yemen.-Source:* Miller, A. 2004. . Downloaded on 19 July 2007....

  • Hibiscus malacophyllus
    Hibiscus malacophyllus
    Hibiscus malacophyllus is a species of flowering plant in the Malvaceae family.It is found only in Yemen.Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.-Source:...

    Balf.f.
    Isaac Bayley Balfour
    Sir Isaac Bayley Balfour FRS FRSE was a Scottish botanist. He was the son of John Hutton Balfour who was also a botanist.-Biography:...

    (Yemen
    Yemen
    The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

    )
  • Hibiscus moscheutos
    Hibiscus moscheutos
    Hibiscus moscheutos is a cold-hardy perennial wetland plant that can grow in large colonies. The hirsute leaves are of variable morphology, but commonly found as deltoidal in form and sometimes having up to three lobes...

    Welw.
    Friedrich Welwitsch
    Friedrich Martin Josef Welwitsch was an Austrian explorer and botanist who in Angola discovered the plant Welwitschia mirabilis...

     ex Hiern.
    William Philip Hiern
    William Philip Hiern was a British mathematician and botanist.Hiern attended St. John's College, Cambridge, from 1857 to 1861 and attained a "first class degree" in mathematics...

    - Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Eastern North America)
  • Hibiscus mutabilis
    Hibiscus mutabilis
    Hibiscus mutabilis, also known as the Confederate rose or the cotton rosemallow, is a plant noted for its flowers.Confederate roses tend to be shrubby or treelike in Zones 9 and 10, though it behaves more like a perennial further north. Flowers can be double or single and are 4 to 6 inches in...

    L. - Cotton Rosemallow (East Asia)
  • Hibiscus paramutabilis
  • Hibiscus pedunculatus
  • Hibiscus platanifolius
  • Hibiscus radiatus
    Hibiscus radiatus
    Hibiscus radiatus is native to southern and southeast Asia. It has yellow flowers that have a purple center. Leaves are dentate, with upper leaves lobed into three or five parts. It is frequently grown as a vegetable or medicinal herb....

  • Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. - Chinese hibiscus (East Asia
    East Asia
    East Asia or Eastern Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms...

    )
  • Hibiscus sabdariffa
    Roselle (plant)
    The roselle is a species of Hibiscus native to the Old World tropics, used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusion. It is an annual or perennial herb or woody-based subshrub, growing to tall...

    L. - Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
  • Hibiscus schizopetalus
    Hibiscus schizopetalus
    BotanyHibiscus schizopetalus is a species of Hibiscus native to tropical eastern Africa in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique.It is a shrub growing to 3 m tall. The red or pink flowers are very distinctive in their frilly, finely divided petals...

  • Hibiscus scottii
    Hibiscus scottii
    Hibiscus scottii is a species of flowering plant in the Malvaceae family.It is found only in Yemen.Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests.-Source:* Miller, A. 2004. . Downloaded on 19 July 2007....

  • Hibiscus socotranus
    Hibiscus socotranus
    Hibiscus socotranus is a species of flowering plant in the Malvaceae family.It is found only in Yemen.Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.-Source:* Miller, A. 2004. . Downloaded on 19 July 2007....

  • Hibiscus sinosyriacus
  • Hibiscus splendens
    Hibiscus splendens
    The Splendid Hibiscus is a species of flowering shrub or tree in the mallow family, Malvaceae. Other common names include Hollyhock Tree and Pink Cottonwood. H. splendens is a fairly common plant native to eastern Australia...

  • Hibiscus stenanthus
    Hibiscus stenanthus
    Hibiscus stenanthus is a species of flowering plant in the Malvaceae family.It is found only in Yemen.Its natural habitat is rocky areas.-References:* Miller, A. 2004. . Downloaded on 19 July 2007....

    Balf.f. (Yemen)
  • Hibiscus striatus
    Hibiscus striatus
    The Striped Hibiscus, Hibiscus striatus, is a plant in the Malvaceae family. A strange thing about the Striped Hibiscus is that it isn’t striped, only “striatus” means “striped”! Its flowers are 5 inches across, some of the largest flowers of any mallow plant....

  • Hibiscus syriacus
    Hibiscus syriacus
    Hibiscus syriacus is a widely cultivated ornamental shrub in the genus Hibiscus. Common names include Rose of Sharon , Shrub Althea and Rose Althea.-Growth:...

    L. - Rose of Sharon (Asia
    Asia
    Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

    )
  • Hibiscus tiliaceus L. - Sea hibiscus (Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

    , Southeast Asia
    Southeast Asia
    Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

    , Oceania
    Oceania
    Oceania is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Conceptions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago...

    )
  • Hibiscus trilobus
  • Hibiscus trionum L. - Flower-of-an-Hour
  • Hibiscus waimeae
    Hibiscus waimeae
    Hibiscus waimeae is a species of flowering plant in the okra family, Malvaceae, that is endemic to the island of Kauai in Hawaii. It is a small gray-barked tree, reaching a height of and a trunk diameter of . The flowers last for a single day, starting out white and fading to pink in the...

    A.Heller
    Amos Arthur Heller
    Amos Arthur Heller was an American botanist.He was one of the most prolific western collectors from 1892 until 1940. While living in Los Gatos, California, south of San Francisco from 1904 to 1908, Heller collected extensively in central California. He also obtained an impressive collection from...

    - Kokio keokeo (Hawaii)


Formerly placed here



  • Abelmoschus esculentus
    Okra
    Okra is a flowering plant in the mallow family. It is valued for its edible green seed pods. The geographical origin of okra is disputed, with supporters of South Asian, Ethiopian and West African origins...

    (L.) Moench (as H. esculentus L.)
  • Abelmoschus ficulneus
    Abelmoschus ficulneus
    Abelmoschus ficulneus is a species of flowering plant in the genus Abelmoschus, family Malvaceae. Commonly known as White Wild Musk Mallow or Native Rosella, it is fibrous perennial with a woody stem...

    (L.) Wight & Arn. (as H. ficulneus L.)
  • Abelmoschus manihot subsp. manihot (as H. manihot L.)
  • Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxb.) Hochr. (as H. pungens Roxb.)
  • Abelmoschus manihot var. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Borss. Waalk. (as H. tetraphyllus Roxb. ex Hornem.)
  • Abelmoschus moschatus subsp. moschatus
    Abelmoschus moschatus
    Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmoschus moschatus (Abelmosk, Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okra; syn...

     (as H. abelmoschus L.)
  • Abelmoschus moschatus subsp. tuberosus
    Abelmoschus moschatus
    Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmoschus moschatus (Abelmosk, Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okra; syn...

     (Span.) Borss. Waalk. (as H. sagittifolius Kurz)
  • Alyogyne cuneiformis (DC.) Lewton (as H. cuneiformis DC.)
  • Alyogyne hakeifolia
    Alyogyne hakeifolia
    Alyogyne hakeifolia is a flowering plant found in southern regions of Australia. The plant is similar to a Hibiscus and was assumed to be part of that genus for many years. It is known to have been cultivated in England since the mid nineteenth century.-Description:An erect shrub, up to three...

    (Giord.) Alef. (as H. hakeifolius Giord.)
  • Alyogyne huegelii
    Alyogyne huegelii
    Alyogyne huegelii is a flowering plant found in the Southwest botanical province of Western Australia, extending along its entire coastline....

    (Endl.) Fryxell (as H. wrayae Lindl.)
  • Alyogyne pinoniana (Gaudich.) Fryxell (as H. pinonianus Gaudich.)

  • Firmiana simplex
    Firmiana simplex
    Firmiana simplex, commonly known as the Chinese parasol tree or wutong is an ornamental plant or tree of the cacao, or chocolate, of the family Sterculiaceae of the order Malvales, native to Asia. It grows to a height of 12 m . It has alternate, deciduous leaves up to 30 cm across and small...

    (L.) W.Wight (as H. simplex L.)
  • Lagunaria patersonia subsp. patersonia
    Lagunaria
    Lagunaria is a monotypic genus in the family Malvaceae. It is an Australian plant endemic to Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and parts of coastal Queensland. It has been introduced to many parts of the world...

     (as H. patersonius Andrews)
  • Kosteletzkya adoensis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Mast. (as H. adoensis Hochst. ex A.Rich.)
  • Kosteletzkya pentacarpos (L.) Ledeb. (as H. pentacarpos L.)
  • Kosteletzkya tubiflora (DC.) Blanch. & McVaugh (as H. tubiflorus DC.)
  • Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) C.Presl ex A.Gray (as H. virginicus L.)
  • Pavonia arabica Hochst. & Steud. ex Boiss. (as H. flavus Forssk.)
  • Pavonia spinifex (L.) Cav. (as H. spinifex L.)
  • Radyera farragei (F.Muell.) Fryxell & S.H.Hashmi (as H. farragei F.Muell.)
  • Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalzell (as H. lampas Cav.)
  • Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corrêa (as H. populneoides Roxb. or H. populneus L.)


External links