High-speed rail in China

High-speed rail in China

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Encyclopedia
High-speed rail in China refers to any commercial train service in the China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 with an average speed of 200 km/h (124 mph) or higher. By that measure, China has the world's longest high-speed rail (HSR)
High-speed rail
High-speed rail is a type of passenger rail transport that operates significantly faster than the normal speed of rail traffic. Specific definitions by the European Union include for upgraded track and or faster for new track, whilst in the United States, the U.S...

 network with about 9676 km (6,012.4 mi) of routes in service as of June 2011 including 3515 km (2,184.1 mi) of rail lines with top speeds of 300 km/h (186 mph). In 2010, the BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 reported that by 2012, China was expected to have more high-speed railway track than the rest of the world combined
High-speed rail by country
This article provides of a list of operating High-speed rail networks, listed by country. High-speed rail is public transport by rail at speeds of at least 200 km/h for updated track and or faster for new track . The article also includes any planned expansion of existing high-speed rail...

.

High-speed rail service in China was introduced on April 18, 2007, and daily ridership has grown from 237,000 in 2007 and 349,000 in 2008 to 492,000 in 2009 and 796,000 in 2010. China's high speed rail network consists of upgraded conventional railways, newly built high-speed passenger designated lines (PDLs), and the world's first high-speed commercial magnetic levitation (maglev) line
Shanghai Maglev Train
The Shanghai Maglev Train or Shanghai Transrapid is a magnetic levitation train, or maglev line that operates in Shanghai, China. It is the first commercially operated high-speed magnetic levitation line in the world...

. The country has been undergoing an HSR building boom. With generous funding from the Chinese government's economic stimulus program, 17000 km (10,563.3 mi) of high-speed lines are now under construction. In early 2011, the HSR network was expected to reach 13073 km (8,123.2 mi) by the end of the year and 25000 km (15,534.3 mi) by the end of 2015.

China is the first and only country to have commercial train service on conventional rail lines that can reach 350 km/h (217 mph). Notable examples of HSR lines include:
  • The Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, a passenger-dedicated trunk line opened in June 2011, that reduced the 1318 km (819 mi) journey between the largest cities in China to under 5 hours. Trains reach top speeds of 300 km/h (186 mph) for the entire trip.
  • The Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway, an intercity express line opened in 2008, that shortened the 117 km (72.7 mi) commute between the two largest cities in northern China
    North China
    thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

     to 30 minutes. Trains reach top speeds of 330 km/h (205 mph) and average 234 km/h (145 mph).
  • The Shanghai Maglev Train
    Shanghai Maglev Train
    The Shanghai Maglev Train or Shanghai Transrapid is a magnetic levitation train, or maglev line that operates in Shanghai, China. It is the first commercially operated high-speed magnetic levitation line in the world...

    , an airport rail link
    Airport rail link
    An airport rail link is a service providing passenger rail transport from an airport to a nearby city; by mainline- or commuter trains, rapid transit, people mover or light rail...

     service opened in 2004, that travels 30 km (18.6 mi) in 7 minutes, 20 seconds, averaging 240 km/h (149 mph) and reaching top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph).


China's initial high speed trains were imported or built under technology transfer
Technology transfer
Technology Transfer, also called Transfer of Technology and Technology Commercialisation, is the process of skill transferring, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments or universities and other institutions to ensure that...

 agreements with foreign train-makers including Siemens, Bombardier
Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm, Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail-equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Its headquarters are in Berlin, Germany....

 and Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
is an international corporation based in Japan. It has headquarters in both Chūō-ku, Kobe and Minato, Tokyo.The company is named after its founder Shōzō Kawasaki and has no connection with the city of Kawasaki, Kanagawa....

. Chinese engineers then re-designed internal train components and built indigenous trains that can reach operational speeds of up to 380 km/h (236.1 mph). Foreign trainmakers continue to sell certain components but no longer supply train sets for China's high speed trains. Most of the China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed ; ) is the high-speed rail system operated by China Railways.Hexie Hao is the designation for high-speed trains running on this rail system. At the middle of the run, all trains were marked "CRH" on the centre of the head vehicle and the side of the walls of each vehicle...

 (CRH) train components are manufactured by local Chinese suppliers, with only a few parts imported. Reports differ over the extent to which Chinese engineers absorbed or expropriated foreign technology in building indigenous train sets and signal systems. China currently holds close to 1,000 local and international patents for high speed rail technology.

The pace of China's high-speed rail expansion slowed sharply in 2011 after the removal of Chinese Railways Minister Liu Zhijun
Liu Zhijun
Liu Zhijun is a Chinese politician. He was the Minister of Railways in the People's Republic of China from 2003 to 2011. He was removed from the party chief of the ministry on February 12, 2011, and from office in the 11th NPC Standing Committee's 19th meeting on February 25 because of allegations...

 in February pending investigation for corruption and a fatal high-speed railway accident near Wenzhou
Wenzhou train collision
On 23 July 2011, two high-speed trains travelling on the Yongtaiwen railway line collided on a viaduct in the suburbs of Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. The two trains derailed each other, and four cars fell off the viaduct...

 in July. Concerns about HSR safety, high ticket prices, low ridership, financial sustainability of high speed rail projects and environmental impact have drawn greater scrutiny from the Chinese press. Top operational speed of HSR trains on lines previously operating at 350 km/h were lowered to 300 km/h and those running at 250 km/h were lowered to 200 km/h. By late summer 2011, state banks began to cut back lending to railway construction projects. As of October 2011, work had halted on 10,000 km of track under construction due to shortage of funding.

History



State planning for China's high speed railway began in the early 1990s. The Ministry of Railways (MOR)
Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China is a member of the State Council of the People's Republic of China...

 submitted a proposal to build a high speed railway between Beijing and Shanghai to the National People's Congress
National People's Congress
The National People's Congress , abbreviated NPC , is the highest state body and the only legislative house in the People's Republic of China. The National People's Congress is held in the Great Hall of the People, Beijing, capital of the People's Republic of China; with 2,987 members, it is the...

 in December 1990. At the time, the existing Beijing-Shanghai railway
Jinghu railway
The Beijing–Shanghai Railway or Jinghu railway is a railway line in China between Beijing and Shanghai. The line has a total length of 1,462 kilometres and connects the municipalities of Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai, as well as the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu...

 was already reaching capacity, and the proposal was jointly studied by the Science & Technology Commission
Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Science and Technology , formerly as State Science and Technology Commission , is a ministry of the government of the People's Republic of China which coordinates science and technology activities in the country....

, State Planning Commission
National Development and Reform Commission
The National Development and Reform Commission , formerly State Planning Commission and State Development Planning Commission, is a macroeconomic management agency under the Chinese State Council, which has broad administrative and planning control over the Chinese economy...

, State Economic & Trade Commission, and the MOR. In December 1994, the State Council
State Council of the People's Republic of China
The State Council of the People's Republic of China , which is largely synonymous with the Central People's Government after 1954, is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the Premier and includes the heads of each governmental department and agency...

 commissioned a feasibility study for the line. Policy planners debated the necessity and economic viability of high-speed rail service. Supporters argued that high-speed rail would boost future economic growth. Opponents noted that high-speed rail in other countries were expensive and mostly unprofitable. Overcrowding on existing rail lines, they said, could be solved by expanding capacity through higher speed and frequency of service. In 1995, Premier Li Peng
Li Peng
Li Peng served as the fourth Premier of the People's Republic of China, between 1987 and 1998, and the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, China's top legislative body, from 1998 to 2003. For much of the 1990s Li was ranked second in the Communist Party of China ...

 announced that preparatory work on the Beijing Shanghai HSR would begin in the 9th Five Year Plan (1996–2000), but construction was not scheduled until the first decade of the 21st century.

The "Speed Up" campaigns


In 1993, commercial train service in China
Rail transport in the People's Republic of China
Rail transport is the most commonly used mode of long-distance transportation in the People's Republic of China. Almost all rail operations are handled by the Ministry of Railways, which is part of the State Council of the People's Republic of China...

 averaged only 48 km/h (29.8 mph) and was steadily losing market share to airline and highway travel on the country's expanding network of expressways
Expressways of China
The Expressway Network of the People's Republic of China is one of the longest in the world. The network is also known as National Trunk Highway System . The total length of China's expressways was at the end of 2010, the world's second longest only after the United States and slightly longer...

. The MOR focused modernization efforts on increasing the service speed and capacity on existing lines through double-tracking
Double track
A double track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single track railway where trains in both directions share the same track.- Overview :...

, electrification
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electrical energy to railway locomotives and multiple units as well as trams so that they can operate without having an on-board prime mover. There are several different electrification systems in use throughout the world...

, improvements in grade (through tunnels and bridges), reductions in turn curvature, and installation of continuous welded rail. Through five rounds of "speed-up" campaigns in April 1997, October 1998, October 2000, November 2001, and April 2004, passenger service on 7700 km (4,784.6 mi) of existing tracks was upgraded to reach sub-high speeds of 160 km/h (99.4 mph).
A notable example is the Guangzhou-Shenzhen Railway, which in December 1994 became the first line in China to offer sub-high speed service of 160 km/h using domestically produced DF-class diesel locomotives. The line was electrified in 1998, and Swedish-made X 2000
X 2000
X 2000 is the brand name of Sweden's tilting 200 km/h high-speed train class X2, which was constructed by Kalmar Verkstad in Kalmar, Sweden and operated by SJ. It was launched in 1990 as a first-class only train with a meal included in the ticket price, and free use of the train's fax machine...

 trains increased service speed to 200 km/h (124.3 mph). After the completion of a third track in 2000 and a fourth in 2007, the line became the first in China to run high-speed passenger and freight service on separate tracks.
The completion of the sixth and final round of the "Speed Up" campaigns in April 2007 brought HSR service to more existing lines: 423 km (262.8 mi) capable of 250 km/h (155.3 mph) train service and 3002 km (1,865.4 mi) capable of 200 km/h (124.3 mph). In all, travel speed was increased on 22,000 extended km (13,700 extended mi), or one fifth, of the national rail network, and the average speed of a passenger train improved to 70 km/h. The introduction of more non-stop service between large cities also helped to reduce travel time. The non-stop express train from Beijing to Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

 shortened travel time from 33.5 to less than 20 hours.
In addition to track and scheduling improvements, the MOR also deployed faster CRH series
China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed ; ) is the high-speed rail system operated by China Railways.Hexie Hao is the designation for high-speed trains running on this rail system. At the middle of the run, all trains were marked "CRH" on the centre of the head vehicle and the side of the walls of each vehicle...

 trains. During the Sixth Railway Speed Up Campaign, 52 CRH trainsets (CRH1, CRH2 and CRH5) entered into operation. The new trains reduced travel time between Beijing and Shanghai by two hours to just under 10 hours.

Higher-speed express train service allowed more trains to share the tracks and improved rail transport capacity. But high-speed trains often have to share tracks with heavy freight—in some cases with as little as 5 minutes headway. To attain higher speeds and transport capacity, planners began to consider passenger-dedicated HSR lines on a grand scale.

The conventional rail v. maglev debate




The development of HSR network in China was initially held up by a debate over the type of track technology. In June 1998, at a State Council meeting with the Chinese Academies of Chinese Academies of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Chinese Academy of Sciences , formerly known as Academia Sinica, is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It is an institution of the State Council of China. It is headquartered in Beijing, with institutes all over the People's Republic of China...

 and Engineering
Chinese Academy of Engineering
The Chinese Academy of Engineering is the national academy of the People's Republic of China for engineering. It was established in 1994 and is an institution of the State Council of China...

, Premier Zhu Rongji
Zhu Rongji
Zhū Róngjī is a prominent Chinese politician who served as the Mayor and Party chief in Shanghai between 1987 and 1991, before serving as Vice-Premier and then the fifth Premier of the People's Republic of China from March 1998 to March 2003.A tough administrator, his time in office saw the...

 asked whether the high speed railway between Beijing and Shanghai still being planned could use maglev technology. At the time, planners were divided between using high-speed trains with wheels that run on conventional standard gauge
Standard gauge
The standard gauge is a widely-used track gauge . Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge...

 tracks or magnetic levitation trains that run on special maglev tracks for a new national high-speed rail network.

Maglev received a big boost in 2000 when the Shanghai Municipal Government agreed to purchase a turnkey
Turnkey
A turn-key or a turn-key project is a type of project that is constructed by a developer and sold or turned over to a buyer in a ready-to-use condition.-Common usage:...

 TransRapid
Transrapid
Transrapid is a German high-speed monorail train using magnetic levitation. Based on a patent from 1934, planning of the Transrapid system started in 1969. The test facility for the system in Emsland, Germany was completed in 1987...

 train system from Germany for the 30.5 km (19 mi) rail link connecting Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport is the primary international airport serving Shanghai, China, and a major aviation hub in Asia. The other major airport in Shanghai, Hongqiao, mainly serves domestic flights...

 and the city
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

. In 2004, the Shanghai Maglev Train
Shanghai Maglev Train
The Shanghai Maglev Train or Shanghai Transrapid is a magnetic levitation train, or maglev line that operates in Shanghai, China. It is the first commercially operated high-speed magnetic levitation line in the world...

 became the world's first commercially operated high-speed maglev. It remains the fastest commercial train in the world with peak speeds of 431 km/h (267.8 mph) and makes the 30.5 km (19 mi) in less than 7.5 minutes.

Despite unmatched advantage in speed, the maglev has not gained widespread use in China's high-speed rail network due to high cost, German refusal to share technology and concerns about safety. The price tag of the Shanghai Maglev was believed be $1.3 billion and was partially financed by the German government. The refusal of the Transrapid Consortium to share technology and source production in China made large-scale maglev production much more costly than high-speed train technology for conventional lines. Finally, residents living along the proposed maglev route have raised health concerns about electromagnetic radiation emitted by the trains. These concerns have prevented construction to begin on the proposed extension of the maglev to Hangzhou
Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Train
Shanghai-Hangzhou Maglev Train is a proposed maglev train line from Shanghai to Hangzhou, to be built by Germany's Transrapid consortium . Originally planned to be ready for Expo 2010, the controversial project was repeatedly delayed, with final approval being granted on August 18, 2008...

. Even the more modest plan to extend the maglev to Shanghai's other airport, Hongqiao, has been stalled. Instead, a conventional subway line was built to connect the two airports, and a conventional high-speed rail line was built between Shanghai and Hangzhou.

While the maglev was drawing attention to Shanghai, conventional track HSR technology was being tested on the newly completed Qinhuangdao-Shenyang (Qinshen) Passenger Railway. This 405 km (251.7 mi) standard gauge, dual-track, electrified line was built between 1999 and 2003. In June 2002, a domestically made DJF2 train set a record of 292.8 km/h (181.9 mph) on the track. The China Star
China Star
China Star is an indigenously designed experimental high-speed train manufactured in China. It is a push-pull train developed from the DJJ1 "Blue Arrow" high speed train by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Works. It consists of 2 locomotives and 9 passenger cars. The prototype rolled out in 2002...

 (DJJ2) train followed the same September with a new record of 321 km/h (199.5 mph). The line supports commercial train service at speeds of 200–250 km/h, and has become a segment of the rail corridor between Beijing and the Northeast China. The Qinshen Line demonstrates the greater compatibility of HSR on conventional track with the rest of China's standard gauge rail network.

In 2006, the State Council in its Mid-to-Long Term Railway Development Plan, adopted conventional track HSR technology over maglev. This decision ended the debate cleared the way for rapid construction of standard gauge, passenger dedicated HSR lines in China.

Acquisition of foreign technology


Despite setting speed records on test tracks, the DJJ2, DJF2 and other domestically produced high speed trains were insufficiently reliable for commercial operation. The State Council turned to advanced technology abroad but made clear in directives that China's HSR expansion cannot only benefit foreign economies. China's expansion must also be used to develop its own high-speed train building capacity through technology transfers. The State Council, MOR and state-owned train builders, the China North Car (CNR) and China South Car (CSR)
China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry (Group) Corporation
China South Locomotive & Rolling Stock Corporation Limited is a state-owned enterprise supervised by the State Council of the People's Republic of China...

 used China's large market and competition among foreign train-makers to induce technology transfers.

In 2003, the MOR was believed to favor Japan's Shinkansen
Shinkansen
The , also known as THE BULLET TRAIN, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies. Starting with the Tōkaidō Shinkansen in 1964, the network has expanded to currently consist of of lines with maximum speeds of , of Mini-shinkansen with a...

 technology, especially the 700 series
700 Series Shinkansen
The is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type built between 1997 and 2006, and entering service in 1999. Originally designated as "N300", they formed the next generation of shinkansen vehicles jointly designed by JR Central and JR West for use on both Tōkaidō and Sanyō Shinkansen...

, which was later exported to Taiwan
Taiwan High Speed Rail
Taiwan High Speed Rail is a high-speed rail line that runs approximately along the west coast of the Republic of China from the national capital of Taipei to the southern city of Kaohsiung...

. The Japanese government touted the 40-year track record of the Shinkansen and offered favorable financing. A Japanese report envisioned a winner-take all scenario in which the winning technology provider would supply China's trains for over 8,000 km of high-speed rail. However, Chinese citizens angry with Japan's World War II atrocities
Japanese war crimes
Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. Some of the incidents have also been described as an Asian Holocaust and Japanese war atrocities...

 organized a web campaign to oppose the awarding of HSR contracts to Japanese companies. The protests gathered over a million signatures and politicized the issue. The MOR delayed the decision, broadened the bidding and adopted a diversified approach to adopting foreign high-speed train technology.

In June 2004, the MOR solicited bids to make 200 high speed train sets that can run 200 km/h. Alstom
Alstom
Alstom is a large multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in the years 2010-2011 Alstom had annual sales of over €20.9 billion, and employed more than 85,000 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are...

 of France, Siemens of Germany, Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm, Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail-equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Its headquarters are in Berlin, Germany....

 based in Germany and a Japanese consortium led by Kawasaki
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
is an international corporation based in Japan. It has headquarters in both Chūō-ku, Kobe and Minato, Tokyo.The company is named after its founder Shōzō Kawasaki and has no connection with the city of Kawasaki, Kanagawa....

 all submitted bids. With the exception of Siemens which refused to lower its demand of RMB(¥)
Renminbi
The Renminbi is the official currency of the People's Republic of China . Renminbi is legal tender in mainland China, but not in Hong Kong or Macau. It is issued by the People's Bank of China, the monetary authority of the PRC...

 350 million per train set and €390 million for the technology transfer, the other three were all awarded portions of the contract. All had to adapt their HSR train-sets to China's own common standard and assemble units through local joint ventures (JV) or cooperate with Chinese manufacturers. Bombardier, through its JV with CSR's Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock Co (CSR Sifang), Bombardier Sifang (Qingdao) Transportation Ltd (BST). won an order for 40 eight-car train sets based on Bombardier's Regina
Regina (train)
The Regina is a Swedish model of electric multiple unit passenger train, manufactured by Bombardier Transportation . It is used by the national passenger railway SJ along with numerous regional and private operators, in variants designated X50, X51, X52, X53, X54 and X55, and in two- and...

 design. These trains, designated CRH1A, were delivered in 2006. Kawasaki won an order for 60 train sets based on its E2 Series Shinkansen
E2 Series Shinkansen
The is a Japanese high-speed Shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company on the Tōhoku and Nagano Shinkansen high-speed lines in Japan since 1997. They are formed in 8- and 10-car sets. The 8-car sets are used on the Nagano Shinkansen, and the 10-car sets on Tōhoku Shinkansen...

 for ¥9.3 billion. Of the 60 train sets, three were directly delivered from Nagoya, Japan, six were kits assembled at CSR Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock, and the remaining 51 were made in China using transferred technology with domestic and imported parts. They are known as CRH2A. Alstom also won an order for 60 train sets based on the New Pendolino
New Pendolino
The New Pendolino is a class of high-speed tilting trains built by Alstom Ferroviaria for Trenitalia and the swiss Railway SBB CFF FFS, known as the ETR 600 and ETR 610, respectively...

 developed by Alstom-Ferroviaria
Fiat Ferroviaria
thumb|300px|[[FS Class E626]] locomotive, a mainstay of Italian railways starting from the 1930s.Fiat Ferroviaria was the rail division of FIAT of Italy....

 in Italy. The order had a similar delivery structure with three shipped directly from Savigliano
Savigliano
Savigliano is a comune of Piedmont, northern Italy, in the Province of Cuneo, c. 50 kilometers south of Turin by rail....

 along with six kits assembled by CNR's Changchun Railway Vehicles, and the rest locally made with transferred technology and some imported parts. Trains with Alstom technology carry the CRH5 designation.

The following year, Siemens reshuffled its bidding team, lowered prices, joined the bidding for 300 km/h trains and won a 60-train set order. It supplied the technology for the CRH3C, based on the ICE3 (class 403)
ICE 3
ICE 3 is a family of high-speed EMUs of Deutsche Bahn. It includes classes 403 and 406, which are known as ICE 3 and ICE 3M respectively...

 design, to CNR's Tangshan Railway Vehicle Co. Ltd
Tangshan Railway Vehicle
CNR Tangshan Railway Vehicle Co. Ltd. , formerly known as Tangshan Locomotive and Rolling Stock Works, is a manufacturer of locomotives and rolling stock located in Tangshan, Hebei province, People's Republic of China...

. The transferred technology includes assembly, body, bogie, traction current transforming, traction transformers, traction motors, traction control, brake systems, and train control networks.

Technology transfer



Achieving indigenous high-speed rail technology has been a major goal of Chinese state planners. Chinese train-makers, after receiving transferred foreign technology, have been able to achieve a considerable degree of self-sufficiency in making the next generation of high-speed trains by developing indigenous capability to produce key parts and improvising upon foreign designs.

Examples of technology transfer include Mitsubishi Electric
Mitsubishi Electric
is a multinational electronics and information technology company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is one of the core companies of the Mitsubishi Group....

’s MT205 traction motor and ATM9 transformer to CSR Zhuzhou Electric, Hitachi
Hitachi
Hitachi is a multinational corporation specializing in high-technology.Hitachi may also refer to:*Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan*Hitachi province, former province of Japan*Prince Hitachi and Princess Hitachi, members of the Japanese imperial family...

’s YJ92A traction motor and Alstom’s YJ87A Traction motor to CNR Yongji Electric, Siemens’ TSG series pantograph to Zhuzhou Gofront Electric. Most of the components of the CRH trains manufactured by Chinese companies were from local suppliers, with only a few parts imported.

For foreign train-makers, technology transfer is an important part of gaining market access in China. Bombardier, the first foreign train-maker to form a joint venture in China, has been sharing technology for the manufacture of railway passenger cars and rolling stock since 1998. Zhang Jianwei, President and Chief Country Representative of Bombardier China, stated that in a 2009 interview, “Whatever technology Bombardier has, whatever the China market needs, there is no need to ask. Bombardier transfers advanced and mature technology
Mature technology
A mature technology is a technology that has been in use for long enough that most of its initial faults and inherent problems have been removed or reduced by further development...

 to China, which we do not treat as an experimental market.” Unlike other series which have imported prototypes, all CRH1 trains have been assembled at Bombardier’s joint-venture with CSR, Bombardier Sifang in Qingdao
Qingdao
' also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the...

.

Kawasaki’s cooperation with CSR has not lasted as long. Within two years of cooperation with Kawasaki to produce 60 CRH2A sets, CSR began in 2008 to build CRH2B, CRH2C and CRH2E models at its Sifang plant independently without assistance from Kawasaki. According to CSR president Zhang Chenghong, CSR "made the bold move of forming a systemic development platform for high-speed locomotives and further upgrading its design and manufacturing technology. Later, we began to independently develop high-speed CRH trains with a maximum velocity of 300–350 kilometers per hour, which eventually rolled off the production line in December 2007." Since then, CSR has ended its cooperation with Kawasaki. Kawasaki is currently challenging China's high-speed rail project for patent theft.

Between June and September 2005, the Ministry of Railways launched bidding for high speed trains with a top speed of 350 km/h, as most of the main high speed rail lines were designed for top speeds of 350 km/h or higher. Along with CRH3C, produced by Siemens and CNR Tangshan, CSR Sifang bid 60 sets of CRH2C.

In 2007, travel time from Beijing to Shanghai was about 10 hours at a top speed of 200 km/h in the upgrade Beijing-Shanghai Railway. To increase transport capacity, the Ministry of Railways ordered 70 16-car trainsets from CSR Sifang and BST, including 10 sets of CRH1B and 20 sets of CRH2B seating trains, 20 sets of CRH1E and 20 sets of CRH2E sleeper trains.

Construction of the high-speed railway between Beijing and Shanghai, the world's first high speed rail with designed speed 380 km/h, began on April 18, 2008. In the same year, the Ministry of Science and the Ministry of Railway agreed to a joint action plan for the indigenous innovation of high-speed trains in China. The Railway Ministry then launched the CRH1-350 (Bombardier and BST, designated as CRH380D/DL), CRH2-350 (CSR, designated as CRH380A/AL), and CRH3-350 (CNR and Siemens, designated as CRH380B/BL & CRH380CL), to develop new generation of CRH trains with top operation speed 380 km/h. A total of 400 new generation trains were ordered. CRH380A entered service on the Shanghai-Hangzhou High-Speed Railway on October 26, 2010. The CRH380A is the first indigenous high speed train of the CRH series.

On October 19, 2010, the Ministry of Railways declared the beginning of research and development on "super-speed" railway technology, which would increase the average speed of trains to over 500 kilometers per hour.

Corruption and concerns



In February 2011, Railway Minister Liu Zhijun
Liu Zhijun
Liu Zhijun is a Chinese politician. He was the Minister of Railways in the People's Republic of China from 2003 to 2011. He was removed from the party chief of the ministry on February 12, 2011, and from office in the 11th NPC Standing Committee's 19th meeting on February 25 because of allegations...

, a key proponent of HSR expansion in China, was removed from office on charges of corruption. The Economist
The Economist
The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd. and edited in offices in the City of Westminster, London, England. Continuous publication began under founder James Wilson in September 1843...

estimates Liu accepted Y1 billion of bribes ($152 million) in connection with railway construction projects. However only 3 million Yuan has been proven so far. Investigators have found evidence that another Y187 million ($28.5 million) was misappropriated from the $33 billion Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway in 2010.
Another top official in the Railways Ministry, Zhang Shuguang
Zhang Shuguang
Zhang Shuguang born in Shanghai, whose ancestors are native of Liyang, Jiangsu, China. Graduated from Lanzhou Railway University in 1982, he was deputy chief engineer of Ministry of Railways and the deputy chief designer of the Chinese high-speed railway.He has since been sacked for corruption in...

, was also sacked for corruption according to the Economist. There has not yet been any official release on why he was removed from his position.

After the political shake-up, concerns about HSR safety, high ticket prices, financial sustainability and environmental impact received greater scrutiny in the Chinese press.
In April 2011, the new Minister of Railways Sheng Guangzu
Sheng Guangzu
Sheng Guangzu is the Party Chief and railway minister of the Ministry of Railways, replacing Liu Zhijun who is facing allegations of corruption. He was formerly the head of the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China...

 said that due to corruption, safety may have been compromised on some construction projects and completion dates may have to be pushed back. In an interview the People's Daily, Sheng announced that all trains in the high speed rail network will be operated at a maximum speed of 300 km/h (186.4 mph). This was in response to concerns over safety, low ridership due to high ticket prices, and high energy usage. On June 13, 2011, the Ministry of Railways clarified in a press conference that the speed reduction was not due to safety concerns but to offer more affordable tickets for trains at 250 km/h and increase ridership. Higher speed train travel uses greater energy and imposes more wear on expensive machinery. Railway officials chose to run faster trains at 300 km/h instead of 350 km/h to achieve closer train spacing and greater capacity utilization. Trains on the Beijing-Tianjin high-speed line and a few other inter-city lines will continue to run at a top speed of 350 km/h.
In May 2011, China's Environmental Protection Ministry
Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China , formerly State Environmental Protection Administration , is a cabinet-level ministry in the executive branch of the Chinese Government . It replaced the SEPA during the March 2008 National People's Congress sessions in...

 ordered the halting of construction and operation of two high-speed lines that failed to pass environmental impact tests. In June, the Railway Ministry maintained that high-speed rail construction is not slowing down. CRH380A trainsets on the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway can reach a top operational speed of 380 km/h (236.1 mph) but run at 300 km/h.
Under pressure from all sides, the National Audit Office (NAO) carried out an extensive investigation into the building quality of all high speed rail lines. As of March 2011, no major quality defects had been found in the system. Foreign manufacturers involved in Shanghai-Beijing high-speed link clearly stated in their contract that the maximum operational speed was 300km/h. From July 20, 2011, the frequency of train service from Jinan to Beijing and Tianjin was reduced due to low occupancy renewing concerns about the demand and profitability for high speed services. High numbers of service failures in the first month of operation drove passengers back to the existing slower rail services and air travel with airline ticket prices rising again from reduced competition.

2011 Wenzhou train accident



On July 23, 2011, two high-speed trains collided on the Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway
Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway
The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line in Zhejiang Province on the eastern coast of China. The line, also known as the Yongtaiwen Railway, is named after the three primary cities along route: Ningbo, whose abbreviated Chinese name is Yong, Taizhou...

 in Lucheng District
Lucheng District
Lucheng District is a ward of the Wenzhou urban area , in the prefecture-level city of Wenzhou . It is the central district and government seat of Wenzhou subregion and its urban area by the same name.The literal meaning of the name Lucheng is the city of deer...

 of Wenzhou
Wenzhou
Wenzhou is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. The area under its jurisdiction, which includes two satellite cities and six counties, had a population of 9,122,100 as of 2010....

, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

 Province. Several carriages derailed
Derailment
A derailment is an accident on a railway or tramway in which a rail vehicle, or part or all of a train, leaves the tracks on which it is travelling, with consequent damage and in many cases injury and/or death....

. State-run Chinese media confirmed 40 deaths, and at least 192 people were hospitalised, including 12 who were severely injured.

CPC General Secretary, Chinese President Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao is the current Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China. He has held the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the People's Republic of China since 2003, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission since 2004, succeeding Jiang...

 and Premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao is the sixth and current Premier and Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government and leading its cabinet. In his capacity as Premier, Wen is regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy...

 called for "all-out efforts to rescue passengers". It was China’s first fatal high-speed rail accident. The Minister of Railways, Sheng Guangzu, went to the scene of the accident the following day. Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao is the sixth and current Premier and Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government and leading its cabinet. In his capacity as Premier, Wen is regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy...

 laid a wreath to commemorate the victims at the accident site. The Wenzhou train accident and the lack of accountability by railway officials caused a public uproar and heightened concerns about the safety of China's high-speed rail system. Quality and safety concerns will likely have a serious impact on China's ambition to export cheap high speed train technology to other countries.

The Wenzhou train collision had an immediate and major effect on China's high-speed rail program. The Chinese government formed a commission to investigate the accident with a directive to report its findings in September 2011. On August 10, 2011, the Chinese government announced that it was suspending approvals of any new high-speed rail lines pending the outcome of the investigation. The Minister of Railways announced further cuts in the speed of Chinese high-speed trains, with the speed of the second-tier 'D' trains reduced from 250 km/h (155 mph) to 200 km/h (124 mph). The speed of the remaining 350 km/h trains between Shanghai and Hangzhou was reduced to 300 km/h as of August 28, 2011. To stimulate ridership, on
August 16, 2011 ticket prices on Chinese high-speed trains were reduced by 5 percent. From July to September, high-speed rail ridership in China fell by nearly 30 million to 151 million trips.

Current HSR expansion


China's high speed rail expansion is entirely managed, planned and financed by the government. After committing to conventional-track high speed rail in 2006, the state has embarked on an ambitious campaign to build passenger-dedicated high-speed rail lines, which accounts for a large part of the government's growing budget for rail construction. Total investment in new rail lines grew from $14 billion in 2004 to $22.7 and $26.2 billion in 2006 and 2007. In response to the global economic recession, the government accelerated the pace of HSR expansion to stimulate economic growth. Total investments in new rail lines including HSR reached $49.4 billion in 2008 and $88 billion in 2009. In all, the state plans to spend $300 billion to build a 25000 km (15,534.3 mi) HSR network by 2020.

Policy justifications


Critics both in China and abroad have questioned the necessity of having an expensive high-speed rail system in a largely developing country, where most workers cannot afford to pay a premium for faster travel. The government has justified the expensive undertaking as promoting a number of policy objectives. HSR provides fast, reliable and comfortable means of transporting large numbers of travelers in a densely populated country over long distances, which:
  • Improves economic productivity
    Productivity
    Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity is a ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it. Usually this ratio is in the form of an average, expressing the total output divided by the total input...

     and competitiveness
    Competitiveness
    Competitiveness is a comparative concept of the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and/or services in a given market...

     over the long term by increasing the transport capacity of railways and linking labor markets. Moving passengers to high speed lines frees up older railways to carry more freight, which is more profitable for railways than passengers, whose fares are subsidized.
  • Stimulates the economy in the short term as HSR construction creates jobs and drives up demand for construction, steel and cement industries during the economic downturn. Work on the Beijing-Shanghai PDL mobilized 110,000 workers.
  • Promotes the growth of urban centers
    Urbanization
    Urbanization, urbanisation or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008....

     and limits sprawl. High-speed rail links city centers, which are building subways
    Rapid transit in the People's Republic of China
    Rapid transit in the People's Republic of China encompasses a broad range of urban and suburban electric passenger rail mass transit systems including subway, light rail, tram and even maglev. Some classifications also include non-rail bus rapid transport. Several Chinese cities had urban...

    . These measures alleviate traffic congestion
    Traffic congestion
    Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction...

    .
  • Supports energy independence and environmental sustainability. Electric trains use less energy to transport people and goods on a per unit basis and can draw power from more diverse sources of energy
    Energy policy of China
    The energy policy of the People's Republic of China is a policy decided on by the Central Government with regard to energy and energy resources. The country is currently the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases according to a Dutch research agency. However, China's per capita emissions are...

     including renewables
    Renewable energy in China
    Renewable energy is helping the People's Republic of China complete its economic transformation and achieve "energy security". China rapidly has moved along the path of renewable energy development. About 17 percent of China's electricity came from renewable sources in 2007, led by the world's...

     than automobile and aircraft, which are more reliant on imported petroleum.
  • Develop an indigenous high-speed rail equipment industry. The expansion into HSR is also developing China into a leading source of high-speed rail building technology. Chinese train-makers have absorbed imported technologies quickly and localized production processes. Six years after receiving Kawasaki's license to produce Shinkansen E2, CSC Sifang can produce the CRH2A without Japanese input, and Kawasaki has ended cooperation with Sifang on high speed rail. See sub-section on Technology Exports below on the expansion of China's High-Speed Rail industry overseas.

HSR construction financing


China's high-speed rail construction projects are highly capital intensive. About 40-50% of financing is provided by the national government through lending by state owned banks
Banking in China
China's banking system has undergone significant changes in the last two decades: banks are now functioning more like banks than before. Nevertheless, China's banking industry has remained in the government's hands even though banks have gained more autonomy...

 and financial institutions
Chinese financial system
China's financial system is highly regulated and has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy...

, another 40% by the bonds issued by the Ministry of Railway (MOR) and the remaining 10-20% by provincial and local governments. The MOR, through its financing arm, the China Rail Investment Corp, issued an estimated ¥
Chinese yuan
The yuan is the base unit of a number of modern Chinese currencies. The yuan is the primary unit of account of the Renminbi.A yuán is also known colloquially as a kuài . One yuán is divided into 10 jiǎo or colloquially máo...

1 trillion (US$150 billion in 2010 dollars) in debt to finance HSR construction from 2006 to 2010, including ¥310 billion in the first 10 months of 2010. CRIC has also raised some capital through equity offerings
Initial public offering
An initial public offering or stock market launch, is the first sale of stock by a private company to the public. It can be used by either small or large companies to raise expansion capital and become publicly traded enterprises...

; in the spring of 2010, CRIC sold a 4.5 percent stake in the Beijing-Shanghai High Speed Railway to the Bank of China
Bank of China
Bank of China Limited is one of the big four state-owned commercial banks of the People's Republic of China. It was founded in 1912 by the Government of the Republic of China, to replace the Government Bank of Imperial China. It is the oldest bank in China...

 for ¥6.6 billion and a 4.537 percent stake to the public for ¥6 billion. CRIC retained 56.2 percent ownership on that line. As of 2010, the CRIC-bonds are considered to be relatively safe investments because they are backed by assets (the railways) and implicitly by the government.

The following table shows the construction cost of the HSR lines in operation.
Line Length
(km)
Designed
Speed

(km/h)
Total const. cost
(¥ billion)
Unit cost
(¥ million/km)
Ref
Qinshen PDL 404 250 15.7 38.9
Hening PDL 166 250 25 150.6
Jiaoji PDL 364 250 11 30.21
Shitai PDL 190 250 17.075 89.87
Hewu PDL 351 250 16.8 47.86
Yongtaiwen PFL 268 250 16.28 60.75
Wenfu PFL 298 250 18 60.4
Fuxia PFL 275 250 15.259 55.49
Chengguan PDL 65 250 13.3 204.62
Changjiu ICL 131 250 5.832 44.52
Changji ICL 111 250 9.6 86.49
Hainan ER ICL 308 250 20.2 65.58
Jingjin ICL 115 350 21.5 186.96
Wuguang PDL 968 350 116.6 120
Zhengxi PDL 455 350 35.31 77.6
Huning HSR 301 350 50 166.11
Huhang PDL 150 350 29.29 195.27
Jinghu HSR 1318 350 220.9 167.6


Large construction debt-loads require significant revenues from rider fares, subsidies, and/or other sources of income, such as advertising, to repay. Despite impressive ridership figures, virtually every completed line has incurred losses in its first years of operation. For example, the Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway in its two full years of operation, delivered over 41 million rides. The line cost ¥20.42 billion to build, and ¥1.8 billion per annum to operate, including ¥0.6 billion in interest payments on its ¥10 billion of loan obligations. The terms of the loans range from 5–10 years at interest rates of 6.3 to 6.8 percent. In its first year of operation from August 1, 2008 to July 31, 2009, the line carried 18.7 million riders and generated ¥1.1 billion in revenues, which resulted in a loss of ¥0.7 billion. In the second year, ridership rose to 22.3 million and revenues improved to ¥1.4 billion, which narrowed losses somewhat to below ¥0.5 billion. To break even, the line must deliver 30 million rides annually. To be able to repay principal, ridership would need to exceed 40 million. As of September 2010, daily ridership averaged 69,000 or an annual rate of 25.2 million. The line has a capacity of delivering 100 million rides annually and initial estimated repayment period of 16 years.

The Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan PDL lost ¥0.8 billion in its first year and is set to lose ¥0.9 billion in 2010. The Southeast HSR corridor lost ¥0.377 billion in its first year beginning August 2009. The Zhengzhou-Xian PDL since opening in February 2010 is expected to generate revenues of ¥0.6 billion in its first full year but must make interest payments of ¥1.1 billion. All of these losses must be covered by the operator, which is usually subsidized by local governments.

The MOR faces a debt-repayment peak in 2014. Some economists recommend further subsidies to lower fares and boost ridership and ultimately revenues. Others warn that the financing side of the existing construction and operation model is unsustainable. If the rail-backed loans cannot be fully repaid, they may be refinanced or the banks may seize ownership of the railways. To prevent that eventuality, the MOR is trying to improve management of its rapidly growing HSR holdings.

Slowdown in financing and construction


In the first half of 2011, the MOR as a whole made a profit of ¥4.29 billion and carried a total debt burden of ¥2.09 trillion, equal to about 5% of China’s GDP. Earnings from the more profitable freight lines helped to off-set losses by high-speed rail lines. As of years ending 2008, 2009 and 2010, the MOR's debt-to-asset ratio was respectively, 46.81%, 53.06% and 57.44%, and reached 58.58% by mid-year 2011. As of October 12, 2011, the MOR had issued ¥160 billion of new debt for the year. However, most rail construction projects rely on joint-financing by state banks and sharp cut-backs in lending by state banks have sharply reduced funding for existing railway projects. An investigation of 23 railway construction companies in August revealed that 70% of existing projects had been slowed or halted mainly due to shortage of funding. Affected lines include Xiamen-Shenzhen, Nanning-Guangzhou, Guiyang-Guangzhou, Shijazhuang-Wuhan, Tianjin-Baoding and Shanghai-Kunming high-speed rail lines. By October, work had halted on the construction of 10,000 km of track. As planned funding for future years is being reduced, new projects are put on hold and completion dates for existing projects, including the Tianjin-Baoding, Harbin-Jiamusi, Zhengzhou-Xuzhou and Hainan Ring (West), are being pushed back. As of October 2011, the MOR is reportedly concentrating remaining resources on fewer high-speed rail lines and shifting emphasis to more economically viable coal transporting heavy rail. To ease the credit shortage facing rail construction, the Ministry of Finance announced tax cuts to interest earned on rail construction financing bonds and the State Council ordered state banks to renew lending to rail projects.

Track Network


China's high-speed rail system project is ambitious and when the major rail lines are completed by 2020, it will become the largest, fastest, and most technologically advanced high-speed railway system in the world. China's Ministry of Railways
Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China is a member of the State Council of the People's Republic of China...

 plans to build 25000 km (15,534.3 mi) of high-speed railways with trains reaching speeds of 350 km/h. China invested $50 billion on its high-speed rail system in 2009 and the total construction cost of the high-speed rail system is $300 billion. The main operator of regular high-speed train services in the People's Republic of China is China Railway High-Speed
China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed ; ) is the high-speed rail system operated by China Railways.Hexie Hao is the designation for high-speed trains running on this rail system. At the middle of the run, all trains were marked "CRH" on the centre of the head vehicle and the side of the walls of each vehicle...

(CRH).

China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

's conventional high-speed railway network is made up of four components:
  1. upgraded pre-existing rail lines that can accommodate high-speed trains,
  2. a national grid of mostly passenger dedicated HSR lines (PDLs),
  3. other newly built conventional rail lines, mostly in western China, that can carry high-speed passenger and freight trains, and
  4. certain regional "intercity" HSR lines.

Most of the rail lines in the latter three categories are now under construction.

Upgraded railways



Following the sixth round of the "railway speed up campaign" on April 18, 2007, some 6,003 extended km of track could carry trains at speeds of up to 200 km/h. Of these, 848 km could attain 250 km/h. These include the Qinhuangdao-Shenyang (Qinshen) Passenger Railway, and sections of the Qingdao-Jinan (Jiaoji)
Jiaoji railway
The Jiaozhou–Jinan Railway or Jiaoji Railway is railway in Shandong Province, China. The railway is 440.7km in length and connects Qingdao, on the Jiaozhou Bay, and Jinan, the provincial capital of Shandong...

, Shanghai-Kunming (Hukun)
Shanghai-Kunming railway
The Shanghai-Kunming Railway or Hukun Railway , also known as the Hukun Line, is a major arterial railroad across eastern, south central and southwest China. It connects Shanghai, whose shorthand name is Hu, and Kunming. The line has a total length of 2,690 km and passes through Shanghai...

 between Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 and Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou , formerly Jianning, is a city in Hunan Province, China, southeast of Changsha beside the Xiangjiang River. It is part of the "ChangZhuTan Golden Triangle"...

, Guangzhou-Shenzhen (Guangshen), Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu)
Jinghu railway
The Beijing–Shanghai Railway or Jinghu railway is a railway line in China between Beijing and Shanghai. The line has a total length of 1,462 kilometres and connects the municipalities of Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai, as well as the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu...

, Beijing-Harbin (Jingha), Beijing-Guangzhou (Jingguang)
Jingguang Railway
The Beijing–Guangzhou Railway or Jingguang Railway is a major arterial railway in the China that connects Beijing in the north with Guangzhou in the south. This dual-track electrified line has a total length of 2,324 kilometres and spans five provinces through north, central and south China...

, Longhai between Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

 to Xuzhou
Xuzhou
Xuzhou , otherwise known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China...

, Railways. Upgrade work continues on other lines including the Wuhan-Danyang (Handan), Hunan-Guizhou (Xianggui), and Nanjing-Nantong (Ningqi) Railways.

295 stations have been built or renovated to allow high speed trains.

National high-speed rail grid (4+4)


The centerpiece of the Ministry of Railway (MOR)
Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China is a member of the State Council of the People's Republic of China...

's expansion into high-speed rail is a new national high-speed rail grid that is overlaid onto the existing railway network. According to the MOR's "Mid-to-Long Term Railway Network Plan" (revised in 2008), this grid is composed of 8 high-speed rail corridors, four running north-south and four going east-west, and has a total of 12,000 km. Most of the new lines follow the routes of existing trunk lines and are designated for passenger travel only. They are known as passenger-designated lines (PDL). Several sections of the national grid, especially along the southeast coastal corridor, were built to link cities, which had no previous rail connections. Those sections will carry a mix of passenger and freight, but are sometimes mislabeled as PDLs. High-speed trains on PDLs can generally reach 300–350 km/h. On mixed-use HSR lines, passenger train service can attain peak speeds of 200–250 km/h. This ambitious national grid project was planned to be built by 2020, but the government's stimulus has expedited time-tables considerably for many of the lines.

The Jinqin Passenger Railway (Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

-Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao is a port city in northeastern Hebei province of North China. It is about 300 km east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea....

) and Qinshen Passenger Railway (Qinhuangdao-Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

) are technically not part of the 8 main lines, but they serve to link the Beijing-Harbin PDL
Jingha Passenger Dedicated Line
The Beijing–Harbin Passenger Dedicated Line is a high-speed railway line under construction in the People's Republic of China. It is part of the CRH's system of passenger dedicated lines, connecting Beijing South Station and Harbin Station. It will be 1700 km long...

 and Beijing-Shanghai PDL, and are included in this section.

Four North-South HSR corridors and constituent lines


Operational lines are marked with green background.
Line
[corridor map]
Route Description Designed
Speed
(km/h)

Length
(km)

Construction
Start Date

Open Date
Beijing-Harbin PDL
Jingha Passenger Dedicated Line
The Beijing–Harbin Passenger Dedicated Line is a high-speed railway line under construction in the People's Republic of China. It is part of the CRH's system of passenger dedicated lines, connecting Beijing South Station and Harbin Station. It will be 1700 km long...


(Jingha Passenger Designated Line)
main HSR corridor of Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

, consisting of the Beijing-Shenyang & Harbin-Dalian PDLs and the Panjin-Yinkou spur.
350 1700 2007-08-23 postponed
Beijing-Shenyang PDL
Jingshen Passenger Railway
Beijing–Shenyang High-Speed Railway is a 705-kilometre high-speed rail line between Beijing and Shenyang in China since 2010. It is expected to be put into service by 2014. The total investment is 961.6 billion yuan. There are 16 stations along the line, and it is part of Beijing–Harbin Passenger...


(Jingshen Passenger Designated Line)
Beijing-Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

 segment of Jingha PDL, via Chengde
Chengde
Chengde , previously known as Jehol or Re He , is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, People's Republic of China, situated northeast of Beijing. It is best known as the site of the Mountain Resort, a vast imperial garden and palace formerly used by the Qing emperors as summer residence...

, Fuxin
Fuxin
-Economy:Fuxin is a mining center in an agricultural region.The city suffers from the over-mining of coal, which is low in supply while fundamental in Fuxin's economy. As the coal mines run dry, Fuxin is trying to find other industries to keep its economy going...

 and Chaoyang
350 684 postponed postponed
Harbin-Dalian PDL
(Hada Passenger Designated Line)
PDL from Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

 to Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

 via Shenyang & Changchun
Changchun
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Songliao Plain. It is administered as a sub-provincial city with a population of 7,677,089 at the 2010 census under its jurisdiction, including counties and...

350 904 2007-08-23 2011-10
Panjin-Yingkou PDL
Panying Passenger Railway
Panjin–Yingkou High-Speed Railway is a high speed rail in People's Republic of China, to transportation passenger between Panjin and Yingkou, with a total length of 89.422 kilometer and start construction on May 31, 2009. The design speed is 350 km/h. Total cost of this project is 127.86...


(Panying Passenger Designated Line)
Connects Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

 to Qinhuangdao-Shenyang HSR at Panjin
Panjin
Panjin is a prefecture-level city and a major oil-producing city in Liaoning Province, China. It is between 40°40' -41°27' in north latitude and 121°31' -122 °28' in east longitude. It has four distinct seasons, an annual average temperature of 8.6℃ and receives over 2700 hours of sunshine a year...

350 89 2009-05-31 2012
Beijing-Shanghai HSR
(Jinghu High-Speed Railway)
Main north-south high speed railway of East China
East China
East China is a geographical and a loosely-defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.Although an intangible and loosely defined concept, for administrative and governmental purposes, the region is defined by the government of the People's Republic of China to include...

, connecting Beijing, Jinan
Jinan
Jinan is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilisation and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub...

, Tai'an
Tai'an
Tai'an is a prefecture-level city in western Shandong province, People's Republic of China.Centered around Mount Tai, the city borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the north, Laiwu to the northeast, Zibo to the east, Linyi to the southeast, Liaocheng to the extreme west and Jining to the south...

, Xuzhou
Xuzhou
Xuzhou , otherwise known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China...

, Bengbu
Bengbu
Bengbu , formerly known as P'engpu and Peng-pu, is a prefecture-level city with a population of 3,164,467 at the last census in northern Anhui Province, People's Republic of China...

, Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

 & Shanghai
380 1302 2008-04-18 2011-06-30
Hefei-Bengbu PDL
Hebeng Passenger Railway
Hefei–Bengbu High-Speed Railway is a 130.67 km high-speed rail line between Hefei and Bengbu in Anhui province, China under construction since January 2009. It is expected to be put into service by 2013. The total estimated investment is 13.6 billion yuan. The design speed is 350 km/h...


(Hebeng Passenger Designated Line)
Extends Jinghu PDL from Bengbu
Bengbu
Bengbu , formerly known as P'engpu and Peng-pu, is a prefecture-level city with a population of 3,164,467 at the last census in northern Anhui Province, People's Republic of China...

 to Hefei
Hefei
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

350 131 2008-01-08 2011–12
Beijing-Guangzhou PDL
(Jinggang Passenger Designated Line)
Main north-south high speed rail corridor through North
North China
thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

 and Central China, consisting of four segments between Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Wuhan, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong.
200-
350
2229 2005-09-01 2012
Beijing-Shijiazhuang PDL
Jingshi Passenger Railway
Beijing–Shijiazhuang High-Speed Railway is a 281-kilometre high-speed rail line between Beijing and Shijiazhuang in China under construction since October 2008. It is expected to be put into service by 2012. The total investment is 43.87 billion yuan. The design speed is 350 km/h, and will cut the...


(Jingshi Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Beijing to Shijiazhuang 350 281 2008-10-08 2012-10-01
Shijiazhuang-Wuhan PDL
Shiwu Passenger Railway
Shiwu Passenger Railway is a 840 km high-speed rail line between Shijiazhuang and Wuhan in China under construction since October 2008. It is expected to be put into service by 2012. The total investment is 116.76 billion yuan. The design speed is 350 km/h...


(Shiwu Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about south of Beijing...

 to Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

 via Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

350 838 2008-10-15 2012-10-01
Wuhan-Guangzhou PDL
(Wuguang Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

 to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

 via Changsha
350 968 2005-09-01 2009-12-26
Southeast Coast HSR Corridor HSR linking coastal cities from Shanghai to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 to Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

, built in five segments, with plans for a rail bridge linking Shanghai and Ningbo
Ningbo
Ningbo is a seaport city of northeastern Zhejiang province, Eastern China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, the municipality has a population of 7,605,700 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 3,089,180 in the built up area made of 6 urban districts. It lies south of the Hangzhou Bay,...

 across the Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay, or the Bay of Hangzhou , is an inlet of the East China Sea, bordered by the province of Zhejiang and the municipality of Shanghai. The Qiantang River flows into the bay.It lies south of Shanghai, and ends at the city of Hangzhou...

 by 2020.
200-
350
1450 2005-08-01 2011
Hangzhou-Ningbo PDL
Hangyong Passenger Railway
Hangyong Passenger Railway is a planned railway between Hangzhou and Ningbo, that spans approximately 150 kilometers, with a design speed of . It is currently under construction, and is scheduled to open in December 2011....


(Hangyong Passenger Designated Line)
High-speed PDL from Hangzhou to Ningbo
Ningbo
Ningbo is a seaport city of northeastern Zhejiang province, Eastern China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, the municipality has a population of 7,605,700 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 3,089,180 in the built up area made of 6 urban districts. It lies south of the Hangzhou Bay,...

350 152 2009-04 2011–12
Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway
Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway
The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line in Zhejiang Province on the eastern coast of China. The line, also known as the Yongtaiwen Railway, is named after the three primary cities along route: Ningbo, whose abbreviated Chinese name is Yong, Taizhou...


(Yongtaiwen Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Zhejiang Province. 250 268 2005-10-27 2009-09-28
Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway
Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway
The Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line on the eastern coast of China. The line, also known as the Wenfu Railway, is named after its two terminal cities Wenzhou in Zhejiang Province and Fuzhou in Fujian Province. The line has a total length of 298.4...


(Wenfu Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line from Wenzhou
Wenzhou
Wenzhou is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. The area under its jurisdiction, which includes two satellite cities and six counties, had a population of 9,122,100 as of 2010....

 to Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

.
250 298 2005-01-08 2009-09-28
Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway
Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway
The Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line in eastern China. The line, also known as the Fuxia Railway, is named after its two terminal cities Fuzhou and Xiamen, both coastal cities in Fujian Province. The line has a total length of 274.9 kilometres and forms...


(Fuxia Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Fujian Province from Fuzhou to Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiamen , also known as Amoy , is a major city on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province with an area of and population of 3.53 million...

 via Putian
Putian
Putian is a prefecture-level city in eastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders Fuzhou City to the north, Quanzhou City to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east.-Administration:...

 & Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Quanzhou is a prefecture-level city in Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders all other prefecture-level cities in Fujian but two and faces the Taiwan Strait...

.
250 275 2005-10-01 2010-04-26
Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway
Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway
The Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line under construction on the southern coast of China. The line, also known as the Xiashen Railway, is named after its two terminal cities Xiamen in Fujian Province and Shenzhen, next to Hong Kong, in Guangdong Province...


(Xiashen Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR line along the coast of Fujian and Guangdong via Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. Located on the banks of the Jiulong River , Zhangzhou borders the cities of Xiamen and Quanzhou to the northeast, Longyan City to the northwest and the province of Guangdong to the southwest.Zhangzhou...

, Shantou
Shantou
Shantou , historically known as Swatow or Suátao, is a prefecture-level city on the eastern coast of Guangdong province, People's Republic of China, with a total population of 5,391,028 as of 2010 and an administrative area of...

 & Huizhou
Huizhou
Huizhou , historically known as Waichow, is a city located in central Guangdong province of the People's Republic of China. Part of the Pearl River Delta, Huizhou borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the west, Shaoguan to the north, Heyuan to the northeast, Shanwei to the east, Shenzhen...

.
250 502 2007-11-23 late 2012

Four East-West HSR corridors and constituent lines


Operational lines are marked with green background.
Line
[corridor map]
Route Description Designed
Speed
(km/h)

Length
(km)

Construction
Start Date

Open Date
Qingdao-Taiyuan PDL
(Qingtai Passenger Designated Line)
HSR across North China
North China
thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

 consisting of three segments connecting Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang, Jinan and Qingdao.
250 873 2005-06-01 2012
Qingdao-Jinan PDL
(Jiaoji Line)
PDL connecting Qingdao and Jinan 250 364 2007-01-28 2008-12-20
Shijiazhuang-Jinan PDL
Shiji Passenger Railway
The Shiji Passenger Railway is a high speed railway in China, running between Shijiazhuang-Jinan at 250 km/h....


(Shiji Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shijiazhuang & Jinan via Dezhou
Dezhou
Dezhou is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the southeast, Liaocheng to the southwest, Binzhou to the northeast, and the province of Hebei to the north....

250 319 postponed postponed
Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan PDL
(Shitai Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shijiazhuang & Taiyuan. 250 190 2005-06-11 2009-04-01
Xuzhou-Lanzhou PDL
(Xulan Passenger Designated Line)
HSR across the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

 Valley of central China, consisting of four segments connecting Xuzhou
Xuzhou
Xuzhou , otherwise known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China...

, Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

, Xian, Baoji
Baoji
Baoji is a prefecture-level city in Shaanxi province, China.-Geography:The prefecture-level city of Baoji has a population of 3,716,731 according to the 2010 Chinese census, inhabiting an area of . The city itself has a population of approximately 800,000. Surrounded on three sides by hills,...

 and Lanzhou
Lanzhou
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China. A prefecture-level city, it is a key regional transportation hub, allowing areas further west to maintain railroad connections to the eastern half of the country....

.
350 1363 2005-06-01
Zhengzhou-Xuzhou PDL
(Zhengxu Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Xuzhou & Zhengzhou 350 357 2010 2013
Zhengzhou-Xian PDL
Zhengxi Passenger Railway
The Zhengzhou–Xi'an High Speed Railway, also known as the Zhengxi Passenger Line , is a high-speed railway line connecting the cities of Zhengzhou and Xi'an, in the People's Republic of China...


(Zhengxi Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Zhengzhou & Xian 350 455 2005-09-01 2010-02-06
Xian-Baoji PDL
(Xibao Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Xian & Baoji 350 148 2009-11-22 2012
Baoji-Lanzhou PDL
(Baolan Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Baoji & Lanzhou 350 403 planning planning
Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu HSR Corridor
Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line
Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line , is a partially completed high-speed railway corridor in People's Republic of China. The chinese name of the railway line, Huhanrong, is a combination of the abbreviations for Shanghai , Wuhan , and Chengdu , three major cities along the line.The...


(Huhanrong High-Speed Rail Corridor)
HSR corridor through the Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 Valley, consisting of the Shanghai-Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

 section of the Beijing-Shanghai PDL, and 7 mixed-use HSR segments connecting Nanjing, Hefei
Hefei
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

, Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

, Yichang
Yichang
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in Hubei province after the province capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.-History:In ancient times Yichang...

, Lichuan, Chongqing, Suining
Suining
-Places of Interest:Suining is a booming city with a wide range of roles, not just limit to the Excellent Tourism City of China, but also include the Finance and Ecological City of China,the National Landscape City,and the National Hygiene City,etc.According to the local legend, Suining is the...

 & Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

.
200-
350
2078 2003-12-01 2012
Hefei-Nanjing HSR
(Hening HSR)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Nanjing & Hefei 250 166 2005-06-11 2008-04-19
Hefei-Wuhan Railway
(Hewu Passenger Designated Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Hefei & Wuhan 250 351 2005-08-01 2009-04-01
Hankou-Yichang Railway
(Hanyi Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Wuhan & Yichang 250 293 2008-09-17 2012-01-01
Yichang-Wanzhou Railway
(Yiwan Railway, Yichang-Lichuan section)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Yichang & Lichuan 200 377 2003-12-01 2010-12-23
Chongqing-Lichuan Railway
(Yuli Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Lichuan & Chongqing 200 264 2008-12-29 2012
Suining-Chongqing Railway*
(Suiyu Line)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Chongqing & Suining 200 132 2009-01-18 2012–01
Dazhou-Chengdu Railway*
(Dacheng Railway, Suining-Chengdu section)
Mixed passenger & freight HSR connecting Suining & Chengdu. 200 148 2005-05 2009-06-30
Shanghai-Kunming PDL
(Shanghai-Kunming Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting East
East China
East China is a geographical and a loosely-defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.Although an intangible and loosely defined concept, for administrative and governmental purposes, the region is defined by the government of the People's Republic of China to include...

, Central and Southwest China
Southwest China
Southwest China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the municipality of Chongqing, the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou, and the Tibet Autonomous Region.-Provinces:-Municipalities:...

. It consists of three sections connecting Shanghai, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

, Changsha and Kunming
Kunming
' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

.
350 2066 2008-12-28 2013-06-30
Shanghai-Hangzhou PDL
Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway
The Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway , also known as the Huhang High-Speed Railway or Huhang Passenger Railway is a high-speed rail line in China between Shanghai and Hangzhou. The line is in length and designed for commercial train service at . It was built in 20 months and opened on October...


(Huhang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Shanghai Hongqiao
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station
Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai Railway Station, Shanghai South Railway Station, and Shanghai West Railway Station...

 & Hangzhou East
Hangzhou East Railway Station
Hangzhou East Railway Station is a railway station of Hukun Railway located in Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.-History:The station opened in 1992.Since 2010, the station is the terminal of the Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway.- See also :...

.
350 150 2009-02-26 2010-10-26
Hangzhou-Changsha PDL
(Hangchang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 & Changsha.
350 926 2009-12-22 2013-06-30
Changsha-Kunming PDL
(Changkun Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Changsha & Kunming
Kunming
' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

350 1175 2010-03-26 2013-06-30

Other high-speed rail lines


According to the "Mid-to-Long Term Railway Network Plan" (revised in 2008), the MOR plans to build over 40,000 km of railway in order to expand the railway network in western China and to fill gaps in the networks of eastern and central China. Some of these new railways are being built to accommodate speeds of 200~250 km/h for both passengers and freight. These are also considered high-speed rail though they are not part of the national PDL grid or Intercity High Speed Rail.

Other high speed passenger designated railways
Operational lines are marked with green background.
Line
[corridor map]
Route Description Designed
Speed
(km/h)

Length
(km)

Construction
Start Date

Open Date
Guangzhou-Hong Kong PDL
Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link
The Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link Hong Kong Section is a proposed high speed railway connecting Kowloon with the high-speed rail network of China at Shenzhen...

(Jinggang Passenger Designated Line)
Main HSR corridor on east side of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
The Pearl River Delta , Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao in Guangdong province, People's Republic of China is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea...

, consisting of two segments between Guangzhou and Hong Kong.
200-
350
142 2008-08-20 2016
Guangshengang XRL
Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link
The Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link Hong Kong Section is a proposed high speed railway connecting Kowloon with the high-speed rail network of China at Shenzhen...


(Mainland Section)
HSR from Guangzhou to Shenzhen 350 116 2008-08-20 2011-12
Guangshengang XRL
(Hong Kong Section)
HSR from Shenzhen to Hong Kong 200 26 2010 2016
Tianjin-Shenyang PDL
(Jinshen Passenger Designated Line)
Originally part of the Jingha PDL. An important linkage between Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

 and Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

 through Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao is a port city in northeastern Hebei province of North China. It is about 300 km east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea....

.
250 665 1999 2012
Tianjin-Qinhuangdao PDL
(Jinqin Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

 & Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao is a port city in northeastern Hebei province of North China. It is about 300 km east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea....

.
350 261 2008 2012
Qinhuangdao-Shenyang PDL
(Qinshen Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao is a port city in northeastern Hebei province of North China. It is about 300 km east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea....

 & Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

.
250 404 1999 2003-07-01
Chengdu-Guangzhou PDL (Chengguang Passenger Designated Line) HSR from the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
The Pearl River Delta , Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao in Guangdong province, People's Republic of China is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea...

 to the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan basin
The Sichuan Basin is a lowland region in southwestern China. Despite its historical name, it is not only synonymous to Sichuan province, comprising its central and eastern portions as well as part of Chongqing Municipality...

 via Guiyang
Guiyang
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the centre of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters...

 & Guilin
Guilin
Guilin is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of far southern China, sitting on the west bank of the Li River. Its name means "forest of Sweet Osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant Sweet Osmanthus trees located in the city...

.
300–350 1376 2008-10-13 2014
Chengdu-Guiyang PDL
(Chenggui Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 & Guiyang
Guiyang
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the centre of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters...

 via Leshan
Leshan
-Administrative divisions:-Transport:There is a passenger rail line that serves the Mianyang–Chengdu–Leshan inter-city area.The Chengdu-Leshan Highway with a total length of 160 kilometers, was finished on January 14th, 2000...

, Yibin
Yibin
-Administrative divisions:-Economy:The city's industry focuses on electronics, food products, and power generation. It also produces paper, silk, and leather products...

 & Bijie
Bijie City
Qixingguan District is the seat of the city of Bijie, Guizhou province, People's Republic of China. The total area of the district is , and the total population 1,275,300....

.
350 519 2010 2014
Guiyang-Guangzhou PDL
(Guiguang Passenger Designated Line)
PDL connecting Guiyang
Guiyang
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the centre of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters...

 & Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

.
300 857 2008-10-13 2014
Lanzhou-Xinjiang PDL
Lanxin High-Speed Railway
The Lanzhou–Urumqi High-Speed Railway, also known as Lanxin Second Railway, is a high-speed rail under construction in northwestern China. It will connect Lanzhou in Gansu Province and Ürümqi in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region....


(Lanxin Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Lanzhou
Lanzhou
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China. A prefecture-level city, it is a key regional transportation hub, allowing areas further west to maintain railroad connections to the eastern half of the country....

 to Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Ürümqi , formerly Tihwa , is the capital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, in the northwest of the country....

 via Xining
Xining
Xining is the capital of Qinghai province, People's Republic of China, and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. It has 2,208,708 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 1,198,304 live in the built up area made of 4 urban districts.-History:...

 & Zhangye
Zhangye
-Administration:Zhangye has 1 urban district, 4 counties, 1 autonomous county, 97 towns, and 977 villages.-Demographics:Zhangye has a total population of 1,260,000, only 260,000 being urban residents...

, Jiuquan
Jiuquan
- Suzhou town :The administrative center of the "prefecture-level city" of Jiuquan is the "District" of Suzhou , which occupies 3,386 square km in the eastern part of Jiuquan "prefecture-level city", and had a population of 340,000 as of 2002....

, Jiayuguan, Hami & Turpan
300 1776 2010 2014
Hefei-Fuzhou PDL
Hefei-Fuzhou Passenger Designated Railway Line
Hefei–Fuzhou High-Speed Railway , is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line, under construction in eastern China. The line is named after its two terminal cities, Hefei and Fuzhou. It has a total length of 806 kilometres and runs through Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian...


(Hefu Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from the Hefei
Hefei
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

 to Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

 via Huangshan, Shangrao
Shangrao
Shangrao is a medium-sized prefecture-level city located in the northeast of China's Jiangxi province. According to the 2010 Census, Shangrao has a population of 6,579,714 inhabitants....

 & Wuyishan.
250 806 2010-04-27 2014
Datong-Xian PDL
Datong-Xian Passenger Dedicated Railway Line
Datong-Xian Passenger Dedicated Railway Line or Daxi PDL is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line, planned for construction in central China between Datong and Xian. It will run 859 km through Shanxi and Shaanxi Province and will accommodate trains traveling at speeds up to 250km/h...


(Daxi Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Datong
Datong
Datong is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi Province of North China, located a few hundred kilometres west by rail from Beijing with an elevation of...

 to Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

 via Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China. At the 2010 census, it had a total population of 4,201,591 inhabitants on 6959 km² whom 3,212,500 are urban on 1,460 km². The name of the city literally means "Great Plains", referring to the location where the Fen River...

.
250 859 2009-12-03 2013
Xian-Chengdu HSR
(Xicheng High-Speed Railway)
HSR from Xian to Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 via Hanzhong
Hanzhong
Hanzhong is a municipality in southwest Shaanxi Province, China, occupying a historically significant valley in the mountains between the Xi'an area, home to many Chinese capitals, and the fertile but isolated Sichuan Basin...

 and Guangyuan
Guangyuan
Guangyuan is a prefecture-level city in Sichuan Province, China. It has an area of 16313.78 square kilometers and a population of 2,484,123 in 2010...

.
250 510 2010 2015
Shangqiu-Hangzhou PDL
(Shanghang Passenger Designated Line)
HSR from Shangqiu
Shangqiu
Shangqiu is a city in eastern Henan province, Central China. It borders Kaifeng to the northwest, Zhoukou to the southwest, and the provinces of Shandong and Anhui to the northeast and southeast respectively. An ancient city with a rich history, Shangqiu was also the first capital of the Shang...

 to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 via Fuyang
Fuyang
Fuyang may refer to:*Fuyang, Anhui , prefecture-level city in Anhui, China** the Fuyang meteorite of 1977, which fell in Anhui, China *Fuyang, Zhejiang , county-level city in Zhejiang, China...

 Hefei
Hefei
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

 & Wuhu
Wuhu
Wuhu is a prefecture-level city in the southeastern Anhui province, People's Republic of China. Sitting on the southeast bank of the Yangtze River, Wuhu borders Xuancheng to the southeast, Chizhou and Tongling to the southwest, Chaohu to the northwest, Ma'anshan to the northeast, and the...

.
350 770 2010?
Yunnan-Guangxi HSR
(Yungui High-speed railway)
HSR from Nanning
Nanning
Nanning is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush tropical foliage.-History:...

 to Kunming
Kunming
' is the capital and largest city of Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was known as Yunnan-Fou until the 1920s. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, communications and cultural centre of Yunnan, and is the seat of the provincial government...

 via Bose.
200–250 710 2010-12-27 2016
Tianjin-Baoding HSR
(Jinbao High-speed railway)
HSR from Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

 to Baoding
Baoding
-Administrative divisions:Baoding prefecture-level city consists of 3 municipal districts, 4 county-level cities, 18 counties:-Demographics:The Baoding urban area has a population of around 1,006,000 . The population of the Baoding administrative area is 10,890,000. The considerable majority are...

 via Bazhou & Baiyangdian.
250 158 2011-03-18 2013
Nanjing–Hangzhou HSR
(Ninghang High-Speed Railway)
HSR from Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

 to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 via Liyang
Liyang
Liyang is a city in the southwest of Jiangsu province of Eastern China. It is administratively a county-level city under the administration of Changzhou City, and in 1999 had a population of 781,430.-Administration:...

, Yixing
Yixing
Yixing is a county-level city in Jiangsu province, in eastern China with a population of 1.3 million. It is well-known for its Yixing clay and the pottery -- especially the "zisha"-style teapots -- made from the clay...

 and Huzhou
Huzhou
Huzhou is a prefecture-level city in northern Zhejiang province of Eastern China. Lying south of the Lake Tai, it borders Jiaxing to the east, Hangzhou to the south, and the provinces of Anhui and Jiangsu to the west and north respectively.-Administration:...

.
350 249 2008-12-27 2011-12-31

Class I high speed railways
Lines Length (km) Design Speed (km/h) Construction Start Date Open Date
Longyan-Xiamen Railway 171 200 2006-12-25 2012
Xiangtang (Nanchang
Nanchang
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

)-Putian
Putian
Putian is a prefecture-level city in eastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders Fuzhou City to the north, Quanzhou City to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east.-Administration:...

 (Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

) Railway
604 250 2007-11-23 2011
Nanping
Nanping
Nanping is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders Ningde City to the east, Sanming City to the south, and the provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi to the north and west respectively...

-Sanming
Sanming
Sanming ) is a prefecture-level city in western Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders Nanping City to the north, Fuzhou City to the east, Quanzhou City to the southeast, Longyan City to the south, and the province of Jiangxi to the west...

-Longyan
Longyan
Longyan is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Fujian province, China.-Geography:It is situated in the upper reaches of the Jiulong and Tingjiang rivers...

 Railway
247 250 2010-12-25 2014
Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

-Nanning
Nanning
Nanning is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush tropical foliage.-History:...

 Railway
577 250 2008-09-11 2013


Under planning
  • Guangzhou
    Guangzhou
    Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

    -Zhanjiang
    Zhanjiang
    Zhanjiang , formerly known as Tsamkong, Tsankiang, Fort-Bayard, and Kwang-Chou-Wan, is a prefecture-level city at the southwestern end of Guangdong province of Southern China, facing the island of Hainan to the south....

     HSR

Intercity high-speed rail


Intercity railways are designed to provide regional high-speed rail service between large cities and metropolitan areas that are generally within the same province. Intercity HSR service speeds range from 200 to 350 km/h.

Construction schedule
Operational lines are marked with green background.
Line Length
(km)
Design Speed
(km/h)
Construction Start Date
YYYY-MM-DD
Open Date
YYYY-MM-DD
Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Rail 115 350 2005-04-07 2008-08-01
Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway
Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway
The Chengdu-Dujiangyan High Speed Railway is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line in Sichuan Province, China. It connects the provincial capital, Chengdu with the satellite city of Dujiangyan in Guan County. The line is in length with 15 stations. China Railways...

65 220 2008-11-04 2010-05-12
Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway
Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway
The Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity High-Speed Railway or Huning Intercity High-Speed Railway is a long high-speed rail line between Shanghai and Nanjing in the People's Republic of China. Hu and Ning are, respectively, shorthand Chinese names for Shanghai and Nanjing...

301 350 2008-07-01 2010-07-01
Nanchang-Jiujiang Intercity Rail 131 250 2007-06-28 2010-09-20
Hainan East Ring Intercity Rail
Hainan East Ring Intercity Rail
The Hainan Eastern Ring Railway is a high speed railway on Hainan Island, China. Opened in December 2010, the railway links the capital Haikou at the northern end of the province to Sanya, a growing tourist city at the southernmost region of Hainan.-History:...

308 250 2007-09-29 2010-12-30
Changchun-Jilin Intercity Rail 111 250 2007-05-13 2010-12-30
Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit
Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit
Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Railway or Guangzhu Intercity Railway is a dedicated, grade-separated passenger railway linking New Guangzhou Station in Panyu, Guangzhou, and Zhuhai Airport in Zhuhai, via Shunde, Zhongshan and Jiangmen, in Guangdong, China.- Overview :The railway has partly started...

117 200 2005-12-18 2011-01-07
Nanjing-Anqing Intercity Rail 257 250 2008-12-28 2012-06
Nanjing–Hangzhou Intercity Rail
Nanjing–Hangzhou Intercity Railway
The Nanjing–Hangzhou Intercity Railway or Ninghang Intercity Railway is a high-speed rail, passenger-dedicated line under construction in eastern China between Nanjing and Hangzhou, the capitals of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, respectively...

251 350 2008-12-28 2012-12-28
Jiangyou-Mianyang-Chengdu-Leshan Intercity Rail 319 200 2008-12-30 2012-12-30
Wuhan Megalopolis Intercity Rail
Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

-Xiaogan
Xiaogan
Xiaogan is a prefecture-level city in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. Its population is 5,060,000 residents.-Subdivisions:*Xiaonan District *Yingcheng City *Anlu City *Hanchuan City *Xiaochang County...

, Huangshi
Huangshi
Huangshi is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province.-Geography and climate:The prefecture-level city of Huangshi is located in southeastern Hubei province, along the southwestern bank of one of the major bends in the Yangtze River. It is located 100 km south-east of Wuhan, and...

, Xianning
Xianning
Xianning is a prefecture-level city in China's Hubei province. It is known as the "City of Osmanthus".-Geography and climate:Xianning is located in southeastern Hubei province, just south of Wuhan, between the southern bank of the Yangtze River in the north and the Mufu Mountains in the south. It...

 and Huanggang)
160 200 2009-03-22 2011-10-01, 2013
Beijing-Tangshan Intercity Rail 160 350 2009 2012
Tianjin-Baoding Intercity Rail 145 250 2009 2012
Qingdao-Rongcheng Intercity Rail 299 250 2009-11-30 2012-12
Harbin-Qiqihar Intercity Rail 286 250 2008-11-25 2011
Beijing-Zhangjiakou Intercity Rail 174 200 2009 2014
Chongqing-Wanzhou Intercity Rail 250 350 2009 2013
Shenyang-Dandong Intercity Rail 208 350 2009 2013-9
Chengdu-Chongqing Intercity Rail
Chengdu–Chongqing High-Speed Railway
The Chengdu–Chongqing High-Speed Railway is a long high-speed railway that will connect the cities of Chengdu and Chongqing in southwestern China, with a planned maximum speed of 350 km/h...

305 300 2009 2014
Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Intercity Rail 95.5 200 2010-07-02 2014-07-02
Hangzhou-Huangshan High Speed Railway
Hangzhou-Huangshan High Speed Railway
Hangzhou-Huangshan High-Speed Railway or Hanghuang HSR is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line, planned for construction in eastern China between Hangzhou and Huangshan. It will run 262km through Zhejiang and southern Anhui province and will accommodate trains traveling at speeds up...

262 250 2010-xx-xx 2013-xx-xx

Service


China Railways
China Railways
China Railways is the national railway operator of the People's Republic of China, under the Chinese Ministry of Railways.China Railways operates rail commuter and freight transport via several smaller companies....

, the MOR's national rail service operator, provides high speed train service called China Railway High-speed (CRH) (中国铁路高速)
China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed ; ) is the high-speed rail system operated by China Railways.Hexie Hao is the designation for high-speed trains running on this rail system. At the middle of the run, all trains were marked "CRH" on the centre of the head vehicle and the side of the walls of each vehicle...

 on upgraded conventional rail lines, national high speed railways and intercity high-speed lines. The CRH's high speed trains are also called "Harmony Express." In October 2010, CRH service more than 1,000 trains per day, with a daily ridership of about 925,000. as of January, 2011, a total of 495 CRH trainsets were put in to use.

Ridership

Annual Ridership figures (in mlns of passengers)
2007 2008 2009 2010
Ridership of CRH service 61.21 127.73 179.58 290.54

CRH service on upgraded conventional lines



As of September 2010, there are 2,876 km of upgraded conventional railways in China that can accommodate trains running speeds of 200 to 250 km/h. Over time with the completion of the national high-speed passenger-dedicated rail network, more CRH service will shift from these lines to the high-speed dedicated lines.

A. Intercity service (typically, listed in schedules as C-series or D-series trains):
  • Beijing – Beidaihe
    Beidaihe
    Beidaihe District is a district in Qinhuangdao municipality, Hebei province on the coast of the Bohai Sea in North China. It has an area of 70.14 square kilometers and a population of 66,000. is also known as a birding haven. The Beidaihe Beach Resort stretches 10 km from east to west, from...

    , Qinhuangdao
    Qinhuangdao
    Qinhuangdao is a port city in northeastern Hebei province of North China. It is about 300 km east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea....

  • Beijing – Tianjin
    Tianjin
    ' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

    , Tanggu
  • Beijing – Shijiazhuang
    Shijiazhuang
    Shijiazhuang is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about south of Beijing...

    , Taiyuan
    Taiyuan
    Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China. At the 2010 census, it had a total population of 4,201,591 inhabitants on 6959 km² whom 3,212,500 are urban on 1,460 km². The name of the city literally means "Great Plains", referring to the location where the Fen River...

  • Shanghai – Kunshan
    Kunshan
    Kunshan is a satellite city in the greater Suzhou region. Administratively, it is a county-level city within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou. It is located in southeastearn part of Jiangsu Province, China, adjacent to Jiangsu's border with the Shanghai Municipality.The total area of ​​Kunshan...

    , Suzhou
    Suzhou
    Suzhou , previously transliterated as Su-chou, Suchow, and Soochow, is a major city located in the southeast of Jiangsu Province in Eastern China, located adjacent to Shanghai Municipality. The city is situated on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Taihu Lake and is a part...

    , Wuxi
    Wuxi
    Wuxi is an old city in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. Split in half by Lake Tai, Wuxi borders Changzhou to the west and Suzhou to the east. The northern half looks across to Taizhou across the Yangtze River, while the southern half also borders the province of Zhejiang to the south...

    , Changzhou
    Changzhou
    Changzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China. It was previously known as Yanling, Lanling, Jinling, and Wujin. Located on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, Changzhou borders the provincial capital of Nanjing to the west, Zhenjiang to the...

    , Nanjing
    Nanjing
    ' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

    , Hefei
    Hefei
    Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

    , Xuzhou
    Xuzhou
    Xuzhou , otherwise known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China...

  • Shanghai – Hangzhou
    Hangzhou
    Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

    , Yiwu
    Yiwu
    Yiwu is a city of about 1.2 million people in central Zhejiang Province near the central eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. The city is famous for its small commodity trade and vibrant free markets and is a regional tourist destination...

    , Jinhua
    Jinhua
    Jinhua is a prefecture-level city in central Zhejiang province of Eastern China. It borders the provincial capital of Hangzhou to the northwest, Quzhou to the southwest, Lishui to the south, Taizhou to the east, and Shaoxing to the northeast....

    , Quzhou
    Quzhou
    Quzhou is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Zhejiang province, China. Sitting on the upper course of the Qiantang River, it borders Hangzhou to the north, Jinhua to the east, Lishui to the southeast, and the provinces of Fujian, Jiangxi and Anhui to the south the south, southwest and...

  • Nanjing
    Nanjing
    ' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

     – Hangzhou
    Hangzhou
    Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

  • Guangzhou
    Guangzhou
    Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

     – Shenzhen
    Shenzhen
    Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

  • Wuhan
    Wuhan
    Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

     – Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

    , Changsha
  • Changsha – Nanchang
    Nanchang
    Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

  • Xi'an
    Xi'an
    Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

     – Baoji
    Baoji
    Baoji is a prefecture-level city in Shaanxi province, China.-Geography:The prefecture-level city of Baoji has a population of 3,716,731 according to the 2010 Chinese census, inhabiting an area of . The city itself has a population of approximately 800,000. Surrounded on three sides by hills,...


B. Long-haul service (typically, listed in schedules as G-series or D-series trains):
  • Beijing – Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

    , Changchun
    Changchun
    Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Songliao Plain. It is administered as a sub-provincial city with a population of 7,677,089 at the 2010 census under its jurisdiction, including counties and...

    , Harbin
    Harbin
    Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

  • Beijing – Jinan
    Jinan
    Jinan is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilisation and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub...

    , Qingdao
    Qingdao
    ' also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the...

    , Shanghai
  • Beijing – Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

    , Wuhan
    Wuhan
    Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

  • Shanghai – Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

    , Qingdao
    Qingdao
    ' also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the...

    , Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

  • Shanghai – Nanchang
    Nanchang
    Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

  • Wuhan
    Wuhan
    Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers...

     – Changsha – Guangzhou
    Guangzhou
    Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...



The table belows lists the upgraded conventional railways that run 10 or more CRH high speed trains per day.
Route Railway distance Trains per day
(aggregation of both direction)
Trains in service
Guangzhou-Shenzhen Guangshen line 147 km 220 CRH1A
Ningbo-Hangzhou Hangning line 149 km 50 CRH1A/B/E CRH2A/B/E
Beijing-Shijiazhuang Jingguang line 277 km 46 CRH2A CRH5A
Beijing-Shenyang Jingha line 703 km 24 CRH5A
Beijing-Jinan Jinghu line 495 km 22 CRH2A CRH5A
Chongqing-Chengdu Chengyu line & Dacheng line 315 km 22 CRH1A
Beijing-Shanghai Jinghu line 1454 km 18 CRH1E CRH2E
Wuhan-Nanchang Wujiu line & Changjiu PDL 337 km 16 CRH2A
Shijiazhuang-Zhengzhou Jingguang line 412 km 14 CRH2A

CRH service on high speed lines


The following table lists the frequency of CRH service on 14 HSR lines (as of February, 2011). In some cases, CRH trains must still share the HSR lines with slower, non-high speed trains, which are not listed in the table. Note China's first HSR, the Qinshen PDL service as part of the Jingha Railway.
Line
(route)
Length
(main line)
Travel time
(By fastest train)
Trains per day
(aggregation of both direction)
Designed speed Trains in service
Jinghu HSR
(Beijing-Shanghai)
1318 km 4h 48m 180 380 km/h
Opening speed 310 km/h
CRH380A/AL CRH380BL CRH2E CRH1E CRH5
Wuguang PDL
(Wuhan-Changsha-Guangzhou)
968 km 3h 33m 216 350 km/h CRH2C CRH3C CRH380A/AL
Huhang PDL
(Shanghai-Hangzhou)
169 km (Shanghai Hongqiao – Hangzhou) 45min 168 350 km/h CRH1A/B/E CRH2A/B/C/E
CRH3C CRH380A/AL CRH380BL
Huning PDL
(Shanghai-Nanjing)
296 km (Shanghai Hongqiao – Nanjing) 1h 13min 238 350 km/h CRH1A/B CRH2A/B/C
CRH3C CRH380A/AL CRH380BL
Jingjin ICL
(Beijing-Tianjin)
117 km 30min 200 350 km/h CRH3C
Zhengxi PDL
(Zhengzhou-Xi'an)
456 km 1h 50min 28 350 km/h CRH2C
Yongtaiwen PFL
(Ningbo-Taizhou-Wenzhou)
268 km 1h 13min 64 250 km/h CRH1B/E CRH2A/B/E
Wenfu PFL
(Wenzhou-Fuzhou)
298 km 1h 23min 42 250 km/h CRH1A/B/E CRH2A/B/E
Shitai PDL
(Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan)
190 km (Shijiazhuang North–Taiyuan) 1h 6min 26 250 km/h CRH5A
Fuxia PFL
(Fuzhou-Xiamen)
275 km 1h 21min 118 250 km/h CRH1A/B/E CRH2A/E
Changjiu ICL
(Nanchang-Jiujiang)
135 km 45min 42 250 km/h CRH1A CRH2A
Hewu PFL
(Hefei-Wuhan)
351 km 1h 58min 38 250 km/h CRH1A/B CRH2A/B
Jiaoji PDL
(Qingdao-Jinan)
362 km 2h 13min 42 250 km/h CRH2A CRH5A
Hening PFL
(Hefei-Nanjing)
156 km 54min 12 250 km/h CRH1A/B CRH2A/B
Chengguan PDL
(Chengdu-Guanxian)
67 km 30min 36 250 km/h CRH1A
Changji ICL
(Changchun-Jilin)
111 km 34min 50 250 km/h CRH5A
Hainan ER ICL
(Haikou-Sanya)
308 km 1h 22min 44 250 km/h CRH1A
Guangzhu MRT
(Guangzhou-Zhuhai main line)
93 km 45min 76 200 km/h CRH1A
Guangzhu MRT
(Guangzhou-Xinhui branch line)
72 km 45min 46 200 km/h CRH1A

Rolling stock


China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed ; ) is the high-speed rail system operated by China Railways.Hexie Hao is the designation for high-speed trains running on this rail system. At the middle of the run, all trains were marked "CRH" on the centre of the head vehicle and the side of the walls of each vehicle...

 runs different electric multiple unit
Electric multiple unit
An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotive, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages...

 (trainsets), the designs of which all are imported from other nations and given the designations CRH-1 through CRH-5. CRH trainsets are intended to provide fast and convenient travel between cities. Some of the trainsets are manufactured locally through technology transfer, a key requirement for China. The signalling, track and support structures, control software and station design are developed domestically with foreign elements as well, so the system as a whole could be called Chinese. China currently holds many new patents related to the internal components of these train sets since they have re-designed major components so the trains can run at a much higher speed than the original foreign train design.
  • CRH1
    China Railways CRH1
    The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

     produced by Bombardier's joint venture Sifang Power (Qingdao) Transportation (BST), CRH1
    China Railways CRH1
    The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

    A & CRH1
    China Railways CRH1
    The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

    B, nickname "Metro" or "Bread", derived from Bombardier
    Bombardier Transportation
    Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm, Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail-equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Its headquarters are in Berlin, Germany....

     Regina
    Regina (train)
    The Regina is a Swedish model of electric multiple unit passenger train, manufactured by Bombardier Transportation . It is used by the national passenger railway SJ along with numerous regional and private operators, in variants designated X50, X51, X52, X53, X54 and X55, and in two- and...

    , CRH1
    China Railways CRH1
    The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

    E, nickname "Lizard", is Bombardier's ZEFIRO 250
    Bombardier Zefiro
    The Bombardier Zefiro trains are a family of high speed and very high speed passenger trains with top operating speeds from upwards. The trains are the design of Bombardier Transportation....

     design.
    • CRH1
      China Railways CRH1
      The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

      A; sets consists of 8 cars; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
    • CRH1
      China Railways CRH1
      The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

      B; a modified 16-cars version; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
    • CRH1
      China Railways CRH1
      The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

      E; is a 16-car high-speed sleeper version; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
  • CRH2
    China Railways CRH2
    The CRH2 is one of the high-speed train models in China. Originally, the CRH2 was a modified E2-1000 Series Shinkansen design from Japan with the license purchased from a consortium formed of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and Hitachi, and represents the second...

    ; nickname "Hairtail" derived from E2 Series
    E2 Series Shinkansen
    The is a Japanese high-speed Shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company on the Tōhoku and Nagano Shinkansen high-speed lines in Japan since 1997. They are formed in 8- and 10-car sets. The 8-car sets are used on the Nagano Shinkansen, and the 10-car sets on Tōhoku Shinkansen...

     1000 Shinkansen
    Shinkansen
    The , also known as THE BULLET TRAIN, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies. Starting with the Tōkaidō Shinkansen in 1964, the network has expanded to currently consist of of lines with maximum speeds of , of Mini-shinkansen with a...

    .
    • CRH2
      China Railways CRH2
      The CRH2 is one of the high-speed train models in China. Originally, the CRH2 was a modified E2-1000 Series Shinkansen design from Japan with the license purchased from a consortium formed of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and Hitachi, and represents the second...

      A; In 2006, China has unveiled (CRH2), a modified version of the Japanese Shinkansen
      Shinkansen
      The , also known as THE BULLET TRAIN, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies. Starting with the Tōkaidō Shinkansen in 1964, the network has expanded to currently consist of of lines with maximum speeds of , of Mini-shinkansen with a...

       E2-1000 series. An order for 60 8-car sets had been placed in 2004, with the first few built in Japan, the rest produce by Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock
      Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock
      CSR Sifang Co Ltd. formerly known as CSR Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. is a Chinese rolling stock manufacturer based in Qingdao, Shandong province...

       in China.
    • CRH2
      China Railways CRH2
      The CRH2 is one of the high-speed train models in China. Originally, the CRH2 was a modified E2-1000 Series Shinkansen design from Japan with the license purchased from a consortium formed of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and Hitachi, and represents the second...

      B; a modified 16-cars version of CRH2; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
    • CRH2
      China Railways CRH2
      The CRH2 is one of the high-speed train models in China. Originally, the CRH2 was a modified E2-1000 Series Shinkansen design from Japan with the license purchased from a consortium formed of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and Hitachi, and represents the second...

      C (Stage one); a modified version of CRH2 has maximum operating speed up to 300 km/h by replacing two intermediate trailer cars with motored cars.
    • CRH2
      China Railways CRH2
      The CRH2 is one of the high-speed train models in China. Originally, the CRH2 was a modified E2-1000 Series Shinkansen design from Japan with the license purchased from a consortium formed of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and Hitachi, and represents the second...

      C (Stage two); a modified version of CRH2C (Stage one version) has maximum operating speed up to 350 km/h by replacing motors with more powerful ones.
    • CRH2
      China Railways CRH2
      The CRH2 is one of the high-speed train models in China. Originally, the CRH2 was a modified E2-1000 Series Shinkansen design from Japan with the license purchased from a consortium formed of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and Hitachi, and represents the second...

      E; a modified 16-cars version of CRH2 with sleeping cars.
  • CRH3
    China Railways CRH3
    The CRH3 is a version of the Siemens Velaro high-speed train used in China on the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Rail line, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, Zhengzhou-Xi'an Passenger Dedicated Line and the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway...

    C; nickname "Rabbit", derived from Siemens
    Siemens
    Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

     ICE3 (class 403)
    ICE 3
    ICE 3 is a family of high-speed EMUs of Deutsche Bahn. It includes classes 403 and 406, which are known as ICE 3 and ICE 3M respectively...

    ; 8 car sets; maximum operating speed of 350 km/h
  • CRH5A, derived from Alstom
    Alstom
    Alstom is a large multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in the years 2010-2011 Alstom had annual sales of over €20.9 billion, and employed more than 85,000 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are...

     Pendolino
    Pendolino
    Pendolino is an Italian family of tilting trains used in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, Finland, Russian Federation, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Slovakia, Switzerland, China and shortly in Romania and Poland...

     ETR600; 8 car sets; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h
  • CRH6
    China Railways CRH6
    The China Railways CRH6 is a new generation of intercity high-speed train of the People's Republic of China. It is designed by CSR Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. and will be manufacturer by CSR Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Co...

    ; Designed by CSR Puzhen and CSR Sifang, will be manufactured by CSR Jiangmen, it is designed to have two versions, top operating speed of 220 km/h version and top operating speed of 160 km/h version, will be used at 200 km/h or 250 km/h Inter-city High Speed Rail lines, planned to enter service by 2011.
  • CRH380A
    China Railways CRH380A
    The CRH380A is an electric high-speed train designed by China South Locomotive & Rolling Stock Corporation Limited and manufactured by CSR Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. A continuation of the CRH2-350 program it both replaces foreign technology in the CRH2 with Chinese...

    ; Maximum operating speed of 380 km/h; Manufacturer by Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock
    Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock
    CSR Sifang Co Ltd. formerly known as CSR Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. is a Chinese rolling stock manufacturer based in Qingdao, Shandong province...

    ; entered service in 2010.
    • CRH380A
      China Railways CRH380A
      The CRH380A is an electric high-speed train designed by China South Locomotive & Rolling Stock Corporation Limited and manufactured by CSR Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. A continuation of the CRH2-350 program it both replaces foreign technology in the CRH2 with Chinese...

      ; 8-car version.
    • CRH380AL
      China Railways CRH380A
      The CRH380A is an electric high-speed train designed by China South Locomotive & Rolling Stock Corporation Limited and manufactured by CSR Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. A continuation of the CRH2-350 program it both replaces foreign technology in the CRH2 with Chinese...

      ; 16-car version.
  • CRH380B
    China Railways CRH3
    The CRH3 is a version of the Siemens Velaro high-speed train used in China on the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Rail line, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, Zhengzhou-Xi'an Passenger Dedicated Line and the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway...

    ; upgraded version of CRH3; maximum operating speed of 380 km/h, manufactured by Tangshan Railway Vehicle
    Tangshan Railway Vehicle
    CNR Tangshan Railway Vehicle Co. Ltd. , formerly known as Tangshan Locomotive and Rolling Stock Works, is a manufacturer of locomotives and rolling stock located in Tangshan, Hebei province, People's Republic of China...

     & Changchun Railway Vehicles; entered service in 2011.
    • CRH380B
      China Railways CRH3
      The CRH3 is a version of the Siemens Velaro high-speed train used in China on the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Rail line, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, Zhengzhou-Xi'an Passenger Dedicated Line and the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway...

      ; 8-cars version.
    • CRH380BL
      China Railways CRH3
      The CRH3 is a version of the Siemens Velaro high-speed train used in China on the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Rail line, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, Zhengzhou-Xi'an Passenger Dedicated Line and the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway...

      ; 16-cars version.
  • CRH380CL
    China Railways CRH3
    The CRH3 is a version of the Siemens Velaro high-speed train used in China on the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Rail line, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, Zhengzhou-Xi'an Passenger Dedicated Line and the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway...

    ; Designed and manufactured by Changchun Railway Vehicles maximum operating speed of 380 km/h, planned to enter service in 2012.
  • CRH380D
    China Railways CRH1
    The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

    ; also named Zefiro 380; maximum operating speed of 380 km/h; manufactured by Bombardier Sifang (Qingdao) Transportation Ltd. (BST); planned to enter service in 2012.
    • CRH380D
      China Railways CRH1
      The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

      ; 8-cars version.
    • CRH380DL
      China Railways CRH1
      The CRH1 EMU is a Chinese high-speed train based on Bombardier technology and built by a Chinese-Canadian joint venture between Bombardier and Sifang at Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation factory in Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China...

      ; 16-cars version.


CRH1A, B,E, CRH2A, B,E, and CRH5A are designed for a maximum operating speed (MOR) of 200 km/h and can reach up to 250 km/h. CRH3C and CRH2C designs have an MOR of 300 km/h, and can reach up to 350 km/h, with a top testing speed more than 380 km/h. However, in practical terms, issues such as cost of maintenance, comfort, cost and safety make the maximum design speed of more than 380 km/h impractical and remain limiting factors.
Equipment type Top speed in test Designed speed Seating capacity Formation Power
(under 25 kV)
Enter Service
CRH1A 278 km/h (172.7 mph) 250 668 or 611 or 645 5M3T 5,300 kW 2007
CRH1B 292 km/h (181.4 mph) 250 1299 10M6T 11,000 kW 2009
CRH1E 250 618 or 642 10M6T 11,000 kW 2009
CRH2A 282 km/h (175.2 mph) 250 610 or 588 4M4T 4,800 kW 2007
CRH2B 275 km/h (170.9 mph) 250 1230 8M8T 9,600 kW 2008
CRH2C Stage 1 394.2 km/h (244.9 mph) 300 610 6M2T 7,200 kW 2008
CRH2C Stage 2 350 610 6M2T 8,760 kW 2010
CRH2E 250 630 8M8T 9,600 kW 2008
CRH3C 394.3 km/h (245 mph) 350 600 or 556 4M4T 8,800 kW 2008
CRH5A 250 622 or 586 or 570 5M3T 5,500 kW 2007
CRH380A 416.6 km/h (258.9 mph) 380 494 6M2T 9,600 kW 2010
CRH380AL 486.1 km/h (302 mph) 380 1027 14M2T 20,440 kW 2010
CRH380B 380 unknown 4M4T 9,200 kW 2011 (plan)
CRH380BL 487.3 km/h (302.8 mph) 380 1004 8M8T 18,400 kW 2010 (plan)
CRH380CL 380 8M8T 2012 (plan)
CRH380D 380 495 5M3T 10,000 kW 2012 (plan)
CRH380DL 380 1013 10M6T 20,000 kW 2012 (plan)
CRH6
China Railways CRH6
The China Railways CRH6 is a new generation of intercity high-speed train of the People's Republic of China. It is designed by CSR Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. and will be manufacturer by CSR Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Co...

220 586 4M4T unknown 2011 (plan)

Chinese MOR CRH trainsets order timetable

Date Factory Speed Level Type Quantity
(set)

Quantity
(car)

Amount
Oct 10, 2004 Alstom 250 km/h CRH5A 3 24 620 million EUR
CNR Changchun 57 456
Oct 12, 2004 BST (Bombardier & CSR) 250 km/h CRH1A 20 160 350 million USD
Oct 20, 2004 Kawasaki 250 km/h CRH2A 3 24 9,300 million RMB
CSR Sifang 57 456
May 30, 2005 BST 250 km/h CRH1A 20 160 350 million USD
June 2005 CSR Sifang 300 km/h CRH2C Stage one 30 240 8,200 million RMB
350 km/h CRH2C Stage two 30 240
Nov 20, 2005 Siemens 350 km/h CRH3C 3 24 13,000 million RMB
CNR Tangshan 57 456
Oct 31, 2007 BST 250 km/h CRH1B 20 320 1,000 million EUR
CRH1E 20 320
Nov 2007 CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2B 10 160 1,200 million RMB
Nov 2007 CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2E 6 96 900 million RMB
Dec 6, 2008 CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2E 14 224 2,100 million RMB
Sep 23, 2009 CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 30 240 4,800 million RMB
Mar 16, 2009 CNR Tangshan 380 km/h CRH380BL 70 1,120 39,200 million RMB
CNR Changchun 30 480
Sep 28, 2009 CSR Sifang 380 km/h CRH380A 40 320 45,000 million RMB
CRH380AL 100 1,600
Sep 28, 2009 BST 380 km/h CRH380D 20 160 27,400 million RMB
CRH380DL 60 960
Sep 28, 2009 CNR Changchun 380 km/h CRH380B 40 320 23,520 million RMB
CRH380BL 15 240
CRH380CL 25 400
Sep 28, 2009 CNR Tangshan 350 km/h CRH3C 20 160 3,920 million RMB
Dec 30, 2009 CSR Puzhen 220 km/h CRH6 24 192 2,346 million RMB
July 16, 2010 BST 250 km/h CRH1A 40 320 5,200 million RMB
Sep 14, 2010 CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2A 40 320 3,400 million RMB
Oct 13, 2010 CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 20 160 2,700 million RMB
Apr 26, 2011 CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 30 240 3,870 million RMB
Total 954 10,352

Chinese CRH trainsets delivery timetable


Based on data published by Sinolink Securities, some small changes were made according to the most recent news.
Type 2006 2007 2008 2009
2010
(plan)

2011
(plan)

Future
(plan)

Total
CRH1A 8 18 12 2 20 20 80
CRH2A 19 41 15 25 100
CRH5A 27 29 4 30 20 30 140
CRH1B 4 9 7 20
CRH1E 3 8 9 20
CRH2B 10 10
CRH2E 6 14 20
CRH2C 10 20 30 60
CRH3C 7 36 37 80
CRH380A 40 40
CRH380AL 6 94 100
CRH380B 20 20 40
CRH380BL 11 49 55 115
CRH380CL 25 25
CRH380D 20 20
CRH380DL 60 60
CRH6 24 24
Total 27 86 78 88 204 261 210 954
Cumulative 27 113 191 279 483 744 954 954
All CRH380B and CRH380C units to be delivered before 2012. All CRH380D units to be delivered before 2014.

Track technology


Many of the Passenger Designated Lines use ballastless tracks, which allow for smoother train rides at high speeds and can withstand heavy use without warping. The ballastless track technology, imported from Germany, carries higher upfront costs but can reduce maintenance costs.

Typical application of track technology in China high speed lines
Type Classify Technology line
CRTSIs slab track RTRI, Japan Hada PDL
CRTSIIs slab track Max Bögl, Germany Jingjin ICL
CRTSIIIs slab track CRCC,China Chengguan PDL
CRTSIb ballastless track Rail.one, Germany Wuguang PDL
CRTSIIb ballastless track Züblin, Germany Zhengxi PDL

Technology export


Chinese train-makers and rail builders have signed agreements to build HSRs in Turkey
High-speed rail in Turkey
The Turkish State Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. The first section of the line, between Ankara and Eskişehir, was inaugurated on March 13, 2009...

, Venezuela and Argentina and are bidding on HSR projects in the United States
High-speed rail in the United States
High-speed rail in the United States currently consists of one high-speed rail service: Amtrak's Acela Express runs on the Northeast Corridor from Boston to Washington, D.C...

, Russia
High-speed rail in Russia
High-speed rail is emerging in Russia as an increasingly popular means of transport, although the development of such rails is moving at a slower pace than in Western Europe.-Experimental trainsets built in 1974:...

, Saudi Arabia, Brazil (São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro)
High-speed rail in Brazil
The TAV is Brazil's planned high-speed rail service. The Ministry of Transportation provides for August 2010, launching the international bidding documents for the construction of high-speed railway Rio-São Paulo...

 and Myanmar, and other countries. They are competing directly with the established European and Japanese manufacturers, and sometimes partnering with them. In Saudi Arabia's Haramain High Speed Rail Project
Haramain High Speed Rail Project
The Haramain High Speed Rail project also known as the "Western Railway", is a high speed inter-city Rail transport system under construction in Saudi Arabia. It will link the Muslim holy cities of Medina and Mecca via King Abdullah Economic City, Rabigh, Jeddah and King Abdulaziz International...

, Alstom partnered with China Railway Construction Corp.
China Railway Construction Corporation
The China Railway Construction Corporation , or simply CRCC, is the second largest state-owned construction enterprise in the People's Republic of China, just after China Railway Engineering Corporation...

 to win the contract to build phase I of the Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 to Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 HSR line, and Siemens has joined CSR to bid on phase II. China is also competing with Japan, Germany, South Korea, Spain, France and Italy to bid for California's high-speed rail line project
California high-speed rail
The California High-Speed Rail project is a planned future high-speed rail system in the state of California and headed by the California High-Speed Rail Authority . Initial funding for the project was approved by California voters on November 4, 2008, with the passage of Proposition 1A...

, which would connect San Francisco and Los Angeles. In November 2009, the MOR signed preliminary agreements with the state's high speed rail authority and General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

 (GE) under which China would license technology, provide financing and furnish up to 20 percent of the parts with the remaining sourced from American suppliers, and final assembly of the rolling stock in the United States.

Maglev high speed rail



China has the world's only maglev high-speed train line in operation: The Shanghai Maglev Train
Shanghai Maglev Train
The Shanghai Maglev Train or Shanghai Transrapid is a magnetic levitation train, or maglev line that operates in Shanghai, China. It is the first commercially operated high-speed magnetic levitation line in the world...

, a turnkey
Turnkey
A turn-key or a turn-key project is a type of project that is constructed by a developer and sold or turned over to a buyer in a ready-to-use condition.-Common usage:...

 Transrapid
Transrapid
Transrapid is a German high-speed monorail train using magnetic levitation. Based on a patent from 1934, planning of the Transrapid system started in 1969. The test facility for the system in Emsland, Germany was completed in 1987...

 maglev demonstration line 30.5 km long. The trains have a top operational speed of 430 km/h and can reach a top non-commercial speed of 501 km/h. It has shuttled passengers between Shanghai's Longyang Road Metro Station and Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport is the primary international airport serving Shanghai, China, and a major aviation hub in Asia. The other major airport in Shanghai, Hongqiao, mainly serves domestic flights...

 since March, 2004. Service was briefly interrupted by an electrical fire in 2006. Shanghai authorities have been trying without success to extend the 30.5 km maglev line. An intercity link with Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 was approved by the central government in 2006, but construction has been postponed. Work on a shorter extension to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport is also stalled.

Fastest trains in China


The "fastest" train commercial service can be defined alternatively by a train's top speed or average trip speed.
  • The fastest train service measured by peak operational speed is the Shanghai Maglev Train
    Shanghai Maglev Train
    The Shanghai Maglev Train or Shanghai Transrapid is a magnetic levitation train, or maglev line that operates in Shanghai, China. It is the first commercially operated high-speed magnetic levitation line in the world...

     which can reach 431 km/h (267.8 mph). Due to the limited length of the Shanghai Maglev track (30 km)(18.6 mi), the maglev train's average trip speed is only 245.5 km/h (152.5 mph). The Shanghai Maglev also holds the record for the top speed in tests of 501 km/h (311.3 mph).
  • The fastest train service measured by average trip speed from 2009 until 2011 was on the Wuhan-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, where from December 2009 until July 1, 2011, the CRH3/CRH2 coupled-train sets averaged 312.5 km/h (194.2 mph) on the 922 km (572.9 mi) route from Wuhan to Guangzhou North
    Guangzhou North Railway Station
    The Guangzhou North Railway Station is a railway station in Guangdong Province, China, opened in 1908. It is located in Huadu District in far northern suburbs of Guangzhou....

    . It was the fastest commercial train service in the world. However, on July 1, 2011 in order to save energy and reduce operating costs the maximum speed of Chinese high-speed trains was reduced to 300 km/h, and the average speed of the fastest trains on the Wuhan-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway was reduced to 272.68 km/h (169 mph), slower than some French TGV's.
  • The top speed attained by a non-maglev train in China is 487.3 km/h (302.8 mph) by a CRH380BL
    China Railways CRH3
    The CRH3 is a version of the Siemens Velaro high-speed train used in China on the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Rail line, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, Zhengzhou-Xi'an Passenger Dedicated Line and the Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway...

     train on the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway during a testing run on January 10, 2011.

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