Kabul Province

Kabul Province

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Encyclopedia
Kābul situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan
Provinces of Afghanistan
The provinces of Afghanistan are the primary administrative divisions of Afghanistan. As of 2004, there are thirty-four provinces in the country. Each province is further divided into smaller districts....

. The capital of the province is Kabul City
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

, which is also Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

's capital. The population of Kabul province is 3.5 million people as of 2009, of which almost 80 percent live in the urban areas. The current governor of the province is Ahmadullah Alizai
Ahmadullah Alizai
Ahmadullah Alizai is a politcian in Afghanistan, currently serving as the acting Governor of Kabul Province in Afghanistan. He previously served as the deputy governor of Kabul Province, deputy governor of Nangarhar Province, and as director of Counter-Narcotic directorate for the south-west...

.

Geography




Kabul is located between Latitude 34-31' North and Longitude 69-12' East at an altitude of 1800 m (6000 feet) above sea level, which makes it one of the world's highest capital cities. Kabul is strategically situated in a valley surrounded by high mountains at crossroads of north-south and east-west trade routes. One million years ago the Kabul region was surrounded from south-east between Lowgar and Paghman
Paghman
Paghman is a town in the hills near Kabul, Afghanistan. See also Paghman Gardens. It is center of the Paghman District which has a total population of 120,000 people, and another 20,000 returnees are expected , of which 70% are Pashtuns and 30% Tajiks.. Paghman District is situated in the western...

 Mountains; Charikar
Charikar
Charikar is the main town of the Kohdaman Valley and the capital of Parwan Province in northern Afghanistan. The city lies on the road 69 km from Kabul to the northern provinces. Travelers would have to pass by the city when going to Mazari Sharif, Kunduz or Puli Khumri. Charikar is at the...

 in the north and the Ningai Ghar mountains in the west. This region formed an icy sea. Some deep wells in the region of today's Poli Charkhi in the east part of city are the evidence of that time. Kabul is surrounded by Koh-e Paghman Mountain from the east, Koh-e Qrough Mountain from the south-west and Koh-e Shirdarwaza Mountain from the north-east. Kabul has only one river which is called Kabul River
Kabul River
Kabul River , the classical Cophes , is a 700 km long river that starts in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush Mountains in Afghanistan and ends in the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan. It is the main river in eastern Afghanistan and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass...

. Kabul River rises at the Paghman Mountain toward South Pass about 70 km (43.5 mi) west of Kabul. It flows in an easterly direction, past Kabul, and through Jalalabad
Jalalabad
Jalalabad , formerly called Adinapour, as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley, Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. It is linked by approximately of highway with...

 city, and then on to Dakka where it enters Pakistani territory and finally runs into the Indus at Attock
Attock
Attock is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan and the headquarters of Attock District...

.

The climate within region of Kabul is considered to be arid
Desert
A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Most deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than...

 to semi-arid
Semi-arid
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate describes climatic regions that receive precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely...

 steppe
Steppe
In physical geography, steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes...

. Because of the very low amounts of precipitation, especially from May to November, Kabul can be very dry and dusty. Extreme temperature changes occur from night to day, season to season, and from place to place. The chief characteristic of Afghanistan's climate is a blue cloudless sky with over 300 days of sunshine yearly. Even during the winter, skies usually remain clear between snowfalls, which are on average 15 to 30 cm annually. The daily temperature in winter is -15 to -20 degrees Celsius (°C), and in summer +15 to +30°C. The coldest month of the year is January when the average temperature is -12°C, and the hottest month is July when the average is 25°C. The maximum temperature has been recorded as +42.7°C in July and the minimum as -26.3°C in January.

History



Kabul's history dates back more than 3,000 years. It was once the center of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil...

 and subsequently also a home for Buddhists
Buddhism in Afghanistan
Buddhism in Afghanistan was one of the major religions during pre-Islamic era. The religion was wide spread south of the Hindu Kush mountains. Buddhism first arrived to Afghanistan in 305 BCE when the Seleucid Empire made an alliance with the Indian Maurya Empire...

 and Hindus
Hinduism in Afghanistan
Hinduism in Afghanistan has existed for almost as long as Hinduism itself. The religion was widespread in the region until the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan...

 kings. Arab Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s conquered the area in the 7th century by introducing Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 but was slowly taken back by the Hindu Shahi
Shahi
The Shahi , Sahi, also called Shahiya dynasties ruled one of the Middle kingdoms of India which included portions of the Kabulistan and the old province of Gandhara , from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century...

's of Kabul. It was re-conquered by the Saffarids
Saffarid dynasty
The Saffarids or the Saffarid dynasty was a Persian empire which ruled in Sistan , a historical region in southeastern Iran, southwestern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan...

 and Samanids in the 9th century followed by Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...

 in the 11th century, when the Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 Shahi King Jay Pala committed suicide. It became part of the Ghurids
Ghurids
The Ghurids or Ghorids were a medieval Muslim dynasty of Iranian origin that ruled during the 12th and 13th centuries in Khorasan. At its zenith, their empire, centred at Ghōr , stretched over an area that included the whole of modern Afghanistan, the eastern parts of Iran and the northern section...

 after defeating the Ghaznavids, and later it was invaded by the Mongols
Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire , initially named as Greater Mongol State was a great empire during the 13th and 14th centuries...

 under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

.
Timur
Timur
Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

, founder of the Timurid dynasty
Timurid Dynasty
The Timurids , self-designated Gurkānī , were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turko-Mongol descent whose empire included the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Uzbekistan, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the...

, conquered the region in 14th century and development it as a major trading center. In 1504, the city fell to Babur
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

 from the north and made into his headquarters, which became one of the principal cities of his later Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

. In 1525, Babur described Kabulistan
Kabulistan
Kabulistan is a historical term referring to the eastern territories of Greater Khorasan that is centered around present-day Kabul, Afghanistan...

 in his memoirs
Baburnama
Bāburnāma is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr ud-Dīn Muḥammad Bābur , founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur...

 by writing that:

For much of its time Kabul was independent until it became part of the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 in 1747. During the First Anglo-Afghan War
First Anglo-Afghan War
The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between British India and Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. It was one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game, the 19th century competition for power and influence in Central Asia between the United Kingdom and Russia, and also marked one of the worst...

 in 1839, the British army invaded the area but withdrew in 1842, although thousands of them were killed during a surprise ambush on their way to Jalalabad. In retaliation another British force partly burned Kabul before retreating back to British India
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

. The British again occupied the city during the Second Anglo-Afghan War
Second Anglo-Afghan War
The Second Anglo-Afghan War was fought between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the nation was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan. This was the second time British India invaded Afghanistan. The war ended in a manner...

 in 1879, after their resident staff were massacred there, but withdrew about a year later when they installed Emir Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.The third son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan, Abdur Rahman Khan was considered a strong ruler who re-established the writ of the Afghan government in Kabul after the disarray that followed the second...

.

In 1919, King Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan was the King of the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Amir and after 1926 as Shah. He led Afghanistan to independence over its foreign affairs from the United Kingdom, and his rule was marked by dramatic political and social change...

 rose to power during the Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
The Third Anglo-Afghan War began on 6 May 1919 and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919. It was a minor tactical victory for the British. For the British, the Durand Line was reaffirmed as the political boundary between the Emirate of Afghanistan and British India and the Afghans agreed not to...

 when Afghanistan's capital and its eastern city of Jalalabad
Jalalabad
Jalalabad , formerly called Adinapour, as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley, Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. It is linked by approximately of highway with...

 were air raid
Strategic bombing
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating an enemy nation-state by destroying its economic ability and public will to wage war rather than destroying its land or naval forces...

ed by the No. 31 and 114 squadrons
No. 31 Squadron RAF
No. 31 Squadron of the Royal Air Force, known as the 'Goldstars', currently operates the Tornado GR4 from RAF Marham, Norfolk.-History:The squadron was formed at Farnborough on October 11, 1915. Its first deployment was to Risulpur, India with its BE2Cs and Farmans, and during this time it took...

 of the British Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 in May 1919. Amanullah Khan defeated the British and began modernization of the country after the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi
Treaty of Rawalpindi
The Treaty of Rawalpindi was an armistice made between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan during the Third Anglo-Afghan War...

. In the late 1920s, switching of power took place until Zahir Shah
Mohammed Zahir Shah
Mohammed Zahir Shah was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning for four decades, from 1933 until he was ousted by a coup in 1973...

 became the youngest new King.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Kabul was known as the Paris of central Asia as it was tranforming into a European style city. Once the jewel of Asia, a very progressive and moderately modern capital. Kabul in those days had, modern cinemas, cafes, formal French gardens, schools, libraries, universities, fine boutiques. The inhabitants of Kabul known as "Kabulis" were highly educated, modern, progressive and cosmopolitan people. Where women and men attended primary school, high school and university. Mini-jupes (mini skirts) was a common sight in the 1970s. Highly educated, culturally aware and yet religious at the same time, there was never an issue with not having your hair covered or the clothes you wore in the Kabul of the 1960s and 1970s. This progressive peaceful society lasted until foreign interference occurred in the late 1970's plummeting the country to what Afghanistan has become today. In December 1979, Soviet armed forces landed at Kabul International Airport
Kabul International Airport
-Facilities:The airport has two terminal buildings, the modern for international flights and the Soviet built one for domestic flights. Several hangars along the runway are for military aircraft...

 to help bolster the PDPA
People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan was a communist party established on the 1 January 1965. While a minority, the party helped former president of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, to overthrow his cousin, Mohammed Zahir Shah, and established Daoud's Republic of Afghanistan...

-led government of Afghanistan.
Kabul became the Soviet command center for approximately 10 years during their stay in Afghanistan. In February 1989, Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan after they were defeated by the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
Mujahideen are Muslims who struggle in the path of God. The word is from the same Arabic triliteral as jihad .Mujahideen is also transliterated from Arabic as mujahedin, mujahedeen, mudžahedin, mudžahidin, mujahidīn, mujaheddīn and more.-Origin of the concept:The beginnings of Jihad are traced...

s. In spring of 1992 the government of Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai , originally merely Najibullah, was the fourth and last President of the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. He is also considered the second President of the Republic of Afghanistan.-Early years:Najibullah was born in August 1947 to the Ahmadzai...

 collapsed, Kabul fell into the hands of Mujahideen forces. Destruction increased as the coalition of the parties broke into rival warring factions, and much of Kabul was damaged. In 1996 the Taliban took over the region and started a new strict Islamic Sharia
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

 rule which restricted most forms of education, entertainment, women from working, men from shaving beards, and many normal human activities or hobbies.

Less than a month after the assassination of Ahmad Shah Massoud and the September 11 attacks in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, in October 2001, the United States armed forces
United States armed forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

 assisted by British Armed Forces
British Armed Forces
The British Armed Forces are the armed forces of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown, the British Armed Forces encompasses three professional uniformed services, the Royal Navy, the...

 provided massive air support to United Front
United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan
The United Islamic Front , known in the West and Pakistan as the Northern Alliance, was a military-political umbrella organization created by the Islamic State of Afghanistan in 1996 under the leadership of Defense Minister Ahmad Shah Massoud...

 (Northern Alliance) ground forces during Operation Enduring Freedom. The Taliban abandoned Kabul and the United Front came to take control of the city. In December 2001 Kabul became the capital of the Afghan Transitional Administration
Afghan Transitional Administration
The Afghan Transitional Administration was the name of a temporary administration of Afghanistan put in place by the 2002 Loya Jirga and followed the Afghan Interim Administration which was installed after the Bonn Conference.-Background:Following the US Invasion in Afghanistan, a UN sponsored...

, which transformed to the present Government of Afghanistan
Karzai administration
The Karzai administration is the official government of Afghanistan under President Hamid Karzai, who became the head of state of Afghanistan in December 2001, after the Taliban government was removed. He was appointed at the 2002 Loya Jirga as the Interim President of the Afghan Transitional...

 that is led by President Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai, GCMG is the 12th and current President of Afghanistan, taking office on 7 December 2004. He became a dominant political figure after the removal of the Taliban regime in late 2001...

.

In early 2002 a NATO-led International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
The International Security Assistance Force is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001 by Resolution 1386 as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement...

 (ISAF) was deployed in Kabul and from there they began taking over other parts of the country. The war-torn city began to see some positive development as millions of expats returned to the country. Its population has grown from about 500,000 in 2001 to over 3 million by 2007. Many foreign embassies re-opened, especially the biggest U.S. Embassy
U.S. Embassy, Kabul
The Embassy of the United States in Kabul is the diplomatic mission of the United States in Afghanistan. It is located in the Wazir Akbar Khan section of the Afghan capital, Kabul, and is home to the U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan. Ryan Crocker is the current Ambassador. Richard Holbrooke, who died...

. Afghan government institutions were also re-developed and modernized. Since 2008 the newly trained Afghan National Police
Afghan National Police
The Afghan National Police - ANP - is the primary national police force in Afghanistan. It serves as a single law enforcement agency all across the country. The Afghan police force was first created with the establishment of the Afghan nation in the early 18th century...

 (ANP) and the Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
The Afghan National Army is a service branch of the military of Afghanistan, which is currently trained by the coalition forces to ultimately take the role in land-based military operations in Afghanistan. , the Afghan National Army is divided into seven regional Corps. The strength of the Afghan...

 (ANA) are in charge of security in the area, while NATO also has a heavy presense but are not patrolling the streets anymore.

While the city is being developed, it is also the scene of occasional deadly suicide bombings and explosions carried out by the Haqqani network
Haqqani network
The Haqqani Network is an insurgent group fighting against US-led NATO forces and the government of Afghanistan. Originating from Afghanistan during the mid-1970s, it was nurtured by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence during the 1980s Soviet war in...

, Taliban's Quetta Shura
Quetta Shura
The Quetta Shura is a militant organization composed of top leadership of the Afghan Taliban, that is believed to be based since about 2001 in the city of Quetta in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. The Shura was formed after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was toppled in late 2001 and the...

, Hezb-i Islami, Al Qaeda, and other anti-government elements who are allegedly supported and guided by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence , is Pakistan's premier intelligence agency, responsible for providing critical national security intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan...

 (ISI) spy network.

Politics


Kabul has been long known for its politics and different warlord
Warlord
A warlord is a person with power who has both military and civil control over a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. The term can also mean one who espouses the ideal that war is necessary, and has the means and authority to engage in war...

s. It was under the control of many political groups and warlords when Mohammad Najibullah's government collapsed. Kabul city was in the hands of many political groups who fought for power until it was taken over by the Taliban in 1996 and its politics was changed. Kabul's politics become more aligned with the Islamic regime and new laws were introduced by the Taliban. There was only one leader for Afghanistan Mullah Omar
Mohammed Omar
Mullah Mohammed Omar , often simply called Mullah Omar, is the leader of the Taliban movement that operates in Afghanistan. He was Afghanistan's de facto head of state from 1996 to late 2001, under the official title "Head of the Supreme Council"...

, the head of Taliban who ran Kabul's political party until the US invaded on October 7, 2001. New laws and humanities came in effect to enable Kabul to recover from the destruction caused by the Taliban. Loya Jirga
Loya jirga
A loya jirga is a type of jirga regarded as "grand assembly," a phrase in the Pashto language meaning "grand council." A loya jirga is a mass meeting usually prepared for major events such as choosing a new king, adopting a constitution, or discussing important national political or emergency...

 took place to solve the current political problems and situations in Kabul and introduce new laws. Kabul citizens have been given the right to vote.

After being re-scheduled twice, Afghanistan's presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004. Over 8 million Afghans voted in the elections. The Joint Electoral Management Body of Afghanistan certified the elections on November 3, and declared Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai, GCMG is the 12th and current President of Afghanistan, taking office on 7 December 2004. He became a dominant political figure after the removal of the Taliban regime in late 2001...

, the interim President, the winner with 55.4% of the vote. Karzai's strongest opponent, Yunus Qanuni
Yunus Qanuni
Yunus Qanuni is a politician in Afghanistan. An ethnic Tajik from the Panjshir Valley in Afghanistan, Qanuni is the leader of the Afghanistan e Naween political party and former Speaker of the House of the People .-Pre Election...

, received 16.3% of the vote. The elections were not without controversy; allegations of fraud and ballot stuffing
Ballot stuffing
Ballot stuffing is the illegal act of one person submitting multiple ballots during a vote in which only one ballot per person is permitted. The name originates from the earliest days of this practice in which people literally did stuff more than one ballot in a ballot box at the same time...

 were brought up by many of the presidential candidates including Yunus Qanuni. Many felt that Hamid Karzai had an unfair advantage over the other candidates as he had access to financial and logistical resources that many of the other candidates did not have. A panel of international experts was set up to investigate the matter. The panel did find evidence of voting irregularities, however, they said that it was not enough to affect the outcome of the elections. Some people claimed that they were forced to vote for the current president and some claim that they were paid to do so.

With help from the United States and the United Nations, Afghanistan adopted its new constitution, establishing the country as an Islamic Republic, in early January 2004. According to the constitution, the Afghan government consists of a powerful and popularly elected President, two Vice Presidents, and a National Assembly consisting of two houses: the House of People (Wolesi Jirga), and the House of Elders (Meshrano Jirga). There is also an independent Judiciary branch consisting of the Supreme Court
Afghan Supreme Court
Stera Mahkama or the Afghan Supreme Court is the court of last resort in Afghanistan. It was created by the Constitution of Afghanistan, which was approved on January 4, 2004...

 (Stara Mahkama), High Courts and Appeal Courts. The President appoints the members of the Supreme Court with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga. Assembly elections were planned for late 2005.

Economy



Most of Kabul's economy depended on its tourists in the 1960s and 1970s. Kabul had textile, cotton production, and carpet production industries, but most of its economy came through tourism which it lost during its destruction. Kabul's products include: natural gas, cotton, wool, carpets, agriculture, and some small production companies. Kabul has trade partnerships with the UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, USA, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

, Kenya
Kenya
Kenya , officially known as the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa that lies on the equator, with the Indian Ocean to its south-east...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. Kabul's economy was influenced by the American power and has increased by almost 3500% after being down for 25 years. A new currency was introduced to Afghans which helped the economy. New business was in the new regime. Many American industries were interested in the new Kabul and many new companies have since then opened their branches in Kabul. The Kabul City Centre Mall was built and has nearly 100 shops.
The economy is at a boom level and is increasing dramatically. Housing costs are rising as are employee wages. The cost of living has increased dramatically which is a problem for the non-educated Afghans, who cannot support themselves. The UN helps Afghans in need of help by providing aid, food and school materials for schools. Many international aid organizations are contributing to the Afghan economy.

Demographics and administration




The population of Kabul province is 3.5 million people, of which about 80 percent live in the urban areas (mainly in the Kabul metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

) while the remaining 20 percent are rural residents.

The Afghan Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation & Development estimate that Pashtuns
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 are approximately 60% of the population and make up the majority in the province, followed by Persian-speaking
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 Tajiks and Hazaras who are the majority in Kabul City
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

. Overall, Persian speakers are estimated to be around 40% of the population,. Uzbeks
Uzbeks
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, and large populations can also be found in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Pakistan, Mongolia and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China...

, Turkmens
Turkmen people
The Turkmen are a Turkic people located primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and northeastern Iran. They speak the Turkmen language, which is classified as a part of the Western Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages family together with Turkish, Azerbaijani, Qashqai,...

, Balochs
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

, Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s and Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s, who are found mainly in the capital city, form sizable minorities.

About 85% of the population follow Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

 while 14% are Shi'ite
Shi'a Islam
Shia Islam is the second largest denomination of Islam. The followers of Shia Islam are called Shi'ites or Shias. "Shia" is the short form of the historic phrase Shīʻatu ʻAlī , meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali".Like other schools of thought in Islam, Shia Islam is...

s. The remaining 1% are followers of Sikhism
Sikhism in Afghanistan
Sikhism in Afghanistan is limited to small populations, primarily in major cities, with the largest numbers of Afghan Sikhs living in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Kandahar...

, Hinduism
Hinduism in Afghanistan
Hinduism in Afghanistan has existed for almost as long as Hinduism itself. The religion was widespread in the region until the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan...

 and other religions. The major Pashtun tribes
Pashtun tribes
The Pashtun people are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and the second largest in Pakistan. Pashtun, tribes are divided into four supertribal confederacies: the Arbanee , Betanee , Gharghasht, and Karlanee .Traditionally, according to folklore, all Pashtuns are said to have descended, at...

 in the province are the Ghilzai
Ghilzai
Ghilzai are the largest Pashtun tribal confederacy found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They are also known historically as Ghilji, Khilji, Ghalji, Ghilzye, and possibly Gharzai...

, Shinwari, Khugyani
Khogyani (tribe)
The Khogyani tribe is a Pashtun tribe of the Karlani or "Hill Tribes" branch. The tribe originated from the Khogyani District along the Koh-i-Safed mountain range in Nangarhar Province of Afghanistan...

, Wardak and Safi
Safi Clan
Safi is a major branch of the greater Gharghasht Pashtun tribe, originating in the Kohi Safi district of Parwan province, and also makes up majority in the Pech Valley of Kunar, Afghanistan. Safi clans are said to have inhabited mainly region Kunar Province. Currently Safi tribesmen are all around...

.

Districts

style="text-align:center; background:#bfd7ff;" | Districts of Kabul Province
District Capital Population Area Ethnic data (%) Notes
Bagrami
Bagrami District
Bagrami District is located in the central part of Kabul Province in Afghanistan. It is approximately 30 minutes drive east from the capital city, Kabul...

 
Bagrami
Bagrami
Bagrami is a town situated very close to Kabul at at 1797 m altitude. The population is 31,680 . The road to Kabul is not bad and the city can be reached in 30 minutes, so Bagrami is becoming a suburb. The Bagrami Industrial Park is almost ready and this is one of the major projects for the...

 
85,000 Pashtuns (majority)
Tajiks
Chahar Asyab  Qalai Naeem
Qalai Naeem
Qalai Naeem is a village in eastern Afghanistan. It is the district center of Char Asiab District, Kabul Province. It is located at at 1,843 m altitude....

 
32,500 Pashtuns, Tajiks and few Hazara
Deh Sabz
Deh Sabz District
Deh Sabz District is situated northeast of Kabul City in Afghanistan. It has a population of 100,136 people . About 70% are Pashtuns, and 30% are Tajiks....

 
Tarakhel
Tarakhel
Tara Khēl is a village and the center of Deh Sabz District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is situated northwest of Kabul at at 1794 m altitude. The village is big, with more than 2,000 households. It is close to the Kabul International Airport....

 
47,900 70% Pashtuns
30% Tajiks
Farza
Farza District
Farza District is a new district of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It has a population of 18,000 people , a mixture of Pashtuns and Tajiks. In January 1991, Farza was separated as an independent district from Mir Bacha Kot District but this structure was never recognised by the Taliban government....

 
Dehnawe Farza
Dehnawe Farza
The village of Dehnawe Farza is the center of the Farza District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is located on at 2,111 m altitude....

 
19,100 Pashtuns and Tajiks Created in 2005 from Mir Bacha Kot District
Mir Bacha Kot District
Mir Bacha Kot District is situated in the central part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It has a population of 5,000 and another 37,000 are expected to return in the near future...

Guldara
Guldara District
Guldara District is located in the northwestern part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It has a population of 10,000 people, including new returnees...

 
Guldara
Guldara
Guldara is a village and the center of Guldara District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is located at at 1722 m altitude, 45 km North of Kabul. The village was almost fully destroyed and now is continuing the process of rehabilitation. A new clinic has been opened...

 
20,300 50% Tajiks
50% Pashtuns
Istalif
Istalif District
Istalif District is located in the northwestern part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It has a population of 8,500 , a mixture of Tajiks, Pashtuns and Hazaras....

 
Istalif
Istalif
Istālif is a village about 18 miles northwest of Kabul, Afghanistan, situated at at 1693 m altitude. It is the center of Istalif District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. The village was destroyed during the longlasting wars around Kabul. There are a few repaired or newly constructed buildings. The...

 
29,800 Tajik, Pashtun and Hazara
Kabul
Kabul District
Kabul District is a district of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. The seta lies at Kabul....

 
Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

 (capital)
1,925,548 25% Pashtun
25% Hazara
45% Tajiks
2% Uzbek
1% Balochi
1% Turkmen
1% others
Kalakan
Kalakan District
Kalakan District is located in the northern part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It borders Guldara District to the west, Qarabagh District to the north, Dih Sabz District to the east and Mir Bacha Kot District to the south. The population is 26,800 . The center is the village of Kalakan, situated...

 
Kalakan
Kalakan
Kalakan is a village located at at 1,610 m altitude. It is center of Kalakan District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan....

 
26,900 Predominantly Tajik, some Pashtun
Khaki Jabbar
Khaki Jabbar District
Khaki Jabbar District is a mountainous district situated in the southeastern part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. The district headquarter is Khak-i Jabbar village, which is located in the central part of the district.-Demographics:...

 
Khak-i Jabbar
Khak-i Jabbar
Khak-i Jabbar is a village and the center of Khaki Jabbar District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is located at at 2,287 m altitude....

 
75,000 95% Pashtuns
5% Tajiks
Mir Bacha Kot
Mir Bacha Kot District
Mir Bacha Kot District is situated in the central part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It has a population of 5,000 and another 37,000 are expected to return in the near future...

 
Mir Bacha Kot
Mir Bacha Kot
Mir Bacha Kot is a village and the center of Mir Bacha Kot District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is located at at 1690 m altitude, 25 km North of Kabul. The village infrastructure was destroyed during the war. The population is 5,659 ....

 
46,300 Predominantly Tajik, some Pashtun Sub-divided in 2005
Mussahi
Mussahi District
Mussahi District is a district of Kabul province, Afghanistan.Location: is situated in the southern part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. Mussai district borders Char Asiab District to the west, Bagrami District to the north, Khaki Jabbar District to the east and Logar Province to the south...

 
Mussahi
Mussahi
Mussahi is a village and the center of Mussahi District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is located at at 1844 m altitude in a river valley 25 km south of Kabul. The village was seriously damaged during the two decades of wars that were fought in the country, and is now undergoing a...

 
30,000 Pashtuns, Tajiks
Paghman
Paghman District
Paghman District is situated in the western part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It has a population of 120,000 people, and another 20,000 returnees are expected , of which 70% are Pashtuns and 30% Tajiks....

 
Paghman
Paghman
Paghman is a town in the hills near Kabul, Afghanistan. See also Paghman Gardens. It is center of the Paghman District which has a total population of 120,000 people, and another 20,000 returnees are expected , of which 70% are Pashtuns and 30% Tajiks.. Paghman District is situated in the western...

 
150,000 70% Pashtuns
30% Tajiks
Qarabagh  Qara Bagh
Qara Bagh, Kabul Province
Qara Bagh is a town and the center of Qarabagh District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is situated in the western part of the district at at 1,565 m altitude. The population is 13,000 . The town was seriously damaged during the wars....

 
67,700 60% Tajiks
40% Pashtuns
Shakardara
Shakardara District
Shakardara District is situated in the central part of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It has a population of 63,000 people, with another 10,000 expected to return from abroad...

 
Shakar Dara
Shakar Dara
Shakar Dara is a village and the center of Shakardara District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is located at at 2265 m altitude....

 
72,900 Tajik majority
Surobi
Surobi District
This article is about the Surobi District of Kabul Province. For the district in Paktika, see Sarobi, Paktika.Surobi, Sarobi or Sarubi District is a district of Kabul Province, Afghanistan. Its capital, Surobi, lies about 60 kilometres east of Kabul along the A01 highway, although much of the...

 
Surobi
Surobi
Not to be confused with nearby Sorubi or the Sarobi District of Paktika.The town of Sorūbī is the center of Surobi District, between Kabul and Jalalabad, in Kabul Province, Afghanistan. It is located on at 998 m altitude in the valley of the Kabul River East from Kabul on the road to Jalalabad...

 
150,000 90% Pashtuns and the rest are Pashais

Transportation


Transportation in Kabul is improving as the numbers of new vehicles and experienced drivers are increasing. There is public transportation service in the Kabul vicinity, but many roads are in disrepair. Drivers are also impeded by the large number of cyclists. More vehicles are seen in the city because people are purchasing cars. Taxi cabs are found everywhere in the city, also in most of the districts of Kabul.

Kabul's Milli Bus
Milli Bus
Millie Bus is a government-run bus line which runs in numerous locations in Afghanistan. As of 2003, the line is managed by the Afghan Ministry of Transportation, though proposals have been made to privatise the line....

 (National Bus) system, which has about 800 buses, provides service to the city and nearby areas. There are several new highways in the province, and the government has scheduled to rebuild most of the smaller roads. Funding for the roads comes from current drivers who must pay toll charges for driving on highways and major roads. The money is collected by the government through issuing motorists monthly, quarterly or annual inspection certificates that are affixed to the windshield of their vehicles.

Trucks are used to transport goods from one district to another, or to other cities of the country. The Afghan government, with the help of foreign companies or organizations, have begun work on many of Kabul's roads. Auto companies like Honda
Honda
is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles.Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than...

, Toyota, Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

, and Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Chevrolet , also known as Chevy , is a brand of vehicle produced by General Motors Company . Founded by Louis Chevrolet and ousted GM founder William C. Durant on November 3, 1911, General Motors acquired Chevrolet in 1918...

 have also been reintroduced in Kabul.

Education



Kabul is Afghanistan's center for education. People from all the provinces of the country come to Kabul for education. There are many schools and universities that have opened doors for men and women. In the 1970s, about 55% of Kabul's population was educated without materials or proper learning resources to get a proper education. Most of the young children are sent to work by their parents to support their living costs. The education rate has declined dramatically during the last 20 years. Most of the schools in Kabul were set as battle points during the wars and have been demolished.

List of Universities in Kabul



  • American University of Afghanistan
    American University of Afghanistan
    The American University of Afghanistan is Afghanistan’s first private, not-for-profit institution of higher education. Chartered in 2004, AUAF offers undergraduate degree programs as well as intensive English-language college preparatory courses and continuing education and professional...

  • Kabul University
    Kabul University
    Kabul University is located in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. It was founded in 1931 but officially opened for classes in 1932. Kabul University is currently attended by approximately 7,000 students, of which 1,700 are women. As of 2008, Hamidullah Amin is the chancellor of the university...

  • Polytechnical University of Kabul
    Polytechnical University of Kabul
    Kabul Polytechnic is a university located in Kabul, Afghanistan and was established in 1963 in Karte Mamourin area beside the Intercontinental Hotel...

  • National Military Academy of Afghanistan
    National Military Academy of Afghanistan
    The National Military Academy of Afghanistan is an academic institution of the Afghan military that is located in Kabul, Afghanistan. It is a four-year military development institution dedicated to graduating officers for the Afghan National Army and the Afghan Air Force...

  • Kabul Medical University
    Kabul Medical University
    Kabul Medical University is located in Kabul, Afghanistan on the campus of Kabul University. The medical institution was initially maintained by collaboration with the Turkish and French sponsors. KMF developed into a single autonomous University in 2005...

  • Kardan University
    Kardan University
    Kardan University was founded in 2002 in Kabul, Afghanistan.Kardan derives its name from a Persian word which means "professional". The logo portrays the name in Persian....

  • Bakhtar University
    Bakhtar University
    Bakhtar University is established private university in Afghanistan. It is located in the Afghan capital city, Kabul.Bakhtar University Background...

  • Dawat University
    Dawat University
    Dawat University is among several private universities registered with the government of Afghanistan. Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, the founder of the university recently obtained a license from the Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan. In the beginning, Dawat University will be registering students...

  • Karwan University
    Karwan University
    Higher Education Institute of Karwan , or simply as Karwan University, is a degree-awarding tertiary educational institutions in Kabul, Afghanistan...

  • Rana Institute of Higher Education
  • Maryam University

List of schools in Kabul



  • Habibia High School
    Habibia High School
    Habibia High School is a school in Kabul, Afghanistan, which has educated many of the former and current Afghan elite, including President Hamid Karzai and the country's most famous musician Ahmad Zahir. It was founded by King Habibullah Khan in 1903....

     (British-Afghan school founded in 1904 as Habibya College)
  • Aisha-i-Durani School
    Aisha-i-Durani School
    The Aisha-i-Durani School or Durani High School is a girls' school in Kabul, Afghanistan. It is one of two schools reconstructed with German help after the fall of the Taliban in 2001, the other being Amani High School.- External links :* *...

     (or Mädchengymnasium Aysha-e Durani) and Wirtschaftsgymnasium für Mädchen Jamhuriat (German-Afghan schools for girls)
  • Ahmad Shah Baba High School (for boys, named after Ahmad Shah Durrani
    Ahmad Shah Durrani
    Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

    )
  • Amani High School
    Amani High School
    Amani High School, also known as Amani–Oberrealschule, is a school in Kabul, Afghanistan. From the time of its foundation in 1924 until 1985, Amani High School was recognized as one of the elite schools in Kabul and received direct support from Germany, which also helped to provide a qualified staff...

     (German-Afghan school for boys founded in 1924)
  • Durkhanai High School (for girls)
  • Ghazi High School (for boys, names after Amanullah Khan
    Amanullah Khan
    Amanullah Khan was the King of the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Amir and after 1926 as Shah. He led Afghanistan to independence over its foreign affairs from the United Kingdom, and his rule was marked by dramatic political and social change...

    )
  • Ghulam Haider Khan High School
    Ghulam Haider Khan High School
    ' is an all boys school located in Second Phase Khair Khana section of Kabul, Afghanistan. The school is named after Afghan Prince Ghulam Haider Khan, son of Emir Dost Mohammad Khan, who fought against the British forces in the July 1839 Battle of Ghazni during the First Anglo-Afghan War...

  • International School of Kabul
    International School of Kabul
    The International School of Kabul is a private co-educational K-12 school in Kabul, Afghanistan. Originally founded in 2003 under the name of Kabul International Academy , the International School of Kabul provides a college-prep level U.S...

  • Lycée Esteqlal and Lycée Malalaï (French lycées founded in 1922 and 1932 respectively)
  • Malalai High School (for girls, named after Malalai Anna)
  • Malika Soraya High School (for girls, named after Queen Soraya Tarzi
    Soraya Tarzi
    Soraya Tarzi, known mostly as Queen Soraya, was the Queen of Afghanistan in the early 20th century and the wife of King Amanullah Khan. She is the only woman to appear on the list of rulers in Afghanistan, although wife of King Amanullah Khan...

  • Naderia High School (For Boys)
  • Nazo Ana High School (for girls, named after Nazo Tokhi)
  • Raman Baba High School (for boys, named after Rahman Baba
    Rahman Baba
    Abdul Rahman Baba is popularly known as Rahman Baba , was a Pashtun Muslim poet from Peshawar in modern-day Pakistan who remains the most popular poet among the Pashtuns...

    )
  • Sultana Razia High School (for girls)

Sports


Kabul is the center of annual buzkashi
Buzkashi
Buzkashi or Kok-boru or Oglak Tartis or Ulak Tartysh is a traditional Central Asian...

 and football
Football in Afghanistan
Football is the most popular sport in Afghanistan. Formed in 1922 and affiliated to FIFA since 1948, the Afghanistan Football Federation and the Afghanistan national football team lay dormant for many years. The side did not play a competitive international match from 1984 until 2002, when they...

 tournaments, where teams from all over of Afghanistan, and sometimes from neighboring Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

, and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan , officially the Republic of Tajikistan , is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east....

 participate. Sports is a daily routine for employees in Afghanistan, when they all join each other in tournaments and matches, specially soccer games. Golf is played at the Kabul Golf Club
Kabul Golf Club
The Kabul Golf Club is a nine-hole golf course located near Qargha, around 7 miles from the center of Kabul, Afghanistan.- Overview :Different from other golf courses in the Middle East where desert golf is a new trend, the greens at the Kabul Golf Club are actually brown to black due to their...

, which is a short drive from the capital near the Qargha water park.

Afghanistan national football team
Afghanistan national football team
The Afghanistan national football team is the national team of Afghanistan and is controlled by the Afghanistan Football Federation. The national team was founded in 1922 that joined FIFA in 1948 and the AFC in 1954...

 also participated in many Asian Soccer Leagues. Many Afghans who were living as refugees in Pakistan and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 repatriated, and they brought the game of cricket
Cricket in Afghanistan
Cricket in Afghanistan is a sport growing in popularity, which is represented internationally by the Afghanistan national cricket team. Afghanistan's proximity to the test playing nation of Pakistan has helped the game to take root....

 with them. Afghanistan now has a national cricket team that plays internationally. The Province itself is represented in Afghan domestic cricket by the Kabul Province cricket team, who were the inaugural winners of the 2010 Etisalat 50 over tournament.

There are also basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

, volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

, golf
Golf
Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

, handball
Team handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

, boxing
Boxing
Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other using their fists. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of between one to three minute intervals called rounds...

, taekwondo
Taekwondo
Taekwondo is a Korean martial art and the national sport of South Korea. In Korean, tae means "to strike or break with foot"; kwon means "to strike or break with fist"; and do means "way", "method", or "path"...

, weightlifting
Weightlifting
Olympic Weightlifting, also called Olympic-style weightlifting, or weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which participants attempt a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates....

, bodybuilding
Bodybuilding
Bodybuilding is a form of body modification involving intensive muscle hypertrophy. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. In competitive and professional bodybuilding, bodybuilders display their physiques to a panel of judges, who assign points based on their...

, track and field
Track and field
Track and field is a sport comprising various competitive athletic contests based around the activities of running, jumping and throwing. The name of the sport derives from the venue for the competitions: a stadium which features an oval running track surrounding a grassy area...

, skating
Skating
Skating may refer to:*Freestyle slalom skating*Ice skating and various sub-forms:**Figure skating**Speed skating**Tour skating*Inline skating and sub-forms:**Aggressive inline skating**Inline speed skating*Road skating*Roller skating...

, bowling
Bowling
Bowling Bowling Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule...

, snooker
Snooker
Snooker is a cue sport that is played on a green baize-covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. A regular table is . It is played using a cue and snooker balls: one white , 15 worth one point each, and six balls of different :...

, and chess
Chess
Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.Each player...

, teams in Kabul, which participate in tournaments locally and go on tours to other Asian countries. One of the oldest and most popular stadiums in Kabul is the Ghazi Stadium, where tournaments, concerts, and national celebrations take place. The Kabul National Cricket Stadium
Kabul National Cricket Stadium
Kabul National Cricket Stadium is a description of a stadium in Kabul, Afghanistan that is currently under construction. It is planned to be opened in July 2011 and have a seating capacity of 6,000 spectators....

 is under construction as of 2011. The Ghazi Stadium is also currently going through a reconstruction programme whereby a new design and a new system will be established for the stadium. Schools and universities encourage participation in team sports, and there is a group of Afghans are being trained in Kabul for the next Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

.

External links