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Zhangzhou

Zhangzhou

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Zhangzhou is a prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 in southern Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

 province, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

. Located on the banks of the Jiulong River
Jiulong River
The Jiulong River or Jiulong Jiang is the largest river in southern Fujian, and the second largest in the province. Like all Fujian rivers but one, it flows into the Taiwan Strait....

 (Beixi), Zhangzhou borders the cities of Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiamen , also known as Amoy , is a major city on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province with an area of and population of 3.53 million...

 (廈門) and Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Quanzhou is a prefecture-level city in Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It borders all other prefecture-level cities in Fujian but two and faces the Taiwan Strait...

 (泉州) to the northeast, Longyan
Longyan
Longyan is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Fujian province, China.-Geography:It is situated in the upper reaches of the Jiulong and Tingjiang rivers...

 City to the northwest and the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 to the southwest.

Zhangzhou is home to 4,809,983 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom those of Longwen and Xiacheng districts are considered as urban. The built up area now include these 2 previous districts, the city of Longhai and reaches Xiamen 3,531,147 inhabitants. The 2 cities built up area (ie Metro area) is now home to about 5 millions inhabitants in 2010.

In older English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 works, its name may appear as Chang-chow or Changchow and in Southeast Asian contexts it appears as Chiang-chew or Chiang Chew from the Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien is a Hokkien word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian". It may refer to:* Hokkien dialect, a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian , Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere....

 name.

Dialect



The main dialect spoken in Zhangzhou is Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien is a Hokkien word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian". It may refer to:* Hokkien dialect, a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian , Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere....

, one of the major Min Nan
Min Nan
The Southern Min languages, or Min Nan , are a family of Chinese languages spoken in southern Fujian, eastern Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan, and southern Zhejiang provinces of China, and by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora....

 languages/topolects. But officially, people use Mandarin
Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, or Modern Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin or Putonghua, is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Republic of China , and is one of the four official languages of Singapore....

 in government, commerce and official business.

History


In the early 20th century, Zhangzhou-fu was surrounded by 42 miles of wall (in circumference).
Its streets were paved with granite, but struck some Western visitors as dirty, as reported in the Encyclopædia Britannica. The Jiulongjiang River was crossed by an 800-foot bridge of wooden planks supported on twenty-five stone piers. At this time, heavy silk trading activity occurred in the city, while brick kilns and sugar-manufactures were among its primary industrial activities. In 1911, its population was estimated around 1,000,000.

Zhangzhou's central urban area (now Xiangcheng District
Xiangcheng District, Zhangzhou
Xiangcheng District or called as Sin Kang District in Hokkien. Xiangcheng is a county within the prefecture of Zhangzhou in China.-Location:...

) was occupied in April and May 1932 by a column of Communist guerrillas under Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

. Due to the presence of Western gunboats in Xiamen Bay
Xiamen Bay
Xiamen Bay is a partially enclosed bay off the coast of Xiamen, Fujian province, China and surrounded by Jinmen islands and open waters.- Geography :The bay is formed by down-faulted depressed block of undersea bed creating a submerged bay....

, arms shipments from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 were unable to get up the Jiulong Jiang River
Jiulong River
The Jiulong River or Jiulong Jiang is the largest river in southern Fujian, and the second largest in the province. Like all Fujian rivers but one, it flows into the Taiwan Strait....

 to Mao's forces and on to the main Communist base area. According to some reports, Mao's forces took with them a substantial amount of loot from bourgeois residents when his column retreated from the city.

Administrative divisions


The prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 of Zhangzhou administers 2 districts, 1 county-level city
County-level city
A county-level city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions....

 and 8 counties.
  1. Xiangcheng District
    Xiangcheng District, Zhangzhou
    Xiangcheng District or called as Sin Kang District in Hokkien. Xiangcheng is a county within the prefecture of Zhangzhou in China.-Location:...

     (芗城区)
  2. Longwen District
    Longwen District
    Longwen District is a district of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Zhangzhou city....

     (龙文区)
  3. Longhai City (龙海市)
  4. Changtai County
    Changtai County
    Changtai County is a county of Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Zhangzhou city....

     (长泰县)
  5. Dongshan County
    Dongshan County
    Dongshan County is a county in Zhangzhou Prefecture-level city,Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It is located to the south of the west coast of Fujian province along the Strait of Taiwan . There are 44 islands altogether in the county...

     (东山县)
  6. Hua'an County
    Hua'an County
    Hua'an County is a County under Zhangzhou municipality, in southern most Fujian province.The county comprises most of the lower watershed of the Jiulong Jiang's north branch and has long been a transport corridor. The first rail connection to the port of Xiamen, laid during the Great Leap Forward...

     (华安县)
  7. Nanjing County
    Nanjing County
    Nanjing County is a county under the administration under of Zhangzhou prefecture-level city of Fujian province, in China....

     (南靖县)
  8. Pinghe County
    Pinghe County
    Pinghe County lies in the prefecture level city of Zhangzhou, Fujian province, PRC.-Administrative Division:The administrative centre or seat of Pinghe County is Xiaoxi .-Towns :...

     (平和县)
  9. Yunxiao County
    Yunxiao County
    Yunxiao county is a county in Zhangzhou prefecture level city, Fujian province, China. The population of the county is 392 000 residents...

     (云霄县)
  10. Zhangpu County
    Zhangpu County
    Zhangpu is a county under Zhangzhou municipality in southernmost Fujian. The governmental seat is at SuiAn Town ....

     (漳浦县)
  11. Zhao'an County
    Zhao'an County
    ZhaoAn is a County in the municipal region of Zhangzhou, Fujian.-Qing & Republic:In May 1907, county officials arrested on suspicion of piracy the local leaders of a movement called the "White Fan". These escaped, rallied their followers and captured the top Mandarin and killed the sheriff. 30,000...

     (诏安县)

Notable people

  • Chen Yuanguang (陳元光)
    Chen Yuanguang
    Chen Yuanguang , pseudonym: ) was from Gushi County in Henan, China. The people of Zhangzhou in Fujian, along with the descendants of immigrants from Zhangzhou to Taiwan, all refer to him as the "Sacred Prince, Developer of Zhangzhou" ....

    , 657 - 711 CE
    Common Era
    Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...

    , military leader important in facilitating Han-nationality
    Han Chinese
    Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

     settlement and control of today's Fujian and northern Guangdong provinces.
  • Khaw Soo Cheang, 1786–1882, South China Sea
    South China Sea
    The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

     merchant and a royally-favoured Governor in Thailand.
  • Lin Yutang (林语堂)
    Lin Yutang
    Lin Yutang was a Chinese writer and inventor. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English made him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English were bestsellers in the West.-Youth:Lin was born in...

    , 1895–1976, international author, cultural ambassador and inventor.

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