Astronomical object

Astronomical object

Encyclopedia
Astronomical objects or celestial objects are naturally occurring physical entities
Entity
An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, although it need not be a material existence. In particular, abstractions and legal fictions are usually regarded as entities. In general, there is also no presumption that an entity is animate.An entity could be viewed as a set...

, associations or structures that current science
Science
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

 has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe
Observable universe
In Big Bang cosmology, the observable universe consists of the galaxies and other matter that we can in principle observe from Earth in the present day, because light from those objects has had time to reach us since the beginning of the cosmological expansion...

. The term astronomical object is sometimes used interchangeably with astronomical body. Typically an astronomical (celestial) body refers to a single, cohesive structure that is bound together by gravity (and sometimes by electromagnetism
Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature. The other three are the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation...

). Examples include the asteroid
Asteroid
Asteroids are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones...

s, moons, planet
Planet
A planet is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science,...

s and the star
Star
A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

s. Astronomical objects are gravitationally bound structures that are associated with a position in space, but may consist of multiple independent astronomical bodies or objects. These objects range from single planets to star cluster
Star cluster
Star clusters or star clouds are groups of stars. Two types of star clusters can be distinguished: globular clusters are tight groups of hundreds of thousands of very old stars which are gravitationally bound, while open clusters, more loosely clustered groups of stars, generally contain less than...

s, nebula
Nebula
A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen gas, helium gas and other ionized gases...

e or entire galaxies. A comet
Comet
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet...

 may be described as a body, in reference to the frozen nucleus of ice and dust, or as an object, when describing the nucleus with its diffuse coma and tail.

The universe can be viewed as having a hierarchical structure. At the largest scales, the fundamental component of assembly is the galaxy
Galaxy
A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias , literally "milky", a...

, which are assembled out of dwarf galaxies
Dwarf galaxy
A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of up to several billion stars, a small number compared to our own Milky Way's 200-400 billion stars...

. The galaxies are organized into groups and clusters
Galaxy groups and clusters
Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation. They form the densest part of the large scale structure of the universe...

, often within larger superclusters, that are strung along great filaments
Galaxy filament
In physical cosmology, galaxy filaments, also called supercluster complexes or great walls, are, so far, the largest known cosmic structures in the universe. They are massive, thread-like structures with a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs h-1 that form the boundaries between large voids in...

 between nearly empty voids
Void (astronomy)
In astronomy, voids are the empty spaces between filaments, the largest-scale structures in the Universe, that contain very few, or no, galaxies. They were first discovered in 1978 during a pioneering study by Stephen Gregory and Laird A. Thompson at the Kitt Peak National Observatory...

, forming a web that spans the observable universe
Observable universe
In Big Bang cosmology, the observable universe consists of the galaxies and other matter that we can in principle observe from Earth in the present day, because light from those objects has had time to reach us since the beginning of the cosmological expansion...

. Galaxies and dwarf galaxies have a variety of morphologies, with the shapes determined by their formation and evolutionary histories, including interaction with other galaxies. Depending on the category, a galaxy may have one or more distinct features, such as spiral arms, a halo and a nucleus. At the core, most galaxies have a supermassive black hole
Supermassive black hole
A supermassive black hole is the largest type of black hole in a galaxy, in the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses. Most, and possibly all galaxies, including the Milky Way, are believed to contain supermassive black holes at their centers.Supermassive black holes have...

, which may result in an active galactic nucleus
Active galactic nucleus
An active galactic nucleus is a compact region at the centre of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion, and possibly all, of the electromagnetic spectrum. Such excess emission has been observed in the radio, infrared, optical, ultra-violet, X-ray and...

. Galaxies can also have satellites in the form of dwarf galaxies and globular cluster
Globular cluster
A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite. Globular clusters are very tightly bound by gravity, which gives them their spherical shapes and relatively high stellar densities toward their centers. The name of this category of star cluster is...

s.

The constituents of a galaxy are formed out of gaseous matter that assembles through gravitational self-attraction in a hierarchical manner. At this level, the resulting fundamental components are the stars, which are typically assembled in clusters from the various condensing nebulae. The great variety of stellar forms are determined almost entirely by the mass, composition and evolutionary state of these stars. Stars may be found in multi-star systems that orbit about each other in a hierarchical organization. A planetary system and various minor objects such as asteroids, comets and debris, can form in a hierarchical process of accretion from the protoplanetary disk
Protoplanetary disk
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star...

s that surrounds newly created stars.

The various distinctive types of stars are shown by the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R diagram), which is a plot of absolute stellar luminosity versus surface temperature. Each star follows an evolutionary track across this diagram. If this track takes the star through a region containing an intrinsic variable type, then its physical properties can cause it to become a variable star
Variable star
A star is classified as variable if its apparent magnitude as seen from Earth changes over time, whether the changes are due to variations in the star's actual luminosity, or to variations in the amount of the star's light that is blocked from reaching Earth...

. An example of this is the instability strip
Instability strip
The Instability strip is a nearly vertical region in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram which is occupied by pulsating variable stars .The instability strip intersects the main sequence in the region of A...

, a region of the H-R diagram that includes Delta Scuti
Delta Scuti variable
A Delta Scuti variable is a variable star which exhibits variations in its luminosity due to both radial and non-radial pulsations of the star's surface. Typical brightness fluctuations are from 0.003 to 0.9 magnitudes in V over a period of a few hours, although the amplitude and period of the...

, RR Lyrae
RR Lyrae variable
RR Lyrae variables are periodic variable stars, commonly found in globular clusters, and often used as standard candles to measure galactic distances.This type of variable is named after the prototype, the variable star RR Lyrae in the constellation Lyra....

 and Cepheid variable
Cepheid variable
A Cepheid is a member of a class of very luminous variable stars. The strong direct relationship between a Cepheid variable's luminosity and pulsation period, secures for Cepheids their status as important standard candles for establishing the Galactic and extragalactic distance scales.Cepheid...

s. Depending on the initial mass of the star and the presence or absence of a companion, a star may spend the last part of its life as a compact object
Compact star
In astronomy, the term compact star is used to refer collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, other exotic dense stars, and black holes. These objects are all small for their mass...

; either a white dwarf
White dwarf
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a small star composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. They are very dense; a white dwarf's mass is comparable to that of the Sun and its volume is comparable to that of the Earth. Its faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored...

, neutron star
Neutron star
A neutron star is a type of stellar remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova event. Such stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles without electrical charge and with a slightly larger...

 or black hole
Black hole
A black hole is a region of spacetime from which nothing, not even light, can escape. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that...

.

Location or structure


The table below lists the general categories of objects by their location or structure.
Solar System
Solar System
The Solar System consists of the Sun and the astronomical objects gravitationally bound in orbit around it, all of which formed from the collapse of a giant molecular cloud approximately 4.6 billion years ago. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun...

Extrasolar objects
Simple objects Compound objects Extended objects
  • Sun
    Sun
    The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields...

  • Planetary system
    Planetary system
    A planetary system consists of the various non-stellar objects orbiting a star such as planets, dwarf planets , asteroids, meteoroids, comets, and cosmic dust...

    • Planet
      Planet
      A planet is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science,...

      s
      • Mercury
        Mercury (planet)
        Mercury is the innermost and smallest planet in the Solar System, orbiting the Sun once every 87.969 Earth days. The orbit of Mercury has the highest eccentricity of all the Solar System planets, and it has the smallest axial tilt. It completes three rotations about its axis for every two orbits...

      • Venus
        Venus
        Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. The planet is named after Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6, bright enough to cast shadows...

      • Earth
        Earth
        Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

        • Moon
          Moon
          The Moon is Earth's only known natural satellite,There are a number of near-Earth asteroids including 3753 Cruithne that are co-orbital with Earth: their orbits bring them close to Earth for periods of time but then alter in the long term . These are quasi-satellites and not true moons. For more...

      • Mars
        Mars
        Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance...

        • satellites
          Mars' natural satellites
          Mars has two small moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are thought to be captured asteroids. Both satellites were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall, and are named after the characters Phobos and Deimos who, in Greek mythology, accompanied their father Ares, god of war, into battle...

      • Jupiter
        Jupiter
        Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn,...

        • satellites
          Jupiter's natural satellites
          Jupiter has 64 confirmed moons, giving it the largest retinue of moons with "reasonably secure" orbits of any planet in the Solar System. The most massive of them, the four Galilean moons, were discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and were the first objects found to orbit a body that was neither...

      • Saturn
        Saturn
        Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in the Solar System, after Jupiter. Saturn is named after the Roman god Saturn, equated to the Greek Cronus , the Babylonian Ninurta and the Hindu Shani. Saturn's astronomical symbol represents the Roman god's sickle.Saturn,...

        • satellites
          Saturn's natural satellites
          The moons of Saturn are numerous and diverse, ranging from tiny moonlets less than 1 kilometre across, to the enormous Titan, which is larger than the planet Mercury. Saturn has 62 moons with confirmed orbits, fifty-three of which have names, and only thirteen of which have diameters larger than 50...

      • Uranus
        Uranus
        Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. It is named after the ancient Greek deity of the sky Uranus , the father of Cronus and grandfather of Zeus...

        • satellites
          Uranus' natural satellites
          Uranus, the seventh planet of the Solar System, has 27 known moons, all of which are named after characters from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope. William Herschel discovered the first two moons, Titania and Oberon, in 1787, and the other spherical moons were discovered in 1851...

      • Neptune
        Neptune
        Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. Named for the Roman god of the sea, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter and the third largest by mass. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus, which is 15 times...

        • satellites
          Neptune's natural satellites
          Neptune has thirteen known moons, by far the largest of which is Triton, discovered by William Lassell on October 10, 1846, just 17 days after the discovery of Neptune itself. Over a century passed before the discovery of the second natural satellite, called Nereid...

    • Dwarf planet
      Dwarf planet
      A dwarf planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union , is a celestial body orbiting the Sun that is massive enough to be spherical as a result of its own gravity but has not cleared its neighboring region of planetesimals and is not a satellite...

      s
      • Pluto
        Pluto
        Pluto, formal designation 134340 Pluto, is the second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun...

        • satellites
          Pluto's natural satellites
          Pluto has four known moons. The largest, Charon, is proportionally larger, compared to its primary, than any other satellite of a known planet or dwarf planet in the Solar System. The other moons, Nix, Hydra, and S/2011 P 1 are much smaller...

      • Eris
        Eris (dwarf planet)
        Eris, formal designation 136199 Eris, is the most massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System and the ninth most massive body known to orbit the Sun directly...

        • Dysnomia
          Dysnomia (moon)
          - References :...

      • Ceres
      • Makemake
      • Haumea
        • satellites
    • Asteroid
      Asteroid
      Asteroids are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones...

      s
      • "Vulcanoids"
      • "Apoheles"
      • Near-Earth asteroids
        • "Arjuna
          Arjuna asteroid
          The Arjuna asteroids are a class of near-Earth asteroids whose orbits are very Earth-like in character, having low inclination, orbital periods close to one Earth year, and low eccentricity. The class is named after Arjuna, a central hero in Hindu mythology. The definition is somewhat fuzzy and...

          s"
        • Aten
          Aten asteroid
          The Aten asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids, named after the first of the group to be discovered . They are defined by having semi-major axes of less than one astronomical unit...

          s
        • Apollo
          Apollo asteroid
          The Apollo asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids named after 1862 Apollo, the first asteroid of this group to be discovered by Karl Wilhelm Reinmuth...

          s
        • Amor
          Amor asteroid
          The Amor asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids named after the asteroid 1221 Amor. They approach the orbit of the Earth from beyond, but do not cross it. Most Amors do cross the orbit of Mars...

          s
      • Mars-crossers
        Mars-crosser asteroid
        A Mars-crosser is an asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Mars. The known numbered Mars-crossers are listed here. They include the two numbered Mars trojans 5261 Eureka and ....

      • Asteroid belt
        Asteroid belt
        The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets...

        • Hungaria
          Hungaria family
          The Hungaria asteroids are a group of asteroids in the asteroid belt that orbit the Sun between 1.78 and 2.00 AU. The asteroids typically have a low eccentricity and an inclination of 16 to 34 degrees....

          s
        • Phocaea
          Phocaea family
          The Phocaea asteroids are a group of asteroids that orbit the Sun between 2.25 and 2.5 AU. Asteroids in this group have orbits with eccentricities greater than 0.1 and inclinations between 18 and 32. The group derives its name from its most massive member, 25 Phocaea.-Asteroids in this Family:...

          s
        • Nysa
          Nysa family
          The Nysa or Nysian asteroids are a group of asteroids in the Main Belt orbiting the sun between 2.41 and 2.5 AU. Asteroids in this family have eccentricities between 0.12 and 0.21 and inclinations of 1.4 to 4.3...

          s
        • Alinda
          Alinda family
          The Alinda asteroids are a group of asteroids with a semi-major axis of about 2.5 AU and an orbital eccentricity approximately between 0.4 and 0.65. The namesake is 887 Alinda, discovered by Max Wolf in 1918....

          s
        • Hildas
        • Pallas
        • Marias
        • Koronis
          Koronis family
          ]The Koronis family is a family of asteroids in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter. They are thought to have been formed at least two billion years ago in a catastrophic collision between two larger bodies. The largest known is about in diameter. The Koronis family travels in a cluster along...

        • Eos
          Eos family
          The Eos or Eoan family is a prominent family of main belt asteroids that is believed to have formed as a result of an ancient catastrophic collision. Members of the family share similar orbits. The family is named after 221 Eos....

        • Themis
          Themis family
          The Themis or Themistian Asteroid Family is a Hirayama family of asteroids found in the outer portion of the main asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. At a mean distance of 3.13 AU from the Sun, it is one of the more populous asteroid families...

        • Griquas
          Griqua family
          The Griqua asteroids are a group of asteroids in the Main Belt orbiting the sun between 3.1 and 3.27 AU. Asteroids in this group have eccentricities greater than 0.35. The group derives its name from the asteroid 1362 Griqua....

        • Cybeles
          Cybele asteroid
          Cybele asteroids are a group of asteroids in the outer main belt with a semi-major axis between 3.27 AU and 3.7 AU, an eccentricity less than 0.3, and an inclination less than 25°. The group is named for the asteroid 65 Cybele...

        • Thule
          279 Thule
          279 Thule is a large asteroid from the asteroid belt. It is classified as a D-type asteroid and is probably composed of organic-rich silicates, carbon and anhydrous silicates....

        • Vesta
          4 Vesta
          Vesta, formally designated 4 Vesta, is one of the largest asteroids, with a mean diameter of about . It was discovered by Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers on March 29, 1807, and is named after the Roman virgin goddess of home and hearth, Vesta....

      • Trojan asteroid
        Trojan (astronomy)
        In astronomy, a Trojan is a minor planet or natural satellite that shares an orbit with a larger planet or moon, but does not collide with it because it orbits around one of the two Lagrangian points of stability , and , which lie approximately 60° ahead of and behind the larger body,...

        s
        • Earth trojan
          Earth Trojan asteroid
          Earth trojans are asteroids that orbit in the vicinity of the Earth-Sun Lagrangian points and . They are named after the Trojan asteroids that are associated with the analogous Lagrangian points of Jupiter....

          s
        • Mars trojans
        • Jupiter trojans
        • Neptune trojan
          Neptune Trojan
          Neptune trojans are Kuiper belt object-like bodies in solar orbit that have the same orbital period as Neptune and follow roughly the same orbital path...

          s
      • Outer-planet crossers
      • Damocloid
        Damocloid asteroid
        Damocloids are minor planets such as 5335 Damocles and 1996 PW that have Halley family or long-period highly eccentric orbits typical of periodic comets such as Comet Halley, but without showing a cometary coma or tail....

        s
      • Centaur
        Centaur (planetoid)
        Centaurs are an unstable orbital class of minor planets that behave with characteristics of both asteroids and comets. They are named after the mythological race of beings, centaurs, which were a mixture of horse and human...

        s
    • Trans-Neptunian object
      Trans-Neptunian object
      A trans-Neptunian object is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune.The first trans-Neptunian object to be discovered was Pluto in 1930...

      s
      • Kuiper belt
        Kuiper belt
        The Kuiper belt , sometimes called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a region of the Solar System beyond the planets extending from the orbit of Neptune to approximately 50 AU from the Sun. It is similar to the asteroid belt, although it is far larger—20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive...

        • Classical Kuiper-belt objects (cubewanos)
        • Resonant trans-Neptunian object
          Resonant trans-Neptunian object
          In astronomy, a resonant trans-Neptunian object is a trans-Neptunian object in mean motion orbital resonance with Neptune. The orbital periods of the resonant objects are in a simple integer relations with the period of Neptune e.g. 1:2, 2:3 etc...

          s
          • Plutino
            Plutino
            In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object in 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. For every 2 orbits that a plutino makes, Neptune orbits 3 times. Plutinos are named after Pluto, which follows an orbit trapped in the same resonance, with the Italian diminutive suffix -ino...

            s (2:3)
          • Twotinos (1:2)
      • Scattered-disc object
        Scattered disc
        The scattered disc is a distant region of the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy minor planets, a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects. The scattered-disc objects have orbital eccentricities ranging as high as 0.8, inclinations as high as 40°, and perihelia greater...

        s
        • Detached objects
    • Comet
      Comet
      A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet...

      s
    • Oort cloud
      Oort cloud
      The Oort cloud , or the Öpik–Oort cloud , is a hypothesized spherical cloud of comets which may lie roughly 50,000 AU, or nearly a light-year, from the Sun. This places the cloud at nearly a quarter of the distance to Proxima Centauri, the nearest star to the Sun...

    • Meteoroid
      Meteoroid
      A meteoroid is a sand- to boulder-sized particle of debris in the Solar System. The visible path of a meteoroid that enters Earth's atmosphere is called a meteor, or colloquially a shooting star or falling star. If a meteoroid reaches the ground and survives impact, then it is called a meteorite...

      s
      • Meteor
        METEOR
        METEOR is a metric for the evaluation of machine translation output. The metric is based on the harmonic mean of unigram precision and recall, with recall weighted higher than precision...

        s
      • Meteor shower
        Meteor shower
        A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate from one point in the night sky. These meteors are caused by streams of cosmic debris called meteoroids entering Earth's atmosphere at extremely high speeds on parallel trajectories. Most meteors are smaller...

        s
    • Solar wind
      Solar wind
      The solar wind is a stream of charged particles ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It mostly consists of electrons and protons with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in temperature and speed over time...

  • Exoplanets
    • Hot Jupiter
      Hot Jupiter
      Hot Jupiters are a class of extrasolar planet whose mass is close to or exceeds that of Jupiter...

      s
    • Eccentric Jupiter
      Eccentric Jupiter
      An eccentric Jupiter is a Jovian planet that orbits its star in an eccentric orbit. Eccentric Jupiters may disqualify a planetary system from having Earth-like planets in it because a massive gas giant with an eccentric orbit may remove all Earth mass planets from the habitable zone.To date, it...

      s
    • Pulsar planet
      Pulsar planet
      Pulsar planets are planets that are found orbiting pulsars, or rapidly rotating neutron stars. The first such planet to be discovered was around a millisecond pulsar and was the first extrasolar planet to be confirmed as discovered.-Pulsar planets:...

      s
    • Hot Neptune
      Hot Neptune
      A hot Neptune is an extrasolar planet in an orbit close to its star , with a mass similar to that of Uranus or Neptune. Recent observations have revealed a larger potential population of hot Neptunes than previously thought...

      s / Super-Earth
      Super-Earth
      A super-Earth is an extrasolar planet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below the mass of the Solar System's gas giants. The term super-Earth refers only to the mass of the planet, and does not imply anything about the surface conditions or habitability...

      s
    • Transiting planets
    • Rogue
      Rogue Planet
      - Literature :* "Rogue Planet" , a Dan Dare story that ran in the original Eagle comic from Volume 6, Issue 48 to Volume 8, Issue 7* Rogue Planet , a 2000 novel set in the Star Wars galaxy- Other :...

       / Interstellar planet
      Interstellar planet
      A rogue planet is a planetary-mass object that has been ejected from its system and is no longer gravitationally bound to any star, brown dwarf or other such object, and that therefore orbits the galaxy directly...

      s
    • Hypothetical planet types
      • Chthonian planet
        Chthonian planet
        A chthonian planet is a hypothetical class of celestial objects resulting from the stripping away of a gas giant's hydrogen and helium atmosphere and outer layers, which is called hydrodynamic escape. Such atmospheric stripping is a likely result of proximity to a star...

        s
      • Ocean planet
        Ocean planet
        An ocean planet is a hypothetical type of planet whose surface is completely covered with an ocean of water.Planetary objects that form in the outer solar system begin as a comet-like mixture of roughly half water and half rock by mass...

        s
      • Trojan planets
  • Brown dwarf
    Brown dwarf
    Brown dwarfs are sub-stellar objects which are too low in mass to sustain hydrogen-1 fusion reactions in their cores, which is characteristic of stars on the main sequence. Brown dwarfs have fully convective surfaces and interiors, with no chemical differentiation by depth...

    s
    • L-type stars
    • T-type stars
    • Sub-brown dwarf
      Sub-brown dwarf
      A sub-brown dwarf is an astronomical object of planetary mass that is not orbiting a star and is not considered to be a brown dwarf because its mass is below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium ....

      s
  • Star
    Star
    A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

    s by spectral type
  • O-type (blue) stars
  • B-type (blue-white) stars
  • A-type (white) stars
  • F-type (yellow-white) stars
  • G-type (yellow) stars
  • K-type (orange) stars
  • M-type (red) stars
    • Peculiar star
      Peculiar star
      In astrophysics, peculiar stars have distinctly unusual metal abundances, at least in their surface layers.Chemically peculiar stars are common among hot main sequence stars...

      s
      • Carbon star
        Carbon star
        A carbon star is a late-type star similar to a red giant whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds,...

        s
      • S-type star
        S-type star
        A star with spectral type S is a late-type giant star whose spectrum displays bands from zirconium oxide in addition to titanium oxide which is characteristically exhibited by K and M class giant stars...

        s
      • Shell star
        Shell star
        A shell star, also termed Gamma Cassiopeiae variable , is a star having a spectrum that exhibits features indicating a circumstellar disc of gas surrounding the star at the equator. They exhibit irregular variations in their luminosity due to the outflow of matter...

        s
      • Wolf-Rayet star
        Wolf-Rayet star
        Wolf–Rayet stars are evolved, massive stars , which are losing mass rapidly by means of a very strong stellar wind, with speeds up to 2000 km/s...

        s
      • Peculiar A-type stars
      • Metallic A-type stars
      • Barium star
        Barium star
        Barium stars are G to K class giants, whose spectra indicate an overabundance of s-process elements by the presence of singly ionized barium, Ba II, at λ 455.4nm. Barium stars also show enhanced spectral features of carbon, the bands of the molecules CH, CN and C2...

        s
      • P Cygni stars
      • Blue straggler
        Blue straggler
        Blue stragglers are main sequence stars in open or globular clusters that are more luminous and bluer than stars at the main sequence turn-off point for the cluster. Blue stragglers were first discovered by Allan Sandage in 1953 while performing photometry of the stars in the globular cluster M3...

        s
  • Star
    Star
    A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

    s by luminosity class
    • Subdwarf star
      Subdwarf star
      A subdwarf star, sometimes denoted by "sd", is luminosity class VI under the Yerkes spectral classification system. They are defined as stars with luminosity 1.5 to 2 magnitudes lower than that of main-sequence stars of the same spectral type...

      s
    • Dwarf
      Dwarf star
      The term dwarf star refers to a variety of distinct classes of stars.* Dwarf star alone generally refers to any main sequence star, a star of luminosity class V.** Red dwarfs are low-mass main sequence stars....

       (Main sequence
      Main sequence
      The main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appears on plots of stellar color versus brightness. These color-magnitude plots are known as Hertzsprung–Russell diagrams after their co-developers, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell...

      ) star
      Star
      A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

      s
    • Subgiant stars
    • Giant star
      Giant star
      A giant star is a star with substantially larger radius and luminosity than a main sequence star of the same surface temperature. Typically, giant stars have radii between 10 and 100 solar radii and luminosities between 10 and 1,000 times that of the Sun. Stars still more luminous than giants are...

      s
    • Bright giant stars
    • Supergiant star
      Supergiant
      Supergiants are among the most massive stars. They occupy the top region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In the Yerkes spectral classification, supergiants are class Ia or Ib . They typically have bolometric absolute magnitudes between -5 and -12...

      s
    • Hypergiant stars
  • Star
    Star
    A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

    s by population
    • Population III stars
    • Population II stars
      • Halo star
        Halo Star
        Halo Star is the ninth studio album by the Darkwave band Black Tape for a Blue Girl. It was released in 2004 by Projekt Records. It includes one of the band's most popular songs, "Knock Three Times," which later appeared on the popular 2005 Projekt Presents: A Dark Cabaret compilation, remixed as...

        s
      • Thick disk stars
    • Population I stars
  • Star
    Star
    A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

    s by stellar evolution
    Stellar evolution
    Stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. Depending on the mass of the star, this lifetime ranges from only a few million years to trillions of years .Stellar evolution is not studied by observing the life of a single...

    • Protostar
      Protostar
      A protostar is a large mass that forms by contraction out of the gas of a giant molecular cloud in the interstellar medium. The protostellar phase is an early stage in the process of star formation. For a one solar-mass star it lasts about 100,000 years...

      s
    • Young stellar object
      Young stellar object
      Young stellar object denotes a star in its early stage of evolution.This class consists of two groups of objects: protostars and pre–main sequence stars. Sometimes they are divided by mass - massive YSO , intermediate mass YSO and brown dwarfs....

      s
    • Main sequence star
      Main sequence
      The main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appears on plots of stellar color versus brightness. These color-magnitude plots are known as Hertzsprung–Russell diagrams after their co-developers, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell...

      s
    • Red giant star
      Red giant
      A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass in a late phase of stellar evolution. The outer atmosphere is inflated and tenuous, making the radius immense and the surface temperature low, somewhere from 5,000 K and lower...

      s
    • Red supergiant
      Red supergiant
      Red supergiants are supergiant stars of spectral type K or M. They are the largest stars in the universe in terms of volume, although they are not the most massive...

       stars
    • Blue supergiant
      Blue supergiant
      Blue supergiants are supergiant stars of spectral type O or B.They are extremely hot and bright, with surface temperatures of 30,000-50,000 K. They typically have 10 to 50 solar masses on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and can have radii up to about 25 solar radii...

       stars
    • Wolf-Rayet star
      Wolf-Rayet star
      Wolf–Rayet stars are evolved, massive stars , which are losing mass rapidly by means of a very strong stellar wind, with speeds up to 2000 km/s...

      s
    • White dwarf star
      White dwarf
      A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a small star composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. They are very dense; a white dwarf's mass is comparable to that of the Sun and its volume is comparable to that of the Earth. Its faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored...

      s
    • Neutron star
      Neutron star
      A neutron star is a type of stellar remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova event. Such stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles without electrical charge and with a slightly larger...

      s
  • Variable star
    Variable star
    A star is classified as variable if its apparent magnitude as seen from Earth changes over time, whether the changes are due to variations in the star's actual luminosity, or to variations in the amount of the star's light that is blocked from reaching Earth...

    s
    • Intrinsic variables
      • Pulsating variables
        • Cepheid variable
          Cepheid variable
          A Cepheid is a member of a class of very luminous variable stars. The strong direct relationship between a Cepheid variable's luminosity and pulsation period, secures for Cepheids their status as important standard candles for establishing the Galactic and extragalactic distance scales.Cepheid...

          s
        • W Virginis variable
          W Virginis variable
          W Virginis variables are a subclass of Type II Cepheids which exhibit pulsation periods between 10–20 days, and are of spectral class F6 – K2.They were first recognized as being distinct from classical Cepheids by Walter Baade in 1942, in a study of Cepheids in the Andromeda Galaxy that proposed...

          s
        • Delta Scuti variable
          Delta Scuti variable
          A Delta Scuti variable is a variable star which exhibits variations in its luminosity due to both radial and non-radial pulsations of the star's surface. Typical brightness fluctuations are from 0.003 to 0.9 magnitudes in V over a period of a few hours, although the amplitude and period of the...

          s
        • RR Lyrae variable
          RR Lyrae variable
          RR Lyrae variables are periodic variable stars, commonly found in globular clusters, and often used as standard candles to measure galactic distances.This type of variable is named after the prototype, the variable star RR Lyrae in the constellation Lyra....

          s
        • Mira variable
          Mira variable
          Mira variables , named after the star Mira, are a class of pulsating variable stars characterized by very red colors, pulsation periods longer than 100 days, and light amplitudes greater than one magnitude in infrared and 2.5 magnitude in visual...

          s
        • Semiregular variables
        • Irregular variable
          Irregular variable
          An irregular variable is a type of variable star in which variations in brightness show no regular periodicity. There are two main sub-types of irregular variable: eruptive and pulsating.Eruptive irregular variables are divided into three categories:...

          s
        • Beta Cephei variable
          Beta Cephei variable
          Beta Cephei variables are variable stars which exhibit variations in their brightness due to pulsations of the stars' surfaces. The point of maximum brightness roughly corresponds to the maximum contraction of the star. Typically, Beta Cephei variables change in brightness by 0.01 to 0.3...

          s
        • Alpha Cygni variable
          Alpha Cygni variable
          Alpha Cygni variables are variable stars which exhibit non-radial pulsations, meaning that some portions of the stellar surface are contracting at the same time others parts expand. They are supergiant stars of spectral types B or A...

          s
        • RV Tauri variable
          RV Tauri variable
          RV Tauri variables are supergiant variable stars. They exhibit changes in luminosity which are tied to radial pulsations of their surfaces. Their changes in brightness are also correlated with changes in their spectral type. While at their brightest, the stars have spectral types F or G. At...

          s
      • Eruptive variables
        • Flare star
          Flare star
          A flare star is a variable star that can undergo unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes. It is believed that the flares on flare stars are analogous to solar flares in that they are due to magnetic reconnection in the atmospheres of the stars. The brightness increase is...

          s
        • T Tauri variables
        • FU Orionis variables
        • R Coronae Borealis variable
          R Coronae Borealis variable
          A R Coronae Borealis variable is an eruptive variable star that varies in luminosity in two modes, one low amplitude pulsation , and one irregular unpredictably sudden fading by 1 to 9 magnitudes...

          s
        • Luminous blue variable
          Luminous blue variable
          Luminous blue variables, also known as S Doradus variables, are very bright, blue, hypergiant variable stars named after S Doradus, the brightest star of the Large Magellanic Cloud. They exhibit long, slow changes in brightness, punctuated by occasional outbursts in brightness during substantial...

          s
      • Cataclysmic variables
        • Symbiotic variables
        • Dwarf nova
          Dwarf nova
          A U Geminorum-type variable star, or dwarf nova is a type of cataclysmic variable starhttp://www.sai.msu.su/groups/cluster/gcvs/gcvs/iii/vartype.txt consisting of a close binary star system in which one of the components is a white dwarf, which accretes matter from its companion...

          e
        • Nova
          Nova
          A nova is a cataclysmic nuclear explosion in a star caused by the accretion of hydrogen on to the surface of a white dwarf star, which ignites and starts nuclear fusion in a runaway manner...

          e
        • Supernova
          Supernova
          A supernova is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. It is pronounced with the plural supernovae or supernovas. Supernovae are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months...

          e
          • Type I supernovae
          • Type II supernova
            Type II supernova
            A Type II supernova results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star. A star must have at least 9 times, and no more than 40–50 times the mass of the Sun for this type of explosion. It is distinguished from other types of supernova by the presence of hydrogen in its spectrum...

            e
        • Hypothetical
          • Collapsars or Hypernova
            Hypernova
            Hypernova , also known as a type 1c Supernova, refers to an incredibly large star that collapses at the end of its lifespan...

            e
    • Extrinsic variables
      • Rotating variables
        • Alpha2 CVn stars
        • Rotating ellipsoidal variable
          Rotating ellipsoidal variable
          Rotating ellipsoidal variables are a class of variable star. They are close binary systems whose components are ellipsoidal. They are not eclipsing, but fluctuations in apparent magnitude occur due to changes in the amount of light emitting area visible to the observer...

          s
      • Eclipsing binaries
        • Algol star
          Algol variable
          Algol variables or Algol-type binaries are a class of eclipsing binary stars where the orbital plane of the stars are coincident with the line of sight from Earth. When the cooler component passes in front of the hotter one, part of the latter's light is blocked, and the total brightness of the...

          s, Algol
        • Beta Lyrae stars
        • W Ursae Majoris stars
  • Compact star
    Compact star
    In astronomy, the term compact star is used to refer collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, other exotic dense stars, and black holes. These objects are all small for their mass...

    s
    • White dwarf
      White dwarf
      A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a small star composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. They are very dense; a white dwarf's mass is comparable to that of the Sun and its volume is comparable to that of the Earth. Its faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored...

      s
      • Black dwarf
        Black dwarf
        A black dwarf is a hypothetical stellar remnant, created when a white dwarf becomes sufficiently cool to no longer emit significant heat or light...

        s
    • Neutron star
      Neutron star
      A neutron star is a type of stellar remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova event. Such stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles without electrical charge and with a slightly larger...

      s
      • Magnetar
        Magnetar
        A magnetar is a type of neutron star with an extremely powerful magnetic field, the decay of which powers the emission of copious high-energy electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-rays and gamma rays...

        s
      • Pulsar
        Pulsar
        A pulsar is a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation. The radiation can only be observed when the beam of emission is pointing towards the Earth. This is called the lighthouse effect and gives rise to the pulsed nature that gives pulsars their name...

        s
    • Hypothetical stars
      • Quark star
        Quark star
        A quark star or strange star is a hypothetical type of exotic star composed of quark matter, or strange matter. These are ultra-dense phases of degenerate matter theorized to form inside particularly massive neutron stars....

        s
      • Preon stars
    • Black hole
      Black hole
      A black hole is a region of spacetime from which nothing, not even light, can escape. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that...

      s
      • Stellar black hole
        Stellar black hole
        A stellar black hole is a black hole formed by the gravitational collapse of a massive star. They have masses ranging from about 3 to several tens of solar masses...

      • Intermediate-mass black hole
        Intermediate-mass black hole
        An Intermediate-mass black hole is a black hole whose mass is significantly more than stellar black holes yet far less than supermassive black holes...

        s
      • Supermassive black hole
        Supermassive black hole
        A supermassive black hole is the largest type of black hole in a galaxy, in the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses. Most, and possibly all galaxies, including the Milky Way, are believed to contain supermassive black holes at their centers.Supermassive black holes have...

        s
  • Gamma ray burst
    Gamma ray burst
    Gamma-ray bursts are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. They are the most luminous electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe. Bursts can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes, although a typical...

    s
  • Planetary system
    Planetary system
    A planetary system consists of the various non-stellar objects orbiting a star such as planets, dwarf planets , asteroids, meteoroids, comets, and cosmic dust...

    s
  • Star system
    Star system
    A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars which orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction. A large number of stars bound by gravitation is generally called a star cluster or galaxy, although, broadly speaking, they are also star systems.-Binary star systems:A stellar...

    s
    • Single star systems
      Star
      A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

      • Solar system
        Solar System
        The Solar System consists of the Sun and the astronomical objects gravitationally bound in orbit around it, all of which formed from the collapse of a giant molecular cloud approximately 4.6 billion years ago. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun...

    • Multiple star systems
      Star system
      A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars which orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction. A large number of stars bound by gravitation is generally called a star cluster or galaxy, although, broadly speaking, they are also star systems.-Binary star systems:A stellar...

      • Binary star
        Binary star
        A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common center of mass. The brighter star is called the primary and the other is its companion star, comes, or secondary...

        s
        • Observation method:
          • Optical binaries
          • Visual binaries
          • Astrometric binaries
          • Spectroscopic binaries
          • Eclipsing binaries
        • Close binaries
          • Detached binaries
          • Semidetached binaries
          • Contact binaries
            Contact binary
            In astronomy, a contact binary is a binary star system whose component stars are so close that they touch each other or have merged to share their gaseous envelopes. A binary system whose stars share an envelope may also be called an overcontact binary...

          • Unresolved binaries
        • X-ray binaries
          X-ray binary
          X-ray binaries are a class of binary stars that are luminous in X-rays.The X-rays are produced by matter falling from one component, called the donor to the other component, called the accretor, which is compact: a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole.The infalling matter releases...

        • X-ray burster
          X-ray burster
          X-ray bursters are one class of X-ray binary stars exhibiting periodic and rapid increases in luminosity peaked in the X-ray regime of the electromagnetic spectrum...

          s
      • Triple star systems
  • Stellar groupings
    • Star cluster
      Star cluster
      Star clusters or star clouds are groups of stars. Two types of star clusters can be distinguished: globular clusters are tight groups of hundreds of thousands of very old stars which are gravitationally bound, while open clusters, more loosely clustered groups of stars, generally contain less than...

      s
      • Stellar associations
      • Open cluster
        Open cluster
        An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age. More than 1,100 open clusters have been discovered within the Milky Way Galaxy, and many more are thought to exist...

        s
      • Globular cluster
        Globular cluster
        A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite. Globular clusters are very tightly bound by gravity, which gives them their spherical shapes and relatively high stellar densities toward their centers. The name of this category of star cluster is...

        s
      • Hypercompact stellar system
        Hypercompact stellar system
        A hypercompact stellar system is a dense cluster of stars around a supermassive black hole that has been ejected from the centre of its host galaxy...

    • Constellation
      Constellation
      In modern astronomy, a constellation is an internationally defined area of the celestial sphere. These areas are grouped around asterisms, patterns formed by prominent stars within apparent proximity to one another on Earth's night sky....

      s
    • Asterisms
      Asterism (astronomy)
      In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars recognized on Earth's night sky. It may form part of an official constellation, or be composed of stars from more than one. Like constellations, asterisms are in most cases composed of stars which, while they are visible in the same general direction,...

  • Galaxy
    Galaxy
    A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias , literally "milky", a...

     components
    • Galactic bulges
      • Galactic bars
    • Galactic rings
    • Spiral arms
    • Thin disks
    • Thick disks
    • Galactic halo
      Galactic halo
      The term galactic halo is used to denote an extended, roughly spherical component of a galaxy, which extends beyond the main, visible component. It can refer to any of several distinct components which share these properties:* the galactic spheroid...

      s
    • Galactic corona
      Galactic corona
      The terms galactic corona and gaseous corona have been used in the first decade of the 21st century to describe a hot, ionised, gaseous component in the Galactic halo of the Milky Way...

      e
  • Galaxies
    Galaxy
    A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias , literally "milky", a...

    • Galaxies
      Galaxy
      A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias , literally "milky", a...

       by morphology
      • Spiral galaxies
        Spiral galaxy
        A spiral galaxy is a certain kind of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae and, as such, forms part of the Hubble sequence. Spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk containing stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration of stars known as...

      • Barred spiral galaxies
        Barred spiral galaxy
        A barred spiral galaxy is a spiral galaxy with a central bar-shaped structure composed of stars. Bars are found in approximately two-thirds of all spiral galaxies...

      • Lenticular galaxies
        Lenticular galaxy
        A lenticular galaxy is a type of galaxy which is intermediate between an elliptical galaxy and a spiral galaxy in galaxy morphological classification schemes. Lenticular galaxies are disk galaxies which have used up or lost most of their interstellar matter and therefore have very little ongoing...

      • Elliptical galaxies
        Elliptical galaxy
        An elliptical galaxy is a galaxy having an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless brightness profile. They range in shape from nearly spherical to highly flat and in size from hundreds of millions to over one trillion stars...

      • Ring galaxies
        Ring galaxy
        A ring galaxy is a galaxy with a ring-like appearance. The ring consists of massive, relatively young blue stars, which are extremely bright. The central region contains relatively little luminous matter. Some astronomers believe that ring galaxies are formed when a smaller galaxy passes through...

      • Irregular galaxies
        Irregular galaxy
        An irregular galaxy is a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape, like a spiral or an elliptical galaxy. The shape of an irregular galaxy is uncommon – they do not fall into any of the regular classes of the Hubble sequence, and they are often chaotic in appearance, with neither a...

    • Galaxies
      Galaxy
      A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias , literally "milky", a...

       by size
      • Brightest cluster galaxies
        Brightest cluster galaxy
        Brightest cluster galaxy is defined as the brightest galaxy in a cluster of galaxies. BCGs include the most massive galaxies in the universe. They are generally elliptical galaxies which lie close to the geometric and kinematical center of their host galaxy cluster, hence at the bottom of the...

      • Giant ellipticals
      • Dwarf galaxies
        Dwarf galaxy
        A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of up to several billion stars, a small number compared to our own Milky Way's 200-400 billion stars...

    • Active galaxies
      • Quasar
        Quasar
        A quasi-stellar radio source is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus. Quasars are extremely luminous and were first identified as being high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light, that were point-like, similar to stars, rather than...

        s
        • Blazar
          Blazar
          A blazar is a very compact quasar associated with a presumed supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy...

          s
      • Radio galaxies
        Radio galaxy
        Radio galaxies and their relatives, radio-loud quasars and blazars, are types of active galaxy that are very luminous at radio wavelengths, with luminosities up to 1039 W between 10 MHz and 100 GHz. The radio emission is due to the synchrotron process...

      • Seyfert galaxies
        Seyfert galaxy
        Seyfert galaxies are a class of galaxies with nuclei that produce spectral line emission from highly ionized gas, named after Carl Keenan Seyfert, the astronomer who first identified the class in 1943...

      • Starburst galaxies
        Starburst galaxy
        A starburst galaxy is a galaxy in the process of an exceptionally high rate of star formation, compared to the usual star formation rate seen in most galaxies. Galaxies are often observed to have a burst of star formation after a collision or close encounter between two galaxies...

    • Dark galaxies
  • Galaxy group
    Galaxy groups and clusters
    Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation. They form the densest part of the large scale structure of the universe...

    s
  • Galaxy cluster
    Galaxy groups and clusters
    Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation. They form the densest part of the large scale structure of the universe...

    s
  • Supercluster
    Supercluster
    Superclusters are large groups of smaller galaxy groups and clusters and are among the largest known structures of the cosmos. They are so large that they are not gravitationally bound and, consequently, partake in the Hubble expansion.-Existence:...

    s
  • Galaxy filament
    Galaxy filament
    In physical cosmology, galaxy filaments, also called supercluster complexes or great walls, are, so far, the largest known cosmic structures in the universe. They are massive, thread-like structures with a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs h-1 that form the boundaries between large voids in...

    s and Voids
    Void (astronomy)
    In astronomy, voids are the empty spaces between filaments, the largest-scale structures in the Universe, that contain very few, or no, galaxies. They were first discovered in 1978 during a pioneering study by Stephen Gregory and Laird A. Thompson at the Kitt Peak National Observatory...

  • Accretion disc
    Accretion disc
    An accretion disc is a structure formed by diffuse material in orbital motion around a central body. The central body is typically a star. Gravity causes material in the disc to spiral inward towards the central body. Gravitational forces compress the material causing the emission of...

  • Circumstellar matter
    • Debris disk
      Debris disk
      A debris disk is a circumstellar disk of dust and debris in orbit around a star. Sometimes these disks contain prominent rings, as seen in the image of Fomalhaut on the right. Debris disks have been found around both evolved and young stars, as well as at least one debris disk in orbit around a...

      s
    • Interplanetary medium
      Interplanetary medium
      The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the solar system and through which all the larger solar system bodies such as planets, asteroids and comets move.-Composition and physical characteristics:...

    • Interplanetary magnetic field
      Interplanetary Magnetic Field
      The interplanetary magnetic field is the term for the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind among the planets of the Solar System....

    • Circumstellar disk
      Circumstellar disk
      A circumstellar disk is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star. Around the youngest stars, they are the reservoirs of material out of which planets may form...

    • Protoplanetary disk
      Protoplanetary disk
      A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star...

      s
  • Interstellar medium
    Interstellar medium
    In astronomy, the interstellar medium is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy. This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, dust, and cosmic rays. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic space...

    • Interstellar cloud
      Interstellar cloud
      Interstellar cloud is the generic name given to an accumulation of gas, plasma and dust in our and other galaxies. Put differently, an interstellar cloud is a denser-than-average region of the interstellar medium. Depending on the density, size and temperature of a given cloud, the hydrogen in it...

  • Nebula
    Nebula
    A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen gas, helium gas and other ionized gases...

    e
    • Emission nebula
      Emission nebula
      An emission nebula is a cloud of ionized gas emitting light of various colors. The most common source of ionization is high-energy photons emitted from a nearby hot star...

      e
      • Planetary nebula
        Planetary nebula
        A planetary nebula is an emission nebula consisting of an expanding glowing shell of ionized gas ejected during the asymptotic giant branch phase of certain types of stars late in their life...

        e
      • Supernova remnant
        Supernova remnant
        A supernova remnant is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova. The supernova remnant is bounded by an expanding shock wave, and consists of ejected material expanding from the explosion, and the interstellar material it sweeps up and shocks along the way.There are two...

        s
      • Plerions
      • H II region
        H II region
        An H II region is a large, low-density cloud of partially ionized gas in which star formation has recently taken place. The short-lived, blue stars forged in these regions emit copious amounts of ultraviolet light, ionizing the surrounding gas...

        s
    • Reflection nebula
      Reflection nebula
      In Astronomy, reflection nebulae are clouds of dust which are simply reflecting the light of a nearby star or stars. The energy from the nearby star, or stars, is insufficient to ionize the gas of the nebula to create an emission nebula, but is enough to give sufficient scattering to make the dust...

      e
    • Dark nebula
      Dark nebula
      A dark nebula is a type of interstellar cloud that is so dense that it obscures the light from the background emission or reflection nebula or that it blocks out background stars . The extinction of the light is caused by interstellar dust grains located in the coldest, densest parts of larger...

      e
      • Molecular cloud
        Molecular cloud
        A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery if star formation is occurring within, is a type of interstellar cloud whose density and size permits the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen ....

        s
      • Bok globule
        Bok globule
        Bok globules are dark clouds of dense cosmic dust and gas in which star formation sometimes takes place. Bok globules are found within H II regions, and typically have a mass of about 2 to 50 solar masses contained within a region about a light year or so across...

        s
      • Proplyds
    • H I region
      H I region
      An H I region is an interstellar cloud composed of neutral atomic hydrogen , in addition to the local abundance of helium and other elements. These regions are non-luminous, save for emission of the 21-cm region spectral line. This line has a very low transition probability, so requires large...

      s
  • Intergalactic medium
  • Cosmic microwave background radiation
    Cosmic microwave background radiation
    In cosmology, cosmic microwave background radiation is thermal radiation filling the observable universe almost uniformly....

  • Dark matter
    Dark matter
    In astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is matter that neither emits nor scatters light or other electromagnetic radiation, and so cannot be directly detected via optical or radio astronomy...

    • MACHO
      Massive compact halo object
      Massive astrophysical compact halo object, or MACHO, is a general name for any kind of astronomical body that might explain the apparent presence of dark matter in galaxy halos. A MACHO is a body composed of normal baryonic matter, which emits little or no radiation and drifts through interstellar...

      s
    • WIMPs
  • Hypothetical
    • Cosmic string
      Cosmic string
      Cosmic strings are hypothetical 1-dimensional topological defects which may have formed during a symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe when the topology of the vacuum manifold associated to this symmetry breaking is not simply connected. It is expected that at least one string...

    • Domain wall
      Domain wall
      A domain wall is a term used in physics which can have one of two distinct but similar meanings in magnetism, optics, or string theory. These phenomena can all be generically described as topological solitons which occur whenever a discrete symmetry is spontaneously broken.-Magnetism:In magnetism,...


  • See also


    External links