Public Broadcasting Service

Public Broadcasting Service

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Encyclopedia
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American non-profit
Nonprofit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

 public broadcasting
Public broadcasting
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing.Public broadcasting may be...

 television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 network with 354 member TV stations in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia.

PBS is the most prominent provider of television program
Television program
A television program , also called television show, is a segment of content which is intended to be broadcast on television. It may be a one-time production or part of a periodically recurring series...

s to U.S. public television stations, distributing series such as PBS NewsHour, Masterpiece, and Frontline. Since the mid-2000s, Roper
GfK
The GfK Group, established in 1934 as Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung is Germany's largest market research institute, and the fourth largest market research organisation in the world, after Nielsen Company, Kantar Group, and IMS Health...

 polls commissioned by PBS have consistently placed the service as America's most-trusted national institution. However, PBS is not responsible for all programming carried on public TV stations; in fact, stations usually receive a large portion of their content (including most pledge drive
Pledge drive
A pledge drive is an extended period of fundraising activities, generally used by public broadcasting stations to increase contributions. The term "pledge" originates from the promise a contributor makes to send in funding at regular intervals for a certain amount of time...

 specials) from third-party sources, such as American Public Television
American Public Television
American Public Television is the largest syndicator of programming for public television stations in the United States.-History:...

, NETA, WTTW National Productions
WTTW
WTTW channel 11 is one of three Public Broadcasting Service member public television stations serving the Chicago, Illinois market; the others are WYCC and WYIN. WTTW began broadcasting on September 6, 1955 and it is owned and operated by Window to the World Communications, Inc., a not-for-profit...

 and independent producers. This distinction is a frequent source of viewer confusion.

PBS also has a subsidiary
Subsidiary
A subsidiary company, subsidiary, or daughter company is a company that is completely or partly owned and wholly controlled by another company that owns more than half of the subsidiary's stock. The subsidiary can be a company, corporation, or limited liability company. In some cases it is a...

 called National Datacast
National Datacast
National Datacast Incorporated is a pioneer in data broadcasting.It is a for-profit subsidiary of the Public Broadcasting Service which handles datacasting on PBS TV stations throughout the United States...

 (NDI), which offers datacasting
Datacasting
Datacasting is the broadcasting of data over a wide area via radio waves. It most often refers to supplemental information sent by television stations along with digital television, but may also be applied to digital signals on analog TV or radio...

 services via member stations. This helps PBS and its member stations earn extra revenue
Revenue
In business, revenue is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. In many countries, such as the United Kingdom, revenue is referred to as turnover....

.

Overview



PBS was founded on October 5, 1970, at which time it took over many of the functions of its predecessor, National Educational Television
National Educational Television
National Educational Television was an American non-commercial educational public television network in the United States from May 16, 1954 to October 4, 1970...

 (NET), which later merged with station WNDT, Newark, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the largest city in the American state of New Jersey, and the seat of Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Newark had a population of 277,140, maintaining its status as the largest municipality in New Jersey. It is the 68th largest city in the U.S...

, to form WNET
WNET
WNET, channel 13 is a non-commercial educational public television station licensed to Newark, New Jersey. With its signal covering the New York metropolitan area, WNET is a primary station of the Public Broadcasting Service and a primary provider of PBS programming...

. In 1973, it merged with Educational Television Stations
Educational Television Stations
Educational Television Stations was a division of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters , created at the association's 1963 convention in the United States...

.

Unlike the model of America's commercial broadcasting
Commercial broadcasting
Commercial broadcasting is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship...

 television network
Television network
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay TV providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small...

s, in which affiliates give up portions of their local advertising airtime in exchange for network programming, PBS member stations pay substantial fees for the shows acquired and distributed by the national organization.

This relationship means that PBS member stations have greater latitude in local scheduling than their commercial broadcasting counterparts. Scheduling of PBS-distributed series may vary greatly from market to market. This can be a source of tension as stations seek to preserve their localism, and PBS strives to market a consistent national line-up. However, PBS has a policy of "common carriage" requiring most stations to clear the national prime-time programs on a common broadcast programming schedule, so that they can be more effectively marketed on a national basis.

Unlike its radio counterpart, National Public Radio, PBS has no central program production arm or news department. All of the programming carried by PBS, whether news, documentary, or entertainment, is created by (or in most cases produced under contract with) other parties, such as individual member stations. WGBH
WGBH-TV
WGBH-TV, channel 2, is a non-commercial educational public television station located in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. WGBH-TV is a member station of the Public Broadcasting Service , and produces more than two-thirds of PBS's national prime time television programming...

 in Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

 is one of the largest producers of educational television
Educational television
Educational television is the use of television programs in the field of distance education. It may be in the form of individual television programs or dedicated specialty channels that is often associated with cable television in the United States as Public, educational, and government access ...

 programming, including American Experience
American Experience
American Experience is a television program airing on the Public Broadcasting Service Public television stations in the United States. The program airs documentaries, many of which have won awards, about important or interesting events and people in American history...

, Masterpiece Theater, Nova
NOVA (TV series)
Nova is a popular science television series from the U.S. produced by WGBH Boston. It can be seen on the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States, and in more than 100 other countries...

, Antiques Roadshow
Antiques Roadshow
Antiques Roadshow is a British television show in which antiques appraisers travel to various regions of the United Kingdom to appraise antiques brought in by local people. It has been running since 1979...

 and Frontline, as well as many other children's and lifestyle shows. News programs are produced by WETA-TV
WETA-TV
WETA-TV is a Public Broadcasting Service member public televisionstation for the Washington, D.C., area. Its studios are in nearby Arlington, Virginia...

 (PBS Newshour) in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, WNET
WNET
WNET, channel 13 is a non-commercial educational public television station licensed to Newark, New Jersey. With its signal covering the New York metropolitan area, WNET is a primary station of the Public Broadcasting Service and a primary provider of PBS programming...

 in New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 and WPBT
WPBT
WPBT is a PBS member public television station that serves the entire South Florida region, and even including portions of the Treasure Coast, the only television station to serve the entire metropolis...

 in Miami
Miami, Florida
Miami is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and the county seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States with a population of 2,500,625...

. The Charlie Rose
Charlie Rose (talk show)
Charlie Rose is an American television interview show, with Charlie Rose as executive producer, executive editor, and host. The show is syndicated...

 interview show, Secrets of the Dead
Secrets of the Dead
Secrets of the Dead is a PBS television series produced by Thirteen/WNET New York. The show generally follows an investigator or team of investigators exploring what modern science can tell us about some of the great mysteries of history...

, NOW on PBS, Nature
Nature (TV series)
Nature is a wildlife television program produced by Thirteen/WNET New York. It has been distributed to United States public television stations by the PBS television service since its debut on October 10, 1982. Some episodes may appear in syndication on many PBS member stations around the U.S. and...

, and Cyberchase
Cyberchase
Cyberchase is an American educational television series for children age 6-12, that teaches children discrete mathematics. The show airs on Public Broadcasting Service and PBS Kids GO! in the United States. Seasons one through five were produced by Thirteen/WNET New York and Nelvana...

 come from or through WNET
WNET
WNET, channel 13 is a non-commercial educational public television station licensed to Newark, New Jersey. With its signal covering the New York metropolitan area, WNET is a primary station of the Public Broadcasting Service and a primary provider of PBS programming...

 in New York. Once a program is offered to, and accepted by, PBS for distribution, PBS (and not the member station that supplied the program) retains exclusive rights for rebroadcasts during the period for which such rights were granted; the suppliers do maintain the right to sell the program in non-broadcast media such as DVD
DVD
A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions....

s, books, and sometimes PBS licensed merchandise
Merchandising
Merchandising is the methods, practices, and operations used to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial activity. In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer...

 (but sometimes grant such ancillary rights as well to PBS).

PBS stations are commonly operated by non-profit organization
Non-profit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

s, state agencies, local authorities (e.g., municipal boards of education), or universities
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 in their city of license
City of license
A city of license or community of license, in American and Canadian broadcasting, is the community that a radio station or television station is officially licensed to serve by that country's broadcast regulator....

. In some U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

s, PBS stations throughout the entire state may be organized into a single regional "subnetwork" called a state network
State network
A State Network in the United States broadcasting industry is a term which refers to a miniature television network serving an entire state or multiple states...

 (e.g., Alabama Public Television
Alabama Public Television
Alabama Public Television is a state network of Public Broadcasting Service member non-commercial educational Public television stations serving the US state of Alabama. The television stations are licensed by the Alabama Educational Television Commission, which was created by the Alabama state...

). Unlike public broadcasters in most other countries, PBS does not own any of the stations that broadcast its programming (i.e., there are no PBS Owned-and-operated station
Owned-and-operated station
In the broadcasting industry , an owned-and-operated station usually refers to a television station or radio station that is owned by the network with which it is associated...

s (O&O) anywhere in the country). This is partly due to the origins of the PBS stations themselves, and partly due to historical broadcast license
Broadcast license
A broadcast license or broadcast license is a specific type of spectrum license that grants the licensee the privilege to use a portion of the radio frequency spectrum in a given geographical area for broadcasting purposes. The licenses are generally straddled with additional restrictions that...

 issues.

In the modern broadcast marketplace, this organizational structure is considered outmoded by some media critics. A common restructuring proposal is to reorganize the network so that each state would have one PBS member which would broadcast state-wide. However, this proposal is controversial, as it would reduce local community input into PBS programming, especially considering how PBS stations are significantly more community-oriented, according to the argument, than their commercial broadcasting
Commercial broadcasting
Commercial broadcasting is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship...

 counterparts.

In 1994, The Chronicle of Philanthropy
The Chronicle of Philanthropy
The Chronicle of Philanthropy is a biweekly newspaper that covers the nonprofit world. Based in Washington, DC, it is the top news source for charity leaders, foundation executives, fund raisers, and other people involved in philanthropy...

, an industry publication, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization
Non-profit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

 popularity and credibility. The study showed that PBS was ranked as the 11th "most popular charity/non-profit in America" from over 100 charities researched, with 38.2% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "love" and "like a lot" for PBS.

In December 2009, PBS signed up for the Nielsen ratings
Nielsen Ratings
Nielsen ratings are the audience measurement systems developed by Nielsen Media Research, in an effort to determine the audience size and composition of television programming in the United States...

 audience measurement
Audience measurement
Audience measurement measures how many people are in an audience, usually in relation to radio listenership and television viewership, but also in relation to newspaper and magazine readership and, increasingly, web traffic on websites...

 reports for the first time.

"Viewers Like You"



Beginning on October 2, 1989, the phrase "Viewers Like You" has been used to indicate PBS's gratitude to viewers of PBS that contributed to the production costs. The phrase appears in the list of underwriter
Underwriting
Underwriting refers to the process that a large financial service provider uses to assess the eligibility of a customer to receive their products . The name derives from the Lloyd's of London insurance market...

s, at the start and end of all PBS programs with viewer contributions.

Formats


1970–1989
Prior to October 2, 1989, donations by viewers of PBS members were recognized as contributions from "this (station) and other public television stations." The on-screen text just showed "Public Television Stations".
1989–1999
From 1989 to 1999 the announcement consisted of:
  • The underwriting
    Underwriting
    Underwriting refers to the process that a large financial service provider uses to assess the eligibility of a customer to receive their products . The name derives from the Lloyd's of London insurance market...

     announcement, accompanied by a slide.
  • The words "Viewers Like You" (with "You" written out in yellow script in the early days).
  • The announcer says "Funding for this program was provided by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and by the (annual) financial support of Viewers Like You".

1999–present
Beginning on November 1, 1999, the PBS underwriting guidelines required all announcements to read, "This program was made possible by contributions to your PBS station from Viewers Like You. Thank You."

Primetime

  • Fine arts (Great Performances
    Great Performances
    Great Performances, a television series devoted to the performing arts, has been telecast on Public Broadcasting Service public television since 1972...

    , Live from the Metropolitan Opera, Live from Lincoln Center
    Live from Lincoln Center
    Live From Lincoln Center is an ongoing series of musical performances produced by Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in conjunction with Thirteen/WNET in New York City....

    , and Evening at Pops
    Evening at Pops
    Evening at Pops is one of the longest running programs on PBS. The program was a public television version of a variety show, hosted by a world-renowned orchestra, the Boston Pops...

    )
  • Drama
    Drama
    Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action" , which is derived from "to do","to act" . The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a...

     (Mystery!
    Mystery!
    Mystery! is an episodic television series that debuted in 1980 in the USA. It airs on PBS and is produced by WGBH...

    , American Playhouse
    American Playhouse
    American Playhouse is an anthology television series periodically broadcast by Public Broadcasting Service in the United States.It premiered on January 12, 1982 with The Shady Hill Kidnapping, written and narrated by John Cheever and directed by Paul Bogart...

    , and Masterpiece)
  • Science
    Science
    Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

     (Nova
    NOVA (TV series)
    Nova is a popular science television series from the U.S. produced by WGBH Boston. It can be seen on the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States, and in more than 100 other countries...

     and Scientific American Frontiers
    Scientific American Frontiers
    Scientific American Frontiers was an American television program primarily focused on informing the public about new technologies and discoveries in science and medicine. It was a companion program to the Scientific American magazine. The show was produced for PBS in the U.S...

    )
  • History
    History
    History is the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Scholars who write about history are called historians...

     (American Experience
    American Experience
    American Experience is a television program airing on the Public Broadcasting Service Public television stations in the United States. The program airs documentaries, many of which have won awards, about important or interesting events and people in American history...

    , History Detectives
    History Detectives
    History Detectives is a documentary television series on PBS. A group of researchers help people to seek answers to various historical questions they have, usually centering around a family heirloom, an old house or other historic object or structure...

    )
  • Public affairs
    Public affairs (broadcasting)
    Public affairs, a broadcasting industry term, refers to television programs which focuses on matters of politics and public policy. Among commercial broadcasters, such programs are often only to satisfy Federal Communications Commission regulatory expectations and are not scheduled in prime time...

     (Frontline, NOW on PBS, Wide Angle
    Wide Angle (TV series)
    Wide Angle is an American documentary television series produced by Thirteen/WNET New York for broadcast on PBS and for worldwide distribution. The weekly one-hour series covers international current affairs and is presently hosted by veteran journalist Aaron Brown...

    , PBS NewsHour, Nightly Business Report
    Nightly Business Report
    Nightly Business Report is a Business news television magazine broadcast live Monday to Friday evenings on most public television stations in the United States. Every weeknight, Nightly Business Report distills the essence of what matters in the business world, and provides analysis and reflection...

    )
  • Independent film
    Independent film
    An independent film, or indie film, is a professional film production resulting in a feature film that is produced mostly or completely outside of the major film studio system. In addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment companies, independent films are also produced...

    s (P.O.V.
    P.O.V.
    POV is a Public Broadcasting Service Public television series which features independent nonfiction films. POV is a cinema term for "point of view"....

    , and Independent Lens
    Independent Lens
    Airing weekly on PBS through ITVS, the Emmy Award-winning series Independent Lens introduces new drama and documentary films made by independent filmmakers. Past seasons of Independent Lens have been presented by hosts Angela Bassett, Don Cheadle, Susan Sarandon, Edie Falco, Terrence Howard, Maggie...

    )

Exercise

  • Power Yoga: Mind and Body
  • Wai Lana Yoga
  • Priscilla's Yoga Stretches
  • Body Electric
  • Allaire Back Fitness
  • Fitness Show
  • Functional Fitness with Suzanne Andrews
  • Classical Stretch: The Esmonde Technique
  • Sit and Be Fit
    Sit and Be Fit
    Sit and Be Fit is an award-winning exercise program for senior citizens and individuals with limited physical motion, that is available on video tapes and is distributed to public television stations ....


Daytime/children


  • 3-2-1 Contact
    3-2-1 Contact
    3-2-1 Contact is an American science educational television show that aired on PBS from 1980 to 1988, and an adjoining children's magazine. The show, a production of the Children's Television Workshop, teaches scientific principles and their applications. Dr. Edward G...

  • A Place of Our Own
    A Place of Our Own
    A Place of Our Own is a daily program about child care that airs on Public Broadcasting Service , produced in Los Angeles by KCET. It was hosted by Debi Gutierrez and has been recently hosted by Elizabeth Sanchez. The Spanish-language version is Los Niños en Su Casa , seen on PBS and on the...

  • Arthur
    Arthur (TV series)
    Arthur is an American/Canadian animated educational television series for children, created by Cookie Jar Group and WGBH for the Public Broadcasting Service...

  • Barney & Friends
    Barney & Friends
    Barney and Friends, also referred to by HiT Entertainment as Barney the Friendly Dinosaur, is an independent children's television show produced in the United States, aimed at children from ages 1-8...

  • Between the Lions
    Between the Lions
    Between the Lions is a PBS Kids' puppet show designed to promote reading. The show is a co-production between WGBH in Boston and Sirius Thinking, Ltd., in New York City, in association with Mississippi Public Broadcasting, in Mississippi. The show has won seven Daytime Emmy awards between 2001 and...

  • Boohbah
    Boohbah
    Boohbah is a 2003 children's television series produced by Ragdoll Productions and aimed at children between three and five years old. It premiered in 2003 on GMTV and CITV in the United Kingdom, in the United States on PBS and PBS Kids Sprout. It was created by Anne Wood with scripts by Alan Dapre...

  • Bob the Builder
    Bob the Builder
    Bob the Builder is a British children's animated television show created by Keith Chapman. In the original series Bob appears as a building contractor specialising in masonry in a stop motion animated programme with his colleague Wendy, various neighbours and friends, and their gang of...

  • Brum (TV Series)
  • Caillou
    Caillou
    Caillou is a Canadian children's television show based on the books by author Christine L'Heureux and illustrator Hélène Desputeaux. Many of the stories in the animated version began with a grandmother introducing the story to her grandchildren, then reading the story about the book...

  • Clifford the Big Red Dog (TV series)
  • Curious George (TV series)
    Curious George (TV series)
    Curious George is an animated television series based on the Curious George children's book series, which features Jeff Bennett as the voice of The Man with the Yellow Hat. Frank Welker, who voiced George in the 2006 feature film, returns here as the voice of Curious George. The stories of Season...

  • Cyberchase
    Cyberchase
    Cyberchase is an American educational television series for children age 6-12, that teaches children discrete mathematics. The show airs on Public Broadcasting Service and PBS Kids GO! in the United States. Seasons one through five were produced by Thirteen/WNET New York and Nelvana...

  • Dragon Tales
    Dragon Tales
    Dragon Tales is an American animated pre-school children's television series chronicling the adventures of two siblings, Max and Emmy and their dragon friends Cassie, Ord, Zak, Wheezie, and Quetzal...

  • Dinosaur Train
    Dinosaur Train
    Dinosaur Train is an American animated series created by Craig Bartlett. The series features a curious young T. rex named Buddy who, together with his adopted Pteranodon family, takes the Dinosaur Train to meet, explore, and have adventures with all kinds of dinosaurs.It was the second show by The...

  • FETCH! with Ruff Ruffman
    FETCH! with Ruff Ruffman
    FETCH! with Ruff Ruffman, sometimes shortened as FETCH!, is a children's television series for children ages 6–12 on PBS during the PBS Kids GO! block of educational programming. It is a game show/reality show that is hosted by an animated anthropomorphic dog who dispenses challenges to the show's...

  • It's a Big Big World
    It's a Big Big World
    It's A Big Big World is an American children's television show on PBS Kids, that debuted January 2, 2006. It was originally part of Miss Lori and Hooper's schedule block, but it was replaced in that block on September 3, 2007, though ran for a few years that followed...

  • Kratts' Creatures
    Kratts' Creatures
    Kratts' Creatures is a children's television program on PBS. The show was hosted by the Kratt Brothers, Chris and Martin. It also featured Shannon Duff as Alison Baldwin and Ron Rubin as the voice of an animated anthropomorphic dinosaur. The show introduced its viewers to the world of animals. 50...

  • Liberty's Kids
    Liberty's Kids
    Liberty's Kids is an animated television series produced by DIC Entertainment, originally broadcast on PBS Kids from Septemer 2, 2002 to April 4, 2003, although PBS continued to air reruns until August 2004...

 
  • Little Critter
    Little Critter
    Little Critter is an anthropomorphic animal character created by Mercer Mayer. Although his creator has not specified which type of animal the Little Critter is, he resembles a hamster or guinea pig. Little Critter first appeared in the 1975 book Just for You. This book is sometimes mis-titled...

  • Little People
    Little People
    Little People is a toy brand for preschoolers, originally produced by Fisher-Price in the 1960s as the Play Family. The current product line consists of playsets, mini-sets and accessories, books, CDs, and DVDs focusing on various configurations of five characters named Eddie, Sarah Lynn, Maggie,...

  • The Magic School Bus
    The Magic School Bus (TV series)
    The Magic School Bus is an American Saturday morning animated television series based on the book series of the same name by Joanna Cole. It is notable for its use of celebrity talent and combining entertainment with an educational show, according to an article in Animation World Magazine by...

  • Make Way For Noddy
    Make Way for Noddy
    Make Way for Noddy is an English CGI-animated series for children, produced by Chorion of the United Kingdom in conjunction with SD Entertainment and Shari Lewis Enterprises in the United States...

  • Martha Speaks
    Martha Speaks (TV series)
    Martha Speaks is an animated children's television sitcom based on the 1992 children's book of the same name by Susan Meddaugh about a talking dog named Martha , who is owned by ten-year-old Helen Lorraine...

  • Mister Rogers' Neighborhood
    Mister Rogers' Neighborhood
    Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, also known as Mister Rogers, is an American children's television series that was created and hosted by Fred Rogers. The series is aimed primarily at preschool ages, 2-5, but has been stated by Public Broadcasting Service as "appropriate for all ages"...

  • The Puzzle Place
    The Puzzle Place
    The Puzzle Place is an American children's television series produced by KCET in Los Angeles, California and Lancit Media in New York City, New York...

  • Reading Rainbow
    Reading Rainbow
    Reading Rainbow is an American children's television series aired by PBS from June 6, 1983 until November 10, 2006 that encouraged reading among children. The award-winning public television series garnered over 200 broadcast awards, including scores of Emmy Awards, many for "Outstanding Children's...

  • Rosie and Jim
    Rosie and Jim
    Rosie and Jim was a British children's television programme which appeared, on and off, on CITV since the early 1990s. The programme was the creation of John Cunliffe, in collaboration with Anne Wood and Robin Stevens, Robin Stevens] also played the character Jim...

  • Super Why!
    Super Why!
    Super Why! or The Reading Adventures of Super Why! is a CGI animated show developed by Angela C. Santomero and Samantha Freeman Alpert. The TV series is produced by New York City-based Out of the Blue Enterprises and Toronto-based DHX Media through its Decode Entertainment division. The show...

  • Sesame Street
    Sesame Street
    Sesame Street has undergone significant changes in its history. According to writer Michael Davis, by the mid-1970s the show had become "an American institution". The cast and crew expanded during this time, including the hiring of women in the crew and additional minorities in the cast. The...

  • Shining Time Station
    Shining Time Station
    Shining Time Station is an American children's television series co-created by Britt Allcroft and Rick Siggelkow. The series was produced by The Britt Allcroft Company and Quality Family Entertainment in New York for New York City PBS Station WNET, and was filmed first in New York and then in Toronto...

  • Sooty
    Sooty
    Sooty is a British glove puppet bear and TV character popular in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and other countries. The children's television show which bears his name has continued in various forms since the 1950s and, according to the Guinness Book of Records, is the...

  • Teletubbies
    Teletubbies
    Teletubbies is a BBC children's television series targeted at pre-school viewers and produced from 1997 to 2001 by Ragdoll Productions. It was created by Ragdoll's creative director Anne Wood CBE and Andrew Davenport, who wrote each of the show's 365 episodes. The programme's original narrator was...

  • The Cat in the Hat Knows a Lot About That
  • The Electric Company (2009 TV series)
    The Electric Company (2009 TV series)
    The Electric Company is an American children's educational series for young children aged 4–8 on PBS, derived from the 1971 series. The series premiered as a four-episode mini-marathon on PBS on January 19, 2009, then became a weekly series with an episode shown each Friday. On September 7, 2009,...

  • Villa Alegre
  • Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego?
  • Wishbone
    Wishbone (TV series)
    Wishbone is a television show which aired from 1995 to 1998 and reruns from 1998 to 2001 in the United States featuring a Jack Russell Terrier of the same name. The main character, the talking dog Wishbone, lives with his owner Joe Talbot in the fictional modern town of Oakdale, Texas...

  • Zoboomafoo
    Zoboomafoo
    Zoboomafoo is an American children's television series that aired from January 25, 1998, to April 21, 2001, and is still shown today in syndication depending on the area, and it is regularly shown on PBS Kids Sprout. A total of 65 episodes were aired...

  • ZOOM
    Zoom (1999 TV series)
    ZOOM is an American educational television series, created almost entirely by children, which aired on Public Broadcasting Service originally from January 4, 1999 to June 24, 2005. It was a remake of a 1972 TV series by the same name. Both versions were produced by WGBH-TV in Boston...


  • PBS Kids
    PBS Kids
    PBS Kids is the brand for children's programming aired by the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States founded in 1993. As with all PBS programming, PBS Kids programming is non-commercial. It is aimed at children ages 2 to 10...

     has also imported British children's series from the BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

     and ITV
    ITV
    ITV is the major commercial public service TV network in the United Kingdom. Launched in 1955 under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to the BBC, it is also the oldest commercial network in the UK...

     (for example, Tots TV
    Tots TV
    Tots TV is a television show, produced by Ragdoll Productions and Central . Tots TV was also broadcast in the USA on PBS from 3 January 1993 to 27 April 1998...

    , Teletubbies
    Teletubbies
    Teletubbies is a BBC children's television series targeted at pre-school viewers and produced from 1997 to 2001 by Ragdoll Productions. It was created by Ragdoll's creative director Anne Wood CBE and Andrew Davenport, who wrote each of the show's 365 episodes. The programme's original narrator was...

    , Boohbah
    Boohbah
    Boohbah is a 2003 children's television series produced by Ragdoll Productions and aimed at children between three and five years old. It premiered in 2003 on GMTV and CITV in the United Kingdom, in the United States on PBS and PBS Kids Sprout. It was created by Anne Wood with scripts by Alan Dapre...

    , and Thomas the Tank Engine
    Thomas the Tank Engine
    Thomas the Tank Engine is a fictional steam locomotive in The Railway Series books by the Reverend Wilbert Awdry and his son, Christopher. He became the most popular character in the series, and the accompanying television spin-off series, Thomas and Friends.Thomas is a tank engine, painted blue...

    ), as well as children's shows from Canada (i.e., The Big Comfy Couch
    The Big Comfy Couch
    The Big Comfy Couch is a Canadian children's television series about Loonette the Clown and her doll Molly, who solve everyday problems on their "Big Comfy Couch". It aired from 1992 until early 2006. Re-runs of the show are still being aired on Treehouse TV. It was produced by Cheryl Wagner and...

    , Theodore Tugboat
    Theodore Tugboat
    Theodore Tugboat is a Canadian children's television series about a tugboat named Theodore who lives in the Big Harbour with all of his friends. The show was produced in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada by the CBC , and the now defunct Cochran Entertainment, and was filmed on a model set using radio...

    , Wimzie's House
    Wimzie's House
    Wimzie's House is a Canadian children's television program which ran on YTV from 1995 to 1996, and in the United States on Public Broadcasting Service from October 1, 1997 to August 31, 2001. The show has also aired at least as early as 1995 and through the late-1990s on CBC Television, and on...

     and Polka Dot Door
    Polka Dot Door
    Polka Dot Door was a long-running children's television series produced and broadcast by TVOntario from 1971 until 1993. The show, which aired Monday to Friday, was set in a large playhouse...

    ). On June 4, 2007, their first imported Australian children's TV series debuted on PBS – Raggs
    RAGGS Kids Club Band
    The Raggs Band is a US-based musical troupe of five canine characters who have played over 2,000 live performances on four continents since 2002.-Creation:...

    . Some of the programs subsequently moved to commercial television (for example, Ghostwriter
    Ghostwriter (TV series)
    Ghostwriter is an American television program created by Liz Nelson and produced by the Children's Television Workshop and BBC One. It began airing on PBS on October 4, 1992, and the final episode aired on February 13, 1995...

    , and The Magic School Bus
    The Magic School Bus (TV series)
    The Magic School Bus is an American Saturday morning animated television series based on the book series of the same name by Joanna Cole. It is notable for its use of celebrity talent and combining entertainment with an educational show, according to an article in Animation World Magazine by...

    ).

    However, PBS is not the only distributor of public television programming to the member stations. Other distributors have emerged from the roots of the old companies that had loosely held regional public television stations in the 1960s. Boston
    Boston
    Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

    -based American Public Television
    American Public Television
    American Public Television is the largest syndicator of programming for public television stations in the United States.-History:...

     (former names include Eastern Educational Network and American Program Service) is second only to PBS for distributing programs to U.S. non-commercial stations. Another distributor is NETA (formerly SECA), whose properties have included The Shapies
    The Shapies
    The Shapies is an Australian Computer animation children's television series. Produced by Light Knights Productions, it first aired on 7 July 2002, on the Australian Nine Network and on PBS Kids in the United States...

     and Jerry Yarnell School of Fine Art. In addition, the member stations themselves also produce a variety of local shows, some of which subsequently receive national distribution through PBS or the other distributors
    Television syndication
    In broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast radio shows and television shows by multiple radio stations and television stations, without going through a broadcast network, though the process of syndication may conjure up structures like those of a network itself, by its very...

    .

    PBS stations are known for rebroadcasting British television costume drama
    Costume drama
    A costume drama or period drama is a period piece in which elaborate costumes, sets and properties are featured in order to capture the ambiance of a particular era.The term is usually used in the context of film and television...

    s and comedies (acquired from the BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

     and other sources); consequently, it has been joked that PBS means "Primarily British Series". However, a significant amount of sharing takes place. The BBC and other media outlets in the region such as Channel 4
    Channel 4
    Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began working on 2 November 1982. Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority , the station is now owned and operated by the Channel...

     often cooperate with PBS stations, producing material that is shown on both sides of the Atlantic
    Atlantic Ocean
    The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

    . Less frequently, Canadian, Australian, and other international programming appears on PBS stations (such as The Red Green Show
    The Red Green Show
    The Red Green Show is a Canadian television comedy that aired on various channels in Canada, with its ultimate home at CBC Television, and on Public Broadcasting Service stations in the United States, from 1991 until the series finale April 7, 2006 on CBC...

    , currently distributed by syndicator Executive Program Services); the public broadcasting syndicators are more likely to offer this programming to the U.S. public stations. PBS is also known for broadcasting British comedy
    Comedy
    Comedy , as a popular meaning, is any humorous discourse or work generally intended to amuse by creating laughter, especially in television, film, and stand-up comedy. This must be carefully distinguished from its academic definition, namely the comic theatre, whose Western origins are found in...

     and science fiction
    Science fiction
    Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, and paranormal abilities...

     programs such as 'Allo 'Allo!
    'Allo 'Allo!
    'Allo 'Allo! is a British sitcom broadcast on BBC One from 1982 to 1992 comprising eighty-five episodes. It is a parody of another BBC programme, the wartime drama Secret Army, and was created by David Croft, who also wrote the theme music, and Jeremy Lloyd. Lloyd and Croft wrote the first 6...

    , Are You Being Served?
    Are You Being Served?
    Are You Being Served? is a British sitcom broadcast from 1972 to 1985. It was set in the ladies' and gentlemen's clothing departments of Grace Brothers, a large, fictional London department store. It was written mainly by Jeremy Lloyd and David Croft, with contributions by Michael Knowles and John...

    , The Benny Hill Show
    Benny Hill
    Benny Hill was an English comedian and actor, notable for his long-running television programme The Benny Hill Show.-Early life:...

    , Doctor Who
    Doctor Who
    Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a time-travelling humanoid alien known as the Doctor who explores the universe in a sentient time machine called the TARDIS that flies through time and space, whose exterior...

    , Father Ted
    Father Ted
    Father Ted is a comedy series set in Ireland that was produced by Hat Trick Productions for British broadcaster Channel 4. Written jointly by Irish writers Arthur Mathews and Graham Linehan and starring a predominantly Irish cast, it originally aired over three series from 21 April 1995 until 1 May...

    , Fawlty Towers
    Fawlty Towers
    Fawlty Towers is a British sitcom produced by BBC Television and first broadcast on BBC2 in 1975. Twelve television program episodes were produced . The show was written by John Cleese and his then wife Connie Booth, both of whom played major characters...

    , Harry Enfield and Chums, Keeping Up Appearances
    Keeping Up Appearances
    Keeping Up Appearances is a British sitcom created and written by Roy Clarke for the BBC. Centred on the life of eccentric, social-climbing snob Hyacinth Bucket , the sitcom portrays a social hierarchy-ruled British society...

    , Monty Python's Flying Circus
    Monty Python's Flying Circus
    Monty Python’s Flying Circus is a BBC TV sketch comedy series. The shows were composed of surreality, risqué or innuendo-laden humour, sight gags and observational sketches without punchlines...

    , Mr. Bean
    Mr. Bean
    Mr. Bean is a British comedy television programme series of 14 half-hour episodes written by and starring Rowan Atkinson as the title character. Different episodes were also written by Robin Driscoll, Richard Curtis and one by Ben Elton. The pilot episode was broadcast on ITV on 1 January 1990,...

     and Red Dwarf
    Red Dwarf
    Red Dwarf is a British comedy franchise which primarily comprises eight series of a television science fiction sitcom that aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1999 and Dave from 2009–present. It gained cult following. It was created by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, who also wrote the first six series...

    .

    Contributing stations


    Stations and/or networks that have produced or presented PBS-distributed programming include:
    • KAET
      KAET
      KAET is a full-service television station in Phoenix, Arizona, owned by the Arizona Board of Regents and operated by Arizona State University as a PBS member station. It broadcasts in digital on VHF channel 8 in the Phoenix metropolitan area from its transmitter on South Mountain...

      , Phoenix, Arizona
      Phoenix, Arizona
      Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

    • KUAT-TV
      KUAT-TV
      KUAT-TV is the Public Broadcasting Service member Public televisionstation in Tucson, Arizona, United States. Owned by the Arizona Board of Regents and operated by the University of Arizona, it broadcasts from the facilities of Arizona Public Media, located on campus in the Modern Languages...

      , Tucson, Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona
      Tucson is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States. The city is located 118 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico border. The 2010 United States Census puts the city's population at 520,116 with a metropolitan area population at 1,020,200...

    • KETS, Little Rock, Arkansas
      Little Rock, Arkansas
      Little Rock is the capital and the largest city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 699,757 people in the 2010 census...

    • KVPT
      KVPT
      KVPT virtual channel 18, known on-air as Valley PBS, is the sole source of public television broadcasting in California’s Central San Joaquin Valley. Based in Fresno, California, Valley PBS is licensed to Digital Channel 40, but continues to use its historic analog channel 18 as its virtual channel...

      , Fresno, California
      Fresno, California
      Fresno is a city in central California, United States, the county seat of Fresno County. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 510,365, making it the fifth largest city in California, the largest inland city in California, and the 34th largest in the nation...

    • KVIE
      KVIE
      KVIE is the local PBS Public television station in Sacramento, California, USA. Its transmitter is located near Walnut Grove, California. The station broadcasts from a 2000 foot tall tower owned by KTXL...

      , Sacramento, California
      Sacramento, California
      Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the county seat of Sacramento County. It is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley. With a population of 466,488 at the 2010 census,...

    • KPBS, San Diego, California
      San Diego, California
      San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest city in California. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border. The birthplace of California, San Diego is known for its mild year-round...

    • KQED, San Francisco, California
      San Francisco, California
      San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

    • KTEH
      KTEH
      KQEH is a public television station in San Jose, California, serving the San Francisco Bay Area as a PBS member station on channel 54. The station is owned by Northern California Public Broadcasting with sister-stations KQED in San Francisco and KQET in Watsonville, the latter mirroring KQED.Until...

      , San Jose, California
      San Jose, California
      San Jose is the third-largest city in California, the tenth-largest in the U.S., and the county seat of Santa Clara County which is located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay...

    • Rocky Mountain PBS
      Rocky Mountain PBS
      The Rocky Mountain Public Broadcasting Network, known on-air as Rocky Mountain PBS, is the Public Broadcasting Service member non-commercial educational Public television station in Colorado. It reaches one million viewers in Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska and New Mexico...

      , Colorado
      Colorado
      Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

    • Connecticut Public Television
      Connecticut Public Television
      Connecticut Public Television is the PBS member network for the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is owned by Connecticut Public Broadcasting, who also owns Connecticut Public Radio. Together, the television and radio stations make up the Connecticut Public Broadcasting Network...

    • WHYY-TV
      WHYY-TV
      For the former channel 12 in Wilmington, see WVUE .WHYY-TV, channel 12, is a non-commercial educational television station licensed to Wilmington, Delaware, USA...

      , Wilmington, Delaware
      Wilmington, Delaware
      Wilmington is the largest city in the state of Delaware, United States, and is located at the confluence of the Christina River and Brandywine Creek, near where the Christina flows into the Delaware River. It is the county seat of New Castle County and one of the major cities in the Delaware Valley...

      /Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

    • WETA-TV
      WETA-TV
      WETA-TV is a Public Broadcasting Service member public televisionstation for the Washington, D.C., area. Its studios are in nearby Arlington, Virginia...

      , Washington, D.C.
      Washington, D.C.
      Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

    • WUFT, Gainesville, Florida
      Gainesville, Florida
      Gainesville is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Alachua County, Florida, United States as well as the principal city of the Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area . The preliminary 2010 Census population count for Gainesville is 124,354. Gainesville is home to the sixth...

    • WPBT
      WPBT
      WPBT is a PBS member public television station that serves the entire South Florida region, and even including portions of the Treasure Coast, the only television station to serve the entire metropolis...

      , Miami, Florida
      Miami, Florida
      Miami is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and the county seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States with a population of 2,500,625...

    • WSRE, Pensacola, Florida
      Pensacola, Florida
      Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County, Florida, United States of America. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 56,255 and as of 2009, the estimated population was 53,752...

    • WEDU
      WEDU
      WEDU is a Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station, serving the Tampa Bay DMA in Florida. The station first signed on the air on October 17, 1958...

      , Tampa, Florida
      Tampa, Florida
      Tampa is a city in the U.S. state of Florida. It serves as the county seat for Hillsborough County. Tampa is located on the west coast of Florida. The population of Tampa in 2010 was 335,709....

    • WXEL-TV
      WXEL-TV
      WXEL-TV is the Public Broadcasting Service member public televisionstation serving South Florida, and is licensed to West Palm Beach. WXEL is owned by Barry University, a Catholic university based in Miami; despite the Catholic-based ownership, WXEL shows no religious programming...

      , West Palm Beach, Florida
      West Palm Beach, Florida
      West Palm Beach, is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and is the most populous city in and county seat of Palm Beach County, the third most populous county in Florida with a 2010 population of 1,320,134. The city is also the oldest incorporated municipality in South Florida...

    • KHET
      KHET
      KHET, also called PBS Hawaii, is the only Public Broadcasting Service member non-commercial educational Public television station in Hawaii. Based in Honolulu, KHET first aired in 1966...

      , Honolulu, Hawaii
      Honolulu, Hawaii
      Honolulu is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Hawaii. Honolulu is the southernmost major U.S. city. Although the name "Honolulu" refers to the urban area on the southeastern shore of the island of Oahu, the city and county government are consolidated as the City and...

    • WTTW
      WTTW
      WTTW channel 11 is one of three Public Broadcasting Service member public television stations serving the Chicago, Illinois market; the others are WYCC and WYIN. WTTW began broadcasting on September 6, 1955 and it is owned and operated by Window to the World Communications, Inc., a not-for-profit...

       and WYCC
      WYCC
      WYCC is a Public Broadcasting Service memebr public television in Chicago, Illinois which broadcasts over digital channel 21, also reached as 20.1, and two other digital channels, 20.2 and 20.3...

      , Chicago, Illinois
      Chicago
      Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

    • WTIU
      WTIU
      WTIU channel 30 is the local Public Broadcasting Service member public television station for Bloomington, Indiana, United States, and surrounding areas. Its studios are located on the campus of Indiana University...

      , Bloomington, Indiana
      Bloomington, Indiana
      Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U.S. state of Indiana. The population was 80,405 at the 2010 census....

    • WYIN
      WYIN
      WYIN, virtual channel 56, is a public television station in Gary, Indiana, serving the Indiana side of the Chicago, Illinois market on channel 17 as a Public Broadcasting Service member television station. Transmitting from Cedar Lake, Indiana, and with studios and offices in Merrillville,...

      , Gary, Indiana
      Gary, Indiana
      Gary is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States. The city is in the southeastern portion of the Chicago metropolitan area and is 25 miles from downtown Chicago. The population is 80,294 at the 2010 census, making it the seventh-largest city in the state. It borders Lake Michigan and is known...

    • WFYI, Indianapolis, Indiana
      Indianapolis, Indiana
      Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana, and the county seat of Marion County, Indiana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population is 839,489. It is by far Indiana's largest city and, as of the 2010 U.S...

    • Iowa Public Television
      Iowa Public Television
      Iowa Public Television is a state network of Public Broadcasting Service member non-commercial educational Public television stations in the state of Iowa. A member of the PBS, it is owned by the Iowa Public Broadcasting Board, an agency of the state education department which holds the licenses...

    • Kentucky Educational Television
      Kentucky Educational Television
      Kentucky Educational Television, also known as KET: The Kentucky Network, is Kentucky's non-commercial educational public television state network...

    • Louisiana Public Broadcasting
      Louisiana Public Broadcasting
      Louisiana Public Broadcasting is a state-run, viewer-supported state network of Public Broadcasting Service non-commercial educational Public television member stations serving the state of Louisiana outside Greater New Orleans. The stations are operated by the Louisiana Educational Television...


    • Maine Public Broadcasting Network
      Maine Public Broadcasting Network
      The Maine Public Broadcasting Network is a state network of public television and radio stations located in the state of Maine in the United States. It is operated by the Maine Public Broadcasting Corporation, which holds the licenses for all the Public Broadcasting Service and National Public...

    • Maryland Public Television
      Maryland Public Television
      Maryland Public Television is a non-profit, state-licensed Public Broadcasting Service non-commercial educational public television state network which serves U.S. state of Maryland. Its six transmitters cover nearly all of the state, plus Washington, D.C...

    • WGBH-TV
      WGBH-TV
      WGBH-TV, channel 2, is a non-commercial educational public television station located in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. WGBH-TV is a member station of the Public Broadcasting Service , and produces more than two-thirds of PBS's national prime time television programming...

      , Boston, Massachusetts
    • WTVS
      WTVS
      WTVS, branded as Detroit Public TV, is the Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station in Detroit, Michigan. Broadcasting since 1955, its vision statement is "educate, entertain and inspire — in partnership with our community." The viewer supported station produces many local...

      , Detroit, Michigan
      Detroit, Michigan
      Detroit is the major city among the primary cultural, financial, and transportation centers in the Metro Detroit area, a region of 5.2 million people. As the seat of Wayne County, the city of Detroit is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan and serves as a major port on the Detroit River...

    • WGVU-TV
      WGVU-TV
      WGVU-TV is the Public Broadcasting Service member public television station for West Michigan, broadcasting on channel 35 in Grand Rapids. It operates a full-time satellite, WGVK, channel 52 in Kalamazoo...

      , Grand Rapids, Michigan
      Grand Rapids, Michigan
      Grand Rapids is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The city is located on the Grand River about 40 miles east of Lake Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 188,040. In 2010, the Grand Rapids metropolitan area had a population of 774,160 and a combined statistical area, Grand...

    • Twin Cities Public Television
      Twin Cities Public Television
      Twin Cities Public Television is a non-profit organization based in Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States, that operates the Twin Cities' two Public Broadcasting Service member Public television stations, KTCA-TV and KTCI-TV...

      , Saint Paul, Minnesota
      Saint Paul, Minnesota
      Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota. The city lies mostly on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city...

    • Mississippi Public Broadcasting
      Mississippi Public Broadcasting
      Mississippi Public Broadcasting is the public broadcasting state network in Mississippi, United States. It is owned by the Mississippi Authority for Educational Television, an agency of the Mississippi state government that holds the licenses for all of the PBS and NPR member stations in the...

    • KCPT
      KCPT
      KCPT virtual channel 19 is a Public television station in Kansas City, Missouri serving the greater Kansas City metropolitan area as a Public Broadcasting Service member station....

      , Kansas City, Missouri
      Kansas City, Missouri
      Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

    • KETC
      KETC
      KETC is the Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station in St. Louis, Missouri. Owned by St. Louis Regional Public Media, the call letters KETC represent the St. Louis Educational Television Comission, the former name of the organization responsible for bringing public television...

      , St. Louis, Missouri
      St. Louis, Missouri
      St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

    • Nebraska Educational Telecommunications
      Nebraska Educational Telecommunications
      Nebraska Educational Telecommunications is a state network of non-commercial educational public broadcasting radio and television stations in Nebraska and is based in Lincoln. It is operated by the Nebraska Educational Telecommunications Commission...

    • New Hampshire Public Television
      New Hampshire Public Television
      New Hampshire Public Television is a television company and public broadcasting state network in New Hampshire, licensed to the University System of New Hampshire and is part of the Public Broadcasting Service...

    • NJTV
      NJTV
      NJTV is a public television network serving the U.S. state of New Jersey. It is operated by WNET.org, the parent company of New York City's flagship public television stations, WNET and WLIW...

    • WNET
      WNET
      WNET, channel 13 is a non-commercial educational public television station licensed to Newark, New Jersey. With its signal covering the New York metropolitan area, WNET is a primary station of the Public Broadcasting Service and a primary provider of PBS programming...

      , Newark, New Jersey
      Newark, New Jersey
      Newark is the largest city in the American state of New Jersey, and the seat of Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Newark had a population of 277,140, maintaining its status as the largest municipality in New Jersey. It is the 68th largest city in the U.S...

      /New York City
      New York City
      New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

    • WMHT-TV, Albany, New York
      Albany, New York
      Albany is the capital city of the U.S. state of New York, the seat of Albany County, and the central city of New York's Capital District. Roughly north of New York City, Albany sits on the west bank of the Hudson River, about south of its confluence with the Mohawk River...

    • WSKG-TV
      WSKG-TV
      WSKG-TV is a public television station in Binghamton, New York, broadcasting locally on channel 46 as a Public Broadcasting Service member station. It is owned and operated by the WSKG Public Telecommunications Council, Inc....

      , Binghamton, New York
      Binghamton, New York
      Binghamton is a city in the Southern Tier of New York in the United States. It is near the Pennsylvania border, in a bowl-shaped valley at the confluence of the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers...

    • WNED-TV
      WNED-TV
      WNED-TV is a Public Broadcasting Service member Public televisionstation in Buffalo, New York. Owned by the Western New York Public Broadcasting Association, it broadcasts on digital channel 43 from studios in downtown Buffalo and a transmitter located in Grand Island, New York...

      , Buffalo, New York
      Buffalo, New York
      Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

    • WLIW
      WLIW
      WLIW, channel 21, is a non-commercial educational public television station licensed to Garden City, New York; which serves as a secondary Public Broadcasting Service member station for the New York City television market...

      , Garden City, New York
      Garden City, New York
      Garden City is a village in the town of Hempstead in central Nassau County, New York, in the United States. It was founded by multi-millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart in 1869, and is located on Long Island, to the east of New York City, from mid-town Manhattan, and just south of the town of...

    • WCFE-TV
      WCFE-TV
      WCFE is a Public Broadcasting Service public television station in Plattsburgh, New York. It is known under its corporate identity of Mountain Lake PBS. This name was adopted to reflect Plattsburgh's location between the Adirondacks and Lake Champlain. It broadcasts on channel 38 from transmitters...

       Mountain Lake PBS, Plattsburgh, New York
    • WXXI-TV
      WXXI-TV
      WXXI is a public television station which operates on Channel 21 in Rochester, New York, and is the PBS member station for that city and the surrounding metro area...

      , Rochester, New York
      Rochester, New York
      Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York, south of Lake Ontario in the United States. Known as The World's Image Centre, it was also once known as The Flour City, and more recently as The Flower City...

    • WCNY-TV
      WCNY-TV
      WCNY-TV is Syracuse, New York's public television station and PBS member station. WCNY-TV's programming is also seen in Utica on low-powered repeater W22DO-D channel 24 Digital...

      , Syracuse, New York
      Syracuse, New York
      Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States, the largest U.S. city with the name "Syracuse", and the fifth most populous city in the state. At the 2010 census, the city population was 145,170, and its metropolitan area had a population of 742,603...

    • WTVI
      WTVI
      WTVI is a Public Broadcasting Service member public television station based in Charlotte, North Carolina. The station broadcasts on digital channel 11 . It is the only public television station in North Carolina that is not operated by UNC-TV, and one of three serving Charlotte...

      , Charlotte, North Carolina
      Charlotte, North Carolina
      Charlotte is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Carolina and the seat of Mecklenburg County. In 2010, Charlotte's population according to the US Census Bureau was 731,424, making it the 17th largest city in the United States based on population. The Charlotte metropolitan area had a 2009...

    • Prairie Public Broadcasting
      Prairie Public Television
      Prairie Public Television is the Public Broadcasting Service member state network for the U.S. state of North Dakota. Along with its state radio network Prairie Public, the state network currently has nine digital stations covering all of North Dakota, plus portions of Minnesota, Montana, South...

      , Fargo, North Dakota
      Fargo, North Dakota
      Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

    • UNC-TV
      UNC-TV
      University of North Carolina Television, known on-air as UNC-TV, is a public television network in the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is operated by the University of North Carolina, with studios located at the UNC Center for Public Television at Research Triangle Park...

    • WCET-TV, Cincinnati, Ohio
      Cincinnati, Ohio
      Cincinnati is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio. Cincinnati is the county seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located to north of the Ohio River at the Ohio-Kentucky border, near Indiana. The population within city limits is 296,943 according to the 2010 census, making it Ohio's...

    • WVIZ
      WVIZ
      WVIZ is a public television station in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It was the 100th public television station to sign on in America. Its founder was Betty Cope, a former producer at Cleveland's ABC affiliate, WEWS, who recognized the value of non-commercial educational television for the schools...

      , Cleveland, Ohio
      Cleveland, Ohio
      Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The city is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately west of the Pennsylvania border...


    • WOSU-TV
      WOSU-TV
      WOSU-TV is an American public television station located in Columbus, Ohio, affiliated with the Public Broadcasting Service and is a service of WOSU Public Media. The station's signal covers most of central Ohio. It is owned by Ohio State University, and operates full-time satellite WPBO-TV in...

      , Columbus, Ohio
      Columbus, Ohio
      Columbus is the capital of and the largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio. The broader metropolitan area encompasses several counties and is the third largest in Ohio behind those of Cleveland and Cincinnati. Columbus is the third largest city in the American Midwest, and the fifteenth largest city...

    • WGTE-TV
      WGTE-TV
      WGTE is a Public Broadcasting Service member public televisiontelevision station serving the Toledo, Ohio area. It broadcasts digitally on UHF channel 29 and is carried on Buckeye Cablesystem channel 9 in addition to other cable systems in Ohio and Michigan...

      , Toledo, Ohio
      Toledo, Ohio
      Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...

    • Oklahoma Educational Television Authority
      Oklahoma Educational Television Authority
      OETA , is a state network of Public Broadcasting Service member Non-commercial educational Public television stations covering the entire state of Oklahoma....

    • Oregon Public Broadcasting
      Oregon Public Broadcasting
      Oregon Public Broadcasting is the primary television and radio public broadcasting network for most of Oregon as well as southern Washington. With its headquarters and television studios in Portland, OPB consists of five full-power television stations, dozens of VHF or UHF translators, and over...

    • WQLN, Erie, Pennsylvania
      Erie, Pennsylvania
      Erie is a city located in northwestern Pennsylvania in the United States. Named for the lake and the Native American tribe that resided along its southern shore, Erie is the state's fourth-largest city , with a population of 102,000...

    • WITF-TV
      WITF-TV
      WITF-TV is a Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station available on digital channel 36 , based in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. WITF broadcasts throughout the Susquehanna Valley viewing area, and is a sister station to the area's NPR member station, WITF-FM...

      , Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
      Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
      Harrisburg is the capital of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 49,528, making it the ninth largest city in Pennsylvania...

    • WQED
      WQED (TV)
      WQED is a Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Established April 1, 1954, it was the first community-sponsored television station in the United States as well as the fifth public TV station...

      , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
      Pittsburgh is the second-largest city in the US Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. Regionally, it anchors the largest urban area of Appalachia and the Ohio River Valley, and nationally, it is the 22nd-largest urban area in the United States...

    • WSBE-TV
      WSBE-TV
      WSBE-TV is Rhode Island's only public television station. The license is owned by the Rhode Island Public Telecommunications Authority, a quasi-state agency. The station began broadcasting on June 8, 1967 from the campus of Rhode Island College. In 1974, WSBE moved to the former WPRO-TV facilities...

      , Rhode Island
      Rhode Island
      The state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, more commonly referred to as Rhode Island , is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area...

    • South Carolina Educational Television
      South Carolina Educational Television
      South Carolina Educational Television is the statewide public television and public radio network in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It consists of all the Public Broadcasting Service member [television stations and National Public Radio member radio stations in the state...

    • South Dakota Public Television
    • WKNO, Memphis, Tennessee
      Memphis, Tennessee
      Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the 4th Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers....

    • KLRU
      KLRU
      KLRU is the local Public Broadcasting Service member public television station in Austin, Texas, in the United States of America.-History:...

      , Austin, Texas
      Austin, Texas
      Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of :Texas and the seat of Travis County. Located in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, it is the fourth-largest city in Texas and the 14th most populous city in the United States. It was the third-fastest-growing large city in...

    • KAMU-TV
      KAMU-TV
      KAMU-TV is a full-service, Public Broadcasting Service member public television station in College Station, Texas broadcasting on digital channel 12 from its transmitter near the university campus, and is owned and operated by Texas A&M University...

      , College Station, Texas
      College Station, Texas
      College Station is a city in Brazos County, Texas, situated in East Central Texas in the heart of the Brazos Valley. The city is located within the most populated region of Texas, near three of the 10 largest cities in the United States - Houston, Dallas, and San Antonio...

    • KEDT
      KEDT
      KEDT is a full-service Public television station in Corpus Christi, Texas, broadcasting locally in digital on UHF channel 23 as a Public Broadcasting Service member station...

      , Corpus Christi, Texas
      Corpus Christi, Texas
      Corpus Christi is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, it also extends into Aransas, Kleberg, and San Patricio counties. The MSA population in 2008 was 416,376. The population was 305,215 at the 2010 census making it the...

    • KERA-TV
      KERA-TV
      KERA-TV, virtual channel 13 , is the PBS member station in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Licensed to Dallas, it broadcasts from a transmitter located in Cedar Hill. However, it also serves as the default PBS station for the Abilene, San Angelo and Tyler/Longview/Lufkin/Nacogdoches markets, as...

      , Dallas, Texas
      Dallas, Texas
      Dallas is the third-largest city in Texas and the ninth-largest in the United States. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the largest metropolitan area in the South and fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States...

    • KUHT
      KUHT
      -Technical firsts:The station is also noted in Houston for many technical firsts at the local level. In 1981, KUHT became Houston's first closed captioned television station, and ten years later, in 1991, it became the first station in Houston to offer Descriptive Video Service , and other services...

      , Houston, Texas
      Houston, Texas
      Houston is the fourth-largest city in the United States, and the largest city in the state of Texas. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a population of 2.1 million people within an area of . Houston is the seat of Harris County and the economic center of , which is the ...

    • KTXT-TV
      KTXT-TV
      KTXT-TV is a Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station broadcasting on digital channel 39. KTXT is owned by Texas Tech University and housed on its campus in Lubbock, Texas.-History and facilities:...

      , Lubbock, Texas
      Lubbock, Texas
      Lubbock is a city in and the county seat of Lubbock County, Texas, United States. The city is located in the northwestern part of the state, a region known historically as the Llano Estacado, and the home of Texas Tech University and Lubbock Christian University...

    • KLRN
      KLRN
      KLRN is a public television station in San Antonio, Texas, broadcasting locally on VHF channel 9 as a Public Broadcasting Service member station...

      , San Antonio, Texas
      San Antonio, Texas
      San Antonio is the seventh-largest city in the United States of America and the second-largest city within the state of Texas, with a population of 1.33 million. Located in the American Southwest and the south–central part of Texas, the city serves as the seat of Bexar County. In 2011,...

    • Vermont Public Television
      Vermont Public Television
      Vermont Public Television is a state network of Non-commercial educational Public television stations throughout the state of Vermont, affiliated with Public Broadcasting Services . It has been operational since October 16, 1967...

    • WHRO
      WHRO-TV
      WHRO-TV digital channel 15 is the Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station for Hampton Roads, Virginia . The station is licensed to both Hampton and Norfolk with the studios at the Public Telecommunications Center for Hampton Roads next to the campus of Old Dominion University...

      , Norfolk, Virginia
      Norfolk, Virginia
      Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. With a population of 242,803 as of the 2010 Census, it is Virginia's second-largest city behind neighboring Virginia Beach....

    • KCTS-TV
      KCTS-TV
      KCTS-TV is a public television station in Seattle, Washington, that is a member of the Public Broadcasting Service , that broadcasts on digital channel 9. Its offices and broadcasting center are located at the northeast corner of Seattle Center...

      , Seattle, Washington
      Seattle, Washington
      Seattle is the county seat of King County, Washington. With 608,660 residents as of the 2010 Census, Seattle is the largest city in the Northwestern United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of about 3.4 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the country...

    • WMVS
      WMVS
      WMVS is a public television station located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Its signal covers most of southeastern Wisconsin, including the cities of Racine, Kenosha, Sheboygan, and Waukesha....

       and WMVT
      WMVT
      WMVT is a public television station located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Its signal covers most of southeastern Wisconsin, including the cities of Racine, Kenosha, Sheboygan, and Waukesha....

      -Milwaukee Public Television
      Milwaukee Public Television
      For information on Channels 10 and 36 individually, see WMVS and WMVTMilwaukee Public Television is the branding name for the alliance between two Milwaukee based Public Broadcasting Service public television affiliates: WMVS, Channel 10, and WMVT, Channel 36...

      , Wisconsin
      Wisconsin
      Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States and is part of the Midwest. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin's capital is...

    • Wisconsin Public Television
      Wisconsin Public Television
      Wisconsin Public Television is a state network of public television stations operated primarily by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board and the University of Wisconsin–Extension...



    PBS networks

    Network Notes
    PBS YOU
    PBS YOU
    PBS YOU was founded in the late 1990s as a 24/7 channel/network featuring formal and informal educational programs and college-related fare, largely to take advantage of available rights and satellite transponder space and eager customers for carriage among the satellite-dish and some cable...

     
    began 1998; ended January, 2006
    PBS KIDS
    PBS Kids
    PBS Kids is the brand for children's programming aired by the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States founded in 1993. As with all PBS programming, PBS Kids programming is non-commercial. It is aimed at children ages 2 to 10...

     
    began October 11, 1993 as a block and 1999 as a TV network; ended 2005 as a TV network
    PBS Kids Sprout
    PBS KIDS Sprout
    PBS Kids Sprout is a U.S. digital cable television channel, video-on-demand service, and website providing PBS Kids shows and original programming for preschoolers and their families...

     
    began September 26, 2005
    PBS World
    PBS World
    PBS World is a 24-hour United States over-the-air digital subchannel showing public TV non-fiction, science, nature, news, public affairs and documentaries...

     
    began in 2006; nationwide launch August 15, 2007
    PBS-HD  HDTV
    High-definition television
    High-definition television is video that has resolution substantially higher than that of traditional television systems . HDTV has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD...

     feed to member stations
    PBS Satellite Service  24-hour alternate network that provides a mixed variety of programming selected from PBS's regular network service, as well as for carriage on packaged satellite providers
    Create  began in 2007 has shows on painting, cooking, traveling, and home improvement.


    PBS has also spun-off
    Spin out
    A spin-out, also known as a spin-off or a starburst, refers to a type of corporate action where a company "splits off" sections of itself as a separate business....

     a number of TV networks, often in partnership with other media companies: PBS YOU
    PBS YOU
    PBS YOU was founded in the late 1990s as a 24/7 channel/network featuring formal and informal educational programs and college-related fare, largely to take advantage of available rights and satellite transponder space and eager customers for carriage among the satellite-dish and some cable...

     (ended January 2006, and largely succeeded by American Public Television
    American Public Television
    American Public Television is the largest syndicator of programming for public television stations in the United States.-History:...

    's Create), PBS KIDS
    PBS Kids
    PBS Kids is the brand for children's programming aired by the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States founded in 1993. As with all PBS programming, PBS Kids programming is non-commercial. It is aimed at children ages 2 to 10...

     (ended October 1, 2005), PBS KIDS Sprout
    PBS KIDS Sprout
    PBS Kids Sprout is a U.S. digital cable television channel, video-on-demand service, and website providing PBS Kids shows and original programming for preschoolers and their families...

    , PBS World
    PBS World
    PBS World is a 24-hour United States over-the-air digital subchannel showing public TV non-fiction, science, nature, news, public affairs and documentaries...

     (commenced August 15, 2007), and PBS-DT2 (a feed of HDTV
    High-definition television
    High-definition television is video that has resolution substantially higher than that of traditional television systems . HDTV has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD...

     and letterbox
    Letterbox
    Letterboxing is the practice of transferring film shot in a widescreen aspect ratio to standard-width video formats while preserving the film's original aspect ratio. The resulting videographic image has mattes above and below it; these mattes are part of the image...

    ed programming for digitally equipped member stations), along with packages of PBS programs that are similar to local stations' programming, the PBS Satellite Service feeds. PBS Kids GO!
    PBS Kids GO!
    PBS Kids GO! is an educational television brand used by PBS for programs intended for older children, rather than the original PBS Kids. It is primarily broadcast on PBS stations during the afternoons...

     was promised for October 2006, but PBS announced in July that they would not be going forward with it as an independent network feed (as opposed to the pre-existing two-hour week daily block on PBS).

    Some or all are available on many digital cable
    Digital cable
    Digital cable is a generic term for any type of cable television distribution using digital video compression or distribution. The technology was originally developed by Motorola.-Background:...

     systems, on free-to-air
    Free-to-air
    Free-to-air describes television and radio services broadcast in clear form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription or one-off fee...

     (FTA) TV via communications satellite
    Communications satellite
    A communications satellite is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications...

    s, as well as via direct broadcast satellite
    Direct broadcast satellite
    Direct broadcast satellite is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television...

    . With the transition to terrestrial digital television
    Digital television
    Digital television is the transmission of audio and video by digital signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV...

     broadcasts, many are also often now available as "multiplexed" (multicasting) channels on some local stations' standard-definition digital signals, while DT2 is found among the HD signals. PBS Kids announced that they will have an early-morning Miss Lori and Hooper block with four PBS Kids shows usually around 08:00. With the absence of advertising
    Advertising
    Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common...

    , network identification on these PBS networks were limited to utilization at the end of the program, which includes the standard series of bumpers
    Commercial bumper
    In broadcasting, a commercial bumper, ident bumper or break-bumper is a brief announcement, usually two to 15 seconds that can contain a voice over, placed between a pause in the program and its commercial break, and vice versa...

     from the "Be More" campaign.

    Regional networks


    While various digital subchannel
    Digital subchannel
    In broadcasting, digital subchannels are a means to transmit more than one independent program at the same time from the same digital radio or digital television station on the same radio frequency channel. This is done by using data compression techniques to reduce the size of each individual...

    s are operated on a regional or statewide basis, the creation of individual PBS member stations or groups of stations is called a state network
    State network
    A State Network in the United States broadcasting industry is a term which refers to a miniature television network serving an entire state or multiple states...

    . While not operated or controlled by the national PBS organization, these extra channels typically rebroadcast portions of the programming from the main PBS service in addition to local and regional public affairs
    Public affairs (broadcasting)
    Public affairs, a broadcasting industry term, refers to television programs which focuses on matters of politics and public policy. Among commercial broadcasters, such programs are often only to satisfy Federal Communications Commission regulatory expectations and are not scheduled in prime time...

     coverage and are carried as subchannels of existing PBS stations.
    Channel Origin Areas served
    Alabama Public Television (APT)
    Alabama Public Television
    Alabama Public Television is a state network of Public Broadcasting Service member non-commercial educational Public television stations serving the US state of Alabama. The television stations are licensed by the Alabama Educational Television Commission, which was created by the Alabama state...

     
    Alabama Educational Television Commission Alabama
    Alabama
    Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland...

     statewide
    The Florida Channel
    The Florida Channel
    The Florida Channel is a government-access television network operated by Florida State University's WFSU-TV and the Florida State Legislature. The channel is currently carried by 46 cable TV systems throughout the State of Florida either on a part-time or full-time basis as well as through nine...

     
    WFSU-TV  Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

     statewide
    Florida Knowledge Network
    Florida Knowledge Network
    The Florida Knowledge Network was an educational television state network operated by the Florida Department of Education. The channel was seen statewide via the digital subchannels of most Florida Public Broadcasting Service member stations and nationwide on the AMC 3 satellite FTA .FKN was seen...

     
    Florida Department of Education
    Florida Department of Education
    The Florida Department of Education is the state education agency of Florida. It governs public education and manages funding and testing for local educational agencies . It is headquartered in the Turlington Building in Tallahassee.The Florida Commissioner of Education manages the day-to-day...

     
    Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

     statewide
    Kentucky Educational Television
    Kentucky Educational Television
    Kentucky Educational Television, also known as KET: The Kentucky Network, is Kentucky's non-commercial educational public television state network...

     
    Various Kentucky
    Kentucky
    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

     statewide, neighboring states
    Minnesota Channel
    Minnesota Channel
    The Minnesota Channel is a full-time state-wide network originating at Twin Cities Public Television. It is carried on digital subchannels of nine stations and features programming related to Minnesota , plus coverage of the Minnesota Legislature when in session.- History :In early 2003, TPT began...

     
    Twin Cities Public TV
    Twin Cities Public Television
    Twin Cities Public Television is a non-profit organization based in Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States, that operates the Twin Cities' two Public Broadcasting Service member Public television stations, KTCA-TV and KTCI-TV...

     
    Minnesota
    Minnesota
    Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

    , portions of North Dakota
    North Dakota
    North Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America, along the Canadian border. The state is bordered by Canada to the north, Minnesota to the east, South Dakota to the south and Montana to the west. North Dakota is the 19th-largest state by area in the U.S....

    NET
    Nebraska Educational Telecommunications
    Nebraska Educational Telecommunications is a state network of non-commercial educational public broadcasting radio and television stations in Nebraska and is based in Lincoln. It is operated by the Nebraska Educational Telecommunications Commission...

     
    Nebraska Educational Telecommunications Commission Nebraska
    Nebraska
    Nebraska is a state on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States. The state's capital is Lincoln and its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River....

    ThinkBright
    ThinkBright
    ThinkBright TV is a PBS television digital subchannel serving New York State except New York City. Its programming includes educational series, lifelong learning, arts and culture, children's shows and public affairs coverage with a focus on New York's people, places and heritage.ThinkBright & Well...

     TV
    WNED-TV
    WNED-TV
    WNED-TV is a Public Broadcasting Service member Public televisionstation in Buffalo, New York. Owned by the Western New York Public Broadcasting Association, it broadcasts on digital channel 43 from studios in downtown Buffalo and a transmitter located in Grand Island, New York...

     
    New York statewide, except New York City, Syracuse and Rochester
    OETA
    Oklahoma Educational Television Authority
    OETA , is a state network of Public Broadcasting Service member Non-commercial educational Public television stations covering the entire state of Oklahoma....

     OKLA
    Oklahoma Educational Television Authority
    Oklahoma Educational Television Authority
    OETA , is a state network of Public Broadcasting Service member Non-commercial educational Public television stations covering the entire state of Oklahoma....

     
    Oklahoma
    Oklahoma
    Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

     statewide
    Wisconsin Channel  Wisconsin Public Television
    Wisconsin Public Television
    Wisconsin Public Television is a state network of public television stations operated primarily by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board and the University of Wisconsin–Extension...

     
    nearly all of Wisconsin
    GPB Knowledge, GPB Kids  Georgia Public Broadcasting
    Georgia Public Broadcasting
    Georgia Public Broadcasting is the public broadcasting radio and television state network in the U.S. state of Georgia. It is operated by the Georgia Public Telecommunications Commission....

     
    nearly all of Georgia
    Georgia (U.S. state)
    Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

    UNC-NC, UNC-KD, UNC-ED, UNC-EX (future) UNC-TV
    UNC-TV
    University of North Carolina Television, known on-air as UNC-TV, is a public television network in the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is operated by the University of North Carolina, with studios located at the UNC Center for Public Television at Research Triangle Park...

     
    nearly all of North Carolina
    North Carolina
    North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

    South Carolina Channel ETV South Carolina
    South Carolina Educational Television
    South Carolina Educational Television is the statewide public television and public radio network in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It consists of all the Public Broadcasting Service member [television stations and National Public Radio member radio stations in the state...

     
    nearly all of South Carolina
    South Carolina
    South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

    The Ohio Channel
    The Ohio Channel
    The Ohio Channel is a Public television channel in the U.S. state of Ohio. It is produced by a consortium of the state's public broadcasting stations, and carried on the digital subchannels of many of those stations...

     
    WVIZ
    WVIZ
    WVIZ is a public television station in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It was the 100th public television station to sign on in America. Its founder was Betty Cope, a former producer at Cleveland's ABC affiliate, WEWS, who recognized the value of non-commercial educational television for the schools...

    nearly all of Ohio
    Smoky Hills Public Television
    Smoky Hills Public Television
    Smoky Hills Public Television is the Public Broadcasting Service member network for 71 counties in central and western Kansas. It is headquartered in a historic native stone building in Bunker Hill, just east of Russell....

     
    KOOD  Central and Western Kansas (Wichita Metro Area on satellite only)


    Also carried on some PBS stations are Create (American Public Television
    American Public Television
    American Public Television is the largest syndicator of programming for public television stations in the United States.-History:...

    , how-to programming), MHz WorldView
    MHz Worldview
    MHz WorldView is an independent, non-commercial Public television network that broadcasts newscasts and other programs from around the world. It is owned and operated by Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation who also run MHz Networks....

     (Commonwealth Public Broadcasting
    Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation
    Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation is a 501 non-profit corporation that is the group owner of Public Broadcasting Service member Public television, ethnic TV, and radio stations in Virginia...

    , international news) and V-me
    V-me
    V-me is a public television service in the United States, broadcasting only in Spanish. The 24-hour digital broadcast service was launched on March 5, 2007, and is currently available in over 75% of all U.S...

     (WNET
    WNET
    WNET, channel 13 is a non-commercial educational public television station licensed to Newark, New Jersey. With its signal covering the New York metropolitan area, WNET is a primary station of the Public Broadcasting Service and a primary provider of PBS programming...

    , Spanish language
    Spanish language
    Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

     educational). None of these services form part of the main PBS network.

    PBS Kids


    Founded in 1993, PBS Kids is the brand for children's programming aired by PBS in the United States. The PBS Kids network, which was established in 1999 and ran for seven years, was largely funded by DirecTV
    DirecTV
    DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider and broadcaster based in El Segundo, California. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America, and the Anglophone Caribbean. ...

    . The channel ceased operation on October 1, 2005, in favor of a new joint commercial venture, PBS Kids Sprout
    PBS KIDS Sprout
    PBS Kids Sprout is a U.S. digital cable television channel, video-on-demand service, and website providing PBS Kids shows and original programming for preschoolers and their families...

    . However, the original programming block still exists on PBS.

    Sports broadcast on PBS


    The network has shown some sporting events in its history.

    During the 1970s and 1980s PBS was the leading American tennis
    Tennis
    Tennis is a sport usually played between two players or between two teams of two players each . Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponent's court. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all...

     broadcaster. Bud Collins
    Bud Collins
    -External links:*** 2001 interview with Collins*...

     and Donald Dell
    Donald Dell
    Donald Dell is an attorney and was a professional tennis player, U.S. Davis Cup captain, and administrator. Dell was one of the first professional sports agents, having represented professional tennis players Arthur Ashe, Stan Smith, Jimmy Connors, and Ivan Lendl during pro tennis' golden age...

     were PBS announcers. PBS was the first American network to regularly broadcast tennis tournaments. PBS also broadcast Tennis for the Future, hosted by Vic Braden
    Vic Braden
    -Biography:Braden was one of eight children born to Victor and Mildred Braden ; both were natives of Claiborne County, Tennessee....

    .

    In 1982, PBS, ESPN
    ESPN
    Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, commonly known as ESPN, is an American global cable television network focusing on sports-related programming including live and pre-taped event telecasts, sports talk shows, and other original programming....

     and ABC
    American Broadcasting Company
    The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

     provided the first thorough American television coverage of the FIFA World Cup
    1982 FIFA World Cup
    The 1982 FIFA World Cup, the 12th FIFA World Cup, was held in Spain from 13 June to 11 July. The tournament was won by Italy, after defeating West Germany 3–1 in the final.-Host selection:...

    . PBS aired same day highlights of the top game of the day. Toby Charles
    Toby Charles
    Toby Charles is a former Association Football commentator. He is best known in North America as the host of Soccer Made in Germany, which aired in US markets on PBS stations during the 1970s and 1980s.-References:...

     was PBS' play-by-play announcer.

    From 1984 to 1987, PBS broadcast Ivy League
    Ivy League
    The Ivy League is an athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. The conference name is also commonly used to refer to those eight schools as a group...

     football. Dick Galiette and Upton Bell
    Upton Bell
    Upton Bell is a former American football executive. Upton is currently a talk show host and commentator at WCRN Talk AM 830 in Worcester, Massachusetts...

     called games for the first season and Marty Glickman
    Marty Glickman
    Martin "Marty" Glickman was a Jewish American track and field athlete and sports announcer, born in The Bronx, New York. His parents, Harry and Molly Glickmann, immigrated to the United States from Jassy, Romania....

     and Bob Casciola called the games in 1985. In 1986, PBS increased its coverage and had two announcing teams, Brian Dowling and Sean McDonough
    Sean McDonough
    Sean McDonough is an American sportscaster, currently employed by ESPN.-Early life and career:The son of Boston Globe sportswriter Will McDonough, Sean graduated from Syracuse University in 1984. It was in Syracuse where McDonough began his broadcasting career in 1982 as the play-by-play announcer...

    , who had been the sideline reporter for the prior two seasons were the play by play announcers and Bob Casciola and Len Simonian were the color analysts. For the final season McDonough and Jack Corrigan
    Jack Corrigan
    Jack Corrigan was born in Somerville, Massachusetts on September 29, 1956. He graduated from Boston College High School, Harvard University, and Harvard Law School...

     were the game announcers and Mike Madden was the sideline reporter.

    Another PBS sports series was The Sporting Life, an interview series hosted by Jim Palmer
    Jim Palmer
    James Alvin "Jim" Palmer , nicknamed "Cakes", is a former Major League Baseball right-handed pitcher. He played his entire 20-year baseball career for the Baltimore Orioles . He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in .As of 2008, Palmer and his wife Susan have homes in Palm Beach, Florida, and...

    . The Sporting Life premiered in 1985 and was canceled soon after.

    Many state public broadcasting stations, such as Georgia Public Broadcasting, Maine Public Broadcasting Network, and Nebraska Educational Television, broadcast high school
    High school
    High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

     sports championship
    Championship
    Championship is a term used in sport to refer to various forms of competition in which the aim is to decide which individual or team is the champion.- Title match system :...

    s, and college sports games not seen on commercial TV (such as baseball, gymnastics, tennis, etc.).

    Public need


    PBS was founded to provide diversity in programming at a time when most television was broadcast
    Broadcasting
    Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

     over the public airwaves by only three privately owned national networks (as opposed to the multitude of programming sources provided by today's private cable
    Cable television
    Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

     or satellite
    Satellite
    In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

     delivery services). There is debate as to whether or not the PBS system has outlived its public necessity. Public television proponents maintain that the original mandate to provide universal access, particularly to rural viewers and those who cannot afford to pay for the private television services, remains vital. In addition, they argue that PBS provides some types of critical television shows which would not be shown at all on the commercial broadcasting
    Commercial broadcasting
    Commercial broadcasting is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship...

     television networks and television channels, including extensive non-commercial educational
    Non-commercial educational
    The term non-commercial educational applies to a radio station or TV station that does not accept on air advertisements , as defined in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission . NCE stations do not pay broadcast license fees for their non-profit uses of the radio spectrum...

     children's programming, scientific exposition, in-depth documentaries and investigative journalism
    Investigative journalism
    Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, often involving crime, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report. Investigative journalism...

    .

    On-the-air fundraising


    Since 53% to 60% of public television's revenues come from private membership donations and grants, most stations solicit individual donations by methods including fundraising
    Fundraising
    Fundraising or fund raising is the process of soliciting and gathering voluntary contributions as money or other resources, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies...

    , pledge drive
    Pledge drive
    A pledge drive is an extended period of fundraising activities, generally used by public broadcasting stations to increase contributions. The term "pledge" originates from the promise a contributor makes to send in funding at regular intervals for a certain amount of time...

    s or telethons which can disrupt regularly scheduled programming. Some viewers find this a source of annoyance since normal programming is often replaced with specials aimed at a wider audience to solicit new members and donations.

    Political/ideological bias

    • The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
      Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
      The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 set up public broadcasting in the United States, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and eventually the Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio .When Lyndon B...

       http://www.cpb.org/aboutpb/act/text.html required a "strict adherence to objectivity and balance in all programs or series of programs of a controversial nature". It also prohibited the federal government from interfering or controlling what is broadcast.
    • Banned by PBS: Muslims Against Jihad On July 19, 2007, Fox News carried published "Banned by PBS: Muslims Against Jihad," charging the network of liberal bias.

    • In at least one instance (a 1982 broadcast of the United States Information Agency
      United States Information Agency
      The United States Information Agency , which existed from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to "public diplomacy". In 1999, USIA's broadcasting functions were moved to the newly created Broadcasting Board of Governors, and its exchange and non-broadcasting information functions were...

       program Let Poland be Poland about the martial law declared in Poland in 1981), Congress has expressly encouraged PBS to abandon its conventional position of non-partisan neutrality. The program, a protest against the imposition of martial law
      Martial law
      Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

       by a Soviet-backed
      Soviet Union
      The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

       régime, contained commentary from many well-known celebrities. While widely viewed in the U.S., it met with skepticism on the part of European broadcasters due to concerns that the show, "provocative and anticommunist," was intended as propaganda.

    • Individual programs have been the targets of organized campaigns by those with opposing views, including former United States Secretary of Education
      United States Secretary of Education
      The United States Secretary of Education is the head of the Department of Education. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet, and 16th in line of United States presidential line of succession...

       Margaret Spellings
      Margaret Spellings
      Margaret Spellings was the Secretary of Education from 2005-2009 under the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush and previously served as White House Domestic Policy Adviser to President George W. Bush....

      .

    • Kenneth Tomlinson
      Kenneth Tomlinson
      Kenneth Y. Tomlinson is a former editor at Reader's Digest and American government official. He is the former chairman of the Broadcasting Board of Governors, which manages Voice of America radio, and formerly Chairman of the Board of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which manages funds...

      , who took over at Corporation for Public Broadcasting
      Corporation for Public Broadcasting
      The Corporation for Public Broadcasting is a non-profit corporation created by an act of the United States Congress, funded by the United States’ federal government to promote public broadcasting...

       (CPB) in 2003, began his tenure by asking for Karl Rove
      Karl Rove
      Karl Christian Rove was Senior Advisor and Deputy Chief of Staff to former President George W. Bush until Rove's resignation on August 31, 2007. He has headed the Office of Political Affairs, the Office of Public Liaison, and the White House Office of Strategic Initiatives...

      's assistance in overturning a regulation that half the CPB board have practical experience in radio or television. Later he appointed an outside consultant to monitor the regular PBS program NOW with Bill Moyers. Told that the show had "liberal" leanings, Moyers
      Bill Moyers
      Bill Moyers is an American journalist and public commentator. He served as White House Press Secretary in the United States President Lyndon B. Johnson Administration from 1965 to 1967. He worked as a news commentator on television for ten years. Moyers has had an extensive involvement with public...

       eventually resigned in 2005 after more than three decades as a PBS regular, citing political pressure to alter the content of his program and saying Tomlinson had mounted a "vendetta" against him. Moyers eventually returned to host Bill Moyers Journal, after Tomlinson resigned. Subsequently, PBS made room temporarily for conservative commentator Tucker Carlson
      Tucker Carlson
      Tucker Swanson McNear Carlson is an American political news correspondent and conservative commentator for the Fox News Channel...

      , formerly of MSNBC
      MSNBC
      MSNBC is a cable news channel based in the United States available in the US, Germany , South Africa, the Middle East and Canada...

       and co-host of CNN
      CNN
      Cable News Network is a U.S. cable news channel founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. Upon its launch, CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage, and the first all-news television channel in the United States...

      's Crossfire
      Crossfire (TV series)
      Crossfire was a current events debate television program that aired from 1982 to 2005 on CNN. Its format was designed to present and challenge the opinions of a politically liberal pundit and a conservative pundit.-Format:...

      , and The Journal Editorial Report with Paul Gigot
      Paul Gigot
      Paul A. Gigot is an American Pulitzer Prize-winning conservative political commentator and the editor of the editorial pages for The Wall Street Journal...

      , an editor of The Wall Street Journal
      The Wall Street Journal
      The Wall Street Journal is an American English-language international daily newspaper. It is published in New York City by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corporation, along with the Asian and European editions of the Journal....

       editorial page (this show has since moved to Fox News Channel
      Fox News Channel
      Fox News Channel , often called Fox News, is a cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of News Corporation...

      ) to partially balance out the perceived left-leaning PBS shows. On November 3, 2005 CPB announced the resignation of Tomlinson amid investigations of improper financial dealings with consultants.

    Tax money issues


    One criticism is that PBS's viewers are substantially wealthier than the average American. Thus, the tax funding of PBS is, according the critics, a transfer of money from the poor to the rich.

    Another criticism is that PBS has extensively used its tax subsidized programs in order to lobby for tax money to itself by airing numerous advertisements urging its listeners to call Congress regarding PBS.

    Further reading

    • B.J. Bullert, Public Television: Politics and the Battle over Documentary Film, Rutgers Univ Press 1997
    • Barry Dornfeld, Producing Public Television, Producing Public Culture, Princeton University Press 1998
    • Ralph Engelman, Public Radio and Television in America: A Political History, Sage Publications 1996
    • James Ledbetter
      James Ledbetter
      For the Welsh rugby union player of a similar name see James LeadbeaterJames Ledbetter is an author and editor based in New York City. In 2008, he joined online magazine Slate, where he will oversee an upcoming business news Web site called The Big Money . Prior to joining Slate, he was at...

      , Made Possible by: The Death of Public Broadcasting in the United States, Verso 1998

    External links


    Related navpages:
    • Sports television in the United States
    • U.S. broadcast television
    • World Radio Network