Dallas, Texas

Dallas, Texas

Overview

Dallas is the third-largest city in Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 and the ninth-largest in the United States. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the largest metropolitan area in the South and fourth-largest
Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas
thumb|An enlargeable map of the 942 [[Core Based Statistical Area]]s of the [[United States]]. The 367 [[Metropolitan Statistical Area]]s are shown in red....

 metropolitan area in the United States. Divided between Collin
Collin County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 491,675 people, 181,970 households, and 132,292 families residing in the county. The population density was 580 people per square mile . There were 194,892 housing units at an average density of 230 per square mile...

, Dallas
Dallas County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,218,899 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile . There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi...

, Denton
Denton County, Texas
Denton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 432,976; in 2009 the estimated population had reached 628,300. Part of the Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex, it is one of the fastest-growing counties in the United States. The county seat is Denton. The county...

, Kaufman
Kaufman County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 71,313 people, 24,367 households, and 19,225 families residing in the county. The population density was 91/sq mi . There were 26,133 housing units at an average density of 33/sq mi...

, and Rockwall
Rockwall County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 43,080 people, 14,530 households, and 11,972 families residing in the county. The population density was 334 people per square mile . There were 15,351 housing units at an average density of 119 per square mile...

 counties, the city had a 2010 population of approximately 1.2 million, according to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

.

The city is the largest economic center of the 12-county metropolitan area (the DFW MSA) that according to the March 2010 U.S.
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Dallas is the third-largest city in Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 and the ninth-largest in the United States. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the largest metropolitan area in the South and fourth-largest
Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas
thumb|An enlargeable map of the 942 [[Core Based Statistical Area]]s of the [[United States]]. The 367 [[Metropolitan Statistical Area]]s are shown in red....

 metropolitan area in the United States. Divided between Collin
Collin County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 491,675 people, 181,970 households, and 132,292 families residing in the county. The population density was 580 people per square mile . There were 194,892 housing units at an average density of 230 per square mile...

, Dallas
Dallas County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,218,899 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile . There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi...

, Denton
Denton County, Texas
Denton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 432,976; in 2009 the estimated population had reached 628,300. Part of the Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex, it is one of the fastest-growing counties in the United States. The county seat is Denton. The county...

, Kaufman
Kaufman County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 71,313 people, 24,367 households, and 19,225 families residing in the county. The population density was 91/sq mi . There were 26,133 housing units at an average density of 33/sq mi...

, and Rockwall
Rockwall County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 43,080 people, 14,530 households, and 11,972 families residing in the county. The population density was 334 people per square mile . There were 15,351 housing units at an average density of 119 per square mile...

 counties, the city had a 2010 population of approximately 1.2 million, according to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

.

The city is the largest economic center of the 12-county metropolitan area (the DFW MSA) that according to the March 2010 U.S. Census Bureau release, had a population of roughly 6.5 million as of July 2009. The metroplex economy is the sixth largest in the United States, with a 2010 gross metropolitan product of $374 billion.

Dallas was founded in 1841 and was formally incorporated as a city in February 1856. The city's economy is primarily based on banking, commerce, telecommunications, computer technology, energy, healthcare and medical research, transportation and logistics. The city is home to the third largest concentration of Fortune 500
Fortune 500
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks the top 500 U.S. closely held and public corporations as ranked by their gross revenue after adjustments made by Fortune to exclude the impact of excise taxes companies collect. The list includes publicly and...

 companies in the nation. Located in North Texas
North Texas
North Texas is a distinct cultural and geographic area forming the central-northeastern section of the U.S. state of Texas. North Texas is generally considered to include the area south of Oklahoma, east of Abilene, and north of Waco...

 and a major city in the American South, Dallas is the main core of the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States that lacks any navigable link to the sea.

The city's prominence arose from its historical importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries, and its position along numerous railroad lines. With the advent of the interstate highway system in the 1950's and 1960's, Dallas became an east/west and north/south focal point of the interstate system with the convergence of four major interstate highways in the city, along with a fifth interstate loop around the city. Dallas developed a strong industrial and financial sector, and a major inland port
Inland port
The term inland port is used in two different but related ways to mean either a port on an inland waterway or an inland site carrying out some functions of a seaport.- As a port on an inland waterway :...

, due largely to the presence of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports
World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

 in the world.

In the latest rankings released on September 14, 2011, Dallas was rated as an Alpha- world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network and is the only city in the South Central and Southwest regions to achieve that status. Dallas is also ranked 14th in world rankings of GDP by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

History


Before Texas was claimed in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain by the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire comprised territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, in America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. It originated during the Age of Exploration and was therefore one of the first global empires. At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power....

, the Dallas neman area was inhabited by the Caddo
Caddo
The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes, who traditionally inhabited much of what is now East Texas, northern Louisiana and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. Today the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is a cohesive tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma...

 people. Later, France also claimed the area
French colonial empires
The French colonial empire was the set of territories outside Europe that were under French rule primarily from the 17th century to the late 1960s. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the colonial empire of France was the second-largest in the world behind the British Empire. The French colonial empire...

, but in 1819 the Adams-Onís Treaty
Adams-Onís Treaty
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty or the Purchase of Florida, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain . It settled a standing border dispute between the two...

 made the Red River the northern boundary of New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

, officially placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory. The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 declared independence from Spain and the area became part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas
Coahuila y Tejas
Coahuila y Tejas was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution.It had two capitals: first Saltillo, and then Monclova...

. In 1836, the Republic of Texas
Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was an independent nation in North America, bordering the United States and Mexico, that existed from 1836 to 1846.Formed as a break-away republic from Mexico by the Texas Revolution, the state claimed borders that encompassed an area that included all of the present U.S...

 broke off from Mexico to become an independent nation. In 1839, Warren Angus Ferris
Warren Angus Ferris
Warren Angus Ferris was a trapper and fur trader in the Rocky Mountains during the early 1830s. In 1834, Ferris acted as a clerk for the American Fur Company in a journey to the mountains of western Wyoming. Out of curiosity, Ferris found Indian guides and made a side journey into what is today...

 surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. Two and a half years later, John Neely Bryan
John Neely Bryan
John Neely Bryan was a Presbyterian farmer, lawyer, and tradesman in the United States and founder of the city of Dallas, Texas.- Early life :...

 established a permanent settlement near a river he found and called that settlement Dallas. The Republic of Texas was then annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County
Dallas County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,218,899 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile . There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi...

 was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city in February 1856. The name of the city has uncertain origins. See History of Dallas, Texas (1839-1855) for more information on that.

Geography


Dallas is the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Dallas County
Dallas County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,218,899 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile . There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi...

. Portions of the city extend into neighboring Collin
Collin County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 491,675 people, 181,970 households, and 132,292 families residing in the county. The population density was 580 people per square mile . There were 194,892 housing units at an average density of 230 per square mile...

, Denton
Denton County, Texas
Denton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 432,976; in 2009 the estimated population had reached 628,300. Part of the Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex, it is one of the fastest-growing counties in the United States. The county seat is Denton. The county...

, Kaufman
Kaufman County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 71,313 people, 24,367 households, and 19,225 families residing in the county. The population density was 91/sq mi . There were 26,133 housing units at an average density of 33/sq mi...

, and Rockwall
Rockwall County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 43,080 people, 14,530 households, and 11,972 families residing in the county. The population density was 334 people per square mile . There were 15,351 housing units at an average density of 119 per square mile...

 counties. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 385 square miles (997.1 km²), 342.5 square miles (887.1 km²) of it being land and 42.5 square miles (110.1 km²) of it (11.03%) water. Dallas makes up one-fifth of the much larger urbanized area known as the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex
Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex
The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. The area is divided into two metropolitan divisions: Dallas–Plano–Irving and Fort Worth–Arlington. Residents of the area...

, in which one quarter of all Texans live.

Topography


Dallas and its surrounding area are mostly flat; the city itself lies at elevations ranging from 450 feet (137 m) to 550 feet (168 m). The western edge of the Austin Chalk Formation, a limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 escarpment
Escarpment
An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that occurs from erosion or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations.-Description and variants:...

 (also known as the "White Rock Escarpment"), rises 200 feet (61 m) and runs roughly north-south through Dallas County. South of the Trinity River
Trinity River (Texas)
The Trinity River is a long river that flows entirely within the U.S. state of Texas. It rises in extreme north Texas, a few miles south of the Red River. The headwaters are separated by the high bluffs on the south side of the Red River....

, the uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhoods of Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff is a community in Dallas, Texas, United States that was formerly a separate town located in Dallas County; Dallas annexed Oak Cliff in 1903...

 and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill
Cockrell Hill, Texas
Cockrell Hill is a city in Dallas County, Texas, United States. The population was 4,443 at the 2000 census. It is completely surrounded by the city of Dallas.-Geography:Cockrell Hill is located at ....

, Cedar Hill
Cedar Hill, Texas
Cedar Hill is a city in Dallas and Ellis Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. It is located approximately sixteen miles southwest of downtown Dallas and is situated along the eastern shore of Joe Pool Lake and Cedar Hill State Park. The population was 32,093 at the 2000 census...

, Grand Prairie
Grand Prairie, Texas
Grand Prairie is a city in Dallas, Ellis, and Tarrant counties in the U.S. state of Texas and is a part of the Mid-Cities region in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Grand Prairie is a suburb of both Dallas and Fort Worth and had a population of 175,396 at the 2010 census.- History :The city of...

, and Irving
Irving, Texas
Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in Tarrant County
Tarrant County, Texas
Tarrant County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, it had a population of 1,809,034. Its county seat is Fort Worth. Tarrant County is the sixteenth most populous county in the United States and the third most populous in Texas. The county is named in honor...

 surrounding Fort Worth
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is the 16th-largest city in the United States of America and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas. Located in North Central Texas, just southeast of the Texas Panhandle, the city is a cultural gateway into the American West and covers nearly in Tarrant, Parker, Denton, and...

, as well as along Turtle Creek
Turtle Creek (Dallas County, Texas)
Turtle Creek is the name of small tributary of the Trinity River with headwaters in north Dallas, Texas . It generally runs southwest through north Dallas, passing through Highland Park , then back into Dallas through the Oak Lawn community and Turtle Creek neighborhood alongside Turtle Creek...

 north of Downtown.

Dallas, like many other cities in the world, was founded along a river. The city was founded at the location of a "white rock crossing" of the Trinity River, where it was easier for wagons to cross the river in the days before ferries or bridges. The Trinity River
Trinity River (Texas)
The Trinity River is a long river that flows entirely within the U.S. state of Texas. It rises in extreme north Texas, a few miles south of the Red River. The headwaters are separated by the high bluffs on the south side of the Red River....

, though not usefully navigable, is the major waterway through the city. Its path through Dallas is paralleled by Interstate 35E
Interstate 35E (Texas)
Interstate 35E , an Interstate Highway, is the eastern half of Interstate 35 where it splits to serve different cities in Texas. I-35 splits into two branch routes, I-35W and I-35E at Hillsboro. I-35E runs north for , maintaining I-35's sequence of exit numbers. It runs through Dallas before...

 along the Stemmons Corridor
Stemmons Corridor
The Stemmons Corridor or Lower Stemmons is a stretch of industrial and commercial property in northwest Dallas, Texas . From downtown north, Interstate 35E is known as the Stemmons Freeway, named so for Leslie Stemmons by his son, John M. Stemmons...

, then south alongside the western portion of Downtown
Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District in Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District...

 and past south Dallas
South Dallas
South Dallas is an area in Dallas, Texas, . It is usually either defined in one of two ways: As the area south of the Trinity River and south of Interstate 30, which consist mostly of Oak Cliff and Pleasant Grove, or to the area bounded by I-30 and Downtown Dallas to the north, the Trinity River to...

 and Pleasant Grove, where the river is paralleled by Interstate 45 until it exits the city and heads southeast towards Houston. The river is flanked on both sides by 50 feet (15 m) tall earthen levee
Levee
A levee, levée, dike , embankment, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels...

s to protect the city from frequent floods. Since it was rerouted in 1908, the river has been little more than a drainage ditch within a floodplain for several miles above and below downtown Dallas, with a more normal course further upstream and downstream, but as Dallas began shifting towards postindustrial society, public outcry about the lack of aesthetic and recreational use of the river ultimately gave way to the Trinity River Project
Trinity River Project
The Trinity River Project is a public works project undertaken in the 2000s in the city of Dallas, Texas, USA. Its goal is to redevelop the Trinity River. The project aims to turn the river's path into a collection of sports fields, trails, nature centers, and recreational opportunities...

, which was initialized in the early 2000s and is scheduled to be completed in the 2010s. If the project materializes fully, it promises improvements to the riverfront in the form of man-made lakes, new park facilities and trails, and transportation upgrades.

The project area will reach for over 20 miles (32.2 km) in length within the city, while the overall geographical land area addressed by the Land Use Plan is approximately 44000 acres (178.1 km²) in size—about 20% of the land area in Dallas.
Green space along the river will encompass approximately 10000 acres (40.5 km²), making it one of the largest and diverse urban parks in the world.

White Rock Lake
White Rock Lake
White Rock Lake is a reservoir located in east Dallas, Texas . The lake was formed by damming White Rock Creek, which today widens into the lake before continuing south out of the spillway and emptying into the Trinity River...

, a reservoir constructed at the beginning of the 20th century, is Dallas' other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination for boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers, as well as visitors seeking peaceful respite from the city at the 66 acres (267,092.8 m²) Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden
The Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden is a 66-acre botanical garden located at 8617 Garland Road in east Dallas, Texas , on the southeastern shore of White Rock Lake....

, located on the lake's eastern shore.
White Rock Creek
White Rock Creek
White Rock Creek is a 30 mile creek in the Elm Fork Trinity River watershed. From its headwaters near Frisco, Texas, it runs south-by-south-east through suburban Dallas for 23.5 miles where it widens into White Rock Lake, then continues south for another 8 miles to its mouth on the Trinity...

 feeds into White Rock Lake, and then exits on to the Trinity River southeast of downtown Dallas. Trails along White Rock Creek are part of the extensive Dallas County Trails System.
Bachman Lake
Bachman Lake
Bachman Lake is a small freshwater lake located in the Love Field neighborhood of northwest Dallas, Texas . It covers in northwest Dallas and lies on the northwest boundary of Dallas Love Field in the airport's landing path...

, just northwest of Love Field Airport, is a smaller lake also popularly used for recreation. Northeast of the city is Lake Ray Hubbard
Lake Ray Hubbard
Lake Ray Hubbard, formerly Forney Lake, is a reservoir located in Dallas, Texas in the counties of Dallas, Kaufman, Collin, and Rockwall County, Texas, just north of Forney, Texas, built on the East Fork Trinity River and impounded by the Rockwall-Forney Dam.It measures 22,745 acres in size with...

, a vast 22745 acres (92 km²) reservoir located in an extension of Dallas surrounded by the suburbs of Garland
Garland, Texas
-Climate:* The average warmest month is July.* The highest recorded temperature was in 2000.* On average, the coolest month is January.* The lowest recorded temperature was in 1989.* The maximum average precipitation occurs in May....

, Rowlett
Rowlett, Texas
-External links:*...

, Rockwall
Rockwall, Texas
Rockwall is a city in Rockwall County, Texas, United States, and a suburb of Dallas. It is part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. The population was 37,490 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Rockwall County. Rockwall County is the second wealthiest county in the state of Texas in terms...

, and Sunnyvale
Sunnyvale, Texas
Sunnyvale is a town in Dallas County, Texas, United States and a wealthy, affluent suburb of Dallas. It is the easternmost city completely within Dallas County...

. To the west of the city is Mountain Creek Lake
Mountain Creek Lake
Mountain Creek Lake is a reservoir located southwest of downtown Dallas, Texas in the Mountain Creek area of the city. It is located south of SH 180, west of Spur 408, north of I-20, and east of FM 1382. The defunct Naval Air Station Dallas is located on the northwestern shore of the lake...

, once home to the Naval Air Station Dallas
Naval Air Station Dallas
Naval Air Station Dallas was a United States Navy Naval Air Station located on Mountain Creek Lake in southwest Dallas. The installation was originally established as an Army Aviation center, and eventually became home to aviation assets from all the military services. The facility was...

 (Hensley Field) and a number of defense aircraft manufacturers. North Lake
North Lake (Dallas County, Texas)
North Lake is a reservoir located in Dallas,Texas , southeast of Coppell. North Lake Park is on its southern side.- History :The lake area was once a large bowl-like valley, that was being used for farming. Construction on North Lake Dam began in 1956 and the dam was complete in August 1957...

, a small body of water in an extension of the city limits surrounded by Irving
Irving, Texas
Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

 and Coppell
Coppell, Texas
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 35,958 people, 12,211 households, and 9,781 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,418.5 people per square mile . There were 12,587 housing units at an average density of 846.6 per square mile...

, initially served as a water source for a nearby power plant but is now being targeted for redevelopment as a recreational lake due to its proximity to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport
Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is located between the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, and is the busiest airport in the U.S. state of Texas...

, a plan that the lake's neighboring cities oppose.

Climate




Dallas has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

, though it is located in a region that also tends to receive warm, dry winds from the north and west in the summer, bringing temperatures well over 100 °F (38 °C) at times and heat-humidity indexes soaring to as high as 117 °F (47 °C). When only temperature itself is accounted for, the north central Texas region where Dallas is located is one of the hottest in the United States during the summer months, usually trailing only the Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
The Mojave Desert occupies a significant portion of southeastern California and smaller parts of central California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona, in the United States...

 basin of Arizona
Arizona
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

, southern Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

, and southeastern
Southern California
Southern California is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura through the Southland and Inland Empire to San Diego...

 California.

Winters in Dallas are generally mild, with normal daytime highs ranging from 55 °F (13 °C) to 70 °F (21 °C) and normal nighttime lows falling in between 30 °F (-1 °C) and 45 °F (7 °C). A day with clear, sunny skies, a high of 63 °F (17 °C), and a low of 36 °F (2 °C) would thus be a very typical one during the winter. However, strong cold fronts known as "Blue Northers" sometimes pass through the Dallas region, plummeting nightly lows below 25 °F (-4 °C) for up to a few days at a time and keeping daytime highs in a struggle to surpass 40 °F (4 °C). Snow accumulation is usually seen in the city at least once every winter, and snowfall generally occurs 2–3 days out of the year for an annual average of 2.5 inches (6.4 cm). Some areas in the region, however, receive more than that, while other areas receive negligible snowfall or none at all. A couple of times each winter in Dallas, warm and humid air from the south will override cold, dry air, resulting in freezing rain
Freezing rain
Freezing rain is the name given to rain that falls when surface temperatures are below freezing. The raindrops become supercooled while passing through a sub-freezing layer of air, many hundred feet , just above the surface, and then freeze upon impact with any object they encounter. The resulting...

 or ice and causing disruptions in the city if the roads and highways become slick. On the other hand, daytime highs above 70 °F (21 °C) are not unusual and will occur at least several days each winter month—roughly the same number of days each December, January, and February that low temperatures fall below 30 °F (-1 °C) or that high temperatures fail to reach 50 °F (10 °C). Over the past 15 years, Dallas has averaged 31 annual nights at or below freezing, with the winter of 1999–2000 holding the all-time record as having the fewest freezing nights, with 14. During this same span of 15 years, the temperature in the region has only twice dropped below 15 °F (-9 °C), though it will generally fall below 20 °F (-7 °C) about once every other year. In sum, extremes and variations in winter weather are more readily seen in Dallas and Texas as a whole than along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, due to the state's location in the interior of the North American continent and the lack of any mountainous terrain to the north to block out Arctic weather systems.

Spring and autumn bring pleasant weather to the area. Vibrant wildflower
Wildflower
A wildflower is a flower that grows wild, meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted. Yet "wildflower" meadows of a few mixed species are sold in seed packets. The term "wildflower" has been made vague by commercial seedsmen who are interested in selling more flowers or seeds more...

s (such as the bluebonnet, Indian paintbrush
Castilleja
Castilleja, commonly known as Indian paintbrush or Prairie-fire, is a genus of about 200 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants native to the west of the Americas from Alaska south to the Andes, northern Asia, and one species as far west as the Kola Peninsula in Siberia...

 and other flora) bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas. Springtime weather can be quite volatile
Severe weather
Severe weather phenomena are weather conditions that are hazardous to human life and property.- Examples Include :Severe weather can occur under a variety of situations, but three characteristics are generally needed: a temperature or moisture boundary, moisture, and , instability in the...

, but temperatures themselves are mild. The weather in Dallas is also generally pleasant from late September to early December and on many winter days, but unlike in the springtime, major storms rarely form in the area.


Each spring, cool fronts moving south from the North will collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast, leading to severe thunderstorm
Thunderstorm
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, a lightning storm, thundershower or simply a storm is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere known as thunder. The meteorologically assigned cloud type associated with the...

s with lightning
Lightning
Lightning is an atmospheric electrostatic discharge accompanied by thunder, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms...

, torrents of rain, hail
Hail
Hail is a form of solid precipitation. It consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice, each of which is referred to as a hail stone. Hail stones on Earth consist mostly of water ice and measure between and in diameter, with the larger stones coming from severe thunderstorms...

, and occasionally, tornadoes. Over time, tornado
Tornado
A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider...

es have probably been the biggest natural threat to the city, as it is located near the heart of Tornado Alley
Tornado Alley
Tornado Alley is a colloquial and popular media term that most often refers to the area of the United States where tornadoes are most frequent. Although an official location is not defined, the area between the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains is usually associated with it.The areas...

.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture places Dallas in Plant Hardiness Zone 8a. However, mild winter temperatures in the past 15 to 20 years have encouraged the horticulture of some cold-sensitive plants such as Washingtonia filifera
Washingtonia filifera
Washingtonia filifera , with the common names California Fan Palm , Desert Fan Palm, Cotton palm, and Arizona Fan Palm. It is a palm native to southwestern North America between an elevation range of , at seeps, desert bajadas, and springs where underground water is continuously available...

 and Washingtonia robusta
Washingtonia robusta
Washingtonia robusta is a palm tree native to western Sonora and Baja California Sur in northwestern Mexico. It grows to tall, rarely up to . The leaves have a petiole up to long, and a palmate fan of leaflets up to 1 m long. The inflorescence is up to long, with numerous small pale orange-pink...

 palms. According to the American Lung Association
American Lung Association
The American Lung Association is a voluntary health organization whose mission is to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease.-History:...

, Dallas has the 12th highest air pollution among U.S. cities, ranking it behind Los Angeles and Houston. Much of the air pollution in Dallas and the surrounding area comes from a hazardous materials incineration plant in the small town of Midlothian
Midlothian, Texas
Midlothian is a city in northwest Ellis County, Texas, United States. It is the hub for the cement industry in North Texas as it is the home to three separate cement production facilities, as well as a steel mill. Midlothian is also a fast growing community with a growth rate of 142% since 2000...

 and from concrete installations in neighbouring Ellis County
Ellis County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 111,360 people, 37,020 households, and 29,653 families residing in the county. The population density was 118 people per square mile . There were 39,071 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile...

.

The city's all-time recorded high temperature is 113 °F (45 °C), while the all-time recorded low is -8 °F. The average daily low in Dallas is 55 °F (12.8 °C), and the average daily high in Dallas is 76.3 °F (24.6 °C). Dallas receives approximately 33.3 inches (845.8 mm) of rain per year.

Cityscape



Architecture



Dallas' skyline contains several buildings over 700 feet (213.4 m) in height. Although some of Dallas' architecture dates from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the notable architecture in the city is from the modernist
Modern architecture
Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely...

 and postmodernist
Postmodern architecture
Postmodern architecture began as an international style the first examples of which are generally cited as being from the 1950s, but did not become a movement until the late 1970s and continues to influence present-day architecture...

 eras. Iconic examples of modernist architecture include Reunion Tower
Reunion Tower
Reunion Tower is a observation tower and one of the most recognizable landmarks in Dallas, Texas. Located at 300 Reunion Blvd. in the Reunion district of downtown Dallas, the tower is part of the Hyatt Regency Hotel complex, and is the 15th tallest building in Dallas...

, the JFK Memorial, I. M. Pei
I. M. Pei
Ieoh Ming Pei , commonly known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese American architect, often called a master of modern architecture. Born in Canton, China and raised in Hong Kong and Shanghai, Pei drew inspiration at an early age from the gardens at Suzhou...

's Dallas City Hall
Dallas City Hall
Dallas City Hall is the seat of Dallas municipal government, located at 1500 Marilla in the Government District of downtown Dallas, Texas...

 and Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
The Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center is a concert hall located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas . Ranked one of the world's greatest orchestra halls, it was designed by architect I.M. Pei and acoustician Russell Johnson's Artec Consultants, Inc...

. Good examples of postmodernist skyscrapers are in Fountain Place
Fountain Place
Fountain Place is a 60-story late-modernist skyscraper in the Arts District in downtown Dallas, Texas. Standing at a structural height of , it is the fifth-tallest in Dallas, and the 15th-tallest in Texas.-Design:...

, Bank of America Plaza
Bank of America Plaza (Dallas)
Bank of America Plaza is a 72-story late-modernist skyscraper located in the Main Street District of downtown Dallas, Texas. Standing at a structural height of , it is the tallest skyscraper in the city of Dallas. It is also the 3rd tallest in Texas and the 22nd tallest in the United States, while...

, Renaissance Tower, JPMorgan Chase Tower
JPMorgan Chase Tower (Dallas)
Chase Tower is a , 55-story postmodern skyscraper at 2200 Ross Avenue in the City Center District of downtown Dallas, Texas. Although it is the fourth tallest skyscraper in the city, if one were to exclude antennas and spires, it would be the third. It is also the 12th tallest building in Texas...

, and Comerica Bank Tower. Several smaller structures are fashioned in the Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 style, such as the Kirby Building
Kirby Building
The Kirby Building, historically known as the Busch Building, is a 17-story skyscraper in the Main Street District of Downtown Dallas. The structure was completed in 1913 by beer magnate Adolphus Busch to accompany his nearby Hotel Adolphus. The building became vacant with many older buildings...

, and the neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 style, as seen in the Davis
Davis Building
The Davis Building is a 20-story high-rise in downtown Dallas. The building rises to a height of 323 feet . Responsible for the architectural design C.D. Hill and Co. along with Inge Construction Company. It was completed,-History:...

 and Wilson Buildings. One architectural "hotbed" in the city is a stretch of historic houses along Swiss Avenue
Swiss Avenue
Swiss Avenue is an elegant residential street and historic district in east Dallas, Texas . The tree-lined street is 2.5 miles long with approximately 200 carefully preserved and restored historic homes representing several architectural styles including Mediterranean, Spanish, Georgian, Prairie,...

, which contains all shades and variants of architecture from Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 to neoclassical. The Dallas Downtown Historic District
Dallas Downtown Historic District
The Dallas Downtown Historic District is a area in downtown Dallas, Texas, United States that was designated a historic district in 2006 to preserve the diverse architectural history of the area. It was expanded by over in 2009....

 protects a cross-section of Dallas commercial architecture from the 1880s to the 1940s.

Neighborhoods



Central Dallas is anchored by Downtown
Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District in Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District...

, the center of the city and the epicenter of urban revival, along with Oak Lawn
Oak Lawn, Dallas
Oak Lawn is a neighborhood in Dallas, Texas , defined in Dallas City Ordinance 21859 as . The unofficial boundaries are Turtle Creek Boulevard, Central Expressway, the City of Highland Park, Inwood Road, and Harry Hines Boulevard. It is over in area...

 and Uptown
Uptown Dallas
Uptown is a PID and neighborhood in Dallas, Texas. Uptown is adjacent-to and north-of downtown Dallas, and is bordered by US 75 on the east, N Haskell Avenue on the northeast, Katy Trail on the northwest, Bookhout Street and Cedar Springs Road on the west, N Akard Street on the southwest and Spur...

, areas characterized by dense retail, restaurants, and nightlife. Downtown Dallas has a variety of named districts, including the West End Historic District
West End, Dallas
The West End Historic District is an area in northwest downtown Dallas, Texas , generally north of Commerce, east of I-35E, west of Lamar and south of Woodall Rodgers Freeway. It is south of Victory Park, west of the Arts, City Center, and Main Street districts, and north of the Government and...

, the Arts District
Arts District, Dallas
The Arts District is a performing and visual arts district in downtown Dallas Texas .It is south of State Thomas, southeast of Uptown, north of the City Center District, west of Bryan Place and east of the West End Historic District. It is bounded by St...

, the Main Street District
Main Street, Dallas
The Main Street District of downtown Dallas, Texas runs along Main Street and is bounded by Lamar Street, Elm Street,the US 75/I-45 elevated highway and Commerce Street. The district is the spine of downtown Dallas, and connects many of the adjoining business and entertainment districts.- About...

, Farmers Market District
Farmers Market, Dallas
The Farmers Market District is an area in southeastern downtown Dallas, Texas . It lies south of the Main Street District, north of the Cedars, west of Deep Ellum, northeast of the Convention Center District, and southeast of the Government District....

, the City Center business district
City Center District, Dallas
The City Center District is an area in north-central downtown Dallas, Texas . It lies south of the Arts District, north of the Main Street District, northwest of Deep Ellum, southwest of Bryan Place and east of the West End Historic District. The district contains a large concentration of downtown...

, the Convention Center District
Convention Center District, Dallas
The Convention Center District is an area in southern downtown Dallas, Texas . It lies south of the Government District, north of the Cedars, west of the Farmers Market District, and east of the Reunion District.- Highways :* - Interstate 30...

, and the Reunion District
Reunion, Dallas
The Reunion district of downtown Dallas, Texas is an area in western downtown anchored by the Hyatt Regency Dallas and Reunion Tower named for the early mid-nineteenth century commune, La Reunion....

. "Hot spots" north of Downtown include Uptown
Uptown Dallas
Uptown is a PID and neighborhood in Dallas, Texas. Uptown is adjacent-to and north-of downtown Dallas, and is bordered by US 75 on the east, N Haskell Avenue on the northeast, Katy Trail on the northwest, Bookhout Street and Cedar Springs Road on the west, N Akard Street on the southwest and Spur...

, Victory Park, Oak Lawn
Oak Lawn, Dallas
Oak Lawn is a neighborhood in Dallas, Texas , defined in Dallas City Ordinance 21859 as . The unofficial boundaries are Turtle Creek Boulevard, Central Expressway, the City of Highland Park, Inwood Road, and Harry Hines Boulevard. It is over in area...

, Turtle Creek
Turtle Creek, Dallas
Turtle Creek is a neighborhood running along Turtle Creek and adjacent Turtle Creek Boulevard in the Oak Lawn area of Dallas, Texas .Turtle Creek has also become an adopted nickname for the Oak Lawn neighborhood, though never an official one...

, Cityplace
Cityplace, Dallas
Cityplace is a TIF District and neighborhood in the Oak Lawn area of Dallas, Texas adjacent to the intersection of Central Expressway and Haskell Avenue/Blackburn Street. East of Central Expressway, the neighborhood includes the tree-lined Haskell boulevard and travels past the 42-story Tower at...

 and West Village
West Village, Dallas
The West Village is a retail-residential development in the Cityplace and Uptown area of Dallas, Texas. The West Village is located at the northern end of Uptown along McKinney Avenue and is bordered by Lemmon Avenue, Cole Avenue, Haskell Drive and Central Expressway. West Village has approximately...

.
East Dallas
East Dallas
East Dallas comprises many communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas, .- Neighborhoods :*Baylor/Meadows*Belmont*Hilltop*Bryan Place*Buckner Terrace*East Grand*Casa Linda Estates*Cochran Heights*Casa View*Claremont*Deep Ellum*Eastwood...

 is home to Deep Ellum
Deep Ellum
Deep Ellum is an arts and entertainment district near downtown in east Dallas, Texas . It lies directly east of the elevated I-45/US 75 freeway and extends to Exposition Avenue, connected to downtown by, from north to south, Pacific, Elm, Main, Commerce, and Canton streets...

, a trendy arts area close to Downtown, the homey Lakewood
Lakewood, Dallas
Lakewood is a neighborhood in East Dallas, Texas . It is adjacent to White Rock Lake.-About:Lakewood boasts the historic Lakewood Theater, which shows classic films and hosts many contemporary musical and comedy events, and the popular...

 neighborhood, historic Vickery Place
Vickery Place
Vickery Place is an historic neighborhood in East Dallas, Texas , bounded on the north by Goodwin Avenue, on the west by North Central Expressway and Henderson, on the south by Belmont, and on the east by Greenville Avenue...

 and Bryan Place
Bryan Place
Bryan Place is a neighborhood in east Dallas, Texas . It is east of the Arts District of downtown and the State Thomas neighborhood, north of Deep Ellum, south of Cityplace and west of Munger Place. Its boundaries are generally considered to be US-75 North Central Expressway on the west, Ross...

, and the architecturally significant neighborhoods of Swiss Avenue
Swiss Avenue
Swiss Avenue is an elegant residential street and historic district in east Dallas, Texas . The tree-lined street is 2.5 miles long with approximately 200 carefully preserved and restored historic homes representing several architectural styles including Mediterranean, Spanish, Georgian, Prairie,...

 and Munger Place
Munger Place
The Munger Place Historic District is a neighborhood and historic district in Old East Dallas, Texas , generally lying between North Fitzhugh Avenue on the southwest, Gaston Avenue on the northwest, Henderson Avenue on the northeast, and Columbia Avenue on the southeast. Detailed boundaries are...

 Historic District, which has one of the largest collections of Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture...

-inspired Prairie-style homes in the United States. North of the Park Cities
Park Cities, Texas
Park Cities is a term commonly used in reference to two communities in Dallas County, Texas - the town of Highland Park and the city of University Park...

 is Preston Hollow, home to Texas' wealthiest residents, as well as the most expensive homes in the state. The area is also characterized by a variety of high-powered shopping areas, including Galleria Dallas
Galleria Dallas
The Galleria Dallas, an upscale shopping mall and mixed-use development located in north Dallas, Texas , was developed by long time owner Hines Interests in 1982. The mall is modeled after a similar Hines development, the Houston Galleria, which opened in 1970...

, NorthPark Center
NorthPark Center
NorthPark Center is an upscale shopping mall located in Dallas, Texas . The mall is located at the intersection of Loop 12 and US 75 . The center has over 235 stores and restaurants. NorthPark is the first shopping center featured on Vogue Magazine...

, and Highland Park Village
Highland Park Village
Highland Park Village is an upscale shopping mall located at the southwest corner of Mockingbird Lane and Preston Road in Highland Park, Texas and was the first self-contained shopping center in America. The Highland Park Village was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2000.-History:Mr....

. In the northeast quadrant of the city is Lake Highlands
Lake Highlands
Lake Highlands is an area in Dallas, Texas . It is located in the northeast portion of the city, and is sometimes considered to be a part of, or connected to, East Dallas and/or North Dallas...

, one of Dallas' most unified middle-class neighborhoods.

Midtown Dallas is currently undergoing construction of new high-rise apartments, restaurants, and retail. The midtown area is generally a new classification of the city, consisting of North Park Mall, SMU, White Rock Lake, The Dallas Arboretum, and new retail/high-rises, most notably along Park Lane and Central Expressway. Midtown is bordered by University Park to the west, Preston Hollow to the North, Lake Highlands/Lakewood to the East, and Uptown/City Place to the South.


Southwest of Downtown lies Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff is a community in Dallas, Texas, United States that was formerly a separate town located in Dallas County; Dallas annexed Oak Cliff in 1903...

, a hilly area that has undergone gentrification in recent years in neighborhoods such as the Bishop Arts District
Bishop Arts District
The Bishop Arts District is a small shopping and entertainment district in north Oak Cliff, Dallas, Texas , near the intersection of Bishop Street and Davis Street .- About :...

. Oak Cliff originated as a township founded in the mid-1800s and was annexed by the city of Dallas in 1903. Today, most of the area's northern residents are Hispanic
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...

. The ghost town
Ghost town
A ghost town is an abandoned town or city. A town often becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, war, or nuclear disasters...

 of La Reunion
La Reunion (Dallas)
La Réunion was a socialist utopian community formed in 1855 by French, Belgian, and Swiss colonists near the forks of the Trinity River in Texas, USA. The Reunion Tower in downtown Dallas is about three miles east of the colony site. The founders of the community were inspired by the utopian...

 once occupied the northern tip of Oak Cliff. South Oak Cliff is a mixture of Black/African American, Hispanic, and Native American.

South Dallas
South Dallas
South Dallas is an area in Dallas, Texas, . It is usually either defined in one of two ways: As the area south of the Trinity River and south of Interstate 30, which consist mostly of Oak Cliff and Pleasant Grove, or to the area bounded by I-30 and Downtown Dallas to the north, the Trinity River to...

, a distinct neighborhood southeast of Downtown, lays claim to the Cedars
Cedars, Dallas
The Cedars is a district in south Dallas Texas . It is adjacent to and south of downtown and Interstate 30, east of Lamar Street, north of Corinth Street, and west of Harwood Street.- History :...

, an eclectic artist hotbed south of downtown and Fair Park
Fair Park
Dallas Fair Park is a recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas . The complex is registered as a Dallas Landmark, National Historic Landmark and is home to nine museums, six performance facilities, a lagoon, and the largest Ferris wheel in North America...

, home of the annual State Fair of Texas, occurring in October.

Much of the southern portion of the city is characterized now by high rates of poverty and crime. To spur growth in the southern sector of the city, University of North Texas System
University of North Texas System
The University of North Texas System consists of four educational institutions in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex area...

 opened a Dallas campus
University of North Texas at Dallas
The University of North Texas at Dallas began in 2000 as a Dallas extension of the University of North Texas, offering upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in fields such as education, business, criminal justice, applied arts and sciences, computer science, information technology and...

 in October 2006 in South Oak Cliff near the intersection of Interstate 20 and Houston School Rd. Large amounts of undeveloped land remain nearby, due to decades of slow growth south of Downtown. Further east, in the southeast quadrant of the city, is the large neighborhood of Pleasant Grove. Once an independent city, it is a collection of mostly lower-income residential areas stretching all the way to Seagoville
Seagoville, Texas
Seagoville is a city in Dallas County, Texas, United States, and a suburb of Dallas. A small portion of Seagoville extends into Kaufman County. The population was 10,823 as of the 2000 census. The city is located along U.S. Highway 175 and the Southern Pacific Railroad ten miles from Downtown...

 in the southeast. Though a city neighborhood, Pleasant Grove is surrounded by undeveloped land on all sides, including swampland separating it from South Dallas that will in the future be part of the Great Trinity Forest
Great Trinity Forest
The Great Trinity Forest is a forested urban park located entirely inside the heavily urbanized area of Dallas. It is part of the larger Trinity River Project, which when complete, will be one of the largest urban parks in the world....

, a subsection of the city's Trinity River Project
Trinity River Project
The Trinity River Project is a public works project undertaken in the 2000s in the city of Dallas, Texas, USA. Its goal is to redevelop the Trinity River. The project aims to turn the river's path into a collection of sports fields, trails, nature centers, and recreational opportunities...

.

Dallas is further surrounded by many suburbs and includes three enclaves within the city boundaries—Cockrell Hill
Cockrell Hill, Texas
Cockrell Hill is a city in Dallas County, Texas, United States. The population was 4,443 at the 2000 census. It is completely surrounded by the city of Dallas.-Geography:Cockrell Hill is located at ....

, Highland Park
Highland Park, Texas
Highland Park is a town in central Dallas County, Texas, United States. The population was 8,842 at the 2000 census. Located between the Dallas North Tollway and U.S. Route 75 , four miles north of downtown Dallas....

, and University Park
University Park, Texas
University Park is a city in Dallas County, Texas, United States, and a inner suburb of Dallas. The population was 23,324 at the 2000 census. The city is home to Southern Methodist University. Like its neighbor, Highland Park, it is a city partially surrounded by the municipality of Dallas...

.

Culture


Cuisine


Dallas is known for its barbecue
Barbecue
Barbecue or barbeque , used chiefly in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia is a method and apparatus for cooking meat, poultry and occasionally fish with the heat and hot smoke of a fire, smoking wood, or hot coals of...

, authentic Mexican
Mexican cuisine
Mexican cuisine, a style of food that originates in Mexico, is known for its varied flavors, colourful decoration and variety of spices and ingredients, most of which are native to the country. The cuisine of Mexico has evolved through thousands of years of blending indigenous cultures, with later...

, and Tex-Mex cuisine
Tex-Mex cuisine
"Tex-Mex" is a term used to describe a regional American cuisine that blends food products available in the United States and the culinary creations of Mexican-Americans influenced by the cuisines of Mexico. The cuisine has spread from border states such as Texas and those in the Southwestern...

. Famous products of the Dallas culinary scene include the frozen margarita
Margarita
The margarita is a cocktail consisting of tequila mixed with orange-flavoured liqueur and lime or lemon juice, often served with salt on the glass rim. It is the most common tequila-based cocktail in the United States...

 and the chain restaurants Chili's
Chili's
Chili's Grill & Bar is a restaurant chain founded by Larry Lavine. The chain has more than 1400 casual dining restaurants, mostly located in the United States and Canada...

 and Romano's Macaroni Grill
Romano's Macaroni Grill
Romano's Macaroni Grill is an Italian-style chain of casual dining restaurants with locations throughout the United States, Mexico, and Canada. The first restaurant was founded by Texas restaurateur Philip J. Romano in Leon Springs, Texas, on April 19, 1988. Brinker International bought the...

. Fearing's restaurant at the Ritz-Carlton Dallas hotel in Uptown Dallas was named the best hotel restaurant in the US for 2009 by Zagat Survey
Zagat Survey
Zagat Survey was established by Tim and Nina Zagat in 1979 as a way to collect and correlate the ratings of restaurants by diners. For their first guide, covering New York City, the Zagats surveyed their friends. As of 2005, the Zagat Survey included 70 cities, with reviews based on the input of...

. The Ritz-Carlton Dallas hotel was also named 2009 best US hotel by Zagat, and 2009 No. 2 hotel in the world by Zagat, trailing only the Four Seasons King George V in Paris, France. A number of nationally ranked steakhouses can be found in the Dallas area, including Bob's Steak & Chop House, currently ranked No. 1 according to the USDA Prime Steakhouses chart.

Arts



The Arts District
Arts District, Dallas
The Arts District is a performing and visual arts district in downtown Dallas Texas .It is south of State Thomas, southeast of Uptown, north of the City Center District, west of Bryan Place and east of the West End Historic District. It is bounded by St...

 in the northern section of Downtown
Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District in Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District...

 is home to several arts venues, both existing and proposed. Notable venues in the district include the Dallas Museum of Art
Dallas Museum of Art
The Dallas Museum of Art is a major art museum located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas, USA, along Woodall Rodgers Freeway between St. Paul and Harwood. In 1984, the museum moved from its previous location in Fair Park to the Arts District, Dallas, Texas...

, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
The Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center is a concert hall located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas . Ranked one of the world's greatest orchestra halls, it was designed by architect I.M. Pei and acoustician Russell Johnson's Artec Consultants, Inc...

 (home of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra
Dallas Symphony Orchestra
The Dallas Symphony Orchestra is an American orchestra. It performs its concerts in the Meyerson Symphony Center in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas, United States....

), The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art
The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art
The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, located downtown Dallas, Texas , is a member of the Dallas arts district and offers free daily admission. The museum is a gift to the people and visitors of Dallas from Mr. and Mrs. Crow...

, the Nasher Sculpture Center
Nasher Sculpture Center
Opened in 2003, the Nasher Sculpture Center is a museum in Dallas, Texas that houses a collection of modern and contemporary sculpture. It is located on a site adjacent to the Dallas Museum of Art in the heart of the Dallas Arts District...

, The Dallas Contemporary
The Dallas Contemporary
The Dallas Contemporary, founded in 1978, is situated on the edge of the city center of Dallas, the ninth largest city in the United States and fourth largest metropolitan area with Fort Worth...

, and The Dallas Children's Theater.

Venues that are part of the AT&T Dallas Center for the Performing Arts. include the Winspear Opera House, the Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre
Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre
The Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre is a theatre at the AT&T Performing Arts Center, located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas . It is one of four venues that comprise the AT&T Performing Arts Center and was dedicated October 12, 2009. The 80,300-square-footbuilding is twelve stories and...

, and City Performance Hall.

The Arts District is also home to DISD
Dallas Independent School District
The Dallas Independent School District is a school district based in Dallas, Texas . Dallas ISD, which operates schools in much of Dallas County, is the second largest school district in Texas and the twelfth largest in the United States.In 2009, the school district was rated "academically...

's Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts
Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts
Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts is a public secondary school located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas . Booker T. Washington High School enrolls students in grades 9-12 and is the Dallas Independent School District's arts magnet school...

, a magnet school which was recently expanded.

Deep Ellum
Deep Ellum
Deep Ellum is an arts and entertainment district near downtown in east Dallas, Texas . It lies directly east of the elevated I-45/US 75 freeway and extends to Exposition Avenue, connected to downtown by, from north to south, Pacific, Elm, Main, Commerce, and Canton streets...

, immediately east of Downtown, originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz
Jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

 and blues
Blues
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads...

 hot spot in the South
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

. Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson
Blind Lemon Jefferson
"Blind" Lemon Jefferson was an American blues singer and guitarist from Texas. He was one of the most popular blues singers of the 1920s, and has been titled "Father of the Texas Blues"....

, Robert Johnson, Huddie "Leadbelly
Leadbelly
Huddie William Ledbetter was an iconic American folk and blues musician, notable for his strong vocals, his virtuosity on the twelve-string guitar, and the songbook of folk standards he introduced....

" Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith was an American blues singer.Sometimes referred to as The Empress of the Blues, Smith was the most popular female blues singer of the 1920s and 1930s...

 played in original Deep Ellum clubs such as The Harlem and The Palace. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues. A major art infusion in the area results from the city's lax stance on graffiti
Graffiti
Graffiti is the name for images or lettering scratched, scrawled, painted or marked in any manner on property....

, and a number of public spaces including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets are covered in murals. One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late 2006 to accommodate the construction of a light rail line
Green Line (Dallas Area Rapid Transit)
The Green Line is a light rail line in Dallas, USA, operated by the Dallas Area Rapid Transit authority . The US$1.7 billion project opened in phases, starting in 2009...

 through the site.

Like Deep Ellum before it, the Cedars neighborhood to the south of Downtown has also seen a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, an old Sears
Sears, Roebuck and Company
Sears, officially named Sears, Roebuck and Co., is an American chain of department stores which was founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in the late 19th century...

 warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail. Current attractions include Gilley's Dallas and Poor David's Pub. Dallas Mavericks
Dallas Mavericks
The Dallas Mavericks are a professional basketball team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Southwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association , and the reigning NBA champions, having defeated the Miami Heat in the 2011 NBA Finals.According to a 2011...

 owner and local entrepreneur Mark Cuban
Mark Cuban
Mark Cuban is an American business magnate and investor. He is the owner of the National Basketball Association's Dallas Mavericks, Landmark Theatres, and Magnolia Pictures, and the chairman of the HDTV cable network HDNet....

 purchased land along Lamar Avenue near Cedars Station
Cedars Station
Cedars is a DART Light Rail station located in the Cedars neighborhood of south Dallas, Texas . It is located at Belleview and Wall Streets, just south of Downtown Dallas. It opened on June 14, 1996, and is a station on the and lines, serving Old City Park with connecting service to Fair Park,...

 in September 2005, and locals speculate that he is planning an entertainment complex for the site.

South of the Trinity River, the fledgling Bishop Arts District in Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff is a community in Dallas, Texas, United States that was formerly a separate town located in Dallas County; Dallas annexed Oak Cliff in 1903...

 is home to a number of studio artists living in converted warehouses. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops.

Dallas has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The office is responsible for six cultural centers located throughout the city, funding for local artists and theaters, initiating public art projects, and running the city-owned classical
Classical music
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times...

 radio station WRR
WRR (FM)
WRR is a municipally-owned radio station, owned by the city of Dallas, Texas, that broadcasts a classical music format....

.

Media



Dallas has numerous local newspapers, magazines, television stations and radio stations that serve the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex
Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex
The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. The area is divided into two metropolitan divisions: Dallas–Plano–Irving and Fort Worth–Arlington. Residents of the area...

 as a whole, which is the 5th-largest media market
Media market
A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area , Television Market Area , or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content...

 in the United States.

Dallas has one major daily newspaper, The Dallas Morning News
The Dallas Morning News
The Dallas Morning News is the major daily newspaper serving the Dallas, Texas area, with a circulation of 264,459 subscribers, the Audit Bureau of Circulations reported in September 2010...

, which was founded in 1885 by A. H. Belo
A. H. Belo
A. H. Belo Corporation is a Dallas-based media company that owns four daily newspapers and five smaller newspapers. The current corporation was formed when Belo Corporation separated its broadcasting and publishing operations into two corporations. A. H. Belo also owns a part interest in...

 and is A. H. Belo's flagship newspaper. The Dallas Times Herald
Dallas Times Herald
The Dallas Times Herald, founded in 1888 by a merger of the Dallas Times and the Dallas Herald, was once one of two major daily newspapers serving the Dallas, Texas area. It won three Pulitzer Prizes, all for photography, and two George Polk Awards, for local and regional reporting...

, started in 1888, was the Morning News major competitor until Belo purchased the paper on December 8, 1991 and closed the paper down the next day. Other daily newspapers are Al Día
Al Día (Dallas)
Al Día is a Spanish language newspaper that serves the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. It is published by A. H. Belo and is the Spanish language counterpart to The Dallas Morning News. It has its headquarters in Downtown Dallas.- External links :*...

, a Spanish-language paper published by Belo, Quick
Quick (newspaper)
Quick is a defunct Dallas-Fort Worth area free weekly newspaper published from 2003 to 2011. As the name implies, it was delivered in a quick-to-read format: a tabloid ranging in page count from 20 to 40...

, a free, summary-style version of the Morning News, and a number of ethnic newspapers printed in languages such as Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese.

Other publications include the Dallas Weekly, the Oak Cliff Tribune and the Elite News, all weekly news publications. The Dallas Morning News also puts out a weekly publication, neighborsgo
Neighborsgo
Neighborsgo is a weekly community newspaper published by The Dallas Morning News. Each Friday, 11 print editions are distributed to more than 340,000 households in the Dallas area. The material in print editions comes primarily from user-submitted material on the Web site, neighborsgo.com, where...

, which comes out every Friday and focuses on community news. Readers can post stories and contribute content at the Web site, http://neighborsgo.com/. The Dallas Observer
Dallas Observer
The Dallas Observer is a free alternative weekly newspaper distributed around the Dallas, Texas . At its inception, it was conceived as a weekly local arts and cinema review publication, with the credo "Advocate for Excellence in the Arts" on the cover. For a time during the early years, the paper...

 and the North Texas Journal are also alternative weekly newspapers, D Magazine
D Magazine
This article is about the magazine about Dallas. For the Italian magazine, see La Repubblica.D Magazine is a monthly magazine covering Dallas-Fort Worth. It covers a range of topics including politics, business, food, fashion and lifestyle in the city of Dallas. The first issue was published in...

, a monthly magazine about business, life, and entertainment in the Metroplex. Local visitor magazines include "WHERE Magazine" and "Travelhost" – available at hotel desks or in guest rooms. In addition, the Park Cities and suburbs such as Plano also have their own community newspapers. Also, THE magazine covers the contemporary arts scene.

In terms of the larger metro area, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram
Fort Worth Star-Telegram
The Fort Worth Star-Telegram is a major U.S. daily newspaper serving Fort Worth and the western half of the North Texas area known as the Metroplex. Its area of domination is checked by its main rival, The Dallas Morning News, which is published from the eastern half of the Metroplex. It is owned...

 is another significant daily newspaper, covering Fort Worth
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is the 16th-largest city in the United States of America and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas. Located in North Central Texas, just southeast of the Texas Panhandle, the city is a cultural gateway into the American West and covers nearly in Tarrant, Parker, Denton, and...

/Tarrant County
Tarrant County, Texas
Tarrant County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, it had a population of 1,809,034. Its county seat is Fort Worth. Tarrant County is the sixteenth most populous county in the United States and the third most populous in Texas. The county is named in honor...

 and its suburbs. It also publishes a major Spanish-language newspaper for the entire Metroplex known as La Estrella. To the north of Dallas and Fort Worth, the Denton Record-Chronicle
Denton Record-Chronicle
The Denton Record-Chronicle is the official newspaper for the city of Denton, Texas and Denton County since 1899.William Edwards consolidated the Denton Chronicle and the Denton County Record , as a weekly newspaper. It wasn't until August 3, 1903 that the paper was published daily...

 primarily covers news for the city of Denton
Denton, Texas
The city of Denton is the county seat of Denton County, Texas in the United States. Its population was 119,454 according to the 2010 U.S. Census, making it the eleventh largest city in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex...

 and Denton County.

Area television stations affiliated with the major broadcasting networks include KDFW 4
KDFW
KDFW, virtual channel 4 , is the Fox owned-and-operated television station in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex designated market area....

 (Fox
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

), KXAS 5
KXAS-TV
KXAS-TV, virtual channel 5 , is the NBC television station for the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. The station was Texas' first television station when the station made its debut on September 28, 1948. Its transmitter is located in Cedar Hill...

 (NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

), WFAA 8
WFAA-TV
WFAA, channel 8, is an ABC-affiliated television station serving the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex, one of the top ten media markets in North America. The station is the flagship of Belo Corporation and the largest ABC affiliate not owned and operated by the network...

 (ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

) (owned by Belo
Belo
Belo Corp. is a Dallas-based media company that owns 20 commercial broadcasting television stations and two regional 24-hour cable news television channels. The company was previously known as A.H. Belo Corp. after one of the early owners of the company, Alfred Horatio Belo, now the name of the...

), KTVT 11
KTVT
KTVT, virtual channel 11, is a CBS owned-and-operated television station licensed to Fort Worth, Texas, and serving the Dallas-Fort Worth designated market area. The station is co-owned with independent station KTXA , and the two stations share facilities in Dallas and Fort Worth...

 (CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

), KERA 13
KERA-TV
KERA-TV, virtual channel 13 , is the PBS member station in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Licensed to Dallas, it broadcasts from a transmitter located in Cedar Hill. However, it also serves as the default PBS station for the Abilene, San Angelo and Tyler/Longview/Lufkin/Nacogdoches markets, as...

 (PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

), KUVN 23
KUVN-TV
KUVN-DT, channel 23, is the Univision owned-and-operated station in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas Designated Market Area. It transmits from Cedar Hill...

 (UNI
Univision
Univision is a Spanish-language television network in the United States. It has the largest audience of Spanish language television viewers according to Nielsen ratings. Randy Falco, COO, has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva...

), KDFI 27
KDFI
KDFI-TV, virtual channel 27, is a MyNetworkTV-affiliated station serving the Dallas/Fort Worth area. The station is licensed to Dallas and owned by Fox Television Stations, a division of the News Corporation, and is a sister station to Fox network outlet KDFW . Its transmitter is located in Cedar...

 (MNTV), KDAF 33
KDAF
KDAF, virtual channel 33 , is a CW-affiliated television station serving the Dallas-Fort Worth television market area. The station is licensed to Dallas and owned by the Tribune Company with its studios located off the John W. Carpenter Freeway in northwest Dallas. The station's transmitter is...

 (The CW) and KXTX 39
KXTX-TV
KXTX-TV, digital channel 40 , is the Telemundo owned-and-operated station in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas Designated Market Area...

 (TMD
Telemundo
Telemundo is an American television network that broadcasts in Spanish. The network is the second-largest Spanish-language content producer in the world, and the second-largest Spanish-language network in the United States, behind Univision....

). KTXA-21
KTXA
KTXA, virtual channel 21 , is an independent television station based in Fort Worth, Texas, and serving the Dallas/Fort Worth designated market area. With its transmitter in Cedar Hill, KTXA is owned by CBS Corporation and is the sister station of CBS outlet KTVT .KTXA was originally an...

 is an independent station
Independent station
An independent station is in the category of television terminology used to describe a television station broadcasting in the United States or Canada that is not affiliated with any television network....

 formerly affiliated with the now-defunct UPN
UPN
United Paramount Network was a television network that was broadcast in over 200 markets in the United States from 1995 to 2006. UPN was originally owned by Viacom/Paramount and Chris-Craft Industries, the former of which, through the Paramount Television Group, produced most of the network's...

 network.

Sixty-three (63) radio stations operate within range of Dallas. The City of Dallas operates WRR
WRR (FM)
WRR is a municipally-owned radio station, owned by the city of Dallas, Texas, that broadcasts a classical music format....

 101.1 FM, the area's main classical music station, from city offices in Fair Park
Fair Park
Dallas Fair Park is a recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas . The complex is registered as a Dallas Landmark, National Historic Landmark and is home to nine museums, six performance facilities, a lagoon, and the largest Ferris wheel in North America...

. Its original sister station, licensed as WRR-AM in 1921, is the oldest commercially operated radio station in Texas and the second-oldest in the United States, after KDKA (AM)
KDKA (AM)
KDKA is a radio station licensed to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Created by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on November 2, 1920, it is one of the world's first modern radio stations , a distinction that has also been challenged by other stations, although it has claimed to be the first in...

 in Pittsburgh. Because of the city's centrally located geographical position and lack of nearby mountainous terrain, high-power class A medium-wave stations KRLD and WBAP can broadcast as far as southern Canada at night and can be used for emergency messages when broadcasting is down in other major metropolitan areas in the United States.

Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation (HBC), the largest company in the Spanish language radio station business, is based in Dallas. In 2003, HBC was acquired by Univision and became Univision Radio Inc., but the radio company remains headquartered in the city.

Religion



There is a large Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 Christian influence in the Dallas community. Methodist
Methodism
Methodism is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to John Wesley's evangelistic revival movement within Anglicanism. His younger brother...

, Baptist
Baptist
Baptists comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers , and that it must be done by immersion...

, and Presbyterian churches are prominent in many neighborhoods and anchor two of the city's major private universities (Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University is a private university in Dallas, Texas, United States. Founded in 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, SMU operates campuses in Dallas, Plano, and Taos, New Mexico. SMU is owned by the South Central Jurisdiction of the United Methodist Church...

 and Dallas Baptist University
Dallas Baptist University
Dallas Baptist University , formerly known as Dallas Baptist College, is a Christian liberal arts university located in Dallas, Texas. The main campus is located approximately fifteen miles southwest of downtown Dallas overlooking Mountain Creek Lake...

). Dallas is also home to two evangelical seminaries, the Dallas Theological Seminary
Dallas Theological Seminary
Dallas Theological Seminary is an evangelical theological seminary located in Dallas, Texas. It is known for popularizing the theological system known as Dispensationalism...

 and Criswell College
Criswell College
Criswell College is a Dispensationalist Christian college and divinity school in Dallas, Texas. It is known for training students to teach and preach the Bible with emphasis on evangelism, the original languages, and Biblical inerrancy.-History:...

 and many Bible schools including Christ For The Nations Institute
Christ For The Nations Institute
Christ for the Nations Institute is an unaccredited interdenominational three year Christian Bible institute located in the Oak Cliff neighborhood of Dallas, Texas . The Bible based curriculum is taught from a Charismatic/Pentecostal heritage...

.

The Catholic Church is also a significant organization in the Dallas area and operates the University of Dallas
University of Dallas
The University of Dallas is a private, independent Catholic regional university located in Irving, Texas, established in 1956, which is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. According to U.S...

, a liberal-arts university in the Dallas suburb of Irving. The Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe
Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe
The Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas, Texas. The structure dates from the late 19th century and is located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas. The church oversees the second largest Catholic church membership in the...

 in the Arts District oversees the second-largest Catholic church membership in the United States, with 70 parishes in the Dallas Diocese. The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 operates the Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas
Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas
Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas is a private, college-preparatory school for young men under the direction of the Society of Jesus and home to the Jesuit Dallas Museum in Dallas, Texas...

. Dallas is also home to three Eastern Orthodox Christian
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

 churches. The city of Dallas and Dallas county have more Catholic than Protestant residents, while the converse is usually true for the suburban areas of Dallas.
The Cathedral of Hope
Cathedral of Hope (Dallas)
The Cathedral of Hope is a predominantly LGBT congregation located in the Oak Lawn area of Dallas, Texas . The Dallas Cathedral of Hope is said to be the world's largest inclusive "liberal Christian church with a primary outreach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons", with a...

 is a predominantly LGBT
LGBT
LGBT is an initialism that collectively refers to "lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender" people. In use since the 1990s, the term "LGBT" is an adaptation of the initialism "LGB", which itself started replacing the phrase "gay community" beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, which many within the...

 congregation located in the Oak Lawn
Oak Lawn, Dallas
Oak Lawn is a neighborhood in Dallas, Texas , defined in Dallas City Ordinance 21859 as . The unofficial boundaries are Turtle Creek Boulevard, Central Expressway, the City of Highland Park, Inwood Road, and Harry Hines Boulevard. It is over in area...

 area. The Dallas Cathedral of Hope is said to be the world's largest Christian LGBT church. Located on the campus of the Cathedral of Hope, the Interfaith Peace Chapel was the last project that Priktzer award-winning architect Philip Johnson
Philip Johnson
Philip Cortelyou Johnson was an influential American architect.In 1930, he founded the Department of Architecture and Design at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and later , as a trustee, he was awarded an American Institute of Architects Gold Medal and the first Pritzker Architecture...

 designed. Johnson is quoted as saying, "this is a building I’ve waited all my life to build. It will be my memorial."


The city is also home to a sizable LDS
Mormon
The term Mormon most commonly denotes an adherent, practitioner, follower, or constituent of Mormonism, which is the largest branch of the Latter Day Saint movement in restorationist Christianity...

 community. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has fifteen stakes throughout Dallas and surrounding suburbs. The Church built the Dallas Texas Temple
Dallas Texas Temple
The Dallas Texas Temple is the 30th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints . It serves nearly 50,000 members in North Texas, and parts of Louisiana.-Construction and Dedication:...

, the first temple in Texas, in the city in 1984.

Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. The religion reports worldwide membership of over 7 million adherents involved in evangelism, convention attendance of over 12 million, and annual...

 also have a large number of members throughout Dallas and surrounding suburbs.

Furthermore, a large Muslim community exists in the north and northeastern portions of Dallas, as well as in the northern Dallas suburbs. The oldest mosque in Texas is located in Denton, about 40 miles (64.4 km) north of Downtown Dallas. The oldest mosque in Dallas is Masjid Al-Islam located just south of Downtown Dallas.

Dallas also has a large Buddhist community. Immigrants from Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, Laos, Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

, Vietnam, Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

, Tibet, Japan, China, Taiwan, and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

 have all contributed to the Buddhist population, which is concentrated in the northern suburbs of Garland
Garland, Texas
-Climate:* The average warmest month is July.* The highest recorded temperature was in 2000.* On average, the coolest month is January.* The lowest recorded temperature was in 1989.* The maximum average precipitation occurs in May....

, Plano
Plano, Texas
Plano is a city in the state of Texas, located mostly within Collin County. The city's population was 259,841 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in Texas and the 71st most populous city in the United States. Plano is located within the metropolitan area commonly referred to as...

 and Richardson
Richardson, Texas
Richardson is a city in Dallas and Collin Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 99,223. In 2011 the population was estimated to be 107,684. Richardson is an affluent inner suburb of Dallas and home of the Telecom Corridor with a high...

. Numerous Buddhist temples dot the Metroplex, including The Buddhist Center of Dallas, Lien Hoa Vietnamese Temple of Irving
Irving, Texas
Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

, and Kadampa Meditation Center Texas and Wat Buddhamahamunee of Arlington
Arlington, Texas
Arlington is a city in Tarrant County, Texas within the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census results, the city had a population of 365,438, making it the third largest municipality in the Metroplex...

.

A sizeable Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

 community resides in Dallas and its surrounding suburbs. There are at least three Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

 Gurudwaras in this metropolitan area.

There are several Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 temples in DFW area in cities such as Irving and the Indian Community is growing in the DFW Metroplex. There's also a Jain Temple, ISKON Temple, Sai Baba Temple and other temples in DFW.

For the atheist, agnostic, nonbeliever and strictly spiritual individuals, there is "The Winter SolstiCelebration". After 15 years, this celebration has become a minor Dallas cultural tradition for the "spiritual but not religious" people of North Texas. "That gentle rejection of commonly held ideas fills many of those who will take part in the event. They are mostly people who refuse to be pigeonholed by any one religion – but who long for the sense of community that an organized faith supplies."

Events



The most notable event held in Dallas is the State Fair of Texas
State Fair of Texas
The State Fair of Texas is an annual state fair held in Dallas, Texas . The fair season usually begins the last Friday in September and ends 24 days later. The fair is held at the historic Fair Park where it has been held since 1886. The 2012 State Fair of Texas will run from September 28th...

, which has been held annually at Fair Park
Fair Park
Dallas Fair Park is a recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas . The complex is registered as a Dallas Landmark, National Historic Landmark and is home to nine museums, six performance facilities, a lagoon, and the largest Ferris wheel in North America...

 since 1886. The fair is a massive event, bringing in an estimated $350 million to the city's economy annually. The Red River Shootout, which pits the University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a state research university located in Austin, Texas, USA, and is the flagship institution of the The University of Texas System. Founded in 1883, its campus is located approximately from the Texas State Capitol in Austin...

 against The University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a coeducational public research university located in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. the university had 29,931 students enrolled, most located at its...

 at the Cotton Bowl
Cotton Bowl (stadium)
The Cotton Bowl is a stadium which opened in 1929 and became known as "The House That Doak Built" due to the immense crowds that former SMU running back Doak Walker drew to the stadium during his college career in the late 1940s. Originally known as Fair Park Stadium, it is located in Fair Park,...

 also brings significant crowds to the city.

Other festivals in the area include several Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo is a holiday held on May 5. It is celebrated nationwide in the United States and regionally in Mexico, primarily in the state of Puebla, where the holiday is called El Dia de la Batalla de Puebla...

 celebrations hosted by the city's large Mexican American
Mexican American
Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican descent. As of July 2009, Mexican Americans make up 10.3% of the United States' population with over 31,689,000 Americans listed as of Mexican ancestry. Mexican Americans comprise 66% of all Hispanics and Latinos in the United States...

 population, an Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day is a religious holiday celebrated internationally on 17 March. It commemorates Saint Patrick , the most commonly recognised of the patron saints of :Ireland, and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland. It is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion , the Eastern...

 parade along Lower Greenville Avenue
Lower Greenville, Dallas, Texas
Lower Greenville is a neighborhood in east Dallas, Texas , west of Lakewood. Specifically, the neighborhood is the area adjacent to Greenville Avenue south of Mockingbird Lane and north of Belmont Avenue...

, Juneteenth
Juneteenth
Juneteenth, also known as Freedom Day or Emancipation Day, is a holiday in the United States honoring African American heritage by commemorating the announcement of the abolition of slavery in the U.S. State of Texas in 1865...

 festivities, the Greek Food Festival of Dallas
Greek Food Festival of Dallas
The Greek Food Festival of Dallas is a food festival held annually in Dallas, Texas , featuring tradiational Greek cuisine and Greek culture....

, the annual Halloween event "The Wake" featuring lots of local art and music, and an annual Halloween parade on Cedar Springs Road. With the opening of Victory Park, WFAA Channel 8 has begun to host an annual New Year's Eve celebration in AT&T Plaza that the television station hopes will reminisce of celebrations in New York's Times Square
Times Square
Times Square is a major commercial intersection in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue and stretching from West 42nd to West 47th Streets...

. The city has their own New Year's Day parade, the Comerica Bank New Year's Parade
Comerica Bank New Year's Parade
The Comerica Bank New Year's Parade is an annual New Year's Day parade held in downtown Dallas, Texas. The parade is sponsored by Comerica Bank, presented by the J. Curtis Sanford Parade Committee, and benefits the Field and Mary Scovell Scholarship Foundation. It was revived in 2007 and is held...

.

Sports


Dallas is home to the Dallas Mavericks
Dallas Mavericks
The Dallas Mavericks are a professional basketball team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Southwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association , and the reigning NBA champions, having defeated the Miami Heat in the 2011 NBA Finals.According to a 2011...

 (National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

) and Dallas Stars
Dallas Stars
The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The team was founded during the 1967 NHL expansion as the Minnesota North Stars, based in Bloomington, Minnesota. The...

 (National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

). Both teams play at the American Airlines Center, as did the Dallas Desperados
Dallas Desperados
The Dallas Desperados were a professional Arena Football team. The Desperados played in the Southern Division of the now-defunct Arena Football League from 2002 to 2008....

 of the Arena Football League before that league's demise in 2009. In 2010, the Dallas Vigilantes
Dallas Vigilantes
The Dallas Vigilantes were an Arena Football League team based in Dallas, Texas. Like its AFL predecessor, the Dallas Desperados, the Vigilantes played at the American Airlines Center. The Vigilantes and the Jacksonville Sharks began play in the 2010 season, the first after the league's...

 began playing in the American Airlines Center as a part of the restructured Arena Football League.

In 2011, Dallas became the first city to host the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
The Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League , the highest level of professional American football in the United States, culminating a season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather...

, the World Series
World Series
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball, played between the American League and National League champions since 1903. The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff and awarded the Commissioner's Trophy...

, and the NBA Finals
NBA Finals
The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association . The series was named the NBA World Championship Series until 1986....

, all within the same 12-month period. Both the Texas Rangers
Texas Rangers (baseball)
The Texas Rangers are a professional baseball team in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, based in Arlington, Texas. The Rangers are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League, and are the reigning A.L. Western Division and A.L. Champions. Since , the Rangers have...

 and Dallas Mavericks
Dallas Mavericks
The Dallas Mavericks are a professional basketball team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Southwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association , and the reigning NBA champions, having defeated the Miami Heat in the 2011 NBA Finals.According to a 2011...

 won successive playoff games to reach the championship in their respective sports, whereas the Cowboys Stadium in Arlington
Arlington, Texas
Arlington is a city in Tarrant County, Texas within the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census results, the city had a population of 365,438, making it the third largest municipality in the Metroplex...

 was chosen in advance to host the Super Bowl.

Soccer


The Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer is a professional soccer league based in the United States and sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federation . The league is composed of 19 teams — 16 in the U.S. and 3 in Canada...

 team FC Dallas
FC Dallas
FC Dallas is an American professional soccer club based in the Dallas suburb of Frisco, Texas which competes in Major League Soccer , the top professional soccer league in the United States of America and Canada...

, formerly the Dallas Burn, used to play in the Cotton Bowl
Cotton Bowl (stadium)
The Cotton Bowl is a stadium which opened in 1929 and became known as "The House That Doak Built" due to the immense crowds that former SMU running back Doak Walker drew to the stadium during his college career in the late 1940s. Originally known as Fair Park Stadium, it is located in Fair Park,...

 but moved to Pizza Hut Park
Pizza Hut Park
Pizza Hut Park is a soccer-specific stadium with a 21,193-seat capacity, built and owned by the city of Frisco, Texas. Its primary tenant is Major League Soccer team FC Dallas, which relocated from the Cotton Bowl in central Dallas to the fast-growing suburb...

 in Frisco
Frisco, Texas
Frisco is an affluent city in Collin and Denton Counties in the U.S. state of Texas and a rapidly growing suburb of Dallas. As of the 2010 Census, 116,989 people were living in Frisco up from 33,714 in the previous census. Frisco was the fastest growing city in the United States in 2009, and also...

 upon the stadium's opening in 2005. The college Cotton Bowl Classic football game was played at the stadium through its 2009 game, but has moved to the new Cowboys Stadium in Arlington. The Dallas Sidekicks
Dallas Sidekicks
The Dallas Sidekicks were one of the longest operating professional soccer teams, either indoor or outdoor, in the United States, based in Dallas, Texas, and operating from 1984 until suspending operations following the 2004 season. The team was founded as a member of the original Major Indoor...

, a former team of the Major Indoor Soccer League, used to play in Reunion Arena
Reunion Arena
Reunion Arena was an indoor arena, in the Reunion district of downtown Dallas, Texas . It held 18,293 for basketball and 17,001 for ice hockey.It was demolished in November 2009 and the site was cleared by the end of the year.-History:...

, as did the Mavericks and Stars before their move to the American Airlines Center.

Hockey


Dallas is the home of the Dallas Stars
Dallas Stars
The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The team was founded during the 1967 NHL expansion as the Minnesota North Stars, based in Bloomington, Minnesota. The...

. They are members of the Pacific Division
Pacific Division (NHL)
The National Hockey League's Pacific Division is one of three divisions that make up the Western Conference. It was formed in 1993 as part of a league realignment...

 of the Western Conference
Western Conference (NHL)
The Western Conference is one of two conferences in the National Hockey League used to divide teams. Its counterpart is the Eastern Conference....

 of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 (NHL). The Stars have won seven division titles in Dallas, two President's Trophies as the top regular season team in the NHL, the Western Conference
Western Conference (NHL)
The Western Conference is one of two conferences in the National Hockey League used to divide teams. Its counterpart is the Eastern Conference....

 championship twice, and in 1998–99, the Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
The Stanley Cup is an ice hockey club trophy, awarded annually to the National Hockey League playoffs champion after the conclusion of the Stanley Cup Finals. It has been referred to as The Cup, Lord Stanley's Cup, The Holy Grail, or facetiously as Lord Stanley's Mug...

. The team plays its home games at the American Airlines Center
American Airlines Center
The American Airlines Center is a multi-purpose arena, located in the Victory Park neighborhood, near downtown Dallas, Texas.It is home to the Dallas Mavericks of the NBA, and the Dallas Stars of the NHL....

.

The Allen Americans
Allen Americans
The Allen Americans is an ice hockey team in the Central Hockey League which began play in the 2009–10 season. They play at the Allen Event Center in Allen, Texas.-History:...

, founded for the 2009–10 season, play in the Berry Conference of the Central Hockey League
Central Hockey League
The Central Hockey League is a mid-level professional hockey league, owned by Global Entertainment Corporation. Its current champions are the Bossier-Shreveport Mudbugs, which defeated the Colorado Eagles four games to three in the 2011 playoffs....

. Their home arena is the Allen Event Center located in Allen, Texas, approximately 30 minutes northeast of Dallas. The Texas Tornado
Texas Tornado
The Texas Tornado are a Junior A hockey team located in Frisco, Texas, USA. The team joined the North American Hockey League's Central division in 1999 while located in North Richland Hills, Texas, and have enjoyed unprecedented success since their expansion year...

, three-time defending champions of the North American Hockey League
North American Hockey League
The North American Hockey League is one of the top junior hockey leagues in the United States and is enterting its 36th season in 2011-12. It is currently the only Junior A Tier II league, sanctioned by USA Hockey. The NAHL currently acts as an alternative to the United States Hockey League...

, plays at the Dr Pepper Arena in Frisco
Frisco, Texas
Frisco is an affluent city in Collin and Denton Counties in the U.S. state of Texas and a rapidly growing suburb of Dallas. As of the 2010 Census, 116,989 people were living in Frisco up from 33,714 in the previous census. Frisco was the fastest growing city in the United States in 2009, and also...

.

Football


Nearby Arlington, Texas is the new home to the Dallas Cowboys
Dallas Cowboys
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football franchise which plays in the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference of the National Football League . They are headquartered in Valley Ranch in Irving, Texas, a suburb of Dallas...

 of the National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

. Since joining the league as an expansion team in 1960, the Cowboys have enjoyed substantial success, advancing to eight Super Bowls and winning five; according to profootballreference.com, as of the end of the 2009 season they were the winningest active NFL franchise. Known widely as "America's Team", the Dallas Cowboys
Dallas Cowboys
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football franchise which plays in the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference of the National Football League . They are headquartered in Valley Ranch in Irving, Texas, a suburb of Dallas...

 are financially the most valuable sports 'franchise' in the world, worth approximately 1.5 billion dollars. They are also the second most valuable sports organization in the world. The Cowboys are only out-valued by Manchester United, who are valued at 1.8 billion dollars. In 2009, the Cowboys relocated to their new 80,000-seat stadium in Arlington, which was the site of Super Bowl XLV
Super Bowl XLV
Super Bowl XLV was an American football game between the American Football Conference champion Pittsburgh Steelers and the National Football Conference champion Green Bay Packers to decide the National Football League champion for the 2010 season. The game was held at Cowboys Stadium in...

.

Basketball


The city is home to the Dallas Mavericks
Dallas Mavericks
The Dallas Mavericks are a professional basketball team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Southwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association , and the reigning NBA champions, having defeated the Miami Heat in the 2011 NBA Finals.According to a 2011...

. Their original arena was the now demolished Reunion Arena
Reunion Arena
Reunion Arena was an indoor arena, in the Reunion district of downtown Dallas, Texas . It held 18,293 for basketball and 17,001 for ice hockey.It was demolished in November 2009 and the site was cleared by the end of the year.-History:...

, but now they play at the American Airlines Center
American Airlines Center
The American Airlines Center is a multi-purpose arena, located in the Victory Park neighborhood, near downtown Dallas, Texas.It is home to the Dallas Mavericks of the NBA, and the Dallas Stars of the NHL....

. They won their first championship in 2011 led by their German star-player Dirk Nowitzki
Dirk Nowitzki
Dirk Werner Nowitzki is a German professional basketball player who plays for the Dallas Mavericks of the National Basketball Association...

.

Baseball


Also in Arlington is Rangers Ballpark, home of the 2010 and 2011 American League Champion Texas Rangers
Texas Rangers (baseball)
The Texas Rangers are a professional baseball team in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, based in Arlington, Texas. The Rangers are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League, and are the reigning A.L. Western Division and A.L. Champions. Since , the Rangers have...

 of Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

.

Horse racing


About halfway between Dallas and Fort Worth, horse-racing takes place at Lone Star Park
Lone Star Park
Lone Star Park is a horse racing track located in Grand Prairie, Texas.-History:Lone Star Park opened in 1997. The track offers separate meets for Thoroughbred racing and Quarter Horse racing. In October 2002, Magna Entertainment Corp. , based in Aurora, Ontario, leased the facility and acquired...

 in Grand Prairie.

Rugby League


The Dallas Dragons, formed in 2010 are part of the AMNRL's Western Expansion.

Rugby Union


Rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 is a developing sport in Dallas as well as the whole of Texas. The multiple clubs, ranging from men's and women's clubs
Rugby union in the United States
Rugby union in the United States is a growing national sport. It is played at the youth, high school, club, semi-professional, and international levels. The United States is a Tier 2 rugby nation, as defined by the International Rugby Board, which means that it is not currently competitive at the...

 to collegiate and high school, are part of the Texas Rugby Football Union
Western Rugby Football Union
The Western Rugby Football Union is the Territorial Area Union for rugby union teams playing in the Western United States. It is one of seven TAU's that govern specific regions of USA Rugby. It was established in 1975 and is a Founding Member of USA Rugby.-Local Area Unions :The WRFU is...

. Currently Dallas is one of only 16 cities in the United States included in the Rugby Super League represented by Dallas Harlequins
Dallas Harlequins
The Dallas Harlequins Rugby Football Club is a SuperLeague rugby union team based in Dallas, Texas.-History:The Harlequins formed in 1971. A year after inception, in 1972, the Harlequins became the first Texas RFU club to win a match against a club from outside the United States when they defeated...

.

Cricket


Cricket is another sport that is popular among diaspora from South Asian countries. Local universities such as SMU
Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University is a private university in Dallas, Texas, United States. Founded in 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, SMU operates campuses in Dallas, Plano, and Taos, New Mexico. SMU is owned by the South Central Jurisdiction of the United Methodist Church...

, University of Texas at Arlington and University of Texas at Dallas
University of Texas at Dallas
The University of Texas at Dallas, also referred to as UT Dallas or UTD, is a public research university in the University of Texas System. The main campus is in the heart of the Richardson, Texas, Telecom Corridor, north of downtown Dallas...

 have their own cricket clubs that are affiliated with USA Cricket.

Other sports


Other teams in the Dallas-Fort Worth area include the Fort Worth Cats, and the Grand Prairie AirHogs—all minor league baseball teams. The Dallas Diamonds
Dallas Diamonds
The Dallas Diamonds are a women's professional American football team in the Women's Football Alliance . It is made up of 46 players and has a coaching staff of 10...

, the two-time national champions of the Women's Professional Football League
Women's Professional Football League
The Women's Professional Football League is the original and longest operating women's professional American football league in the United States. Now with teams across the United States, the WPFL had its first game in 1999 with just two original teams: the Lake Michigan Minx and the Minnesota...

, plays in North Richland Hills
North Richland Hills, Texas
North Richland Hills is a city in Tarrant County, Texas, United States, and a suburb of Fort Worth. The population was 63,343 at the 2010 census, making it the fourth largest city in Tarrant County. In 2006, North Richland Hills was selected as one of the "Top 100 Best Places to live in America"...

. McKinney
McKinney, Texas
McKinney is a city in and the county seat of Collin County, Texas, United States, and the second in population to Plano. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city's 2010 population was 131,117 The Census Bureau listed McKinney as the nation's fastest growing city from 2000 to 2003 and again in...

 is home to the Dallas Revolution, an Independent Women's Football League
Independent Women's Football League
The Independent Women's Football League was founded in 2000, and began play in 2001.IWFL founders began with the goal to establish a quality women's football league that would be respected as the top level of women's tackle football in the world....

 team. The Dallas Bluestorm, formerly called the Skybolts, is a charter of the new United Gridron Football League, who will begin play here in 2010.

Dallas has no major-college sports program within its political boundaries, although it has one such program within its city limits—the Mustangs
SMU Mustangs
The SMU Mustangs is the name of the athletic teams representing Southern Methodist University. The Mustangs participate in the NCAA's Division I as a member of Conference USA. In 2005, SMU accepted an invitation to the Western Division of Conference USA, and left the Western Athletic Conference...

 of Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University is a private university in Dallas, Texas, United States. Founded in 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, SMU operates campuses in Dallas, Plano, and Taos, New Mexico. SMU is owned by the South Central Jurisdiction of the United Methodist Church...

 are located in the enclave of University Park
University Park, Texas
University Park is a city in Dallas County, Texas, United States, and a inner suburb of Dallas. The population was 23,324 at the 2000 census. The city is home to Southern Methodist University. Like its neighbor, Highland Park, it is a city partially surrounded by the municipality of Dallas...

. Neighboring cities Fort Worth
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is the 16th-largest city in the United States of America and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas. Located in North Central Texas, just southeast of the Texas Panhandle, the city is a cultural gateway into the American West and covers nearly in Tarrant, Parker, Denton, and...

, Arlington, and Denton
Denton, Texas
The city of Denton is the county seat of Denton County, Texas in the United States. Its population was 119,454 according to the 2010 U.S. Census, making it the eleventh largest city in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex...

 are home to the Texas Christian University
Texas Christian University
Texas Christian University is a private, coeducational university located in Fort Worth, Texas, United States and founded in 1873. TCU is affiliated with, but not governed by, the Disciples of Christ...

 Horned Frogs
TCU Horned Frogs
The TCU Horned Frogs are the athletic teams that represent Texas Christian University, consisting of 18 varsity teams. The "horned frog" nickname and mascot refer to the Texas horned lizard, as known as the "horned frog". The women's athletics teams are often referred to often as the Lady Frogs...

, University of Texas at Arlington
University of Texas at Arlington
The University of Texas at Arlington is a public research university located in Arlington, Texas, United States. The campus is situated southwest of downtown Arlington, and is located in the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area. The university was founded in 1895 and served primarily a military...

 Mavericks
UT Arlington Mavericks
The UT Arlington Mavericks are the athletic teams that represent the University of Texas at Arlington. The Mavericks team name selection was made in 1971, predating the Dallas Mavericks starting choice in 1980. The Mavericks compete in the NCAA Division I Southland Conference in 14 varsity sports...

, and University of North Texas
University of North Texas
The University of North Texas is a public institution of higher education and research in Denton. Founded in 1890, UNT is part of the University of North Texas System. As of the fall of 2010, the University of North Texas, Denton campus, had a certified enrollment of 36,067...

 Mean Green
North Texas Mean Green
North Texas Mean Green is the team name used for both men's and women's intercollegiate athletic teams that play for the University of North Texas in Denton, Texas....

 respectively.

Major league sports teams in the Dallas-Fort Worth area:
Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Texas Rangers
Texas Rangers (baseball)
The Texas Rangers are a professional baseball team in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, based in Arlington, Texas. The Rangers are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League, and are the reigning A.L. Western Division and A.L. Champions. Since , the Rangers have...

MLB
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

Baseball Arlington Stadium
Arlington Stadium
Arlington Stadium was a baseball stadium located in Arlington, Texas, United States, located between Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas. It served as the home for the Texas Rangers from 1972 until 1993, when the team moved into The Ballpark in Arlington .-1960s:The stadium was built in 1965 as Turnpike...

 1972–1993
Rangers Ballpark in Arlington 1994 – present
1972 0 World Series
2 American League Championship Titles 2010, 2011
Dallas Cowboys
Dallas Cowboys
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football franchise which plays in the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference of the National Football League . They are headquartered in Valley Ranch in Irving, Texas, a suburb of Dallas...

NFL
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

Football Cotton Bowl (stadium)
Cotton Bowl (stadium)
The Cotton Bowl is a stadium which opened in 1929 and became known as "The House That Doak Built" due to the immense crowds that former SMU running back Doak Walker drew to the stadium during his college career in the late 1940s. Originally known as Fair Park Stadium, it is located in Fair Park,...

 1960–1970
Texas Stadium
Texas Stadium
Texas Stadium was a football stadium in Irving, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. The stadium opened on September 17, 1971.Built to replace the aging Cotton Bowl, it was the home field of the NFL's Dallas Cowboys, and had a seating capacity of 65,675...

 1971–2008
Cowboys Stadium 2009 – present
1960 5 Super Bowls – 1971 (VI), 1977 (XII), 1992 (XXVII), 1993 (XXVIII), 1995 (XXX)
Dallas Stars
Dallas Stars
The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . The team was founded during the 1967 NHL expansion as the Minnesota North Stars, based in Bloomington, Minnesota. The...

NHL
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

Hockey Reunion Arena
Reunion Arena
Reunion Arena was an indoor arena, in the Reunion district of downtown Dallas, Texas . It held 18,293 for basketball and 17,001 for ice hockey.It was demolished in November 2009 and the site was cleared by the end of the year.-History:...

 1993–2001
American Airlines Center
American Airlines Center
The American Airlines Center is a multi-purpose arena, located in the Victory Park neighborhood, near downtown Dallas, Texas.It is home to the Dallas Mavericks of the NBA, and the Dallas Stars of the NHL....

 2002 – present
1993 1 Stanley Cup – 1999
2 Western Conference Championship Titles - 1999, 2000
Dallas Mavericks
Dallas Mavericks
The Dallas Mavericks are a professional basketball team based in Dallas, Texas. They are members of the Southwest Division of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association , and the reigning NBA champions, having defeated the Miami Heat in the 2011 NBA Finals.According to a 2011...

NBA
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

Basketball Reunion Arena
Reunion Arena
Reunion Arena was an indoor arena, in the Reunion district of downtown Dallas, Texas . It held 18,293 for basketball and 17,001 for ice hockey.It was demolished in November 2009 and the site was cleared by the end of the year.-History:...

 1980–2001
American Airlines Center
American Airlines Center
The American Airlines Center is a multi-purpose arena, located in the Victory Park neighborhood, near downtown Dallas, Texas.It is home to the Dallas Mavericks of the NBA, and the Dallas Stars of the NHL....

 2002 – present
1980 1 NBA Title – 2011
2 Western Conference Championship Titles - 2006, 2011
FC Dallas
FC Dallas
FC Dallas is an American professional soccer club based in the Dallas suburb of Frisco, Texas which competes in Major League Soccer , the top professional soccer league in the United States of America and Canada...

MLS
Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer is a professional soccer league based in the United States and sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federation . The league is composed of 19 teams — 16 in the U.S. and 3 in Canada...

Soccer Cotton Bowl
Cotton Bowl (stadium)
The Cotton Bowl is a stadium which opened in 1929 and became known as "The House That Doak Built" due to the immense crowds that former SMU running back Doak Walker drew to the stadium during his college career in the late 1940s. Originally known as Fair Park Stadium, it is located in Fair Park,...

 1996–2002, 2004
Dragon Stadium
Dragon Stadium, Southlake
Dragon Stadium is a stadium in Southlake, Texas. Located at 1085 S. Kimball Ave. in Southlake, TX, the stadium serves Carroll ISD, and is the home of the Southlake Carroll High School Dragons football team, who were the UIL 5A Division II State Football Champions in 2002, 2004, and 2005 as well as...

 2003
Pizza Hut Park
Pizza Hut Park
Pizza Hut Park is a soccer-specific stadium with a 21,193-seat capacity, built and owned by the city of Frisco, Texas. Its primary tenant is Major League Soccer team FC Dallas, which relocated from the Cotton Bowl in central Dallas to the fast-growing suburb...

 2005 – present
1995 0 MLS Cups
1 U.S. Open Cup – 1997


As reported by Olympic news outlet Around the Rings, Dallas is looking at a 2020 summer olympics bid. Those in favor of Dallas say that it should be chosen because no major stadiums would have to be built for the games.

Recreation



The City of Dallas maintains and operates 406 parks on 21000 acres (85 km²) of parkland. Its flagship park is the 260 acres (1.05 km²) Fair Park
Fair Park
Dallas Fair Park is a recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas . The complex is registered as a Dallas Landmark, National Historic Landmark and is home to nine museums, six performance facilities, a lagoon, and the largest Ferris wheel in North America...

, which hosted the Texas Centennial Exposition
Texas Centennial Exposition
The Texas Centennial Exposition was a World's Fair held at Fair Park in Dallas, Texas to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Texas's independence from Mexico in 1836. More than 50 buildings, for which "George Dahl was director general of a group of architects who designed the buildings ", were...

 in 1936. The city is also home to Texas' first and largest zoo, the 95 acre (0.3844517 km²) Dallas Zoo
Dallas Zoo
Dallas Zoo is a zoo located south of downtown Dallas, Texas in Marsalis Park. Established in 1888, it is the oldest and largest zoological park in Texas and is managed by the non-profit Dallas Zoological Society. The zoo is home to 1,800 animals representing 406 species...

, which opened at its current location in 1888.

The city's parks contain 17 separate lakes, including White Rock
White Rock Lake
White Rock Lake is a reservoir located in east Dallas, Texas . The lake was formed by damming White Rock Creek, which today widens into the lake before continuing south out of the spillway and emptying into the Trinity River...

 and Bachman
Bachman Lake
Bachman Lake is a small freshwater lake located in the Love Field neighborhood of northwest Dallas, Texas . It covers in northwest Dallas and lies on the northwest boundary of Dallas Love Field in the airport's landing path...

 lakes, spanning a total of 4400 acres (17.81 km²). In addition, Dallas is traversed by 61.6 miles (99.1 km) of biking and jogging trails, including the Katy Trail, and is home to 47 community and neighborhood recreation centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds, 173 basketball courts, 112 volleyball courts, 126 play slabs, 258 neighborhood tennis courts, 258 picnic areas, six 18-hole golf courses, two driving ranges, and 477 athletic fields.

As part of the ongoing Trinity River Project
Trinity River Project
The Trinity River Project is a public works project undertaken in the 2000s in the city of Dallas, Texas, USA. Its goal is to redevelop the Trinity River. The project aims to turn the river's path into a collection of sports fields, trails, nature centers, and recreational opportunities...

, the Great Trinity Forest, at 6000 acres (24.3 km²), is the largest urban hardwood forest in the United States and is part of the largest urban park in the United States.
The Trinity River Audubon Center is a new addition to the park. Opened in 2008, it serves as a gateway to many trails and other nature viewing activities in the area. The Trinity River Audubon Center is the first LEED-certified building constructed by the City of Dallas Parks and Recreation Department.

Dallas also hosts three of the 21 preserves of the extensive (3200 acre (12.9 km²)) Dallas County Preserve System. Both the Joppa Preserve, the McCommas Bluff Preserve the Cedar Ridge Preserve are all within the Dallas city limits.
The Cedar Ridge Preserve was formerly known as the Dallas Nature Center, but management was turned over to Audubon Dallas group, which now manages the 633 acres (2.6 km²) natural habitat park on behalf of the City of Dallas and Dallas County.
The preserve sits at an elevation of 755 feet (230.1 m) above sea level, and contains a variety of outdoor activities, including 10 miles (16.1 km) of hiking trails and picnic areas.

Just southwest of Dallas is Cedar Hill State Park
Cedar Hill State Park
Cedar Hill State Park is located on FM 1382 and the eastern shore of Joe Pool Lake in Cedar Hill, Texas , ten miles southwest of Dallas. The park was acquired in 1982 and was opened in 1991...

, maintained by the Texas Parks and Wildlife state agency. A 1826 acres (7.4 km²) urban nature preserve, the park is located on the 7500 acres (30.4 km²) Joe Pool Reservoir, and offers activities such as mountain biking, birding, camping and fishing; swimming is allowed at the swimming beach only.

To the west of Dallas in Arlington is Six Flags Over Texas
Six Flags Over Texas
Six Flags Over Texas is a major amusement park located in Arlington, Texas , east of Fort Worth and about west of Dallas. It is the oldest park of the Six Flags chain. The park opened on August 5, 1961 following just a year of construction and an initial investment of US$10 million by real estate...

, the original franchise in the Six Flags theme park chain. Hurricane Harbor, a large water park owned by Six Flags, is also in Arlington.

Economy


Top publicly traded companies
in Dallas for 2009
(according to revenues)
with Dallas and U.S. ranks.
DAL Corporation US
1 AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

7
2 Dean Foods
Dean Foods
Dean Foods is an American food and beverage company with two operating divisions: Fresh Dairy Direct and WhiteWave-Morningstar. The company maintains plants and distributors in the United States and the United Kingdom. Dean Foods products are sold throughout the USA.-History:In 1925, Samuel E...

208
3 Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

223
4 Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines Co. is an American low-cost airline based in Dallas, Texas. Southwest is the largest airline in the United States, based upon domestic passengers carried,...

229
5 Energy Future Holdings Corporation 246
6 Tenet Healthcare
Tenet Healthcare
Tenet Healthcare Corporation, an investor-owned health-care delivery systems company based in Dallas, Texas. THC owns and operates 49 acute-care hospitals in 11 states and 90 outpatient centers in 12 states, with a majority of these hospitals in California, Florida and Texas...

253
7 Affiliated Computer Services
Affiliated Computer Services
Affiliated Computer Services Inc. provides information technology services as well as business process outsourcing solutions to businesses, government agencies, and non-profit organizations. ACS is based in Dallas, Texas and the current CEO is Lynn Blodgett. ACS is ranked at number 341 on the 2010...

341
8 Energy Transfer Equity
Energy Transfer Equity
Energy Transfer Equity is a Fortune 500 company based in Dallas, Texas, a sister partnership to Energy Transfer Partners. It specializes in the storage and transportation of natural gas. The CEO of Energy Transfer Equity is John W. McReynolds...

|388
9 Celanese
Celanese
Celanese Corporation is a Fortune 500 global technology and specialty materials company with its headquarters in Dallas, Texas. The company is a leading producer of acetyl products, which are intermediate chemicals for nearly all major industries, and is the world's largest producer of vinyl...

414
10 Atmos Energy
Atmos Energy
Atmos Energy Corporation , headquartered in Dallas, Texas, is the largest distributor of natural gas in the United States, serving 3.2 million customers nationwide. Atmos acquired TXU's natural gas and pipeline holdings in 2004. The company began as Energas in 1983, a spinoff of the natural gas...

424
11 Holly Corporation
Holly Corporation
The HollyFrontier Corporation is a Fortune 500 company based in Dallas, Texas. HollyFrontier is a petroleum refiner and distributor of petroleum products, from gasoline to petroleum-based lubricants and waxes. Its CEO is Matthew P. Clifton...

431
12 Blockbuster Inc. 500
Further information:
List of companies in Dallas/Ft.Worth

Source:: Fortune


In its beginnings, Dallas relied on farming, neighboring Fort Worth
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is the 16th-largest city in the United States of America and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas. Located in North Central Texas, just southeast of the Texas Panhandle, the city is a cultural gateway into the American West and covers nearly in Tarrant, Parker, Denton, and...

's Stockyards
Fort Worth Stockyards
The Fort Worth Stockyards is a historic district that is located in Fort Worth, Texas, north of the central business district. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Fort Worth Stockyards Historic District in 1976...

, and its prime location on Native American trade routes to sustain itself. Dallas' key to growth came in 1873 with the building of multiple rail lines through the city. As Dallas grew and technology developed, cotton became its boon and by 1900 Dallas was the largest inland cotton market in the world, becoming a leader in cotton gin
Cotton gin
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, a job formerly performed painstakingly by hand...

 machinery manufacturing. By the early 1900s Dallas was a hub for economic activity all over the southwestern United States and was selected in 1914 as the seat of the Eleventh Federal Reserve District
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
The Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas covers the Eleventh Federal Reserve District, which includes Texas, northern Louisiana and southern New Mexico....

. By 1925 Texas churned out more than ⅓ of the nation's cotton crop, with 31% of Texas cotton produced within a 100 miles (160.9 km) radius
Radius
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any line segment from its center to its perimeter. By extension, the radius of a circle or sphere is the length of any such segment, which is half the diameter. If the object does not have an obvious center, the term may refer to its...

 of Dallas. In the 1930s petroleum was discovered east of Dallas near Kilgore, Texas
Kilgore, Texas
Kilgore is a city in Gregg and Rusk Counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Texas. It is the home of Kilgore College, and was also the childhood home of famous classical pianist Van Cliburn...

. Dallas' proximity to the discovery put it immediately at the center of the nation's petroleum market. Petroleum discoveries in the Permian Basin, the Panhandle
Texas Panhandle
The Texas Panhandle is a region of the U.S. state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state. The panhandle is a rectangular area bordered by New Mexico to the west and Oklahoma to the north and east...

, the Gulf Coast
Gulf Coast of the United States
The Gulf Coast of the United States, sometimes referred to as the Gulf South, South Coast, or 3rd Coast, comprises the coasts of American states that are on the Gulf of Mexico, which includes Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida and are known as the Gulf States...

, and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

 in the following years further solidified Dallas' position as the hub of the market.

The end of World War II left Dallas seeded with a nexus of communications, engineering, and production talent by companies such as Collins Radio Corporation. Decades later, the telecommunications and information revolutions still drive a large portion of the local economy. The city is sometimes referred to as the heart of "Silicon Prairie
Silicon Prairie
The Silicon Prairie can refer to one of several places in the United States: an area in Illinois, one in a multi-state region comprised loosely of parts of Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Missouri, one in Wyoming, and one in Texas.- Dallas-Fort Worth Silicon...

" because of a high concentration of telecommunications companies in the region, the epicenter of which lies along the Telecom Corridor
Telecom Corridor
The Telecom Corridor is a technology business center in Richardson, Texas , a northern suburb of Dallas, which contains over 25 million square feet of office space and accounts for over 82,600 jobs. The Corridor is a strip about 6.5 miles long along U.S...

 located in Richardson
Richardson, Texas
Richardson is a city in Dallas and Collin Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 99,223. In 2011 the population was estimated to be 107,684. Richardson is an affluent inner suburb of Dallas and home of the Telecom Corridor with a high...

, a northern suburb of Dallas. The Corridor is home to more than 5,700 companies including Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

 (headquartered in Dallas), Nortel Networks, Alcatel Lucent, AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

, Ericsson
Ericsson
Ericsson , one of Sweden's largest companies, is a provider of telecommunication and data communication systems, and related services, covering a range of technologies, including especially mobile networks...

, Fujitsu
Fujitsu
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is the world's third-largest IT services provider measured by revenues....

, Nokia
Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

, Rockwell Collins
Rockwell Collins
Rockwell Collins, Inc. is a large United States-based international company headquartered in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, primarily providing aviation and information technology systems and services to governmental agencies and aircraft manufacturers.- History :...

, Cisco Systems
Cisco Systems
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in San Jose, California, United States, that designs and sells consumer electronics, networking, voice, and communications technology and services. Cisco has more than 70,000 employees and annual revenue of US$...

, Sprint, Verizon Communications
Verizon Communications
Verizon Communications Inc. is a global broadband and telecommunications company and a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average...

, and until recently CompUSA
CompUSA
CompUSA is a retailer and reseller of consumer electronics, technology products and computer services. Its headquarters are in Miami, Florida.Until its reorganization, CompUSA, Inc. was a wholly owned subsidiary of U.S. Commercial Corp S.A.B...

 (which is now headquartered in Miami,FL).

In the 1980s Dallas was a real estate hotbed, with the increasing metropolitan population bringing with it a demand for new housing and office space. Several of Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District in Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District...

' largest buildings are the fruit of this boom, but over-speculation and the savings and loan crisis
Savings and Loan crisis
The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s was the failure of about 747 out of the 3,234 savings and loan associations in the United States...

 prevented any further additions to Dallas' skyline. Between the late 1980s and the early 2000s, central Dallas went through a slow period of growth and has only recently recovered. Since 2000, the real estate market in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex has been relatively resilient. However, Dallas is among the largest cities in the U.S. where rent declined significantly. Whereas the national decline in rent is approximately 4%, Dallas rent declined an average of 8% in early 2010.
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

, a major manufacturer, employs 10,400 people at its corporate headquarters and chip plants in Dallas. Defense and aircraft manufacturing dominates the economy of nearby Fort Worth.

The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex has one of the largest concentrations of corporate headquarters for publicly traded companies in the United States. The city of Dallas has 12 Fortune 500 companies, and the DFW region as a whole has 20. In 2007–08, Comerica Bank and AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

 located their headquarters in Dallas. Irving
Irving, Texas
Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

 is home to four Fortune 500
Fortune 500
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks the top 500 U.S. closely held and public corporations as ranked by their gross revenue after adjustments made by Fortune to exclude the impact of excise taxes companies collect. The list includes publicly and...

 companies of its own, including ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation. It is a direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil company, and was formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. Its headquarters are in Irving, Texas...

, the most profitable company in the world and the second largest by revenue for 2008, Kimberly-Clark
Kimberly-Clark
Kimberly-Clark Corporation is an American corporation that produces mostly paper-based consumer products. Kimberly-Clark brand name products include "Kleenex" facial tissue, "Kotex" feminine hygiene products, "Cottonelle", Scott and Andrex toilet paper, Wypall utility wipes, "KimWipes"...

, Fluor
Fluor
Fluor Corporation is a publicly owned engineering, procurement, construction, and maintenance services organization. Fluor is headquartered in the Las Colinas area of Irving, Texas. The company employs more than 41,000 international employees and maintains offices in over 25 countries...

 (engineering), and Commercial Metals. Additional companies headquartered in the Metroplex include Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines Co. is an American low-cost airline based in Dallas, Texas. Southwest is the largest airline in the United States, based upon domestic passengers carried,...

, American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

, RadioShack
RadioShack
RadioShack Corporation   is an American franchise of electronics retail stores in the United States, as well as parts of Europe, South America and Africa. As of 2008, RadioShack reported net sales and operating revenues of $4.81 billion. The headquarters of RadioShack is located in Downtown...

, Neiman Marcus
Neiman Marcus
Neiman Marcus, formerly Neiman-Marcus, is a luxury specialty retail department store operated by the Neiman Marcus Group in the United States. The company is headquartered in the One Marcus Square building in Downtown Dallas, Texas, and competes with other department stores such as Saks Fifth...

, 7-Eleven
7-Eleven
7-Eleven is part of an international chain of convenience stores, operating under Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Ltd, which in turn is owned by Seven & I Holdings Co...

, Brinker International
Brinker International
Brinker International, Inc. , is the parent company of Chili's and Maggiano's Little Italy.-History:It was founded in 1975 as Chili's Bar and Grill, purchased by restaurateur Norman E. Brinker in 1983 and rechristened Brinker International in 1990; it now has more than 1,500 restaurants worldwide...

, AMS Pictures
AMS Pictures
AMS Pictures, founded in 1982, is the largest creative media company in the American south headquartered in Dallas, Texas. In 1996, AMS finished construction on their...

, id Software
Id Software
Id Software is an American video game development company with its headquarters in Richardson, Texas. The company was founded in 1991 by four members of the computer company Softdisk: programmers John Carmack and John Romero, game designer Tom Hall, and artist Adrian Carmack...

, ENSCO Offshore Drilling
ENSCO International
Ensco plc is a multinational oil and gas services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's second-largest offshore oil and gas well drilling company, and has 49 offshore jack-ups, seven drillships and 20 semi-submersible drilling rigs servicing domestic US, international,...

, Mary Kay Cosmetics, Chuck E. Cheese's
Chuck E. Cheese's
Chuck E. Cheese's is a chain of family entertainment centers. Chuck E...

, Zales
Zale Corporation
The Zale Corporation is, through its wholly owned subsidiaries, a leading specialty retailer of jewelry in North America. The Zale Corporation was incorporated in Delaware in 1993...

 and Fossil
Fossil, Inc.
Fossil, Inc. is a designer and manufacturer of clothing and accessories, primarily watches and jewelry, but also sunglasses, wallets, handbags, belts, shoes and clothing, based in Richardson, Texas, United States...

. Corporate headquarters in the northern suburb of Plano
Plano, Texas
Plano is a city in the state of Texas, located mostly within Collin County. The city's population was 259,841 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in Texas and the 71st most populous city in the United States. Plano is located within the metropolitan area commonly referred to as...

 include HP Enterprise Services, Frito Lay, Dr Pepper Snapple Group
Dr Pepper Snapple Group
Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc. is an American soft drink company, based in Plano, Texas.It was spun off from Britain's Cadbury Schweppes, on May 5, 2008, with trading in its shares starting on May 7, 2008...

, and JCPenney. Many of these companies—and others throughout the DFW metroplex—comprise the Dallas Regional Chamber
Dallas Regional Chamber
The Dallas Regional Chamber--formerly known as the Dallas Chamber of Commerce and the Greater Dallas Chamber of Commerce—is a chamber of commerce that represents businesses and institutions in North Texas, including the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area...

.

Susan G. Komen for the Cure
Susan G. Komen for the Cure
Susan G. Komen for the Cure, formerly known as The Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, often referred to as simply Komen, is the most widely known, largest and best-funded breast cancer organization in the US....

, the world's largest breast cancer organization was founded and is headquartered in Dallas.

In addition to its large number of businesses, Dallas has more shopping centers per capita than any other city in the United States and is also home to the second shopping center ever built in the United States, Highland Park Village
Highland Park Village
Highland Park Village is an upscale shopping mall located at the southwest corner of Mockingbird Lane and Preston Road in Highland Park, Texas and was the first self-contained shopping center in America. The Highland Park Village was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2000.-History:Mr....

, which opened in 1931. Dallas is home of the two other major malls in North Texas, the Dallas Galleria and NorthPark Center, which is the 2nd largest mall in Texas. Both malls feature high-end stores and are major tourist draws for the region.

According to Forbes Magazine's annual list of "The Richest People in America" published September 21, 2011, the city itself is now home to 17 billionaires, up from 14 in 2009. In 2009 (with 14 billionaires) the city placed 6th worldwide among cities with the most billionaires. The ranking does not even take into account the 8 billionaires who live in the neighboring city of Fort Worth.

Dallas is currently the third most popular destination for business travel in the United States, and the Dallas Convention Center
Dallas Convention Center
The Dallas Convention Center, originally the Dallas Memorial Auditorium, is a meeting hall, event/convention center and civic center in the Convention Center District of downtown Dallas, Texas...

 is one of the largest and busiest convention centers in the country, at over 1000000 square feet (92,903 m²), and the world's single-largest column-free exhibit hall.

Law and government


The city uses a council-manager government
Council-manager government
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of municipal government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor-council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities...

, with Mike Rawlings
Mike Rawlings
Mike Rawlings is the Mayor of Dallas after winning the Dallas Mayoral Election defeating former Dallas Police Chief, David Kunkle. He is also the former CEO of Pizza Hut.- References :...

 serving as Mayor, Mary Suhm serving as city manager, and 14 council members serving as representatives to the 14 council districts in the city. This organizational structure was recently contested by some in favor of a strong-mayor city charter, only to be rejected by Dallas voters.

In the 2006–2007 fiscal year, the city's total budget
Government budget
A government budget is a legal document that is often passed by the legislature, and approved by the chief executive-or president. For example, only certain types of revenue may be imposed and collected...

 (the sum of operating
Operating budget
An operating budget is the annual budget of an activity stated in terms of Budget Classification Code, functional/subfunctional categories and cost accounts. It contains estimates of the total value of resources required for the performance of the operation including reimbursable work or services...

 and capital budgets) was $2,344,314,114. The city has seen a steady increase in its budget throughout its history due to sustained growth: the budget was $1,717,449,783 in 2002–2003, $1,912,845,956 in 2003–2004, $2,049,685,734 in 2004–2005, and $2,218,345,070 in 2005–2006.

National and state legislators representing Dallas:
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas
United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas is a United States district court. Its first judge, Andrew Phelps McCormick, was appointed to the court on April 10, 1879. The court convenes in Dallas, Texas with divisions in Fort Worth, Amarillo, Abilene, Lubbock, San Angelo...

, which exercises original jurisdiction over 100 counties in North and West Texas, convenes in the Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse
Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse
The Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse, named for Earle Cabell and located in the Government District of downtown Dallas, Texas , is a large courts building that houses a variety of federal and state courts....

 in the Government District of Downtown
Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District in Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District...

. The same building additionally houses United States Bankruptcy
United States bankruptcy court
United States bankruptcy courts are courts created under Article I of the United States Constitution. They function as units of the district courts and have subject-matter jurisdiction over bankruptcy cases. The federal district courts have original and exclusive jurisdiction over all cases arising...

 and Magistrate Courts and a United States Attorney
United States Attorney
United States Attorneys represent the United States federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals. There are 93 U.S. Attorneys stationed throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands...

 office. Dallas also is the seat of the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas.

Politics



In terms of voting patterns, the city of Dallas is the most liberal in Texas, according to 2004 Presidential vote totals. This, however, reflects only the urban core; other municipalities in the Dallas-Fort Worth area are very conservative (e.g. Plano, Arlington, and Garland, the third, fourth, and fifth-most conservative cities by the same measure).

As a city, present-day Dallas can be seen as moderate, with conservative Republicans dominating the upper-middle class suburban neighborhoods of North Dallas
North Dallas
North Dallas is an expensive area of numerous communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas . The phrase "North Dallas" is also sometimes used to include any suburb or exurb north of Dallas proper within the metropolitan area. The majority of North Dallas is located in Dallas County while a small...

 and liberal Democrats dominating neighborhoods closer to Downtown
Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District in Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District...

 as well as the city's southern sector
South Dallas
South Dallas is an area in Dallas, Texas, . It is usually either defined in one of two ways: As the area south of the Trinity River and south of Interstate 30, which consist mostly of Oak Cliff and Pleasant Grove, or to the area bounded by I-30 and Downtown Dallas to the north, the Trinity River to...

. As a continuation of its suburban northern neighborhoods, Dallas' northern parts are overwhelmingly conservative. Plano
Plano, Texas
Plano is a city in the state of Texas, located mostly within Collin County. The city's population was 259,841 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in Texas and the 71st most populous city in the United States. Plano is located within the metropolitan area commonly referred to as...

, the largest of these suburbs, was ranked as the fifth most conservative city in America by the Bay Area Center for Voting Research, based on the voting patterns of middle-age adults. However, the city of Dallas generally votes for Democratic political candidates in local, state, and national elections.

Jim Schutze of the Dallas Observer
Dallas Observer
The Dallas Observer is a free alternative weekly newspaper distributed around the Dallas, Texas . At its inception, it was conceived as a weekly local arts and cinema review publication, with the credo "Advocate for Excellence in the Arts" on the cover. For a time during the early years, the paper...

 said in 2002 "the early vote in majority-black precincts in Southern Dallas is the city's only disciplined vote. Especially in citywide elections on issues that are not entwined in the internal politics of the black community, the Southern Dallas
South Dallas
South Dallas is an area in Dallas, Texas, . It is usually either defined in one of two ways: As the area south of the Trinity River and south of Interstate 30, which consist mostly of Oak Cliff and Pleasant Grove, or to the area bounded by I-30 and Downtown Dallas to the north, the Trinity River to...

 African-American vote has a history of responding obediently to the call of leadership."

In the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections, 57% of Dallas voters voted for John Kerry
John Kerry
John Forbes Kerry is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts, the 10th most senior U.S. Senator and chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was the presidential nominee of the Democratic Party in the 2004 presidential election, but lost to former President George W...

 over George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

. Dallas County as a whole was closely divided, with 50% of voters voting for Bush and 49% voting for Kerry. In the 2006 elections for Dallas County judges, 41 out of 42 seats went to Democrats.

In the 2008 elections
United States presidential election, 2008
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on November 4, 2008. Democrat Barack Obama, then the junior United States Senator from Illinois, defeated Republican John McCain, the senior U.S. Senator from Arizona. Obama received 365...

, both Dallas County and the city of Dallas voted strongly Democratic. In Dallas County as a whole, 58% of voters chose Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

, compared to the 42% who chose John McCain
John McCain
John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for president in the 2008 United States election....

. By an even larger margin, the city of Dallas (not including the small portions of the city located in Collin and Denton Counties) favored Obama over McCain, 65% to 35%. When disregarding the city in Dallas County's results, Obama still defeated McCain by a margin of 0.7% in what was essentially a 50%–50% tie.

In 2004, Lupe Valdez
Lupe Valdez
Lupe Valdez is an American law enforcement official and the Sheriff of Dallas County, Texas. She is Texas's only elected female sheriff, as well as being the only openly lesbian holder of that office.-Early life:...

 was elected Dallas County Sheriff
Sheriff
A sheriff is in principle a legal official with responsibility for a county. In practice, the specific combination of legal, political, and ceremonial duties of a sheriff varies greatly from country to country....

. An open lesbian, is currently the only female sheriff in the state of Texas. Despite controversies in her handling of county jails, she won re-election in 2008 with a 10-point victory over Republican challenger Lowell Cannaday.

Bucking the city's Democratic trend, conservative Republican Tom Leppert
Tom Leppert
Tom Leppert is an American politician who served as mayor of Dallas, Texas from 2007 to 2011, and who worked as CEO of the Turner Corporation...

 defeated liberal Democrat Ed Oakley
Ed Oakley
Ed Oakley is a municipal politician from Dallas, Texas. He served on the city council from 2001 to 2007, and was a candidate for Mayor of Dallas in the runoff election held on June 16, 2007. If he had won, he would have been the first openly-gay mayor of a top ten U.S. city.In the runoff election,...

 in the city's 2007 mayoral race by a margin of 58% to 42%. Though candidates' political leanings are well publicized in the media, Dallas' elections are officially non-partisan. The city's previous mayor was Laura Miller
Laura Miller
Laura Miller served as mayor of Dallas, Texas from 2002 through 2007. She did not run for re-election in the 2007 mayoral race. She was the third woman to serve as mayor of Dallas.- Education and career :...

, a liberal Jewish woman who had previously written for the Dallas Observer
Dallas Observer
The Dallas Observer is a free alternative weekly newspaper distributed around the Dallas, Texas . At its inception, it was conceived as a weekly local arts and cinema review publication, with the credo "Advocate for Excellence in the Arts" on the cover. For a time during the early years, the paper...

, the city's most popular alternative newspaper.

Cathie Adams
Cathie Adams
Cathie L. Adams is a homemaker from Dallas, Texas, who is the former chairman of the Republican Party of Texas. She won the post in a special meeting of the Republican State Executive Committee held on October 24, 2009, at party headquarters in Austin...

, named chairman in October 2009 of the Republican Party of Texas, is a long-time conservative political activist from Dallas.

Crime and enforcement


Policing in Dallas is provided predominantly by the Dallas Police Department
Dallas Police Department
The Dallas Police Department, established in 1881, is the principal law enforcement agency serving the city of Dallas, Texas.-Organization:The department is headed by a chief of police who is appointed by the city manager who, in turn, is hired by the Dallas City Council...

, which has around 3,500 officers. The Dallas chief of police is David Brown (effective May 5, 2010). The Police Headquarters are located in the Cedars neighborhood of South Dallas
South Dallas
South Dallas is an area in Dallas, Texas, . It is usually either defined in one of two ways: As the area south of the Trinity River and south of Interstate 30, which consist mostly of Oak Cliff and Pleasant Grove, or to the area bounded by I-30 and Downtown Dallas to the north, the Trinity River to...

.

According to the FBI, a city to city comparison of crime rates is not meaningful, because recording practices vary from city to city, citizens report different percentages of crimes from one city to the next, and the actual number of people physically present in a city is unknown. With that in mind, Dallas' violent crime rate (12.06 per 1,000 people) is lower than that of St Louis (24.81), Detroit (24.22), Baltimore
Baltimore
Baltimore is the largest independent city in the United States and the largest city and cultural center of the US state of Maryland. The city is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore...

 (16.96), Philadelphia (15.62), Cleveland (15.47), Miami (15.09), Washington, D.C. (14.48), Kansas City
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

 (14.44) and Boston (13.39). However, Houston (11.69), Los Angeles (7.87), and New York City (6.38) have lower violent crime rates than Dallas.

Fire protection


Fire protection and emergency medical service in the city is provided by Dallas Fire-Rescue (DFD), which has 1,670 firefighters and 56 working fire stations in the city limits. All DFD Paramedics are Firefighters, not all Firefighters are EMT-Paramedics but are trained to at least EMT-Basic. EMT-Paramedics and EMT-B's are trained through the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center is one of the biomedical research institutions of the University of Texas System, incorporating three degree-granting institutions, four affiliated hospitals, including Parkland Memorial, the teaching hospital, and biomedical research...

. The department also operates the Dallas Firefighter's Museum at Dallas' oldest remaining fire station, built in 1907, along Parry Avenue near Fair Park
Fair Park
Dallas Fair Park is a recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas . The complex is registered as a Dallas Landmark, National Historic Landmark and is home to nine museums, six performance facilities, a lagoon, and the largest Ferris wheel in North America...

. In addition, the department operates in mutual aid agreements with several surrounding municipalities.

In 1995, the Dallas Fire Department Training Academy (now the Chief Dodd Miller Training Academy) began to host firefighter recruits from other Metroplex municipalities in its 22-week basic firefighter training school, effectively becoming a regional training center. The Academy is reverently known as "The Drill Tower" by instructors and graduates, referring to the facility's most taxing structure/activity, a six story tower whose staircase is routinely climbed three times in rapid succession by recruits in full gear and high-rise hose packs.
DFD operates 55 Engine Companies, 21 Truck Companies 34 Rescues (M.I.C.U.), 11 Peak Demand Rescues , 10 Battalion Chiefs BC1/Sta4,BC2/07, BC3/8, BC4/28, BC5/25, BC6/14, BC7/35, BC8/34, BC9/47, BC10/39. 2 Division Deputy Chiefs DC806/Sta55 DC807/Sta1. 1 Hazardous Materials Response Team HM03, 2 Hazardous Materials Satellite Team CBRNE40 FA16, 4 ARFF aircraft rescue fire fighting units Sta 21(Love Field)/49Dallas Executive Airport), 9 Booster/brush trucks, 7 Boats quick water rescue response, 1 Marine fire rescue marine boat based at Lake Ray Hubbard, 1 Swift Water Rescue team with a rescue boat unit Sta 34, 2 Urban Search And Rescue USAR Sta 15/19 Heavy Rescue.

Demographics


As of the 2010 Census Dallas had a population of 1,197,816. The median age was 31.8. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 28.8% non-Hispanic white, 24.6% non-Hispanic black, 0.4% Hispanic black, 0.7% Native American, 2.9% Asian (0.6% Indian
Indian American
Indian Americans are Americans whose ancestral roots lie in India. The U.S. Census Bureau popularized the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with Indigenous peoples of the Americas who are commonly referred to as American Indians.-The term: Indian:...

, 0.5% Chinese
Chinese American
Chinese Americans represent Americans of Chinese descent. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and also a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is further a subgroup of Asian Americans...

, 0.5% Vietnamese
Vietnamese American
A Vietnamese American is an American of Vietnamese descent. They make up about half of all overseas Vietnamese and are the fourth-largest Asian American group....

, 0.3% Korean
Korean American
Korean Americans are Americans of Korean descent, mostly from South Korea, with a small minority from North Korea...

, 0.2% Burmese
Burmese American
Burmese Americans are Americans of Burmese descent. The term encompasses people of all ethnic backgrounds with ancestry in the present-day Myanmar . Burmese Americans are a subgroup of Asian Americans...

, 0.2% Filipino
Filipino American
Filipino Americans are Americans of Filipino ancestry. Filipino Americans, often shortened to "Fil-Ams", or "Pinoy",Filipinos in what is now the United States were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century...

), 0.2% non-Hispanic from some other race, 2.6% from two or more races and 42.4% Hispanic or Latino. Among the Hispanic population, 36.7% of Dallas is Mexican
Mexican American
Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican descent. As of July 2009, Mexican Americans make up 10.3% of the United States' population with over 31,689,000 Americans listed as of Mexican ancestry. Mexican Americans comprise 66% of all Hispanics and Latinos in the United States...

, 1.3% Salvadoran
Salvadoran American
Salvadorian Americans are citizens or residents of the United States of Salvadoran descent. As of 2010 there are 1.6 million Salvadoran Americans in the United States, the fourth-largest Hispanic community by nation of ancestry.They are also known as the nicknamed Salvi people in the USA,...

, 0.6% Honduran
Honduran American
A Honduran American is an American of Honduran descent. The number of Hondurans in the U.S. in 2005 was estimated at 459,653.- US communities with high percentages of people of Honduran ancestry :...

, 0.4% Guatemalan
Guatemalan American
A Guatemalan American is an American of Guatemalan descent.The Guatemalan American population in the USA in 2009 was estimated by the US Census Bureau at 1,081,858...

, and 0.3% Puerto Rican
Puerto Rican people
A Puerto Rican is a person who was born in Puerto Rico.Puerto Ricans born and raised in the continental United States are also sometimes referred to as Puerto Ricans, although they were not born in Puerto Rico...

.

U.S. Census estimates released in 2008 indicated that there were 1,279,910 people living in Dallas proper. According to Census data compiled between 2005 and 2007, there were 440,633 households and 257,339 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,623 people per square mile (1,398.8/km²). There were 510,591 housing units at an average density of 1,491.2 per square mile (575.8/km²).

There were 440,633 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.6% are classified as non-families by the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

. 34.4% of all households had one or more people under 18 years of age, and 16.4% had one or more people who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.52.

In the city the age distribution of the population shows 26.6% under the age of 18 and 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.1 years. 51.4% of the population was male and 48.6% was female.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,147, and the median income for a family was $42,670. Male full-time workers had a median income of $32,265 versus $32,402 for female full-time workers. The per capita income for the city was $25,904. About 18.7% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those aged 65 or over. The median price for a house was $128,200.

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey by the U.S. Census Bureau, sent to approximately 250,000 addresses monthly . It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census...

,
the racial composition of the city was 56.6% White
White American
White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

 (Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity. Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is...

: 30.1%), 23.2% Black or African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

, 0.4% American Indian
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, 2.5% Asian
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander American
Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

, 15.9% from some other race, and 1.3% from two or more races
Multiracial American
Multiracial Americans, US residents who identify themselves as of "two or more races", were numbered at around 9 million, or 2.9% of the population, in the census of 2010. However there is considerable evidence that the real number is far higher. Prior to the mid-20th century many people hid their...

. Hispanics or Latino
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic or Latino Americans are Americans with origins in the Hispanic countries of Latin America or in Spain, and in general all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino.1990 Census of Population and Housing: A self-designated classification for people whose origins...

s (of any race) make up 43.1% of the total population; Mexican American
Mexican American
Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican descent. As of July 2009, Mexican Americans make up 10.3% of the United States' population with over 31,689,000 Americans listed as of Mexican ancestry. Mexican Americans comprise 66% of all Hispanics and Latinos in the United States...

s make up 38.5% of the population.

Dallas' population has historically been predominantly white, but its population has diversified as it has grown in size and importance over the 20th century to the point that non-Hispanic whites now represent less than one-third of the city's population. In addition, recent data showed that 26.5% of Dallas' population and 17% of residents in the Metroplex as a whole were foreign-born.

Dallas is a major destination for Mexican immigrants, both legally and illegally. The southwestern and southeastern portions of the city, particularly Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff is a community in Dallas, Texas, United States that was formerly a separate town located in Dallas County; Dallas annexed Oak Cliff in 1903...

 and Pleasant Grove
Pleasant Grove, Dallas, Texas
Pleasant Grove is an area in southeastern Dallas, Texas. It is located in the southeast portion of Dallas less than 15 minutes from Downtown Dallas....

, are chiefly inhabited by black and Hispanic residents, while the southern portion
South Dallas
South Dallas is an area in Dallas, Texas, . It is usually either defined in one of two ways: As the area south of the Trinity River and south of Interstate 30, which consist mostly of Oak Cliff and Pleasant Grove, or to the area bounded by I-30 and Downtown Dallas to the north, the Trinity River to...

 of the city is predominantly black. The West and East sides of the city are predominately Hispanic. North Dallas
North Dallas
North Dallas is an expensive area of numerous communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas . The phrase "North Dallas" is also sometimes used to include any suburb or exurb north of Dallas proper within the metropolitan area. The majority of North Dallas is located in Dallas County while a small...

, on the other hand, is mostly white, though many enclaves of predominantly black and Hispanic residents exist. In addition, Dallas and its suburbs are home to a large number of Asian residents—Koreans
Korean American
Korean Americans are Americans of Korean descent, mostly from South Korea, with a small minority from North Korea...

, Taiwanese, Chinese
Chinese American
Chinese Americans represent Americans of Chinese descent. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and also a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is further a subgroup of Asian Americans...

, Filipinos
Filipino American
Filipino Americans are Americans of Filipino ancestry. Filipino Americans, often shortened to "Fil-Ams", or "Pinoy",Filipinos in what is now the United States were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century...

, Vietnamese
Vietnamese American
A Vietnamese American is an American of Vietnamese descent. They make up about half of all overseas Vietnamese and are the fourth-largest Asian American group....

, Indians
Indian American
Indian Americans are Americans whose ancestral roots lie in India. The U.S. Census Bureau popularized the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with Indigenous peoples of the Americas who are commonly referred to as American Indians.-The term: Indian:...

, Bangladeshis
Bangladeshi American
Bangladeshi Americans are Americans of Bangladeshi descent. The overwhelming majority of Bangladeshi Americans are Bengalis. Most of them have immigrated from Sylhet region with a long trading history. Bangladeshi immigrants arrived in the United States especially since the early 1990s to become...

, Pakistanis
Pakistani American
A Pakistani American is any citizen or resident of the United States who has Pakistani heritage.- History in the United States :Muslim immigrants from areas that are now part of Pakistan have been migrating to America and first entered the United States as early as the eighteenth century, working...

, Sri Lankans
Sri Lankan American
Sri Lankan Americans are Americans of Sri Lankan descent. Sri Lankan Americans are persons of Sri Lankan origin from various Sri Lankan ethnic backgrounds who are born or raised in the United States or are naturalized citizens of the U.S. They incorporate American values into their lives and...

, Nepalese
Nepalese American
Nepalese Americans or Nepali Americans are the Citizens or Permanent Residents staying in United States whose ethnic origins lie fully or partially in the Asian nation of Nepal. But this list also include other Nepali language speaking people migrated from India, Bhutan or Myanmar...

, and Arabs
Arab American
An Arab American is a United States citizen or resident of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity, who identifies themselves as Arab. Arab Americans trace ancestry to any of the various waves of immigrants of the countries comprising the Arab World...

 all have large presences in the area, particularly in the suburbs of Garland
Garland, Texas
-Climate:* The average warmest month is July.* The highest recorded temperature was in 2000.* On average, the coolest month is January.* The lowest recorded temperature was in 1989.* The maximum average precipitation occurs in May....

, Richardson
Richardson, Texas
Richardson is a city in Dallas and Collin Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 99,223. In 2011 the population was estimated to be 107,684. Richardson is an affluent inner suburb of Dallas and home of the Telecom Corridor with a high...

, Plano
Plano, Texas
Plano is a city in the state of Texas, located mostly within Collin County. The city's population was 259,841 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in Texas and the 71st most populous city in the United States. Plano is located within the metropolitan area commonly referred to as...

, Carrollton
Carrollton, Texas
-Climate:*On average, the warmest month is July.*The highest recorded temperature was 112°F in 1980.*The average coolest month is January.*The lowest recorded temperature was 1°F in 1989.*The most precipitation on average occurs in May....

, Irving
Irving, Texas
Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

, Frisco
Frisco, Texas
Frisco is an affluent city in Collin and Denton Counties in the U.S. state of Texas and a rapidly growing suburb of Dallas. As of the 2010 Census, 116,989 people were living in Frisco up from 33,714 in the previous census. Frisco was the fastest growing city in the United States in 2009, and also...

, Flower Mound
Flower Mound, Texas
Flower Mound is a town in Denton and Tarrant counties in the U.S. state of Texas, and a suburb of Fort Worth and Dallas. Its population was 50,702 at the U.S. Census Bureau's 2000 census, and 64,669 at the 2010 Census. The town derives its name from the prominent mound located in the southern...

, and Allen
Allen, Texas
Allen is a city in Collin County, Texas, United States, a northern suburb of Dallas. As of the 2010 census the city had a total population of 84,246.-Geography:According to the City of Allen, the city has a total area of...

.

About half of Dallas's population was born outside of Texas. Many residents have migrated to the city from other parts of the country, particularly the Midwest, Northeast
Northeastern United States
The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States as defined by the United States Census Bureau.-Composition:The region comprises nine states: the New England states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; and the Mid-Atlantic states of New...

, and California.

Education



There are 337 public schools, 89 private schools, 38 colleges, and 32 libraries in Dallas.

Colleges and universities



Dallas is a center of education for much of the south central United States. In addition to those located in the city, the surrounding area also contains a number of universities, colleges, trade schools, and other educational institutions.
The following describes the various universities and their proximity to the city:

Colleges and universities in the Dallas city limits

  • The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School is a medical school located in the city's Stemmons Corridor
    Stemmons Corridor
    The Stemmons Corridor or Lower Stemmons is a stretch of industrial and commercial property in northwest Dallas, Texas . From downtown north, Interstate 35E is known as the Stemmons Freeway, named so for Leslie Stemmons by his son, John M. Stemmons...

    . It is part of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
    The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center is one of the biomedical research institutions of the University of Texas System, incorporating three degree-granting institutions, four affiliated hospitals, including Parkland Memorial, the teaching hospital, and biomedical research...

    , one of the largest grouping of medical facilities in the world. The school is very selective, admitting only around 200 students a year. The facility enrolls 3,255 postgraduates
    Graduate school
    A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree...

     and is home to four Nobel Laureates
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

    —three in physiology/medicine
    Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the field of life science and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will...

     and one in chemistry
    Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature,...

    . UTSW is part of the University of Texas System
    University of Texas System
    The University of Texas System encompasses 15 educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are academic universities and six are health institutions. The system is headquartered in Austin and has a total enrollment of over 190,000 students...

    .

  • Texas Woman's University
    Texas Woman's University
    Texas Woman's University is a co-educational university in Denton, Texas, United States with two health science center branches in Dallas, Texas and Houston, Texas...

     (TWU) has two branches of their university located in Dallas. There is a campus located near Parkland hospital that specializes in nursing. There is also a campus near Presbyterian hospital that specializes in occupational therapy and physical therapy.

  • Paul Quinn College
    Paul Quinn College
    Paul Quinn College is a private, historically black college located in the Oak Cliff area of Dallas, Texas . Paul Quinn College holds the distinction as the oldest historically black college in the country west of the Mississippi River...

     is a private, historically black college located in southeast Dallas. Originally located in Waco
    Waco, Texas
    Waco is a city in and the county seat of McLennan County, Texas. Situated along the Brazos River and on the I-35 corridor, halfway between Dallas and Austin, it is the economic, cultural, and academic center of the 'Heart of Texas' region....

    , Texas, it moved to Dallas in 1993 and is housed on the campus of the former Bishop College
    Bishop College
    Bishop College was a historically black college, founded in Marshall, Texas, and later moved to Dallas, Texas, that operated from 1881 to 1988.-History:...

    , another private, historically black college. Dallas billionaire and entrepreneur Comer Cottrell, Jr., founder of ProLine Corporation, bought the campus of Bishop College and bequeathed it to Paul Quinn College in 1993. The school enrolls about 3,000 undergraduate students.

  • The University of North Texas at Dallas
    University of North Texas at Dallas
    The University of North Texas at Dallas began in 2000 as a Dallas extension of the University of North Texas, offering upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in fields such as education, business, criminal justice, applied arts and sciences, computer science, information technology and...

    , located along Houston School Road. In 2009 UNT at Dallas became the first public university within Dallas city limits. The University of North Texas System
    University of North Texas System
    The University of North Texas System consists of four educational institutions in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex area...

     has requested approval from the Texas Legislature and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board for the State's first new public law school in more than 40 years. Plans are for the UNT College of Law to be based at the Old Municipal Building in downtown Dallas.

  • Dallas Theological Seminary
    Dallas Theological Seminary
    Dallas Theological Seminary is an evangelical theological seminary located in Dallas, Texas. It is known for popularizing the theological system known as Dispensationalism...

    , also within the city limits, is recognized as one of the leading seminaries in the evangelical faith. Situated 3 miles (5 km) east of Downtown Dallas, it currently enrolls over 2,000 graduate students and has graduated over 12,000 alumni.

  • Dallas Baptist University
    Dallas Baptist University
    Dallas Baptist University , formerly known as Dallas Baptist College, is a Christian liberal arts university located in Dallas, Texas. The main campus is located approximately fifteen miles southwest of downtown Dallas overlooking Mountain Creek Lake...

     (DBU) is a private, coeducational university located in the Mountain Creek area of southwest Dallas. Originally located in Decatur
    Decatur, Texas
    Decatur is a city located in Wise County, Texas, United States. This city was named after Stephen Decatur, Jr. The population was 5,201 at the 2000 census. A July 1, 2008 U.S. Census Bureau estimate placed the population at 6,432. It is the county seat of Wise County...

    , Texas, the school moved to Dallas in 1965. The school currently enrolls over 5,100 students, and offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees. Popular subjects include Biblical studies, business, and music degrees. The school also maintains an Intensive English Program for international students wishing to enhance their knowledge of the English language. The school has also become nationally recognized in the past few years for its baseball team which has made several playoff runs.

  • Criswell College
    Criswell College
    Criswell College is a Dispensationalist Christian college and divinity school in Dallas, Texas. It is known for training students to teach and preach the Bible with emphasis on evangelism, the original languages, and Biblical inerrancy.-History:...

    , (within two blocks of Dallas Theological Seminary). Criswell was started by First Baptist Church of Dallas in the early 1970s. It presently has around 400 students at both the undergraduate and graduate level studying different Biblical and Christian subjects.

  • Dallas County Community College District
    Dallas County Community College District
    The Dallas County Community College District is a network of seven community colleges in Dallas County, Texas . It is headquartered at 1601 South Lamar in Dallas....

    , the 2-year educational institution of Dallas County; it has seven campuses located throughout the area with branches in Dallas as well as the surrounding suburbs. DCCCD serves portions of Dallas in Dallas County.

Collin College serves portions of Dallas in Collin County.

Colleges and universities near Dallas


  • Southern Methodist University
    Southern Methodist University
    Southern Methodist University is a private university in Dallas, Texas, United States. Founded in 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, SMU operates campuses in Dallas, Plano, and Taos, New Mexico. SMU is owned by the South Central Jurisdiction of the United Methodist Church...

     (SMU) is a private
    Private university
    Private universities are universities not operated by governments, although many receive public subsidies, especially in the form of tax breaks and public student loans and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. Private universities are...

    , coeducation
    Coeducation
    Mixed-sex education, also known as coeducation or co-education, is the integrated education of male and female persons in the same institution. It is the opposite of single-sex education...

    al university in University Park
    University Park, Texas
    University Park is a city in Dallas County, Texas, United States, and a inner suburb of Dallas. The population was 23,324 at the 2000 census. The city is home to Southern Methodist University. Like its neighbor, Highland Park, it is a city partially surrounded by the municipality of Dallas...

    , an independent city that, together with the adjacent town of Highland Park, is entirely surrounded by Dallas. SMU was founded in 1911 by the Southern Methodist Church
    Methodist Episcopal Church, South
    The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, or Methodist Episcopal Church South, was the so-called "Southern Methodist Church" resulting from the split over the issue of slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church which had been brewing over several years until it came out into the open at a conference...

     and now enrolls 6,500 undergraduates, 1,200 professional students in the law
    Dedman School of Law
    The Southern Methodist University School of Law, commonly referred to as SMU Law School or Dedman School of Law is a prominent professional graduate law school located in Dallas, Texas. Founded in February 1925, the school remains the only law school in Dallas...

     and theology
    Theology
    Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...

     departments, and 3,500 postgraduates
    Graduate school
    A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree...

    . According to sources such as the U.S. News & World Report, SMU is the best overall undergraduate college in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and the third best in the State of Texas.

  • The University of Texas at Dallas
    University of Texas at Dallas
    The University of Texas at Dallas, also referred to as UT Dallas or UTD, is a public research university in the University of Texas System. The main campus is in the heart of the Richardson, Texas, Telecom Corridor, north of downtown Dallas...

     (UTD), also part of the state public University of Texas System
    University of Texas System
    The University of Texas System encompasses 15 educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are academic universities and six are health institutions. The system is headquartered in Austin and has a total enrollment of over 190,000 students...

    , is located in the city of Richardson
    Richardson, Texas
    Richardson is a city in Dallas and Collin Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 99,223. In 2011 the population was estimated to be 107,684. Richardson is an affluent inner suburb of Dallas and home of the Telecom Corridor with a high...

    , is adjacent to Dallas' Far North Dallas neighborhood, and is in the heart of the Telecom Corridor
    Telecom Corridor
    The Telecom Corridor is a technology business center in Richardson, Texas , a northern suburb of Dallas, which contains over 25 million square feet of office space and accounts for over 82,600 jobs. The Corridor is a strip about 6.5 miles long along U.S...

    . UT Dallas, or UTD, is renowned for its work in combining the arts and technology, as well as for its programs in engineering, computer science, economics, international political economy
    International political economy
    International political economy , also known as global political economy, is an academic discipline within the social sciences that analyzes international relations in combination with political economy. As an interdisciplinary field it draws on many distinct academic schools, most notably ...

    , neuroscience, speech and hearing, pre-health, pre-law and management. The university has many collaborative research relationships with UT Southwestern Medical Center. UT Dallas is home to approximately 17,000 students.

  • The University of Dallas
    University of Dallas
    The University of Dallas is a private, independent Catholic regional university located in Irving, Texas, established in 1956, which is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. According to U.S...

     (UD), in the suburb of Irving
    Irving, Texas
    Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

    , is an enclave of traditional Roman Catholicism in the mostly Protestant religious landscape of Dallas. St. Albert the Great Dominican Priory and Holy Trinity Seminary
    Holy Trinity Seminary
    Holy Trinity Seminary is a Roman Catholic seminary residence in Irving, Texas, United States, in the Diocese of Dallas, Texas that is located within the University of Dallas campus. University of Dallas is an independent Catholic University with strong ties to the Diocese of Dallas...

     are located on campus, while the Cistercian Monastery and Cistercian Preparatory School are located just to the north of the UD campus across Texas State Highway 114. The Highlands School
    The Highlands School
    The Highlands School is a private, Catholic college preparatory school in Irving, Texas ranging from grades PK–12. The school was founded in 1986 in the front room of a family's house in Highland Park, Dallas. In the last twenty years The Highlands School changed location twice, all the time...

    , a PK–12 Legionary school, is just to the west of the UD campus and is connected to campus by jogging trails. As a center for religious study, the Cistercian Monastery continues to be notable in scholastic developments in theology.

University Research Center

  • Texas A&M-Dallas Research and Extension Center
    Texas A&M AgriLife
    Texas A&M AgriLife is the collective name of five related agencies within the Texas A&M University System:* Texas A&M College of Agriculture and Life Sciences* Texas AgriLife Research* Texas AgriLife Extension Service* Texas Forest Service...


Other area colleges and universities


Also in the nearby suburbs and neighboring cities are:
  • Collin College in Collin County.
  • Remington College
    Remington College
    Remington College is an affiliated group of privately owned non-profit post-secondary educational institutions. Remington Colleges, Inc. operates 20 campuses in several US states. Some of the affiliated institutions have been in operation since the 1940s. It is a for-profit college...

     in Garland, Texas, established in July 1997.
  • Remington College
    Remington College
    Remington College is an affiliated group of privately owned non-profit post-secondary educational institutions. Remington Colleges, Inc. operates 20 campuses in several US states. Some of the affiliated institutions have been in operation since the 1940s. It is a for-profit college...

     (Ft. Worth Campus)
  • The University of North Texas
    University of North Texas
    The University of North Texas is a public institution of higher education and research in Denton. Founded in 1890, UNT is part of the University of North Texas System. As of the fall of 2010, the University of North Texas, Denton campus, had a certified enrollment of 36,067...

     (UNT) in Denton
    Denton, Texas
    The city of Denton is the county seat of Denton County, Texas in the United States. Its population was 119,454 according to the 2010 U.S. Census, making it the eleventh largest city in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex...

  • Texas Woman's University
    Texas Woman's University
    Texas Woman's University is a co-educational university in Denton, Texas, United States with two health science center branches in Dallas, Texas and Houston, Texas...

     (TWU) also in Denton.
  • The University of Texas at Arlington
    University of Texas at Arlington
    The University of Texas at Arlington is a public research university located in Arlington, Texas, United States. The campus is situated southwest of downtown Arlington, and is located in the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area. The university was founded in 1895 and served primarily a military...

     (UTA).
  • University of Phoenix, Dallas Campus in Dallas, Irving, Plano, Arlington, Hurst, and Cedar Hill.
  • Dallas Christian College
    Dallas Christian College
    Dallas Christian College is a four-year undergraduate institution affiliated with the Christian Church. Despite its name it is located in the suburb of Farmers Branch, Texas.- History :...

     (DCC) in Farmers Branch.


Also, within the Dallas/Fort Worth area, about 30 miles (48.3 km) to the west of the city of Dallas, Fort Worth has two major universities within its city limits,and one health sciences/medical school:
  • Texas Christian University
    Texas Christian University
    Texas Christian University is a private, coeducational university located in Fort Worth, Texas, United States and founded in 1873. TCU is affiliated with, but not governed by, the Disciples of Christ...

     (TCU)
  • Texas Wesleyan University
    Texas Wesleyan University
    Texas Wesleyan University is a private, coeducational, liberal arts university founded by the United Methodist Church in 1890. The main campus is located in the Polytechnic Heights Neighborhood of Fort Worth, Texas, with branch campuses in Burleson and downtown Fort Worth.-History:Texas Wesleyan...

    .
  • University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth
    University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth
    The University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, commonly known as the UNT Health Science Center and abbreviated UNTHSC, is a graduate-level institution of the University of North Texas System...



A number of colleges and universities are also located outside the immediate metropolitan area, including:
  • Austin College
    Austin College
    Austin College is a private liberal arts college affiliated by covenant relationship with the Presbyterian Church and located in Sherman, Texas, about 60 miles North of Dallas....

     in nearby Sherman
    Sherman, Texas
    Sherman is a city in and the county seat of Grayson County, Texas, United States. The city's estimated population as of 2009 was 38,407. It is also one of two principal cities in the Sherman-Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

    .
  • Texas A&M University–Commerce
    Texas A&M University–Commerce
    Texas A&M University–Commerce is a state university located in Commerce, Texas and a member of the Texas A&M University System, the second largest university within the system behind Texas A&M University in College Station....

  • Navarro College
    Navarro College
    Navarro College is a two-year public institution consisting of a main campus located in Corsicana, with branches in Mexia, Midlothian, and Waxahachie, Texas...

     in nearby Corsicana
    Corsicana, Texas
    Corsicana is a city in Navarro County, Texas, United States. It is located on Interstate 45 some fifty-five miles south of downtown Dallas. The population was 24,485 at the 2000 census...

  • Tarrant County College
    Tarrant County College
    Tarrant County College ' or Tarrant County College District is a community college serving the Fort Worth area in Tarrant County, Texas and providing degree programs toward an Associate of Arts, an Associate of Applied Science or Associate of Arts in Teaching...

     in Tarrant County.

Primary and secondary schools



Most neighborhoods in the city of Dallas are located within the Dallas Independent School District
Dallas Independent School District
The Dallas Independent School District is a school district based in Dallas, Texas . Dallas ISD, which operates schools in much of Dallas County, is the second largest school district in Texas and the twelfth largest in the United States.In 2009, the school district was rated "academically...

, the 12th-largest school district in the United States. The school district operates independently of the city and enrolls over 161,000 students. In 2006, one of the district's magnet school
Magnet school
In education in the United States, magnet schools are public schools with specialized courses or curricula. "Magnet" refers to how the schools draw students from across the normal boundaries defined by authorities as school zones that feed into certain schools.There are magnet schools at the...

s, The School for the Talented and Gifted in Oak Cliff, was named the best school in the United States (among public schools) by Newsweek
Newsweek
Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It is distributed throughout the United States and internationally. It is the second-largest news weekly magazine in the U.S., having trailed Time in circulation and advertising revenue for most of its existence...

, retaining the title in 2007 and regaining the top spot in 2009. Another one of DISD's schools, the Science and Engineering Magnet
Science and Engineering Magnet
The School of Science and Engineering Magnet at the Yvonne A. Ewell Townview Magnet Center is located at the Yvonne A. Ewell Townview Magnet Center, home of six magnet high schools in the Dallas Independent School District. SEM's mascot is the eagle, and its school colors are maroon and white...

, placed 8th in the same 2006 survey and moved up to the No. 2 spot the following year. Other DISD high schools named to the list were Hillcrest
Hillcrest High School (Dallas)
Hillcrest High School, formerly Vickery Meadows High School is a public secondary school located in North Dallas, Texas . Hillcrest High School enrolls students in grades 9-12 and is a part of the Dallas Independent School District.- History :...

, W. T. White, Williams Preparatory, and Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson High School (Dallas)
Woodrow Wilson High School is a public secondary school located at 100 South Glasgow Drive in the Lakewood neighborhood of East Dallas, Texas in the ZIP code 75214. It was named in honor of former U.S. president Woodrow Wilson, who died just three years before the school building was completed...

 high schools. Woodrow Wilson was also named the top comprehensive high school in Dallas by local publication D Magazine
D Magazine
This article is about the magazine about Dallas. For the Italian magazine, see La Repubblica.D Magazine is a monthly magazine covering Dallas-Fort Worth. It covers a range of topics including politics, business, food, fashion and lifestyle in the city of Dallas. The first issue was published in...

.

A few areas of Dallas also extend into other school districts, including Carrollton-Farmers Branch
Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District
Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District is a school district based in Carrollton, Texas .The district covers most of the cities of Carrollton and Farmers Branch and parts of Addison, Coppell, Dallas, and Irving...

, Duncanville
Duncanville Independent School District
Duncanville Independent School District is a school district based in Duncanville, Texas .Duncanville ISD serves most of the city of Duncanville and portions of DeSoto, Dallas, and Cedar Hill. Currently, the District is receiving a high number of Hispanics coming in, and a slightly decreasing...

, Garland
Garland Independent School District
Garland Independent School District is a public school district with its headquarters in the Harris Hill Administration Building in Garland, Texas ....

, Highland Park
Highland Park Independent School District
Highland Park Independent School District is a public school district based in University Park, Texas, United States.HPISD serves most of the city of Highland Park, all of the city of University Park, and portions of Dallas. HPISD administers seven schools...

, Mesquite
Mesquite Independent School District
The Mesquite Independent School District is a school district in Mesquite, Texas which follows the standard definition of an independent school district.The district is rather large, containing in excess of 35,000...

, Plano
Plano Independent School District
Plano Independent School District is a public school district in southeastern Collin County, Texas, with its headquarters in Plano. Plano ISD serves about of land, with of it within the City of Plano...

, and Richardson
Richardson Independent School District
Richardson Independent School District is a school district based in Richardson, Texas .RISD covers and includes most of the city of Richardson, TX and portions of the cities of Dallas, TX and Garland, TX . RISD operates 55 campuses that serve more than 34,000 students...

. The Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District
Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District
Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District was a school district in southern Dallas County, Texas serving the cities of Wilmer and Hutchins, a portion of Dallas , and a small portion of Lancaster. The district served urban, suburban, and rural areas...

 once served portions of southern Dallas, but it was shut down for the 2005–2006 year. WHISD students started attending other Dallas ISD schools during that time. Following the close, the Texas Education Agency
Texas Education Agency
The Texas Education Agency is a branch of the state government of Texas in the United States responsible for public education. The agency is headquartered in the William B...

 consolidated WHISD into Dallas ISD.

Many school districts in Dallas County
Dallas County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,218,899 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile . There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi...

, including Dallas ISD, are served by a governmental agency called Dallas County Schools. The system provides busing and other transportation services, access to a massive media library, technology services, strong ties to local organizations for education/community integration, and staff development programs.

Private schools


There are also many private schools in Dallas, such as St. Elizabeth of Hungary Catholic School St. Mark's School of Texas
St. Mark's School of Texas
The St. Mark's School of Texas is a nonsectarian preparatory day school for boys located in Preston Hollow, Dallas, Texas, USA. The School offers grades 1–12.-History:...

, The Hockaday School
The Hockaday School
The Hockaday School is an independent, secular, college preparatory day and boarding school for girls located in Dallas, Texas, USA and surrounding areas...

, Greenhill School
Greenhill School, Addison
Greenhill School is a co-educational day school in Addison, United States that was founded in 1950 by Bernard Fulton. The campus is located north of downtown Dallas, Texas and enrolls about 1,270 students from throughout the Dallas Metroplex...

, Burton Adventist Academy
Burton Adventist Academy
Burton Adventist Academy is a private school located in Arlington, Texas. It covers the grades from pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. Burton is associated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church...

, Ursuline Academy of Dallas
Ursuline Academy of Dallas
Ursuline Academy of Dallas is a Catholic college preparatory high school for girls located on Walnut Hill Lane, in the area around Preston Hollow in Dallas, Texas...

, Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas
Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas
Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas is a private, college-preparatory school for young men under the direction of the Society of Jesus and home to the Jesuit Dallas Museum in Dallas, Texas...

, June Shelton School, Lakehill Preparatory School
Lakehill Preparatory School
Lakehill Preparatory School is a fully accredited college preparatory school in the Lakewood neighborhood of east Dallas, Texas . The school is accredited through a number of bodies including the Texas Private School Accreditation Commission, which works through the State Commissioner of...

, Episcopal School of Dallas
Episcopal School of Dallas
The Episcopal School of Dallas is an independent school in Dallas, Texas.-History:The School was founded in 1974 by Dallas-area leaders and The Reverend Stephen B. Swann who remains the current headmaster. In 1995 ESD merged with St...

, The Lamplighter School, Parish Episcopal School
Parish Episcopal School
The Parish Episcopal School is a co-educational preparatory day school located on two campuses in Dallas, Texas, USA. The school enrolls students in grades Pre-K-12.-History:...

, Bishop Dunne Catholic School
Bishop Dunne Catholic School
Bishop Dunne Catholic School is a private Middle/High college prep school located in the Oak Cliff area of Dallas, Texas . It is currently the only 6-12 school within the city of Dallas to hold an exemplary accreditation rating from the Southern Association of Colleges and School .-History and...

, Bishop Lynch High School
Bishop Lynch High School
Bishop Lynch High School is a co-educational Catholic high school founded by the Dominican Order in east Dallas, Texas . It is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas. It opened in 1963 with 365 students and now has over 1,000 students. In keeping with its Dominican tradition, the school...

, Yavneh Academy of Dallas, Dallas Lutheran School, The Winston School
The Winston School
The Winston School is a private coeducational day school in Dallas, Texas. The grade 1-12 school is for children who must learn using non-traditional techniques...

, Dallas Christian School
Dallas Christian School
Dallas Christian School is a nominally non-sectarian preparatory day school for boys and girls located in Mesquite, Texas. The school offers classes for students ranging from pre-kindergarten through the twelfth grade...

 on the borders of Mesquite
Mesquite
Mesquite is a leguminous plant of the Prosopis genus found in northern Mexico through the Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Deserts, and up into the Southwestern United States as far north as southern Kansas, west to the Colorado Desert in California,and east to the eastern fifth of Texas, where...

 and Garland
Garland
A garland is a class of decoration, of which there are many types.Garland may also refer to:-Places:*Garland, Arkansas, a town in Miller County*Garland County, Arkansas*Garland, Maine, a town in Penobscot County...

, First Baptist Academy of Dallas
First Baptist Academy of Dallas
First Baptist Academy of Dallas is a Biblically-integrated, college preparatory school located in Downtown Dallas, Texas.FBA is in the city center district with easy access to the arts district and the West End historic district enabling students to use the Dallas Museum of Art, the Nasher...

, and Tyler Street Christian Academy in Oak Cliff. Some Dallas residents attend Cistercian Preparatory School
Cistercian Preparatory School
Cistercian Preparatory School is a Roman Catholic school for boys located in Irving, Texas, in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas. Serving grades five through twelve , the school has a population of about 350 boys...

 in adjacent Irving
Irving, Texas
Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

, The Highlands School
The Highlands School
The Highlands School is a private, Catholic college preparatory school in Irving, Texas ranging from grades PK–12. The school was founded in 1986 in the front room of a family's house in Highland Park, Dallas. In the last twenty years The Highlands School changed location twice, all the time...

 in Irving, and Trinity Christian Academy in Addison
Addison, Texas
Addison is a city in Dallas County, Texas . The population was 14,166 at the 2000 census, and 15,737 according to a 2009 estimate. Addison is a northern suburb of Dallas...

.

Libraries



The city is served by the Dallas Public Library
Dallas Public Library
The Dallas Public Library system serves as the municipal library system of the city of Dallas, Texas .-History:In 1899, the idea to create a free public library in Dallas was conceived by the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs, led by president Mrs. Henry Exall. She helped raise US$11,000 from...

 system. The system was originally created by the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs with efforts spearheaded by then-president Mrs. Henry (May Dickson) Exall. Her work in raising money led to a grant from philanthropist and steel baron Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, businessman, and entrepreneur who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century...

, which enabled the construction of the first branch of the library system in 1901. Today, the library operates 27 branch locations throughout the city, including the 8-story J. Erik Jonsson Central Library
J. Erik Jonsson Central Library
The J. Erik Jonsson Central Library is the Main Library of the Dallas Public Library system. It is located at 1515 Young Street in the Government District of downtown Dallas, Texas, directly across from Dallas City Hall.- About :...

 in the Government District
Government District, Dallas
The Government District is an area in south-central downtown Dallas, Texas . It lies south of the Main Street District, southeast of the West End Historic District, north of the Convention Center District, west of the Farmers Market District, and east of the Reunion District.- Notable structures...

 of Downtown
Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District in Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District...

.

The former Texas School Book Depository
Texas School Book Depository
The Texas School Book Depository is the former name of a seven-floor building facing Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas . Located on the northwest corner of Elm and North Houston Streets, at the western end of downtown Dallas, its address is 411 Elm Street. The building is notable for its connection to...

, where according to the Warren Commission
Warren Commission
The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as the Warren Commission, was established on November 27, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963...

 Report, Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald was, according to four government investigations,These were investigations by: the Federal Bureau of Investigation , the Warren Commission , the House Select Committee on Assassinations , and the Dallas Police Department. the sniper who assassinated John F...

 shot and killed president John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy , often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963....

 in 1963, has served since the 1980s as a county government
Local government
Local government refers collectively to administrative authorities over areas that are smaller than a state.The term is used to contrast with offices at nation-state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government...

 office building, except for its sixth and seventh floors, which house the "museum of the assassination", known officially as The Sixth Floor Museum.

Health systems


Dallas has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits. One major research center is the Dallas Medical District with the UT Southwestern Medical Center
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center is one of the biomedical research institutions of the University of Texas System, incorporating three degree-granting institutions, four affiliated hospitals, including Parkland Memorial, the teaching hospital, and biomedical research...

 in the Stemmons Corridor
Stemmons Corridor
The Stemmons Corridor or Lower Stemmons is a stretch of industrial and commercial property in northwest Dallas, Texas . From downtown north, Interstate 35E is known as the Stemmons Freeway, named so for Leslie Stemmons by his son, John M. Stemmons...

, along with the affiliated UT Southwestern Medical School. The health care complex includes within its bounds Parkland Memorial Hospital
Parkland Memorial Hospital
Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital located at 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard, just west of Oak Lawn in Dallas, Texas . It is the main hospital of the Dallas County Hospital District and serves as Dallas County's public hospital.- History :The original hospital opened in 1894 in a wooden...

, Children's Medical Center
Children's Medical Center (Dallas)
Children's Medical Center is the only academic healthcare system in Dallas-Fort Worth dedicated solely to the comprehensive care of children from birth to age 18. Its mission as a private, not-for-profit, pediatric hospital system is “to make life better for children.”Children's has grown to...

, St. Paul University Hospital, and the Zale Lipshy University Hospital.

Dallas also has a VA
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. It is the United States government’s second largest department, after the United States Department of Defense...

 hospital in the southern portion of the city, the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The center is home to a Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy
Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy
The Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy initiative of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs provides mail order prescriptions to veterans using facilities with highly automated distribution systems at strategic locations throughout the country.- History :During the 1970s and 1980s,...

 (CMOP), part of an initiative by the Department of Veterans Affairs to provide mail-order prescriptions to veterans using computerization at strategic locations throughout the United States.

U.S. News and World Report, in their 2004 edition on "America's Best Hospitals", Parkland Memorial Hospital had one of the nation's best overall ratings. Also the specialties at Parkland Memorial Hospital were rated among the best in the nation, in 7 different categories. Those categories (and the ratings) were: Rheumatology- 23rd nationally; Orthopedics- 20th nationally; Kidney Disease- 17th nationally; Hormonal Disorders- 14th nationally; Heart and Heart Surgery- 18th nationally; Gynecology- 11th nationally; Ear, Nose, and Throat- 47th nationally.

Parkland Memorial Hospital
Parkland Memorial Hospital
Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital located at 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard, just west of Oak Lawn in Dallas, Texas . It is the main hospital of the Dallas County Hospital District and serves as Dallas County's public hospital.- History :The original hospital opened in 1894 in a wooden...

 is named one of Modern Healthcare's "25 busiest community hospital emergency departments". Parkland is a 2006 Professional Research Consultants Excellence in Healthcare award winner for Patient Perception and Overall Quality of Care.

Other hospitals in the city include Baylor University Medical Center
Baylor University Medical Center
Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas is a faith-based, not-for-profit hospital. In 1903, the hospital opened with 25 beds; today it is a patient care, teaching and research center for the Southwest. Baylor Dallas has 1025 licensed beds and serves as the flagship hospital of Baylor Health...

 in East Dallas
East Dallas
East Dallas comprises many communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas, .- Neighborhoods :*Baylor/Meadows*Belmont*Hilltop*Bryan Place*Buckner Terrace*East Grand*Casa Linda Estates*Cochran Heights*Casa View*Claremont*Deep Ellum*Eastwood...

, Methodist Dallas Medical Center in Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff is a community in Dallas, Texas, United States that was formerly a separate town located in Dallas County; Dallas annexed Oak Cliff in 1903...

, Methodist Charlton Medical Center near Duncanville
Duncanville, Texas
Duncanville is a city in Dallas County, Texas . Duncanville's population was 36,081 at the 2000 census, and estimated at 42,500 in 2008. Duncanville is a suburb of Dallas and is part of the Best Southwest area, which includes Duncanville, Cedar Hill, DeSoto, and Lancaster.-Geography:Duncanville is...

, Medical City Dallas Hospital
Medical City Dallas Hospital
Medical City Dallas is a hospital located at 7777 Forest Lane, just west of North Central Expressway , in north Dallas, Texas . It is operated byHospital Corporation of America- History :...

 and Presbyterian Hospital in North Dallas
North Dallas
North Dallas is an expensive area of numerous communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas . The phrase "North Dallas" is also sometimes used to include any suburb or exurb north of Dallas proper within the metropolitan area. The majority of North Dallas is located in Dallas County while a small...

, and the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children in Oak Lawn
Oak Lawn, Dallas
Oak Lawn is a neighborhood in Dallas, Texas , defined in Dallas City Ordinance 21859 as . The unofficial boundaries are Turtle Creek Boulevard, Central Expressway, the City of Highland Park, Inwood Road, and Harry Hines Boulevard. It is over in area...

.

Transportation


Like many other major cities in the United States, the primary mode of local transportation in Dallas is the automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines, biking and walking paths, wide sidewalks, a trolley system, and buses. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Dallas the thirtieth most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States.

Highways


The city is at the confluence of four major interstate highways
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, , is a network of limited-access roads including freeways, highways, and expressways forming part of the National Highway System of the United States of America...

—Interstates 20, 30, 35E
Interstate 35E (Texas)
Interstate 35E , an Interstate Highway, is the eastern half of Interstate 35 where it splits to serve different cities in Texas. I-35 splits into two branch routes, I-35W and I-35E at Hillsboro. I-35E runs north for , maintaining I-35's sequence of exit numbers. It runs through Dallas before...

, and 45. The Dallas area freeway system is set up in the popular hub-and-spoke
Spoke-hub distribution paradigm
The hub-and-spoke distribution paradigm is a system of connections arranged like a chariot wheel, in which all traffic moves along spokes connected to the hub at the center...

 system, shaped much like a wagon wheel. Starting from the center of the city, a small freeway loop surrounds Downtown, followed by the Interstate 635
Interstate 635 (Texas)
Interstate 635 or the Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway is a partial loop around Dallas, Texas between Interstate 20 in Balch Springs, Texas and State Highway 121 at the north entrance of the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in Grapevine, Texas. The route is long...

 loop about 10 miles (16 km) outside Downtown, and ultimately the tolled President George Bush Turnpike
President George Bush Turnpike
The President George Bush Turnpike is a 45.1-mile toll road running generally east–west through the northern suburbs of Dallas, Texas, United States. It is named for George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States...

. Inside these freeway loops are other boulevard
Boulevard
A Boulevard is type of road, usually a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare, divided with a median down the centre, and roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage, often with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery...

- and parkway
Parkway
The term parkway has several distinct principal meanings and numerous synonyms around the world, for either a type of landscaped area or a type of road.Type of landscaped area:...

-style loops, including Loop 12 and Belt Line Road
Belt Line Road (Texas)
Belt Line Road is a loop road that traverses through 16 cities in Dallas County, Texas. Belt Line Road is the outer complete loop which encircles Dallas, in contrast with Interstate 635 which forms an inner loop....

. Another beltway around the city upwards of 45 miles (72 km) from Downtown is under plan in Collin County.

Radiating out of Downtown Dallas' freeway loop are the spokes of the area's highway system—Interstates 30, 35E, and 45, U.S. Highway 75, U.S. Highway 175, State Spur 366, the Dallas North Tollway
Dallas North Tollway
The Dallas North Tollway is a controlled-access toll road operated by the North Texas Tollway Authority , which runs from Interstate 35E near downtown Dallas, Texas , to U.S...

, State Highway 114, U.S. Highway 80, and U.S. Highway 67. Other major highways around the city include State Highway 183 and State Spur 408. The recently completed interchange at the intersection of Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway (Interstate 635
Interstate 635 (Texas)
Interstate 635 or the Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway is a partial loop around Dallas, Texas between Interstate 20 in Balch Springs, Texas and State Highway 121 at the north entrance of the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in Grapevine, Texas. The route is long...

) and Central Expressway
Central Expressway (Dallas)
Central Expressway is a north–south highway in Dallas, Texas and surrounding areas.- North Central Expressway :The best-known section is the North Central Expressway, a name for a freeway section of U.S. Highway 75 between downtown Dallas and McKinney, Texas...

 (U.S. Highway 75) contains 5 stacks and is aptly called the High Five Interchange
High Five Interchange
thumb|High Five interchange.The High Five Interchange is a five-level freeway interchange, designed by the HNTB Corporation, that connects Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway and Central Expressway in Dallas, Texas, United States...

. It is currently one of the few 5-level interchange in Dallas and is one of the largest freeway interchanges in the United States.

The following is a list of the freeways and tollways in the Dallas/Ft. Worth
Dallas, Texas
Dallas is the third-largest city in Texas and the ninth-largest in the United States. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the largest metropolitan area in the South and fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States...

 area:
  • Interstate 20
  • Interstate 30
  • Interstate 35E
    Interstate 35E (Texas)
    Interstate 35E , an Interstate Highway, is the eastern half of Interstate 35 where it splits to serve different cities in Texas. I-35 splits into two branch routes, I-35W and I-35E at Hillsboro. I-35E runs north for , maintaining I-35's sequence of exit numbers. It runs through Dallas before...

  • Interstate 35W
    Interstate 35W (Texas)
    Interstate 35W , an Interstate Highway, is the western half of Interstate 35 where it splits to serve different cities in Texas. I-35 splits into two branch routes, I-35W and I-35E at Hillsboro. I-35W runs north for , carrying its own separate sequence of exit numbers. It runs through Fort Worth...

  • Interstate 45
  • Interstate 635
    Interstate 635 (Texas)
    Interstate 635 or the Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway is a partial loop around Dallas, Texas between Interstate 20 in Balch Springs, Texas and State Highway 121 at the north entrance of the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in Grapevine, Texas. The route is long...

  • Interstate 820
  • U.S. Highway 67
  • U.S. Highway 75
  • U.S. Highway 80
  • U.S. Highway 175
  • U.S. Highway 287
  • State Highway 114
  • State Highway 121
  • State Highway 161
  • State Highway 183
  • State Highway 190
  • State Highway 360
  • Loop 12
  • Spur 366
    State Highway Spur 366 (Texas)
    Spur 366, also named Woodall Rodgers Freeway, is a highway that connects Interstate 35E to Interstate 345 in central Dallas, Texas...

  • Spur 408
  • Dallas North Tollway
    Dallas North Tollway
    The Dallas North Tollway is a controlled-access toll road operated by the North Texas Tollway Authority , which runs from Interstate 35E near downtown Dallas, Texas , to U.S...

  • President George Bush Turnpike
    President George Bush Turnpike
    The President George Bush Turnpike is a 45.1-mile toll road running generally east–west through the northern suburbs of Dallas, Texas, United States. It is named for George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States...

  • Sam Rayburn Tollway

Transit systems




Dallas Area Rapid Transit
Dallas Area Rapid Transit
The Dallas Area Rapid Transit authority is a transit agency based in Dallas, Texas . It operates buses, light rail, commuter rail, and high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Dallas and 12 of its suburbs...

 (DART) is the Dallas-area public transportation authority, providing rail, buses and HOV
HOV
HOV may refer to:* High-occupancy vehicle lane* Ørsta-Volda Airport, Hovden in Hovden, Norway* Hovig* A small street gang located in Naperville* see Hov...

 lanes to commuters. DART began operating the first light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 system in the Southwest United States in 1996 and is now the largest operator of light rail in the US. Today, the system is the seventh-busiest light rail system in the country with approximately 55 stations on 72 miles of light rail, and 10 stations on 35 miles of commuter rail. Four light rail lines and a commuter line are currently in service: the , the , the , the (peak-service only), and the .

The travels through Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff
Oak Cliff is a community in Dallas, Texas, United States that was formerly a separate town located in Dallas County; Dallas annexed Oak Cliff in 1903...

, South Dallas
South Dallas
South Dallas is an area in Dallas, Texas, . It is usually either defined in one of two ways: As the area south of the Trinity River and south of Interstate 30, which consist mostly of Oak Cliff and Pleasant Grove, or to the area bounded by I-30 and Downtown Dallas to the north, the Trinity River to...

, Downtown
Downtown Dallas
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District in Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District...

, Uptown
Uptown Dallas
Uptown is a PID and neighborhood in Dallas, Texas. Uptown is adjacent-to and north-of downtown Dallas, and is bordered by US 75 on the east, N Haskell Avenue on the northeast, Katy Trail on the northwest, Bookhout Street and Cedar Springs Road on the west, N Akard Street on the southwest and Spur...

, North Dallas
North Dallas
North Dallas is an expensive area of numerous communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas . The phrase "North Dallas" is also sometimes used to include any suburb or exurb north of Dallas proper within the metropolitan area. The majority of North Dallas is located in Dallas County while a small...

, Richardson
Richardson, Texas
Richardson is a city in Dallas and Collin Counties in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 99,223. In 2011 the population was estimated to be 107,684. Richardson is an affluent inner suburb of Dallas and home of the Telecom Corridor with a high...

 and Plano
Plano, Texas
Plano is a city in the state of Texas, located mostly within Collin County. The city's population was 259,841 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in Texas and the 71st most populous city in the United States. Plano is located within the metropolitan area commonly referred to as...

, while the goes through Oak Cliff, Downtown, Uptown, East Dallas
East Dallas
East Dallas comprises many communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas, .- Neighborhoods :*Baylor/Meadows*Belmont*Hilltop*Bryan Place*Buckner Terrace*East Grand*Casa Linda Estates*Cochran Heights*Casa View*Claremont*Deep Ellum*Eastwood...

, Lake Highlands
Lake Highlands
Lake Highlands is an area in Dallas, Texas . It is located in the northeast portion of the city, and is sometimes considered to be a part of, or connected to, East Dallas and/or North Dallas...

, and Garland
Garland, Texas
-Climate:* The average warmest month is July.* The highest recorded temperature was in 2000.* On average, the coolest month is January.* The lowest recorded temperature was in 1989.* The maximum average precipitation occurs in May....

. The and lines are conjoined between 8th & Corinth Station
8th & Corinth Station
8th & Corinth is a DART Light Rail station located in the Oak Cliff neighborhood of Dallas, Texas at 8th and Corinth Streets. It opened on June 14, 1996, and is a station on the and Lines, serving Yvonne A...

 in Oak Cliff through Mockingbird Station
Mockingbird Station
Mockingbird is a DART Light Rail station located in north Dallas, Texas at Mockingbird Lane and North Central Expressway . It opened in January 1997 and is a station on the , and Lines, serving the Mockingbird Station residential and retail development and nearby Southern Methodist...

 in North Dallas
North Dallas
North Dallas is an expensive area of numerous communities and neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas . The phrase "North Dallas" is also sometimes used to include any suburb or exurb north of Dallas proper within the metropolitan area. The majority of North Dallas is located in Dallas County while a small...

. The two lines service Cityplace Station
Cityplace Station
Cityplace is a DART Light Rail station located in the Cityplace district of Oak Lawn Dallas, Texas beneath North Central Expressway at Haskell Avenue...

, the only subway station in the Southwest. The Green Line serves Carrollton
Carrollton, Texas
-Climate:*On average, the warmest month is July.*The highest recorded temperature was 112°F in 1980.*The average coolest month is January.*The lowest recorded temperature was 1°F in 1989.*The most precipitation on average occurs in May....

, Farmers Branch
Farmers Branch, Texas
Farmers Branch is a city in Dallas County, Texas, United States. It is both an inner-ring suburb of Dallas and is part of the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex. The population was 27,508 at the 2000 census. A July 1, 2008 U.S...

, Love Field Airport, Stemmons Corridor, Victory Park, Downtown, Deep Ellum, Fair Park
Fair Park
Dallas Fair Park is a recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas . The complex is registered as a Dallas Landmark, National Historic Landmark and is home to nine museums, six performance facilities, a lagoon, and the largest Ferris wheel in North America...

, South Dallas, and Pleasant Grove. The Orange Line operates as a peak-service line providing extra capacity on portions of the Green and Red Lines (Bachman Station
Bachman Station
Bachman Station is a DART light rail station located in Northwest Dallas for service on the and . The station opened as part of the Green Line's expansion in December 2010. It will serve nearby attractions such as Bachman Lake and surrounding neighborhoods. It will be a major transfer station...

 on the Green Line, through the Downtown transit mall, to Parker Road Station
Parker Road Station
Parker Road Station is a DART Light Rail station located in Plano, Texas in Collin County at the intersection of Park Boulevard and Archerwood Street near US 75 . It opened December 9, 2002, and is the northern terminus of the . It was originally called East Plano Transit Center before the...

 on the Red Line making a "U"-shape). The Orange Line rush-hour service will become part of regular service on opening of the first segment of the Orange Line towards Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in 2012.

DART is continuing construction on its and lines. The Orange Line is being extended by roughly 14 miles and will serve DFW Airport
Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is located between the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, and is the busiest airport in the U.S. state of Texas...

, Irving
Irving, Texas
Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

, and Las Colinas
Las Colinas
Las Colinas is an upscale, developed area in the Dallas suburb of Irving, Texas.Due to its central location between Dallas and Fort Worth and its proximity to DFW Airport, Las Colinas has been a viable place in the Metroplex for corporate and business relocation.As a planned community, it has many...

, once completed, along with its current services. The Orange Line will open in two phases beginning in 2012. The first phase, Bachman Station to Belt Line Station, will open in December 2012. The second and final phase will open in December 2014 and will provide DFW Airport
Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is located between the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, and is the busiest airport in the U.S. state of Texas...

 with rail service. DFW Airport Station
DFW Airport Station
DFW Airport Station will be a rail station located at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport for service on the DART and local commuter rail systems. The station is planned to open in December 2013 and will serve as the terminus of the Orange Line and the DART Cotton Belt rail lines. - External...

 will be the terminus for the Orange Line and will connect to Skylink
Skylink
- External links :* *...

. This will provide passengers the convenience of disembarking the DART rail, proceeding to security check-in and immediately boarding Skylink
Skylink
- External links :* *...

 to be quickly transported to their desired terminal. The Blue Line is being extended by 4.5 miles to serve Rowlett
Rowlett, Texas
-External links:*...

 at the current Rowlett Park & Ride
Rowlett Park & Ride
Rowlett Park & Ride is a bus-only station located on Industrial St. and Martin Dr in Rowlett, Texas . It will become a future DART light rail station by 2012....

 facility.

In August 2009, The Regional Transportation Council agreed to seek $96 million in federal stimulus dollars for a trolley project in Dallas and Fort Worth. The Oak Cliff Transit Authority took the lead with leaders envisioning a streetcar line that would link Union Station and the Dallas Convention Center
Dallas Convention Center
The Dallas Convention Center, originally the Dallas Memorial Auditorium, is a meeting hall, event/convention center and civic center in the Convention Center District of downtown Dallas, Texas...

 in downtown to Oak Cliff, Methodist Medical Center, and the Bishop Arts District
Bishop Arts District
The Bishop Arts District is a small shopping and entertainment district in north Oak Cliff, Dallas, Texas , near the intersection of Bishop Street and Davis Street .- About :...

 via the Houston Street Viaduct. Dallas was awarded a $23 million TIGER grant towards the $58 million Dallas Streetcar Project in February 2010. The Dallas Streetcar Project will link up with the current McKinney Avenue Transit Authority
McKinney Avenue Transit Authority
The McKinney Avenue Transit Authority , a non-profit organization, operates the M-line Streetcar line in Dallas, Texas . The offices and car barn are located at 3153 Oak Grove, Dallas, TX 75204. It is an example of a heritage streetcar running historic cars...

 (MATA) trolley line (also known as the M-Line) in Uptown with a new alignment on Olive Street.

In addition to light rail, Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

's Texas Eagle
Texas Eagle
The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. Trains run daily between Chicago, Illinois, and San Antonio, Texas, and continue to Los Angeles, California, 2728 miles total, three days a week...

 also serves Union Station, providing long-distance train service to Chicago, San Antonio and Los Angeles once daily. The Trinity Rail Express terminates at Union Station and T&P Station
T&P Station
Fort Worth's Texas & Pacific Railroad Passenger Station is a Trinity Railway Express commuter rail station located at 1600 Throckmorton Street in Fort Worth, Texas, on the south side of downtown. It is the western terminus of the TRE commuter line, serving the Fort Worth Convention Center, the...

.

Air


Dallas is served by two commercial airports: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and Dallas Love Field (DAL). In addition, Dallas Executive Airport
Dallas Executive Airport
Dallas Executive Airport , formerly known as Redbird Airport, is a public airport located six miles southwest of the central business district of the City of Dallas, in Dallas County, Texas, USA...

 (formerly Redbird Airport), serves as a general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 airport for the city, and Addison Airport
Addison Airport
-Accidents and incidents:The following involved flights departing or arriving at the airport:*July 19, 1986: All 4 occupants of a Cessna 421, registration number N6VR, were killed when the aircraft suffered an apparent right-hand engine failure, rolled over, and dived into a vacant lot immediately...

 functions similarly just outside the city limits in the suburb of Addison. Two more general aviation airports are located about 35 miles (56 km) north of Dallas in McKinney
McKinney, Texas
McKinney is a city in and the county seat of Collin County, Texas, United States, and the second in population to Plano. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city's 2010 population was 131,117 The Census Bureau listed McKinney as the nation's fastest growing city from 2000 to 2003 and again in...

, and another two are located in Fort Worth
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is the 16th-largest city in the United States of America and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas. Located in North Central Texas, just southeast of the Texas Panhandle, the city is a cultural gateway into the American West and covers nearly in Tarrant, Parker, Denton, and...

, on the west side of the Metroplex.

DFW International Airport is located in the suburbs slightly north of and equidistant to Downtown Fort Worth and Downtown Dallas. In terms of size, DFW is the largest airport in the state, the 4th largest in the United States, and 6th largest in the world; DFW International Airport is larger than the island of Manhattan
Manhattan
Manhattan is the oldest and the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. Located primarily on the island of Manhattan at the mouth of the Hudson River, the boundaries of the borough are identical to those of New York County, an original county of the state of New York...

. In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest airport in the state, 5th busiest in the United States, and 6th busiest in the world. The headquarters of American Airlines, the 3rd largest air carrier in the world behind United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

 and Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

, is located less than a mile from DFW within the city limits of Fort Worth. Similarly, Love Field is located within the city limits of Dallas about 6 miles (10 km) northwest of Downtown, and is headquarters to Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines Co. is an American low-cost airline based in Dallas, Texas. Southwest is the largest airline in the United States, based upon domestic passengers carried,...

.

Utilities


Dallas is served by Dallas Water Utilities
Dallas Water Utilities
Dallas Water Utilities is the water and wastewater service operated by the City of Dallas, Texas, in the United States. DWU is a non-profit City of Dallas department that provides services to the city and 31 nearby communities, employs approximately 1450 people, and consists of 26 programs...

, which operates several waste treatment plants and pulls water from several area reservoirs. The city's electric system is maintained by several companies, including Cirro Energy
Cirro Energy
Cirro Energy is an American retail electric provider based in Richardson, Texas, that delivers electrical service and customer service to tens of thousands of power customers throughout the Electric Reliability Council of Texas distribution grid within the deregulated Texas electricity...

 and TXU
TXU
Energy Future Holdings Corporation is an electric utility company headquartered in Energy Plaza in Downtown Dallas, Texas, United States. The company was known as TXU until its $45 billion leveraged buyout by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, Texas Pacific Group and Goldman Sachs...

, whose parent company, Energy Future Holdings Corporation, has headquarters in the city. The city offers garbage pickup and recycling service weekly through its Sanitation Services department. Telephone networks, broadband internet, and cable television service are available from several companies, including AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

, Time Warner Cable
Time Warner Cable
Time Warner Cable is an American cable television company that operates in 28 states and has 31 operating divisions...

, and Verizon FiOS
Verizon FiOS
Verizon FiOS is a bundled Internet access, telephone, and television service which operates over a fiber-optic communications network. It is offered in some areas of the United States by Verizon Communications. Verizon was one of the first major U.S...

.

Places of interest

  • University of Texas at Dallas
    University of Texas at Dallas
    The University of Texas at Dallas, also referred to as UT Dallas or UTD, is a public research university in the University of Texas System. The main campus is in the heart of the Richardson, Texas, Telecom Corridor, north of downtown Dallas...

  • Cotton Bowl
    Cotton Bowl (stadium)
    The Cotton Bowl is a stadium which opened in 1929 and became known as "The House That Doak Built" due to the immense crowds that former SMU running back Doak Walker drew to the stadium during his college career in the late 1940s. Originally known as Fair Park Stadium, it is located in Fair Park,...

  • Dallas Museum of Art
    Dallas Museum of Art
    The Dallas Museum of Art is a major art museum located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas, USA, along Woodall Rodgers Freeway between St. Paul and Harwood. In 1984, the museum moved from its previous location in Fair Park to the Arts District, Dallas, Texas...

  • The Sixth Floor Museum
  • Texas Schoolbook Depository
  • Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
    Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
    The Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center is a concert hall located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas . Ranked one of the world's greatest orchestra halls, it was designed by architect I.M. Pei and acoustician Russell Johnson's Artec Consultants, Inc...

  • Southern Methodist University
    Southern Methodist University
    Southern Methodist University is a private university in Dallas, Texas, United States. Founded in 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, SMU operates campuses in Dallas, Plano, and Taos, New Mexico. SMU is owned by the South Central Jurisdiction of the United Methodist Church...

  • Fair Park
    Fair Park
    Dallas Fair Park is a recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas . The complex is registered as a Dallas Landmark, National Historic Landmark and is home to nine museums, six performance facilities, a lagoon, and the largest Ferris wheel in North America...

  • Dallas World Aquarium
    Dallas World Aquarium
    The Dallas World Aquarium is an aquarium and zoo located in West End Historic District of downtown Dallas, Texas, USA. The zoo aids conservation and education by housing many animals that are threatened or endangered as part of a cooperative breeding program with other zoos around the world.The...

  • Victory Park
  • Reunion Tower
    Reunion Tower
    Reunion Tower is a observation tower and one of the most recognizable landmarks in Dallas, Texas. Located at 300 Reunion Blvd. in the Reunion district of downtown Dallas, the tower is part of the Hyatt Regency Hotel complex, and is the 15th tallest building in Dallas...

  • Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge
    Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge
    The Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge is one of three Santiago Calatrava-designed bridges being built over the Trinity River in Dallas, Texas as part of the Trinity River Project....

  • Pizza Hut Park
    Pizza Hut Park
    Pizza Hut Park is a soccer-specific stadium with a 21,193-seat capacity, built and owned by the city of Frisco, Texas. Its primary tenant is Major League Soccer team FC Dallas, which relocated from the Cotton Bowl in central Dallas to the fast-growing suburb...

  • Texas Theatre
    Texas Theatre
    The Texas Theatre is a movie theater and Dallas Landmark located in the Oak Cliff neighborhood of Dallas, Texas. It gained historical fame for being the place Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John F. Kennedy and Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit, was arrested after a brief fight...


Notable people

  • Selena Gomez
    Selena Gomez
    Selena Marie Gomez is an American actress and singer best known for portraying Alex Russo in the Emmy Award-winning Disney Channel television series Wizards of Waverly Place...

    , Singer, Actress, Humanitarian, known for her work with Disney, grew up in neighboring town Grand Prairie, Selena Gomez has performed multiple times at the Gexa Energy Theater in Fair Park, and is notably her favorite place to perform primarily being so close to home.
  • Usher, American singer currently holding the title of King of R&B
  • Stanley Marcus
    Stanley Marcus
    Harold Stanley Marcus was an early president and later chairman of the board of the luxury retailer Neiman Marcus in Dallas, Texas, which his father and aunt had founded in 1907...

     founder of high-end fashion department store Neiman-Marcus
  • Stevie Ray Vaughan
    Stevie Ray Vaughan
    Stephen Ray "Stevie Ray" Vaughan was an American electric blues guitarist and singer. He was the younger brother of Jimmie Vaughan and frontman for Double Trouble, a band that included bassist Tommy Shannon and drummer Chris Layton. Born in Dallas, Vaughan moved to Austin at the age of 17 and...

    , American blues guitarist
  • Kevin McHale
    Kevin McHale
    Kevin Edward McHale is a retired American professional basketball player and current head coach of the Houston Rockets. After his playing career, he worked for the Minnesota Timberwolves as the team's general manager and later its coach. He was fired as coach in June 2009...

    , American actor from the Dallas suburb of Plano
    Plano
    Plano can refer to:*Plano cultures, the Late Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer societies of the Great Plains of North America** Plano points, the chipped stone tools of the Plano culturesPlaces in the United States:...

     and i best known for his role in Glee
    Glee
    Glee may refer to:* Glee , an English type of song music* Glee , an American musical comedy-drama TV series, and related media* Glee * Glee...

  • Ashlee Simpson
    Ashlee Simpson
    Ashlee Nicole Simpson is an American singer and actress. In 2004, she rose to prominence with the success of her number-one debut album Autobiography and the reality series, The Ashlee Simpson Show. In October 2005, following a North American concert tour and a film appearance, Simpson released...

     and Jessica Simpson
    Jessica Simpson
    Jessica Ann Simpson is an American recording artist, actress, television personality, and fashion designer whose rise to fame began in 1999. Since that time, Simpson has achieved many recording milestones, starred in several television shows, movies, and commercials, launched a line of hair and...

     American singers and actresses
  • Demi Lovato
    Demi Lovato
    "She’s got the range, the full emotional spectrum, incredible control… Vocally, she’s the best thing Disney’s had since Christina Aguilera."—Producer Toby Gad on Demi Lovato's vocals...

    , singer-songwriter, actress, musician, known for her TV series Sonny With A Chance
    Sonny With a Chance
    Sonny with a Chance is an American children's sitcom which aired on Disney Channel, created by Steve Marmel, that follows the experiences of teenager Sonny Munroe, portrayed by Demi Lovato, who becomes the newest accepted cast member of her favorite live comedy show, So Random!.The series debuted...

     , Camp Rock
    Camp Rock
    Camp Rock is a 2008 Disney Channel Original Movie starring the Jonas Brothers and Demi Lovato. The music is written by Julie Brown, Paul Brown, Regina Hicks and Karen Gist. The film is directed by Matthew Diamond and produced by Alan Sacks....

     movies. She performed in Dallas few times because Dallas is "one of my favourite places on Earth. That's where I'm from."
  • Ross Perot
    Ross Perot
    Henry Ross Perot is a U.S. businessman best known for running for President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. Perot founded Electronic Data Systems in 1962, sold the company to General Motors in 1984, and founded Perot Systems in 1988...

     American billionaire businessman
  • Jennifer Love Hewitt
    Jennifer Love Hewitt
    Jennifer Love Hewitt is an American actress, producer, television director and former singer-songwriter. Hewitt began her acting career as a child by appearing in television commercials and the Disney Channel series Kids Incorporated...

    , American actress from neighboring city Waco, Texas
    Waco, Texas
    Waco is a city in and the county seat of McLennan County, Texas. Situated along the Brazos River and on the I-35 corridor, halfway between Dallas and Austin, it is the economic, cultural, and academic center of the 'Heart of Texas' region....

  • Nick Jonas
    Nick Jonas
    Nicholas Jerry "Nick" Jonas is an American singer-songwriter, musician and actor best known as one of the Jonas Brothers, a pop-rock band he formed with his brothers Joe and Kevin. The Jonas Brothers originally started as an attempted solo singing career for Nick, but the record producer liked the...

    , Pop-singer best known for his appearances on various Disney Channel television shows and the Jonas Brothers
    Jonas Brothers
    The Jonas Brothers are an American boy band. The band gained its popularity from the Disney Channel children's television network. From the shore region of New Jersey, the band consists of three brothers: Paul Kevin Jonas II , Joseph Adam Jonas , and Nicholas Jerry Jonas...

     Band
  • Allen R. Morris
    Allen R. Morris
    Allen Robert Morris , a Texan and an American, is an Emmy Award-winning television producer/director/writer. His professional career began when he and his twin sister, as teenagers, provided the voices and operated puppets on a local children’s television show, “Through Magic Doorways.” This...

     – Emmy Award
    Emmy Award
    An Emmy Award, often referred to simply as the Emmy, is a television production award, similar in nature to the Peabody Awards but more focused on entertainment, and is considered the television equivalent to the Academy Awards and the Grammy Awards .A majority of Emmys are presented in various...

     winning producer/director/writer
  • Jake Pavelka
    Jake Pavelka
    Jacob Lynn "Jake" Pavelka is an American pilot who appeared on four reality TV programs, most notably The Bachelor.- Early life and career :...

    , reality TV personality, best known for being The Bachelor and his appearances on The Bachelorette
    The Bachelorette
    The Bachelorette is a spin-off of the American competitive reality dating game show The Bachelor. In its January 2003 debut on ABC, the first season featured Trista Rehn, the runner-up date from the first season of The Bachelor, offering the opportunity for Rehn to choose a husband among 25 bachelors...

     and Bachelor Pad
    Bachelor Pad
    Bachelor Pad is an elimination-style two-hour American reality television game show that debuted on August 9, 2010 on ABC. The show features contestants from The Bachelor and The Bachelorette, who compete for a final cash prize of $250,000...

  • Mitchell Musso, Singer, and Actor, known best for his role on Hannah Montana
    Hannah Montana
    Hannah Montana is an American television series, which debuted on March 24, 2006 on the Disney Channel. The series focuses on a girl who lives a double life as an average teenage school girl named Miley Stewart by day and a famous pop singer named Hannah Montana by night, concealing her real...

  • Leighton Meester
    Leighton Meester
    Leighton Marissa Meester is an American actress and singer. Meester first garnered attention for playing Blair Waldorf in the CW television series Gossip Girl...

     American actress and singer known for her appearance on Gossip Girl
  • Aaron Spelling
    Aaron Spelling
    Aaron Spelling was an American film and television producer. As of 2009, Spelling's eponymous production company Spelling Television holds the record as the most prolific television writer, with 218 producer and executive producer credits...

    ,mulit-billion dollar television and film producer
  • Jensen Ackles
    Jensen Ackles
    Jensen Ross Ackles is an American actor. He is known for his roles in television as Eric Brady in Days of our Lives, which earned him several Daytime Emmy Award nominations, as well as Alec/X5-494 in Dark Angel and Jason Teague in Smallville...

    , Actor known for playing Dean Winchester on Supernatural (TV Series)
    Supernatural (TV series)
    Supernatural is an American supernatural and horror television series created by Eric Kripke, which debuted on September 13, 2005 on The WB, and is now part of The CW's lineup. Starring Jared Padalecki as Sam Winchester and Jensen Ackles as Dean Winchester, the series follows the brothers as they...

    .
  • Lance Armstrong
    Lance Armstrong
    Lance Edward Armstrong is an American former professional road racing cyclist who won the Tour de France a record seven consecutive times, after having survived testicular cancer. He is also the founder and chairman of the Lance Armstrong Foundation for cancer research and support...

    , Professional road racing cyclist who won the Tour de France
    Tour de France
    The Tour de France is an annual bicycle race held in France and nearby countries. First staged in 1903, the race covers more than and lasts three weeks. As the best known and most prestigious of cycling's three "Grand Tours", the Tour de France attracts riders and teams from around the world. The...

     seven consecutive times
  • Jason Castro
    Jason Castro
    Jason René Castro is an American acoustic/folk-pop/contemporary Christian singer-songwriter and was the fourth place finalist on the seventh season of American Idol...

    , Christian pop artist who appeared on the seventh season of American Idol
    American Idol
    American Idol, titled American Idol: The Search for a Superstar for the first season, is a reality television singing competition created by Simon Fuller and produced by FremantleMedia North America and 19 Entertainment...

  • Dorothy Malone
    Dorothy Malone
    Dorothy Malone is an American actress. Her film career began in 1943, and in her early years she played small roles, mainly in B-movies. After a decade in films, she began to acquire a more glamorous image, particularly after her performance in Written on the Wind , for which she won the Academy...

    , Oscar Winning Actress 1957 "Written On The Wind"
  • The D.O.C.
    The D.O.C.
    Tracy Lynn Curry , primarily known by his stage name The D.O.C., is an American rapper from Dallas, Texas. In addition to a solo career, he was a member of the hip hop group Fila Fresh Crew, and a creative force behind the gangsta rap group N.W.A, where he co-wrote many of their releases. He has...

    , Rapper,songwriter and vocalis, best known for his work with Death Row Records.
  • George W. Bush
    George W. Bush
    George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

     and Laura Bush
    Laura Bush
    Laura Lane Welch Bush is the wife of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush. She was the First Lady of the United States from January 20, 2001, to January 20, 2009. She has held a love of books and reading since childhood and her life and education have reflected that interest...

     43rd American President and his First Lady
    First Lady
    First Lady or First Gentlemanis the unofficial title used in some countries for the spouse of an elected head of state.It is not normally used to refer to the spouse or partner of a prime minister; the husband or wife of the British Prime Minister is usually informally referred to as prime...

  • Owen Wilson
    Owen Wilson
    Owen Cunningham Wilson is an American actor and writer, known for his roles in the films The Haunting, The Royal Tenenbaums, Zoolander, Meet the Parents, Wedding Crashers, You, Me and Dupree, Bottle Rocket, the Cars series, The Darjeeling Limited, Marley & Me, Midnight in Paris, Shanghai Noon,...

     and Luke Wilson are American actors
  • Chris Young
    Chris Young
    Chris Young may refer to:In sports:*Chris Young , American football player; defensive back for the Denver Broncos*Chris Young , English soccer player...

     baseball player associated with the Texas Rangers
    Texas Rangers (baseball)
    The Texas Rangers are a professional baseball team in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, based in Arlington, Texas. The Rangers are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League, and are the reigning A.L. Western Division and A.L. Champions. Since , the Rangers have...

  • Mark Salling - actor on the television show Glee
    Glee
    Glee may refer to:* Glee , an English type of song music* Glee , an American musical comedy-drama TV series, and related media* Glee * Glee...

  • C.B. Hudson
    C.B. Hudson
    Charles Britton "C.B." Hudson III is an American musician best known as the being the lead guitarist of the rock band Blue October from 2000 to 2010....

     - lead guitarist for the rock band Blue October
    Blue October
    Blue October is a rock band from Houston, Texas. The band was formed in 1995 and currently consists of Justin Furstenfeld , Jeremy Furstenfeld , Ryan Delahoussaye , Matt Noveskey , and Julian Mandrake .-History:Blue October was formed by lead...

  • Chris Harrison
    Chris Harrison
    Christopher Bryan "Chris" Harrison is an American television host, perhaps best known for his role as host of the ABC reality television dating show The Bachelor since 2002 and its spin-offs The Bachelorette since 2003 and Bachelor Pad in 2010...

     - Host of the TV show The Bachelor
    The Bachelor
    The Bachelor is an American reality television dating game show debuting in 2002 on ABC. For all seasons, the show is hosted by veteran television personality, one-time game show host and news anchor Chris Harrison...

  • Dan Beebe - Commissioner of the Big 12 Conference
    Big 12 Conference
    The Big 12 Conference is a college athletic conference of ten schools located in the Central United States, with its headquarters located in Las Colinas, a community in the Dallas, Texas suburb of Irving...

  • Philip Peeples - Drummer for the alt-rock band Old 97's
  • Morgan Fairchild
    Morgan Fairchild
    Morgan Fairchild is an American actress. She achieved prominence during the late 1970s and early 1980s with continuing roles in several television series, in which she usually conveyed a glamorous image. Fairchild has also performed in live theater and played guest roles in television comedies...

     - Film and Television Actor Morgan Fairchild
  • Salvatore Torneo - Drummer for local rock band Max Cady Salvatore Torneo
  • Vanilla Ice
    Vanilla Ice
    Robert Matthew Van Winkle , best known by his stage name Vanilla Ice, is an American rapper, extreme athlete and home improvement television personality...

    , Rapper, known for his "Ice, Ice, Baby" song

Sister cities


Dallas has seven Sister cities
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 and five Friendship cities.

Sister cities Brno
Brno
Brno by population and area is the second largest city in the Czech Republic, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative centre of the South Moravian Region where it forms a separate district Brno-City District...

, Czech Republic Dijon
Dijon
Dijon is a city in eastern France, the capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Burgundy region.Dijon is the historical capital of the region of Burgundy. Population : 151,576 within the city limits; 250,516 for the greater Dijon area....

, France Monterrey
Monterrey
Monterrey , is the capital city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León in the country of Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the...

, Mexico Riga
Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

, Latvia Saratov
Saratov
-Modern Saratov:The Saratov region is highly industrialized, due in part to the rich in natural and industrial resources of the area. The region is also one of the more important and largest cultural and scientific centres in Russia...

, Russia Taipei
Taipei
Taipei City is the capital of the Republic of China and the central city of the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Situated at the northern tip of the island, Taipei is located on the Tamsui River, and is about 25 km southwest of Keelung, its port on the Pacific Ocean...

, Taiwan Ipoh
Ipoh
Ipoh is the capital city of Perak state, Malaysia. It is approximately 200 km north of Kuala Lumpur on the North-South Expressway....

, Malaysia Tuzla
Tuzla
Tuzla is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the time of the 1991 census, it had 83,770 inhabitants, while the municipality 131,318. Taking the influx of refugees into account, the city is currently estimated to have 174,558 inhabitants...

, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Friendship cities Sendai, Japan Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

, People's Republic of China Qingdao
Qingdao
' also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the...

, People's Republic of China Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

, People's Republic of China Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

, People's Republic of China

See also


  • Dallas (TV series)
    Dallas (TV series)
    Dallas is an American serial drama/prime time soap opera that revolves around the Ewings, a wealthy Texas family in the oil and cattle-ranching industries. Throughout the series, Larry Hagman stars as greedy, scheming oil baron J. R. Ewing...

  • I-35 Corridor
    I-35 Corridor
    The I-35 Corridor, also known as the I-35 corridor, is a group of metropolitan areas in the southern Interior Plains region of the United States. The Texas cities contained within the I-35 Corridor are often referred to as a sub-megaregion of their own, often referred to as the Texaplex. It is part...

  • John F. Kennedy assassination
    John F. Kennedy assassination
    John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, was assassinated at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas...

  • List of people from Dallas
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Dallas County, Texas
    National Register of Historic Places listings in Dallas County, Texas
    List of Registered Historic Places in Dallas County, TexasThis is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Dallas County, Texas...

  • Texaplex
    Texaplex
    The texaplex refers to the highly populated triangular region in Texas that is outlined by the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex in the north down to the Houston metropolitan area, over to San Antonio and Austin, Texas and that contains a vast majority of the state's population...

  • Texas Triangle
    Texas Triangle
    The Texas Triangle is one of eleven so-called megaregions in the United States. These are urban areas that are much greater in scale than just a metropolitan statistical area , defined by the US Census Bureau. These regions also are known as megapolitan areas...


External links