Qinhuangdao

Qinhuangdao

Overview
Qinhuangdao is a port city in northeastern Hebei
Hebei
' is a province of the People's Republic of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" , named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei...

 province of North China
North China
thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

. It is about 300 km east of Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, on the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

.

Its population during the 2010 census
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010....

 was 2,987,605, with 820,800 living in the built-up area of 3 urban counties.

In the 19th century, Qinhuangdao included the separate towns of Chinwangtao and Tangho.Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

: t , s , p
Pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

Tānghé, w
Wade-Giles
Wade–Giles , sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for the Mandarin Chinese language. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade during the mid-19th century , and was given completed form with Herbert Giles' Chinese–English dictionary of 1892.Wade–Giles was the most...

Tang-ho, lit.
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Encyclopedia
Qinhuangdao is a port city in northeastern Hebei
Hebei
' is a province of the People's Republic of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" , named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei...

 province of North China
North China
thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

. It is about 300 km east of Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, on the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

.

Its population during the 2010 census
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010....

 was 2,987,605, with 820,800 living in the built-up area of 3 urban counties.

History


In the 19th century, Qinhuangdao included the separate towns of Chinwangtao and Tangho.Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

: t , s , p
Pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

Tānghé, w
Wade-Giles
Wade–Giles , sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for the Mandarin Chinese language. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade during the mid-19th century , and was given completed form with Herbert Giles' Chinese–English dictionary of 1892.Wade–Giles was the most...

Tang-ho, lit. "Soup River".
Both were stations along the Peking–Mukden Railway.

Geography


Qinhuangdao sits on the northwest coast of the Bohai Sea and borders Tangshan
Tangshan
"唐山"redirects here. For an alternative name of China, see Names of China#TangTangshan is a largely industrial prefecture-level city in Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It has become known for the 1976 Tangshan earthquake which measured 7.8 on the Richter scale and killed at least...

 to the southwest, Chengde
Chengde
Chengde , previously known as Jehol or Re He , is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, People's Republic of China, situated northeast of Beijing. It is best known as the site of the Mountain Resort, a vast imperial garden and palace formerly used by the Qing emperors as summer residence...

 to the northwest, and Liaoning
Liaoning
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" , a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace"...

 province to the northeast. Its administrative area ranges in latitude 39° 24' to 40° 37' N and in longitude from 118° 33' to 119° 51' E, and has a total area of 7812.4 square kilometres (3,016.4 sq mi).

Since the elevation of Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

 to a provincial-level municipality, Qinhuangdao is the chief port of Hebei province. The Qin
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

 emperor Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang , personal name Ying Zheng , was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 246 BC to 221 BC during the Warring States Period. He became the first emperor of a unified China in 221 BC...

 is said to have sought immortality on an island in the Haigang district, but did not find it.

Qinhuangdao has three main developed areas:
  • Beidaihe
    Beidaihe
    Beidaihe District is a district in Qinhuangdao municipality, Hebei province on the coast of the Bohai Sea in North China. It has an area of 70.14 square kilometers and a population of 66,000. is also known as a birding haven. The Beidaihe Beach Resort stretches 10 km from east to west, from...

    : A summer seaside resort for senior government officials. Many political decisions affecting China are made here, making it the equivalent to resorts in Maine
    Maine
    Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south, New Hampshire to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the northwest and New Brunswick to the northeast. Maine is both the northernmost and easternmost...

     or Camp David
    Camp David
    Camp David is the country retreat of the President of the United States and his guests. It is located in low wooded hills about 60 mi north-northwest of Washington, D.C., on the property of Catoctin Mountain Park in unincorporated Frederick County, Maryland, near Thurmont, at an elevation of...

     in Maryland
    Maryland
    Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

     in the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    .
  • Haigang
    Haigang District
    -Administrative Divisions:Subdistricts:*Wenhua Road Subdistrict , Haibin Road Subdistrict , Beihuan Road Subdistrict , Great Jianshe Avenue Subdistrict , Hedong Subdistrict , Xigang Road Subdistrict , Yanshan Avenue Subdistrict , Gangcheng Avenue Subdistrict , Donghuan Road Subdistrict , Baitaling...

    : the harbor city. Qinhuangdao proper. Home of Yan Shan University, the leading university in NE Hebei province.
  • Shanhaiguan
    Shanhai Pass
    Shanhai Pass , or Shanhaiguan, along with Jiayu Pass and Juyong Pass, is one of the major passes of the Great Wall of China It is located in Shanhaiguan District, Qinhuangdao, Hebei. In 1961, Shanhaiguan became a site of China First Class National Cultural Site.It is a popular tourist destination,...

    : a popular tourist destination, featuring the eastern end of the Great Wall
    Great Wall of China
    The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China, built originally to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire against intrusions by various nomadic groups...

    .


Qinhuangdao's Olympic Sports Centre Stadium was used as an Olympic Competition Venue (Football Preliminary) during the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from August 8 to August 24, 2008. A total of 11,028 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events...

.

Climate


Qinhuangdao has a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

-influenced humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dwa), with four distinct seasons. Winters are cold and dry due to the Siberian high
Siberian High
The Siberian High is a massive collection of cold or very cold dry air that accumulates on the Eurasian terrain for much of the year. It reaches its greatest size and strength in the winter, when the air temperature near the center of the high-pressure cell or anticyclone is often lower than...

, which can cause winds to blow in from the northwest, minimising the oceanic influence: the monthly daily average temperature in January is −4.8 °C, colder than Beijing's −3.7 °C. Summers are hot and humid due to the East Asian Monsoon
East Asian monsoon
The East Asian monsoon is a monsoonal flow that carries moist air from the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean to East Asia. It affects approximately one-third of the global population, influencing the climate of Japan , the Koreas, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and much of mainland China...

, often allowing onshore flows; summer is also when the location on the coast moderates the weather the most: the average high temperature in July here is 28.1 °C (83 °F), as compared to 30.9 °C (88 °F) in Beijing. As measured by daily mean temperature, July and August are equally warm, averaging 24.7 °C (76.5 °F). The annual mean is 11 °C (51.8 °F), and 70% of the annual precipitation falls from June to August.

Administrative divisions

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2004 est.)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
City proper
1 Haigang District
Haigang District
-Administrative Divisions:Subdistricts:*Wenhua Road Subdistrict , Haibin Road Subdistrict , Beihuan Road Subdistrict , Great Jianshe Avenue Subdistrict , Hedong Subdistrict , Xigang Road Subdistrict , Yanshan Avenue Subdistrict , Gangcheng Avenue Subdistrict , Donghuan Road Subdistrict , Baitaling...

海港区 Hǎigǎng Qū 550,000 121 4,545
Suburban
2 Shanhaiguan District
Shanhaiguan District
Shanhaiguan District is a district of the city of Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, People's Republic of China, named after the pass of the Great Wall within the district, Shanhai Pass...

山海关区 Shānhǎiguān Qū 140,000 192 729
3 Beidaihe District 北戴河区 Běidàihé Qū 70,000 70 1,000
Rural
4 Changli County
Changli County
Changli County is a county of Hebei, China. It is under the administration of the Qinhuangdao city.Changli is one of the largest of China's winemaking districts, with 80 per cent of the county's tillable land used for growing Cabernet Sauvignon grapes...

昌黎县 Chānglí Xiàn 550,000 1,184 465
5 Funing County
Funing County, Hebei
Funing County is a county of Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, China.-Administrative Divisions:Towns:*Funing , Liushouying , Yuguan , Niutouya , Shimenzhai , Taiying , Daxinzhai , Zhucaoying Townships:...

抚宁县 Fǔníng Xiàn 520,000 1,646 316
6 Lulong County
Lulong County
-Administrative Divisions:Towns:*Lulong Town , Panzhuang , Yanheying , Shuangwang , Liutiangezhuang , Shimen Townships:...

卢龙县 Lúlóng Xiàn 420,000 945 444
7 Qinglong Manchu
Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County
-External Links:...


Autonomous County
Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County
-External Links:...

青龙满族
自治县
Qīnglóng Mǎnzú
Zìzhìxiàn
520,000 3,309 157

Development Zone


The Qinhuangdao Economic & Technology Development Zone was approved by the State Council in 1984 to become one of China’s first state-level economic and technological development zones. Qinhuangdao is located in the heart of the rapidly-growing “Bohai-Rim Economic Circle”, within easy reach of both Beijing (280 km) and Tianjin (245 km). It covers a sea area of 23.81 square kilometers and has a coastline of six kilometers. The planned and controlled area of the development zone has reached 56.72 square kilometers. By the end of 2006, the number of approved projects reached 4,546, in which 647 projects were foreign-invested, with a total investment of US$4.73 billion.

Qinhuangdao Export Processing Zone is the first export processing zone in Hebei Province. It has passed joint appraisal held by Customs General Administration People's Republic of China, State Development Planning Commission and other six departments in 2003. Industries encouraged in the zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Building/Construction Materials, Computer Software, Trading and Distribution.

Economy


Qinhuangdao Port is a strategically important port on China and is the largest coal shipping
Shipping
Shipping has multiple meanings. It can be a physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo, by land, air, and sea. It also can describe the movement of objects by ship.Land or "ground" shipping can be by train or by truck...

 port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 in the country, much of which is shipped to power plants elsewhere in China. With recent expansion, its capacity has reached 209 million metric tons. The harbor is also adding a further six berths to add further capacity and is increasingly being invested in by other port operators, such as South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

's Richards Bay Coal Terminal
Richards Bay Coal Terminal
The Richards Bay Coal Terminal , located in the Richards Bay harbour, is the largest coal export facility in Africa. The Chinese port of Qinhuangdao maintains the largest coal exporting terminal in the world, at 209 Million tons compared to Richards Bay with 91 Million tons.Potential throughput is...

, who have announced plans to invest US$150 million to increase capacity by at least 28 percent.

China is also the worlds third largest coal exporter, and Qinhuangdao is expected to handle much of the nations coal exports. Rail links from Shanxi
Shanxi
' is a province in Northern China. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋" , after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period....

 province (China’s largest coal producer) to Qinhuangdao Port are in the process of being upgraded, which should allow for Qinhuangdao to ultimately increase its throughput to 400 million tones of coal per annum from its current level of about 250 million tons by 2015.

Other Chinese and foreign service suppliers are also moving to Qinhuangdao to support this. China Ocean Shipping (Group) Co, China's biggest shipping company, expects US$49 billion of spending on ports over the next five years as the industry tackles bottlenecks created by the nation's unprecedented economic boom.

Qinhuangdao is located along the Jingshen Expressway which links Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 with Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

, Liaoning
Liaoning
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" , a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace"...


Red Ribbon


Qinhuangdao is home to the Tanghe River Park, which features the Red Ribbon, a knee-high steel sculpture that runs through the length of the park, providing seating, environmental interpretation, lighting, and the display of native plants. The project has won an honor award from the American Society of Landscape Architects
American Society of Landscape Architects
The American Society of Landscape Architects is the national professional association representing landscape architects, with more than 17,000 members in 48 chapters, representing all 50 states, U.S. territories, and 42 countries around the world, plus 68 student chapters...

 and was selected by readers of Condé Nast Traveler
Condé Nast Traveler
Condé Nast Traveler is a US magazine published by Condé Nast. It has its origins in a mailing sent out by the Diners Club club beginning in 1953, listing locations that would take the card. It began taking advertising in 1955. In order to attract more advertisers, it became a full-fledged magazine,...

magazine as one of the seven new wonders of the architecture world.

External links