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Lubbock, Texas

Lubbock, Texas

Overview
{{Distinguish|Lubok}} {{Redirect|Lubbock}} Lubbock (icon) is a city in and the [[county seat]] of [[Lubbock County, Texas|Lubbock County]], [[Texas]], [[United States]].{{GR|6}} The city is located in the [[West Texas|northwestern]] part of the state, a region known historically as the [[Llano Estacado]], and the home of [[Texas Tech University]] and [[Lubbock Christian University]]. At the [[2010 United States Census|2010 census]], Lubbock had a population of 229,573, making it the 87th most populous city in the United States and the 11th most populous city in Texas.
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{{Distinguish|Lubok}} {{Redirect|Lubbock}} Lubbock (icon) is a city in and the [[county seat]] of [[Lubbock County, Texas|Lubbock County]], [[Texas]], [[United States]].{{GR|6}} The city is located in the [[West Texas|northwestern]] part of the state, a region known historically as the [[Llano Estacado]], and the home of [[Texas Tech University]] and [[Lubbock Christian University]]. At the [[2010 United States Census|2010 census]], Lubbock had a population of 229,573, making it the 87th most populous city in the United States and the 11th most populous city in Texas. The city is the economic center of the [[Lubbock metropolitan area]], which had an estimated 2009 population of 276,659. Lubbock's nickname is the "Hub City," which derives from it being the economic, education, and health care hub of a multi-county region commonly called the [[South Plains]]. The area is the largest contiguous [[cotton]]-growing region in the world and is heavily dependent on [[irrigation]] water drawn from the [[Ogallala Aquifer]]. Lubbock was selected as the 12th best place to start a small business by [[CNNMoney.com]]. They mentioned the community's traditional business atmosphere, less expensive rent for commercial space, and its central location and cooperation from city government. [[Lubbock High School]] has been recognized for three consecutive years by [[Newsweek]] as one of the top high schools in the United States. Lubbock High School is home to the only [[International Baccalaureate]] (IB) program in the region. The IB program is one of the criteria examined by Newsweek in formulating their list of top high schools.

History

The county of Lubbock was founded in 1876, named after [[Thomas Saltus Lubbock]], former Texas Ranger and brother of Francis R. Lubbock, governor of Texas during the Civil War. As early as 1884, a federal post office named Lubbock existed in [[Yellow House Canyon]]. However, the town of Lubbock was not founded until 1890, when it was formed from a unique merger arrangement between two smaller towns, "Old Lubbock" and Monterey. The terms of the compromise included keeping the Lubbock name but the Monterey townsite, so the previous Old Lubbock residents relocated south to the Monterey location, including putting Old Lubbock's Nicolette Hotel on rollers and pulling it across a canyon to its new home. In 1891 Lubbock became the county seat and on March 16, 1909 Lubbock was incorporated. Texas Technological College (now [[Texas Tech University]]) has been located in Lubbock since 1923. Its medical school, the Texas Tech University School of Medicine, opened in 1969. [[Lubbock Christian University]], founded in 1957, and [[Sunset International Bible Institute]], both affiliated with the [[Churches of Christ]], have their main campuses in the city. [[South Plains College]] and [[Wayland Baptist University]] operate branch campuses in Lubbock. The city is home to the [[Lubbock Lake Landmark]], part of the [[Museum of Texas Tech University]]. The landmark is an archaeological and natural history preserve at the northern edge of the city. It shows evidence of almost twelve thousand years of human occupation in the region. Another part of the museum, the [[National Ranching Heritage Center]], houses historic ranch-related structures from the area. In August 1951, a V-shaped formation of lights was seen over the city. The "[[Lubbock Lights]]" series of sightings received national publicity and is regarded as one of the first great [[UFO]] cases. The sightings were considered credible because they were witnessed by several respected science professors at Texas Technological College and were photographed by a Texas Tech student. The photographs were reprinted nationwide in newspapers and in [[Life (magazine)|Life]] magazine. [[Project Blue Book]], the US Air Force's official study of the UFO mystery, did an extensive investigation of the Lubbock Lights. They concluded that the photographs were not a hoax and showed genuine objects. However, they did dismiss the UFOs themselves as being either "night-flying moths" or a type of bird called a [[plover]]. The Air Force argued that the underside of the plovers or moths was reflected in the glow of Lubbock's new street lights at night. However, other researchers have disputed these explanations, and for many the "Lubbock Lights" remain a mystery. On May 11, 1970, the [[Lubbock Tornado]] struck the city. Twenty-six people died, and damage was estimated at $125 million. The [[Metro Tower (Lubbock)|Metro Tower]] (NTS Building), then known as the Great Plains Life Building, at {{convert|274|ft|m}} in height, is believed to have been the tallest building ever to survive a direct hit from an [[Fujita scale|F5]] tornado. Then [[Mayor]] [[Jim Granberry]] and the Lubbock City Council, which included Granberry's successor as mayor, [[Morris W. Turner]], were charged with directing the task of rebuilding the downtown in the aftermath of the storm. In 2008 Lubbock celebrated its centennial. The historians [[Paul H. Carlson]], Donald R. Abbe, and David J. Murrah, co-authored Lubbock and the South Plains.

Recent events

Up until May 9, 2009, Lubbock County allowed "by the drink" sales of alcohol, but not package sales, except at private institutions such as [[country club]]s. Inside the Lubbock city limits, the situation was reversed with restaurants and bars able to serve alcohol but liquor stores are forbidden. On August 12, 2008 the Lubbock Chamber of Commerce announced that they would lead the effort to get enough signatures to have a vote on allowing county-wide packaged alcohol sales. The petition effort was successful and the question was put to the voters. On May 9, 2009, Proposition 1, which expanded the sale of packaged alcohol in [[Lubbock County, Texas | Lubbock County]], passed by nearly a margin of 2 to 1 with 64.5 percent in favor. Proposition 2, which legalized the sale of mixed-drink in restaurants county-wide, passed with 69.5 percent in favor. On September 23, 2009, The [[Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission]] issued permits to more than 80 stores in Lubbock.

Geography

Lubbock is located at 33.5664787°N 101.8866773°W (33.5664787, -101.8866773). The official elevation is {{convert|3256|ft|m}} above sea level, but stated figures range from 3195 to 3281. Lubbock is considered to be the center of the [[South Plains]], and is situated north of the [[Permian Basin (North America)|Permian Basin]] and south of the [[Texas Panhandle]]. According to the [[United States Census Bureau]], as of 2010, the city has a total area of {{convert|123.55|sqmi|km2|2}}, of which, {{convert|122.41|sqmi|km2|2}} of it (99.07%) is land and {{convert|1.14|sqmi|km2|2}} of it (0.92%) is water.

Climate

Lubbock has a [[semi-arid]] climate. On average, Lubbock receives 10.7 inches of rain and {{convert|3.2|in|mm}} of snow per year. Summers in Lubbock are hot, although temperatures usually drop degrees overnight, creating lows between {{convert|60|°F|°C|abbr=on}} and {{convert|70|°F|°C|abbr=on}}. Average high temperatures are about {{convert|90|°F|°C|abbr=on}} in June, July, and August. The highest recorded temperature was {{convert|114|°F|°C|abbr=on}} in 1994. Winter days in Lubbock are typically sunny and relatively mild, but nights are cold with temperatures dipping below freezing. {{Weather box |location = Lubbock, Texas |single line = Yes |Jan record high F = 87 |Feb record high F = 89 |Mar record high F = 95 |Apr record high F = 100 |May record high F = 109 |Jun record high F = 114 |Jul record high F = 109 |Aug record high F = 107 |Sep record high F = 105 |Oct record high F = 100 |Nov record high F = 89 |Dec record high F = 83 |year record high F = 114 |Jan high F = 52 |Feb high F = 58 |Mar high F = 66 |Apr high F = 75 |May high F = 83 |Jun high F = 90 |Jul high F = 92 |Aug high F = 90 |Sep high F = 83 |Oct high F = 74 |Nov high F = 62 |Dec high F = 53 |year high F = 73 |Jan low F = 24 |Feb low F = 29 |Mar low F = 36 |Apr low F = 45 |May low F = 56 |Jun low F = 64 |Jul low F = 68 |Aug low F = 66 |Sep low F = 58 |Oct low F = 47 |Nov low F = 35 |Dec low F = 26 |year low F = 46 |Jan record low F = -16 |Feb record low F = -17 |Mar record low F = -2 |Apr record low F = 18 |May record low F = 29 |Jun record low F = 39 |Jul record low F = 49 |Aug record low F = 43 |Sep record low F = 33 |Oct record low F = 18 |Nov record low F = -1 |Dec record low F = -2 |year record low F = -17 |Jan precipitation inch = 0.50 |Feb precipitation inch = 0.71 |Mar precipitation inch = 0.76 |Apr precipitation inch = 1.29 |May precipitation inch = 2.31 |Jun precipitation inch = 2.98 |Jul precipitation inch = 2.13 |Aug precipitation inch = 2.36 |Sep precipitation inch = 2.57 |Oct precipitation inch = 1.70 |Nov precipitation inch = 0.71 |Dec precipitation inch = 0.67 |year precipitation inch = 18.7 |Jan snow inch = 2.5 |Feb snow inch = 2.6 |Mar snow inch = 1.4 |Apr snow inch = 0.2 |May snow inch = 0 |Jun snow inch = 0 |Jul snow inch = 0 |Aug snow inch = 0 |Sep snow inch = 0 |Oct snow inch = 0.2 |Nov snow inch = 1.3 |Dec snow inch = 2.0 |year snow inch = 10.2 |Jan sun = 210.8 |Feb sun = 201.6 |Mar sun = 266.6 |Apr sun = 285.0 |May sun = 310.0 |Jun sun = 327.0 |Jul sun = 337.9 |Aug sun = 319.3 |Sep sun = 261.0 |Oct sun = 257.3 |Nov sun = 216.0 |Dec sun = 201.5 |year sun = 3194.0 |source 1 = weather.com |source 2 = NOAA, HKO |date=August 2010 }}

Demographics

{{USCensusPop |1910= 1938 |1920= 4051 |1930= 20520 |1940= 31853 |1950= 71747 |1960= 128691 |1970= 149101 |1980= 173979 |1990= 186206 |2000= 199564 |2010= 229573 }} As of the [[census]]{{GR|2}} of 2010, there were 229,573 people, 77,527 households, and 48,531 families residing in the city. The [[population density]] was 1,738.2 people per square mile (671.1/km2). There were 84,066 housing units at an average density of 732.2 per square mile (282.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 72.87% [[White (U.S. Census)|White]], 8.66% [[African American (U.S. Census)|African American]], 0.56% [[Native American (U.S. Census)|Native American]], 1.54% [[Asian (U.S. Census)|Asian]], 0.03% [[Pacific Islander (U.S. Census)|Pacific Islander]], 14.32% from [[Race (United States Census)|other races]], and 2.01% from two or more races. [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic]] or [[Latino (U.S. Census)|Latino]] of any race were 27.45% of the population. There are 77,527 households, of which 30.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were [[Marriage|married couples]] living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.4% are classified as non-families by the [[United States Census Bureau]]. Of 77,527 households, 3,249 are unmarried partner households: 2,802 heterosexual, 196 same-sex male, and 251 same-sex female households. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 17.9% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,844, and the median income for a family was $41,418. Males had a median income of $30,222 versus $21,708 for females. The [[per capita income]] for the city was $17,511. About 12.0% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the [[poverty line]], including 21.9% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

The Lubbock area is the largest contiguous [[cotton]]-growing region in the world and is heavily dependent on federal government agricultural subsidies and [[irrigation]] water drawn from the [[Ogallala Aquifer]]. However, the aquifer is being depleted at a rate that is not [[Sustainable agriculture|sustainable]] in the long term. Much progress has been made in the area of [[water conservation]] and new technologies such as Low Energy Precision Application (LEPA) irrigation were originally developed in the Lubbock area. A pipeline to Lake Alan Henry is expected to supply up to {{convert|3.2|e9USgal|m3}} of water per year upon completion in 2012. [[File:Lubbock Texas Cone Grain Elevator 2010.jpg|thumb|left|Cone grain elevator, north side of Lubbock.]] [[Adolph R. Hanslik]], who died in 2007 at the age of ninety, was called the "dean" of the Lubbock cotton industry, having worked for years to promote the [[export]] trade. Hanslik was also the largest contributor (through 2006) to the Texas Tech University Medical Center. He also endowed the Texas Czech Heritage and Cultural Center's capital campaign for construction of a new library museum [[archives]] building in [[La Grange, Texas|La Grange]] in [[Fayette County, Texas|Fayette County]] in his native southeastern Texas. The ten largest employers in terms of the number of employees are: [[Texas Tech University]], Covenant Health System, [[Lubbock Independent School District]], University Medical Center, [[United Supermarkets]], City of Lubbock, [[Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center]], [[AT&T Mobility|AT&T]], [[Convergys]], and [[Lubbock County, Texas|Lubbock County]]. A study conducted by a professor at the [[Rawls College of Business]] determined that Texas Tech students, faculty and staff generate about $1.5 billion with about $297.5 million from student shopping alone. Lubbock has one regional enclosed mall, [[South Plains Mall]], which includes two [[Dillard's]], [[JC Penney]], [[Barnes & Noble]], [[Sears, Roebuck and Company|Sears]], and [[Bealls (Texas)|Bealls]]. Lubbock also has numerous open air shopping centers, most located in the booming southwestern area of Lubbock. The Village and Kingsgate Shopping Center, both located at the intersection of 82nd Street & Quaker Avenue, offer a unique blend of local and national retailers. The Village is home to [[Starbucks|Starbucks Coffee]], Drest by Scott Malouf, [[Subway (restaurant)|Subway]], Ann Lilly Fine Shoes, RenDr Custom Framing and [[Red Mango]], among others. Kingsgate Shopping Center includes numerous upscale shops and restaurants, such as Malouf's, Cake by Distinctive Details, [[Pei Wei Asian Diner]], [[McAlister's Deli]], [[Marble Slab Creamery]], [[Banana Republic (clothing retailer)|Banana Republic]], [[Coldwater Creek]], Woodhouse Day Spa, [[Chico's (retail chain)|Chico's]], [[Talbots]] and [[Ann Taylor (clothing retailer)|Ann Taylor]]. Lubbock's newest open-air shopping center, [[Canyon West Shopping Center|Canyon West]], features a [[Target Corporation|Target]], [[DSW, Inc.|DSW]], [[Ulta]], [[Burlington Coat Factory]], [[Cost Plus, Inc.|World Market]], [[Five Guys]] and [[LifeWay Christian Resources|LifeWay]]. Two more stages of development are planned. It is located at the intersection of Milwaukee Avenue and [[Marsha Sharp]] Freeway.

Economic development

Originally founded as Market Lubbock in 1997, the Lubbock Economic Development Alliance (LEDA) was established by the City to recruit new business and industry to Lubbock and to retain existing companies. LEDA's mission is to promote economic growth through the creation of high quality jobs, attract new capital investment, retain and expand existing businesses, and improve the quality of life in Lubbock, Texas.

Environmental issues

The Scrub-A-Dubb Barrel Company, located in the north of the city, had been the cause of public complaints, and committed numerous environmental violations, since the 1970s. Local [[KCBD]] News undertook several investigations into the barrel recycling company's waste handling practices and when the business closed in 2011 the [[Environmental Protection Agency]] (EPA) were called in to begin cleaning up the site, which they described as "a threat to public health, welfare, and the environment". Greg Fife, the EPA's on-site coordinator, said: "Out of the 60,000 [barrels] we have on site we think there are between 2,000 and 4,000 that have significant hazardous waste in them". Local residents were informed that "hazardous substances have overflowed the vats and flowed off the Site into nearby Blackwater Draw and subsequently through Mackenzie recreational park. The runoff is easily accessible to children at play in the park, golfers, and the park's wildlife." Remediation of the site was expected to take at least 5 months, at a cost of $3.5 million in federal dollars.

Municipal government

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City government (as of June 2010):
Mayor = [[Tom Martin (Texas politician) | Tom Martin]] (R)
District 1 Victor Hernandez (D)
District 2 Floyd Price(Mayor Pro Tem) (D)
District 3 Todd R. Klein (L)
District 4 Paul R. Beane (R)
District 5 Karen Gibson (R)
District 6 Jim Gilbreath (R)
NEWLINENEWLINE Lubbock has a [[council-manager government]] system, with all governmental powers resting in a legislative body called a [[city council]]. Voters elect six council members, one for each of Lubbock's six districts, and a mayor. The council members serve for a term of four years, and the mayor serves for two years. After the first meeting of the city council after newly elected council members are seated, the council elects a Mayor pro tempore who serves as mayor in absence of the elected mayor. The council also appoints a city manager to handle the ordinary business of the city. There are currently no term limits for either city council members or mayor. The Lubbock Police Department was shaped by the long-term administration of Chief [[J.T. Alley]] (1923–2009), who served from 1957–1983, the third longest tenure in state history. Under Chief Alley, the department acquired its first Juvenile Division, K-9 Corps, Rape Crisis Center, and [[SWAT|Special Weapons and Tactics]] teams. He also presided over the [[desegregation]] of the department and coordinated efforts during the 1970 tornadoes.

Government and infrastructure

The [[Texas Department of Criminal Justice]] operates the Lubbock District Parole Office in Lubbock. The [[United States Postal Service]] operates post offices in Lubbock.

People and culture

[[Image:Buddy Holly 07-02-2008 08;41;14PM.JPG|175px|thumb|left|[[Buddy Holly]] statue on the Walk of Fame]] [[Image:First Baptist Church, Lubbock, TX IMG_1700.JPG|right|200px|thumb|Lubbock has a large number of churches, including the downtown First [[Baptist]] congregation.]] Lubbock is the birthplace of [[rock and roll]] legend [[Buddy Holly]] and features a cultural center named for him. The city previously hosted an annual Buddy Holly Music Festival. However, the event was renamed Lubbock Music Festival after Holly's widow increased usage fees for his name. Similarly, the city renamed the Buddy Holly West Texas Walk of Fame to honor area musicians as the West Texas Hall of Fame. On January 26, 2009, the City of Lubbock agreed to pay Holly's widow $20,000 for the next 20 years to maintain the name of the Buddy Holly Center. Additionally, land near the center will be named the Buddy and Maria Holly Plaza. Holly's legacy is also remembered through the work of [[deejay]]s such as [[Bud Andrews]] and [[Virgil Johnson (singer)|Virgil Johnson]] on [[radio]] station [[KDAV]]. Lubbock's Memorial Civic Center hosts many events. Former Mayor Morris Turner (1931–2008), who served from 1972–1974, has been called the father of the Civic Center. Other past mayors include [[Jim Granberry]] and [[Roy Bass]]. The city has also been the birthplace or home of several [[country music]]ians including [[Delbert McClinton]], [[Jimmie Dale Gilmore]], [[Butch Hancock]] and [[Joe Ely]] (collectively known as [[The Flatlanders]]), [[Todd Mankin]], [[Mac Davis]], [[Terry Allen (country singer)|Terry Allen]], [[Lloyd Maines]] and his daughter, [[Dixie Chicks]] singer, [[Natalie Maines]], Texas Tech alums [[Pat Green]], [[Cory Morrow]], [[Wade Bowen]], [[Josh Abbott]], and [[Coronado High School (Lubbock)|Coronado High School]] graduate [[Richie McDonald]] (lead singer of [[Lonestar]] until 2007). [[Pete Orta]] of the Christian rock group [[Petra (band)|Petra]], [[Legendary Stardust Cowboy|Norman Carl Odam (aka The Legendary Stardust Cowboy)]], basketball players [[Craig Ehlo]] and [[Daniel Santiago]], and football player [[Mason Crosby]] have also called Lubbock home. The city is also the birthplace of actor [[Chace Crawford]] ([[The Covenant (film)|The Covenant]], [[Gossip Girl (TV series)|Gossip Girl]]), singer [[Travis Garland]] of the band [[NLT (band)|NLT]], and public interest attorney, author, and political activist [[William John Cox]] (Billy Jack Cox). Lubbock is the home of the historians [[Alwyn Barr]], [[Dan Flores]], [[Allan J. Kuethe]], and the late [[Ernest Wallace]]. [[Bidal Aguero]], a civil rights activist in Lubbock, was the publisher of the longest-running Hispanic newspaper in Texas. Recent state legislators from Lubbock include [[Texas State Senate|State Senator]] [[Robert L. Duncan]], former [[Texas House of Representatives|State Representatives]] [[Carl Isett]], Isett's successor, [[John Frullo]], [[Delwin Jones]], and Jones' successor, [[Charles Perry (Texas politician)|Charles Perry]]. It is the hometown of the late U.S. Representative [[Mickey Leland]] of [[Houston, Texas|Houston]]. [[W. E. Shattuc]], who raced in the [[Indianapolis 500]] in 1925, 1926 and 1927, lived in Lubbock. Preston Earnest Smith (March 8, 1912 – October 18, 2003), a long-time resident of Lubbock, was the 40th Governor of Texas from 1969 to 1973 and earlier served as the lieutenant governor from 1963 to 1969. The National Cowboy Symposium and Celebration, an annual event celebrating the prototypical [[American Old West|Old West]] [[cowboy]], takes place in Lubbock. The event is held in September and features art, music, [[cowboy poetry]], stories, and the presentation of scholarly papers on cowboy culture and the history of the [[American West]]. A [[chuckwagon]] cook-off and [[horse]] parade also take place during the event. Every year on July 4, Lubbock hosts the 4th on Broadway event, an [[Independence Day (United States)|Independence Day]] [[festival]]. The event is entirely free to the public, and is considered the largest free festival in Texas. The day's activities usually include a morning parade, a street fair along Broadway Avenue with food stalls and live bands, the Early Settlers' Luncheon, and an evening concert/fireworks program. Broadway Festivals Inc., the [[non-profit corporation]] which organizes the event, estimates a 2004 attendance of over 175,000 people. Additionally, the College Baseball Foundation holds events relating to its [[College Baseball Hall of Fame]] during the 4th on Broadway event. Lubbock's main newspaper is the [[Lubbock Avalanche-Journal]], which is owned by [[Morris Communications]]. Texas Tech University publishes a student-run daily newspaper called [[The Daily Toreador]]. Local TV stations include [[KTXT-TV]]-5 ([[Public Broadcasting Service|PBS]]), [[KCBD]]-11 ([[NBC]]), [[KLBK]]-13 ([[CBS]]), [[KAMC]]-28 ([[American Broadcasting Company|ABC]]), and [[KJTV-TV]]-34 ([[Fox Broadcasting Company|Fox]]). According to a study released by the non-partisan Bay Area Center for Voting Research, Lubbock is the second most [[Conservatism in the United States|conservative]] city in the United States among municipalities greater than 100,000 in population. Lubbock was referenced in [[The Simpsons]] episode [[Simpson Tide]] [Homer is watching a television ad for the Naval Reserve] "TV Announcer: Daybreak, Jakarta. The proud men and women of the Navy are protecting America's interests overseas, but you're in Lubbock, Texas, hosing down a statue, because you're in the Naval Reserve. Once you complete basic training, you only work one weekend a month, and most of that time you're drunk off your ass. The Naval Reserve: America's 17th line of defense, between the Mississippi National Guard, and the American League of Women Voters."

Attractions

[[File:Silent Wings Museum Nov 2009.jpg|thumb|Lubbock's [[Silent Wings Museum]] at the former [[South Plains Army Air Field]].]] [[File:Joyland LubbockTX Paratrooper June 2006DSCN8445.JPG|thumb|[[Joyland Amusement Park]]]] The [[National Ranching Heritage Center]], a museum of [[ranching]] history, is located in Lubbock. It features a number of authentic early Texas [[ranch]] buildings as well as a [[railroad]] depot and other historic buildings. There is also an extensive collection of weapons on display. [[Jim Humphreys]], late manager of the [[Pitchfork Ranch]] east of Lubbock, was a prominent board member of the center. The [http://www.swco.ttu.edu Southwest Collection], an archive of the history of the region and its surroundings which also works closely with the College Baseball Foundation, is located on the campus of [[Texas Tech University]], as are the Moody Planetarium and the [[Museum of Texas Tech University]]. The Depot District, an area of the city dedicated to music and nightlife, is located in the old [[railroad]] depot area and boasts a number of [[theatre]]s, upscale restaurants, and cultural attractions. The Depot District is also home to several shops, pubs and nightclubs, a radio station, The Triple J Chophouse and Brew Co (A local steakhouse and brewery), Baby Bigham's Smokehouse Bar-B-Que, a magazine, a winery, a salon, and other establishments. Many of the buildings were remodeled from the original Fort Worth & Denver South Plains Railway Depot which originally stood on the site. The Buddy Holly Center, a museum highlighting the life and music of [[Buddy Holly]], is also located in the Depot District, as is the restored community facility, the [[Cactus Theater]]. Lubbock is also home to the [[Silent Wings Museum]]. Located on North I-27, Silent Wings features photographs and artifacts from World War II era glider pilots. The Science Spectrum is an interactive museum and [[IMAX|IMAX Dome]] theatre with a special focus on children and youth.

Mackenzie Park

[[Image:Mackenzie Park, Lubbock, TX IMG_1644.JPG|thumb|200px|right|Entrance to Mackenzie Park]] In March 1877, the [[Battle of Yellow House Canyon]], which occurred during the [[Buffalo Hunters' War]], took place at what is now the site of Mackenzie Park. Today, Mackenzie Park is home to [[Joyland Amusement Park]], [[Prairie Dog]] Town, and both a [[disc golf]] and regular golf course. The park also holds the [[American Wind Power Center]], which houses over 100 historic windmills on {{convert|28|acre|m2}}. Two tributaries of the [[Brazos River]] wind through Mackenzie Park, which is collectively part of the rather extensive Lubbock Park system. These two streams, ([[Yellow House Draw]] and [[Blackwater Draw]]), converge in the golf course, forming the head of [[Yellow House Canyon]], which carries the waters of the North Fork [[Double Mountain (Texas)|Double Mountain]] Fork [[Brazos River]]. [[File:Ebritton.jpg|thumb|upright|left|A [[Texas Tech Red Raiders football]] game]]

Media

The city's main newspaper is the [[Lubbock Avalanche-Journal]], published daily including Sunday.

Sports

The [[Texas Tech Red Raiders]] are in the [[Big 12 Conference]], and have seventeen teams in eleven different varsity sports. Men's varsity sports at Texas Tech are baseball, basketball, [[Cross country running|cross country]], football, golf, tennis, and indoor and outdoor track & field. Women's varsity sports are basketball, cross country, golf, indoor and outdoor track & field, [[College soccer|soccer]], softball, tennis, and volleyball. The university also offers 30 club sports, including cycling, [[Equestrianism|equestrian]], ice hockey, [[Lacrosse (sport)|lacrosse]], [[polo]], [[rodeo]], [[Rugby union|rugby]], running, sky diving, swimming, water polo, and wrestling. In 2006, the polo team, composed of Will Tankard, Ross Haislip, Peter Blake, and Tanner Kneese, won the collegiate national championship. The [[Texas Tech Red Raiders football|football]] program has been competing since October 3, 1925. The Red Raiders have won eleven conference titles and been to 31 bowl games, winning five of the last seven. The [[Texas Tech Red Raiders men's basketball|men's basketball]] program, started in 1925 and presently coached by [[Billy Gillispie]], has been to the [[NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship|NCAA Tournament]] 14 times—advancing to the Sweet 16 three times. [[Bob Knight]], [[Basketball Hall of Fame|hall-of-famer]] and winningest coach in men's college basketball history, coached the team from 2001-2008. Of the varsity sports, Texas Tech has had its greatest success in women's [[basketball]]. Led by [[Sheryl Swoopes]] and head coach [[Marsha Sharp]], the Lady Raiders won the [[NCAA Women's Basketball Championship]] in 1993. The Lady Raiders have also been to the NCAA Elite Eight three times and the NCAA Sweet 16 seven times. In early 2006, Lady Raiders coach Marsha Sharp resigned and was replaced on March 30, 2006 by [[Kristy Curry]], who had been coaching at [[Purdue Boilermakers|Purdue]]. Other sports at Tech include cross country, baseball, golf, tennis, track, ice hockey, soccer, softball, volleyball, and polo. High school athletics also feature prominently in the local culture. In addition, Lubbock is the home of the Chaparrals of [[Lubbock Christian University]]. In 2007, the [[Lubbock Renegades]] began play as a member of the [[af2]], a developmental league of the [[Arena Football League (1987–2008)|Arena Football League]]. The team discontinued operation in 2008. In 2007, the Lubbock Western All-Stars Little League Baseball team made it to the final four of the [[2007 Little League World Series|Little League World Series]]. In 2009, the Lubbock Christian University [http://www.lcu.edu] baseball team won their second NAIA National Championship.

National Register of Historic Places

[[Image:Warren and Myrta Bacon House (east).JPG|thumb|upright|[[Warren and Myrta Bacon House]]]] * [[Cactus Theater]] * Canyon Lakes Archaeological District * [[Carlock Building]] * Fort Worth and Denver South Plains Railway Depot * Fred and Annie Snyder House * Holden Properties Historic District * Kress Building * [[Lubbock High School]] * [[Lubbock Lake Landmark]] * Lubbock Post Office and Federal Building * South Overton Residential Historic District * [[Texas Technological College Dairy Barn]] * [[Texas Technological College Historic District]] * [[Tubbs-Carlisle House]] * [[Warren and Myrta Bacon House]] * [[William Curry Holden]] and Olive Price Holden House

Transportation

[[Image:Downtown Lubbock 2008.jpg|thumb|left|Downtown Lubbock seen from [[Interstate 27 (Texas)|I-27]]]]

Highways

Lubbock is served by major highways. [[Interstate 27 (Texas)|Interstate 27]] (the former Avenue H) links the city to [[Amarillo, Texas|Amarillo]] and [[Interstate 40 (Texas)|Interstate 40]], a transcontinental route. I-27 was completed through the city in 1992 (it originally terminated just north of downtown). Other major highways include [[U.S. Highway 62 (Texas)|US 62]] and [[U.S. Highway 82 in Texas|US 82]] which run concurrently (except for 4th Street (82) and 19th Street (62)) through the city east-west as the [[Brownfield, Texas|Brownfield]] Highway (soon to be upgraded to Marsha Sharp Freeway), 19th Street (62 only), 4th Street/Parkway Drive (82 only) and [[Idalou, Texas|Idalou]] Highway. [[U.S. Highway 84 (Texas)|US 84]] (Avenue Q/[[Slaton, Texas|Slaton]] Highway/[[Clovis, New Mexico|Clovis]] Road) is also another east-west route running NW/SE diagonally. [[U.S. Highway 87 (Texas)|U.S. Highway 87]] runs between [[San Angelo, Texas|San Angelo]] and Amarillo and follows I-27 concurrently. [[Texas State Highway 114|State Highway 114]] runs east-west, following US 62/82 on the east before going its own way. Lubbock is circled by [[State Highway Loop 289 (Texas)|Loop 289]], which suffers from traffic congestion despite being a potential bypass around the city, which is the reason behind I-27 and Brownfield Highway being built through the city to have freeway traffic flow effectively inside the loop. The city is set up on a simple [[grid plan]]. In the heart of the city, numbered streets run east-west and lettered avenues run north-south — the grid begins at Avenue A in the east and First Street in the north. North of First Street, city planners chose to name streets alphabetically from the south to the north after colleges and universities. The north-south avenues run from A to Y. What would be Avenue Z is actually University Avenue since it runs along the east side of Texas Tech. Beyond that, the A-to-Z convention resumes, using U.S. cities found east of the Mississippi (e.g. Akron Avenue, Boston Avenue, Canton Avenue). Again, the Z name is not used, with Slide Road appearing in its place.

Rail service

Lubbock currently does not provide [[inter-city rail]] service, although there have been various proposals over the years to remedy this. One, the [[Caprock Chief]], would have seen daily service as part of a [[Fort Worth, Texas|Fort Worth]], Texas—[[Denver, Colorado|Denver]], Colorado service, but it failed to gain traction. [[Image:Lubbock Preston Smith International Airport IMG 0260.JPG|thumb|right|[[Lubbock Preston Smith International Airport]]]]

Airports

{{See also|Lubbock Preston Smith International Airport}} The city's air services are provided by [[Lubbock Preston Smith International Airport]], which is named for the Lubbock [[businessman]] who became [[lieutenant governor]] and [[governor]] of Texas. It is located on the northeast side of the city. The airport is the 8th busiest airport in Texas. Lubbock Preston Smith Airport also plays host as a major hub to Fedex's feeder planes that serve cities around Lubbock.

Intercity bus service

[[Greyhound Lines]] operates the Lubbock Station at 801 Broadway, just east of the Lubbock County Courthouse.

Public transportation

{{See also|Citibus (Lubbock)}} Public transportation is provided by [[Citibus (Lubbock)|Citibus]], a bus transit system running Monday through Saturday every week with a transit center hub in downtown. It runs bus routes throughout the city, with the main routes converging at the Downtown Transfer Plaza, which also houses the Greyhound bus terminal. Citibus has been in continual service since 1971 when the city of Lubbock took over public transit operations. The paratransit system is called Citiaccess. Citibus has unveiled six [[diesel-electric hybrid bus]]es that have begun service on city routes. Managers hope the buses will use 60 percent of the fuel that their older, larger peers consume running customers across the city. The buses seat 23 passengers, can support full-size [[wheelchair]]s and will run on all but two city-based routes.

Higher education

{{See also|Texas Tech University}} Lubbock is home to [[Texas Tech University]], which was established on February 10, 1923, as Texas Technological College. It is the leading institution of the Texas Tech University System and has the sixth largest student body in the state of Texas. With {{convert|1839|acre|km2}}, it has the second largest contiguous campus in the United States and is the only school in Texas to house an undergraduate institution, law school, and medical school at the same location. Altogether, the university has educated students from all 50 U.S. states and over 100 foreign countries. Enrollment has continued to increase in recent years and growth is on track with a plan to have 40,000 students by the year 2020. Lubbock is also home to other college campuses in the city including [[Lubbock Christian University]], [[South Plains College]], [[Wayland Baptist University]], and Sunset International Bible Institute. [[Image:Lubbock High School.JPG|thumb|right|[[Lubbock High School]]]]

Public primary and secondary education

{{See also|Lubbock Independent School District}} Most of Lubbock is served by the [[Lubbock Independent School District]]. Small portions of Lubbock extend into the neighboring districts of [[Shallowater Independent School District|Shallowater]], [[Frenship Independent School District|Frenship]], [[Lubbock-Cooper Independent School District|Lubbock-Cooper]], [[New Deal Independent School District|New Deal]], and [[Roosevelt Independent School District|Roosevelt]].

Private and alternative education

The Lubbock area is also home to many private schools, such as Southcrest Christian School, [[Christ the King High School (Lubbock, Texas)|Christ the King High School]], Christ the King Junior High, Christ the King Elementary, [[Trinity Christian High School (Lubbock, Texas)|Trinity Christian High School]], Kingdom Preparatory Academy, Lubbock Christian High School, and All Saints Episcopal School.

Sister cities

List of former and proposed [[Twin towns and sister cities|sister cities]] of Lubbock, Texas.

Former sister cities

City of [[León, Guanajuato]], [[Mexico]] – relationship established 1985 City of [[Musashino, Tokyo]], [[Japan]] – relationship established 1983

Proposed sister cities

City of Can Tho, Vietnam City of Ulsan, South Korea City of Ciudad Acuna, Mexico

Further reading

An illustrated history of Lubbock The History of the Lubbock Art Association and of art activities in Lubbock and surrounding counties

External links

{{Portal|Texas}} {{Commons|Lubbock, Texas}} {{col-begin}}{{col-break}} *[http://www.visitlubbock.org/ Visit Lubbock] *[http://www.ci.lubbock.tx.us/ City of Lubbock Official Site] *[http://www.wildtexas.com/parks/results.php?nearby_cities=Lubbock Lubbock Area Parks] *[http://www.lubbockchamber.com/ Lubbock Chamber of Commerce] *[http://www.lubbockeda.org/ Lubbock Economic Development Alliance] *[http://www.lubbockhispanic.org/ Lubbock Hispanic Chamber of Commerce] {{col-break}} *[http://www.catholiclubbock.org/ Roman Catholic Diocese of Lubbock] *[http://www.lubbockonline.com Lubbock Avalanche-Journal newspaper] *[http://www.buddyhollywalk.com/ Buddy Holly Walk] *[http://swco.ttu.edu/Digital_Collections/WinstonReeves/ Historical photos by Winston Reeves at Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library, Texas Tech University] *[https://sites.google.com/site/photosbyleaflet/home/photos-of-the-llano-estacado Photos of the Llano Estacado] {{col-end}} {{Lubbock County, Texas}} {{Texas county seats}} {{Texas}} {{Texas cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}