Hanzhong

Hanzhong

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Hanzhong is a municipality
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 in southwest Shaanxi Province, China, occupying a historically significant valley in the mountains between the Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

 area, home to many Chinese capitals, and the fertile but isolated Sichuan Basin
Sichuan basin
The Sichuan Basin is a lowland region in southwestern China. Despite its historical name, it is not only synonymous to Sichuan province, comprising its central and eastern portions as well as part of Chongqing Municipality...

. The population in 2006 was approximately 3.74 million, in a municipal territory of 27,246 square kilometres.

Pre-Qin (before 220 BC)


There are few references to Hanzhong before the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

's unification of China in 221 BC. The Book of History refers to an area called Liangzhou , while Sima Qian
Sima Qian
Sima Qian was a Prefect of the Grand Scribes of the Han Dynasty. He is regarded as the father of Chinese historiography for his highly praised work, Records of the Grand Historian , a "Jizhuanti"-style general history of China, covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor to...

's book Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known in English by the Chinese name Shiji , written from 109 BC to 91 BC, was the Magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the Yellow Emperor until his own time...

 speaks of a "Bao [River] Kingdom" , both of which are believed to refer to the area now called Hanzhong.

The name Nanzheng was used to refer to the area from the 8th century BC throughout much of its history. The ancient geographical treatise Shui Jing Zhu
Shui Jing Zhu
Shui Jing Zhu is a work on the ancient geography of China. It is an annotated and much expanded version of an older text, the Shui Jing , which has been lost.The annotated version was compiled by Li Daoyuan Shui Jing Zhu is a work on the ancient geography of China. It is an annotated and much...

records that Lord Huan of Zheng, a local lord from the Western Zhou Dynasty, was slain in a battle with non-Chinese Rong people, and the citizens fled south to found a new settlement, giving rise to the area's name. Several Chinese scholars have expressed doubts about the story's accuracy, however.


Qin and Han (220 BC - 200 AD)


The Qin Dynasty organized the area as Hanzhong Commandery, with a capital in what is now Nanzheng County, located just south of the modern Hanzhong urban area. After the Qin collapse in 207 BC, Liu Bang, who would later become the founding Emperor Gaozu of Han, was made lord of Hanzhong during the chaotic times of Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu was a prominent military leader and political figure during the late Qin Dynasty. His given name was Ji while his style name was Yu ....

, and spent several years there biding his time before later challenging Xiang for rule of China. After his eventual victory in 206 BC, Liu Bang followed Chinese custom in naming his dynasty after his native district, except that he chose Hanzhong instead of his actual home near modern-day Xuzhou
Xuzhou
Xuzhou , otherwise known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China...

 in Jiangsu Province. Hanzhong thus lent its name to the new Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

, and eventually to the entire Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 ethnic group.

As the Han Dynasty gradually weakened in the 2nd century AD, non-Chinese peoples from the Ba region
Ba (state)
Ba was an ancient state in eastern Sichuan, China. Its original capital was Yicheng , Hubei. Ba was conquered by Qin in 316 BC. The modern ethnic minority Tujia people trace some of their origins back to the Ba people....

 began attacking the Hanzhong area as they had in the past. The Han Dynasty lost control of the area, and generals Zhang Xiu
Zhang Xiu
Zhang Xiu was a minor warlord during the late Han Dynasty era of Chinese history. He eventually surrendered to Cao Cao in 200. Having contributed greatly to the decisive Battle of Guandu and subsequent campaigns against the heirs of Yuan Shao, Zhang Xiu died en route Liucheng on a campaign to...

 and Zhang Lu, supported by followers of the Daoist sect Way of the Celestial Masters, set up a de facto independent theocratic government that was active in the late 2nd century AD. After 30 years, the state surrendered to the famous warlord Cao Cao
Cao Cao
Cao Cao was a warlord and the penultimate chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during the dynasty's final years. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid the foundations for what was to become the state of Cao Wei and was posthumously titled...

 and became part of his Cao Wei
Cao Wei
Cao Wei was one of the states that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period. With the capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations that his father Cao Cao laid...

 kingdom.

Hanzhong played an important role during the Three Kingdoms Period, one of the most famous eras of Chinese history. Liu Bei
Liu Bei
Liu Bei , also known as Liu Xuande, was a warlord, military general and later the founding emperor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history...

 fled to the Sichuan Basin - then part of the Shu Han
Shu Han
Shu Han was one of the three states competing for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period, after the fall of the Han Dynasty. The state was based on areas around Sichuan, which was then known as Shu...

 kingdom - and captured Hanzhong from Cao Cao's armies. Hanzhong controlled the main route for an army to invade the Sichuan Basin from the Chinese heartland, and thus saw many battles during the period. Much of this period of Hanzhong's history is retold in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms, written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based on the events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history, starting in 169 and ending with the reunification of the land in...

, China's greatest historical epic. Ruins and landmarks of the Three Kingdoms era can still be found in Hanzhong, most notably the tomb of renowned strategist Zhuge Liang
Zhuge Liang
Zhuge Liang was a chancellor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. He is often recognised as the greatest and most accomplished strategist of his era....

.

Tang, Song, and Yuan (618 - 1368 AD)


The city continued to operate during the next 400 years of often-chaotic politics between the end of the Han and the beginning of the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

, though its name and bureaucratic designation changed often. In 784 AD
784
Year 784 was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 784 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.- Asia :* The Japanese capital moves away from Nara,...

, Emperor Dezong of Tang
Emperor Dezong of Tang
Emperor Dezong of Tang , personally name Li Kuo , was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the oldest son of his father Emperor Daizong. His reign of 26 years was the third longest in the Tang dynasty...

 fled to Hanzhong amid a rebellion that temporarily seized control of the capital Chang'an
Chang'an
Chang'an is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an literally means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese. During the short-lived Xin Dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; yet after its fall in AD 23, the old name was restored...

 (modern Xi'an). During the Northern Song Dynasty (960 - 1127 AD), Hanzhong's tax revenue trailed only regional capitals like Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Kaifeng , known previously by several names , is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, Central China. Nearly 5 million people live in the metropolitan area...

 and Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

, a testament to its economic status.

Ming, Qing, and Present (1368 AD - present)


In 1331 AD, during the reign of Emperor Hongwu of Ming, extensive renovations were undertaken on Hanzhong's basic infrastructure, bringing the city largely into its present layout and form. Emperor Wanli (reigned 1572 - 1620 AD) set his fifth son Zhu Changhao as a local king of Hanzhong. Changhao built a large, luxurious palace in what is now the Children's Park, and remnants of the palace can be found in the vicinity. The palace's Radiant Glass Wall was demolished during road construction in 1935, though a 13.6-meter section has since been rebuilt on the eastern end of Sanpu Street .

Zhu Changhao fled south to Sichuan in 1643 ahead of the army of Li Zicheng, abandoning his palace in Hanzhong which was quickly looted of anything of value by local residents. Conquering Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 leaders later commented in writing of the stark contrast in the massive but empty palace.

Hanzhong was captured by the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 in December 1949 during the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

's victory over the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang , the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China , for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China and People's Republic of...

.

Administration


The municipal executive, legislature and judiciary
Intermediate people's court
An intermediate people's court is the second lowest local people's court in the People's Republic of China. According to the Organic Law of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China, the intermediate people's courts handle relevant important local cases in the first instance and hear...

 are in Hantai District
Hantai District
Hantai District is a district of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

 (汉台区), together with the CPC
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

 and Public Security
Public Security Bureau
In the People's Republic of China, a public security bureau refers to the government offices while the smaller offices are called Police posts which are similar in concept to the Japanese Kōban system) present in each province and municipality that handles policing , public security, and...

 bureaux.
Map
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2004 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Hantai District
Hantai District
Hantai District is a district of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

汉台区 Hàntái Qū 530,000 556 954
2 Nanzheng County
Nanzheng County
Nanzheng County is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

南郑县 Nánzhèng Xiàn 550,000 2,849 193
3 Chenggu County
Chenggu County
Chenggu County is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

城固县 Chénggù Xiàn 510,000 2,265 225
4 Yang County
Yang County
Yang County is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

洋县 Yáng Xiàn 440,000 3,206 137
5 Xixiang County
Xixiang County
Xixiang County is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

西乡县 Xīxiāng Xiàn 400,000 3,204 125
6 Mian County
Mian County
Mian County is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

勉县 Miǎn Xiàn 420,000 2,406 175
7 Ningqiang County
Ningqiang County
Ningqiang County is a county in the southwesternmost corner of the Hanzhong municipal region, Shaanxi, bordering both Sichuan and Gansu.-Administration:...

宁强县 Níngqiáng Xiàn 330,000 3,243 102
8 Lueyang County
Lueyang County
Lueyang County, or Lüeyang County, is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China.-External links:*...

略阳县 Lüèyáng Xiàn 200,000 2,831 71
9 Zhenba County
Zhenba County
Zhenba County is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China.-Transportation:*China National Highway 210...

镇巴县 Zhènbā Xiàn 280,000 3,437 81
10 Liuba County
Liuba County
Liuba County is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

留坝县 Liúbà Xiàn 50,000 1,970 25
11 Foping County
Foping County
Foping County is a county of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China....

佛坪县 Fópíng Xiàn 30,000 1,279 23

Economy



Hanzhong is a major agricultural and trade center, with some sawmilling and light industry.

Military-industrial


As a military program, 012 base have established since 1960s,is responsible for military transport aircraft and Air-to-air missile
Air-to-air missile
An air-to-air missile is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. AAMs are typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fuelled but sometimes liquid fuelled...

.

Geography


Hanzhong is located in the southwestern Shaanxi province, near the border with Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

 and Sichuan
Sichuan
' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

 Provinces, and is a part of the Shannan region. It sits in the centre of the Hanzhong Basin (汉中盆地), on the Han River. The Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains, or Dabashan is a mountain range in Central China, north of the Yangtze River.-Geography:The Daba Mountains run in the general west-northwest to east-southeast direction, along the border between, on the one side Sichuan and Chongqing, and on the other side Shaanxi and Hubei...

 are perched to the south of the city; to the north lie the Qin Mountains, and for this reason, Hanzhong is geographically considered to be part of southern China. However, on administrative terms, as Shaanxi is officially part of Northwestern China
Northwestern China
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.-Administrative divisions:ProvincesAutonomous Regions-Outer Northwest China:...

, it is considered to be part of the Northwest. For more on the divisions between northern and southern China, see Northern and southern China
Northern and southern China
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions has never been precisely defined...

.

The city's administrative area (prefecture) ranges in latitude from 33° 02' to 33° 22' N and in longitude from 106° 51' to 107° 10' E, and is 27246 square kilometres (10,519.7 sq mi). The northern part of the prefecture is high while the southern part is generally low. Elevations range from around 500 metres (1,640.4 ft) in the urban area to 2038 metres (6,686.4 ft) in the Qin Mountains.

Climate


Hanzhong has a temperate and generally humid climate that is classified as humid subtropical (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cwa), with cool, damp winters and hot, humid summers. The average January temperature is 3.1 °C (37.6 °F). The Qin Mountains to the north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter. As a result, it is not colder than similar-latitude locations further east in China, despite its elevation and inland location. In contrast, because of the elevation, summers are tempered, with highs in July and August of around 30 °C (86 °F). The area is far more humid than central and northern Shaanxi
Shanbei
Shanbei specifies the northern portion of Shaanxi province, Northwest China, and is a natural as well as cultural area, forming part of the Loess Plateau...

, with 850 millimetres (33 in) of precipitation annually, as compared to 550 millimetres (22 in) for Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

, the provincial capital.

Education


1.http://www1.snut.edu.cn/english/index.htm Shaanxi University of Technology
2.http://www.hzzx.net.cn Hanzhong Middle School
3.Hanzhong Shiyan Middle School is locate in Hanzhong
4.http://www.hzqnlxx.com/ Hanzhong Qingnianlu Elementary School

External links