Second Anglo-Afghan War

Second Anglo-Afghan War

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The Second Anglo-Afghan War was fought between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 from 1878 to 1880, when the nation was ruled by Sher Ali Khan
Sher Ali Khan
Sher Ali Khan was Amir of Afghanistan from 1863 to 1866 and from 1868 until his death in 1879. He was the third son of Dost Mohammed Khan, founder of the Barakzai Dynasty in Afghanistan....

 of the Barakzai dynasty
Barakzai dynasty
The Barakzai dynasty ruled Afghanistan from 1826 until 1929 or 1973 when the monarchy rule finally ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power...

, the son of former Emir
Emir
Emir , meaning "commander", "general", or "prince"; also transliterated as Amir, Aamir or Ameer) is a title of high office, used throughout the Muslim world...

 Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan was the Emir of Afghanistan between 1826 and 1863. He first ruled from 1826 to 1839 and then from 1843 to 1863. He was the 11th son of Sardar Pāyendah Khan who was killed by Zaman Shah Durrani in 1799...

. This was the second time British India
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 invaded Afghanistan. The war ended in a manner
Treaty of Gandamak
The Treaty of Gandamak officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Afghanistan ceded various frontier areas to Britain to prevent invasion of further areas of the country....

 after attaining all the British geopolitical objectives. Most of the British and Indian soldiers withdrew from Afghanistan. The Afghans
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 were permitted to maintain internal sovereignty but they had to cede control of their nation's foreign relations
Foreign relations of Afghanistan
The foreign relations of Afghanistan, like those of any country, have changed along with the political, sociological, and economic state of the various parts of Afghanistan.-Overview:...

 to the British.

War


After tension between Russia and Britain in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 ended with the June 1878 Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the European Great Powers' and the Ottoman Empire's leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. In the wake of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, the meeting's aim was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans...

, Russia turned its attention to Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

. That same summer, Russia sent an uninvited diplomatic mission to Kabul. Sher Ali Khan
Sher Ali Khan
Sher Ali Khan was Amir of Afghanistan from 1863 to 1866 and from 1868 until his death in 1879. He was the third son of Dost Mohammed Khan, founder of the Barakzai Dynasty in Afghanistan....

, the Amir of Afghanistan, tried unsuccessfully to keep them out. Russian envoys arrived in Kabul on 22 July 1878, and on 14 August, the British demanded that Sher Ali accept a British mission too.

The Amir not only refused to receive a British mission under Neville Bowles Chamberlain
Neville Bowles Chamberlain
Field Marshal Sir Neville Bowles Chamberlain GCB GCSI was a British soldier who served in India.-Military career:...

, but threatened to stop it if it were dispatched. Lord Lytton
Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton
Edward Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, PC was an English statesman and poet...

, the viceroy, ordered a diplomatic mission to set out for Kabul in September 1878 but the mission was turned back as it approached the eastern entrance of the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
The Khyber Pass, is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan.The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road. It is mentioned in the Bible as the "Pesh Habor," and it is one of the oldest known passes in the world....

, triggering the Second Anglo-Afghan War.

First phase


A British force of about 40,000 fighting men, mostly British and Indians, was distributed into military columns which penetrated Afghanistan at three different points. An alarmed Sher Ali attempted to appeal in person to the Russian Tsar for assistance, but unable to do so, he returned to Mazari Sharif, where he died on 21 February 1879.

Treaty


With British forces occupying much of the country, Sher Ali's son and successor, Mohammad Yaqub Khan
Mohammad Yaqub Khan
Mohammad Yaqub Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from February 21 to October 12, 1879. He was the son of the previous ruler, Sher Ali Khan....

, signed the Treaty of Gandamak
Treaty of Gandamak
The Treaty of Gandamak officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Afghanistan ceded various frontier areas to Britain to prevent invasion of further areas of the country....

 in May 1879 to prevent a British invasion of the rest of the country. According to this agreement and in return for an annual subsidy and vague assurances of assistance in case of foreign aggression, Yaqub relinquished control of Afghan foreign affairs to Britain. British representatives were installed in Kabul and other locations, British control was extended to the Khyber and Michni passes, and Afghanistan ceded various frontier
North-West Frontier Province
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province and various other names, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the north-west of the country...

 areas and Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

 to Britain. The British Army then withdrew.

However, on 3 September 1879 an uprising in Kabul led to the slaughter of Sir Pierre Cavagnari
Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari
Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari KCB CSI , British military administrator, was the son of Count Louis Adolphus Cavagnari, of an old Italian family from Parma in the service of the Bonaparte family, by his marriage in 1837 with an Irish lady, Caroline Lyons-Montgomery...

, his guards, and staff - provoking the next phase of the Second Afghan War.

Second phase


Major General Sir Frederick Roberts
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts
Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, Bt, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, PC was a distinguished Indian born British soldier who regarded himself as Anglo-Irish and one of the most successful British commanders of the 19th century.-Early life:Born at Cawnpore, India, on...

 led the Kabul Field Force
Kabul Field Force
The Kabul Field Force was a field force created in September 1879 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, under the command of General Frederick Roberts...

 over the Shutargardan Pass into central Afghanistan, defeated the Afghan Army at Char Asiab
Char Asiab District
Char Asiab District Char Asiab, Chahar Asiab, Charasiab, Charasiah or Charasia) is a district, approximately 7 miles south of the city of Kabul, and is situated in the southern part of Kabul province, Afghanistan. It has a population of 32,500 people...

 on 6 October 1879, and occupied Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

. Ghazi Mohammad Jan Khan Wardak staged an uprising and attacked British forces near Kabul in the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment
Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment
The Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment was a battle fought in December 1879, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War.On 3 September 1879 Sir Pierre Cavagnari, the British Resident in Kabul, and his escort were massacred by mutinous Afghan troops, initiating the second phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War.A...

 in December 1879, but his defeat there resulted in the collapse of this rebellion. Yaqub Khan, suspected of complicity in the massacre of Cavagnari and his staff, was obliged to abdicate. The British considered a number of possible political settlements, including partitioning Afghanistan between multiple rulers or placing Yaqub's brother Ayub Khan
Ayub Khan (Afghan commander)
Ghazi Mohammad Ayub Khan was also known as The Victor of Maiwand or The Afghan Prince Charlie and was, for a while, the governor of Herat Province in Afghanistan. He was Emir of Afghanistan from October 12, 1879 to May 31, 1880 and was also the leader of Afghans in the Second Anglo-Afghan War...

 on the throne, but ultimately decided to install his cousin Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.The third son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan, Abdur Rahman Khan was considered a strong ruler who re-established the writ of the Afghan government in Kabul after the disarray that followed the second...

 as emir instead.

Ayub Khan, who had been serving as governor of Herat, rose in revolt, defeated a British detachment at the Battle of Maiwand
Battle of Maiwand
The Battle of Maiwand in 1880 was one of the principal battles of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Under the leadership of Malalai Anaa, the legendary woman of Afghanistan, the Afghan followers of Ayub Khan defeated the British Army in one of the rare nineteenth-century victories of an Asian force...

 in July 1880 and besieged Kandahar. Roberts then led the main British force from Kabul and decisively defeated Ayub Khan on 1 September at the Battle of Kandahar
Battle of Kandahar
The Battle of Kandahar, 1 September 1880, was the last major conflict of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The battle in southern Afghanistan was fought between the British forces under command of General Roberts and the Afghan forces led by Ayub Khan, inflicting nearly 3,000 casualties in...

, bringing his rebellion to an end. Abdur Rahman had confirmed the Treaty of Gandamak, leaving the British in control of the territories ceded by Yaqub Khan and ensuring British control of Afghanistan's foreign policy in exchange for protection and a subsidy.

Abandoning the provocative policy of maintaining a British resident in Kabul, but having achieved all their other objectives, the British withdrew.

Captured British soldiers


The British officer John Masters
John Masters
Lieutenant Colonel John Masters, DSO was an English officer in the British Indian Army and novelist. His works are noted for their treatment of the British Empire in India.-Life:...

 recorded in his autobiography that Pathan
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 women in the North-West Frontier Province (1901–1955) of British India during the Second Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan War
Anglo-Afghan War may refer to:*First Anglo-Afghan War *Second Anglo-Afghan War *Third Anglo-Afghan War -See also:* European influence in Afghanistan where the backdrop for the three wars mentioned above are discussed....

 would castrate non-Muslim soldiers who were captured, like British and Sikhs. They also used an execution method involving urine, Pathan women urinated into prisoner's mouths. Captured British soldiers were spread out and fastened with restraints to the ground, then a stick, or a piece of wood was used to keep their mouth open to prevent swallowing. Pathan women then squatted and urinated directly into the mouth of the man until he drowned in the urine, taking turns one at a time. This method of execution was reported to have been practiced specifically by the women of the Afridi
Afridi
Afridi of rough hilly area in the eastern Safed Koh range, west of the Peshawar Valley and east of Torkham, and Maidan in Tirah, which can be accessed by the Kajurhi plains and the valleys of Bara and Churah in Pakistan...

 tribe of the Pashtuns.

Timeline of battles


There were several decisive actions in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, from 1878 to 1880. Here are the battles and actions in chronological order. An asterisk (*) indicates a clasp
Medal bar
A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal. It is most commonly used to indicate the campaign or operation the recipient received the award for, and multiple bars on the same medal are used to indicate that the...

 was awarded for that particular battle with the Afghanistan Medal
Afghanistan Medal (United Kingdom)
The Afghanistan Medal was awarded for the military actions involving the British Army and local Indian units in Afghanistan between 1878–1880. This was the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the first being from 1839–1842....

.

1878

  1. Battle of Ali Masjid
    Battle of Ali Masjid
    The Battle of Ali Masjid, which took place on 21 November 1878, was the opening battle in the Second Anglo-Afghan War between the British forces, under Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel James Browne, and the Afghan tribesmen, under Ghulam Haider Khan...

    * (Decisive British victory)
  2. Battle of Peiwar Kotal
    Battle of Peiwar Kotal
    The Battle of Peiwar Kotal was fought on November 28-29 1878 between British forces under Sir Frederick Roberts and Afghan forces under Karim Khan, during the opening stages of the Second Anglo-Afghan War...

    * (British victory)

1879

  1. Action at Takht-i-Pul
  2. Action at Matun
  3. Battle of Khushk-i-Nakud
  4. Battle of Fatehbad* (Afghan victory)
  5. Battle of Kam Dakka* (Decisive Afghan victory)
  6. Battle of Charasiab*
  7. Battle of Shajui
  8. Battle of Karez Mir
  9. Battle of Takht-i-Shah
  10. Battle of Asmai Heights* (Decisive Afghan victory)
  11. Siege of Sherpur* (Decisive British victory)

1880

  1. Battle of Ahmed Khel
    Battle of Ahmed Khel
    The Battle of Ahmed Khel was fought in April 1880 and ended in a British victory. This battle occurred during General Donald Stewart's march from Kandahar to Ghazni, then on to Kabul.-Order of battle:*Royal Horse Artillery*Royal Artillery...

    * (British victory)
  2. Battle of Arzu
  3. Second Battle of Charasiab
  4. Battle of Maiwand
    Battle of Maiwand
    The Battle of Maiwand in 1880 was one of the principal battles of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Under the leadership of Malalai Anaa, the legendary woman of Afghanistan, the Afghan followers of Ayub Khan defeated the British Army in one of the rare nineteenth-century victories of an Asian force...

     (Decisive Afghan victory)
  5. Battle of Deh Koja (Afghan Victory)
  6. Battle of Kandahar
    Battle of Kandahar
    The Battle of Kandahar, 1 September 1880, was the last major conflict of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The battle in southern Afghanistan was fought between the British forces under command of General Roberts and the Afghan forces led by Ayub Khan, inflicting nearly 3,000 casualties in...

    * (Decisive British victory)

Order of battle





  • Peshawar Valley Field Force Lt Gen Sir Samuel Browne
    Sam Browne
    General Sir Samuel James Browne VC GCB KCSI was a British Indian Army cavalry officer in India and the Afghanistan, best known today as the namesake of the Sam Browne belt...

    • Cavalry Brigade Brig Gen C. J. S. Gough
      Charles John Stanley Gough
      General Sir Charles John Stanley Gough VC, GCB was born in Chittagong, India was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.-Details:At age 16, Gough moved to India,...

      • 10th Hussars (2 Sqdns)
      • 11th Probyn's Lancers
      • Guides Cavalry
    • Royal Artillery
    • First Infantry Brigade Brig Gen H. T. Macpherson
      Herbert Taylor MacPherson
      Major-General Sir Herbert Taylor MacPherson VC, GCB, KCSI was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.-Details:He was 30 years old, and a lieutenant in the 78th...

      • 4th Battalion Rifle Brigade
      • 20th Brownlow's Punjabis
        20th Duke of Cambridge's Own Infantry (Brownlow's Punjabis)
        The 20th Duke of Cambridge’s Own Infantry was a regiment of the British Indian Army. It was raised in 1857, as the 8th Regiment of Punjab Infantry. It was designated as the 20th Duke of Cambridge’s Own Infantry in 1904 and became 2nd Battalion 14th Punjab Regiment in 1922...

      • 4th Gurkha Rifles
    • Second Infantry Brigade Brig Gen J. A. Tytler
      • 1st Battalion Leicestershire Regiment
      • Queen's Own Corps of Guides
        Corps of Guides (British India)
        The Corps of Guides was a regiment of the British Indian Army which served in the North West Frontier and had a unique composition of being part infantry and part cavalry.-History:...

         (infantry component)
      • 51st Sikhs
    • Third Infantry Brigade Brig Gen F. Appleyard
      Frederick Ernest Appleyard
      Major General Frederick Ernest Appleyard CB was a British Army commander that served in numerous Victorian Era military campaigns including the Crimean War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War....

      • 81st North Lancashire Regiment
        Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire)
        The Loyal Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army from 1881 to 1970...

      • 14th Sikhs
      • 27th Punjabis
        27th Punjabis
        The 27th Punjabis were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was raised in 1857, as the 19th Regiment of Punjab Infantry. It was designated as the 27th Punjabis in 1903 and became 3rd Battalion 15th Punjab Regiment in 1922...

    • Fourth Infantry Brigade Brig Gen W. Browne
      • 51st King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
        King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
        The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry was a regiment of the British Army. It officially existed from 1881 to 1968, but its predecessors go back to 1755. The regiment's traditions and history are now maintained by The Rifles.-The 51st Foot:...

      • 6th Jat Light Infantry
        6th Jat Light Infantry
        The 6th Jat Light Infantry were an infantry regiment of the Bengal Army, later of the united British Indian Army. They could trace their origins to 1803, when they were the 1st Battalion, 22nd Bengal Native Infantry...

      • 45th Sikhs

  • Kurram Valley Field Force Major General Roberts
    Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts
    Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, Bt, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, PC was a distinguished Indian born British soldier who regarded himself as Anglo-Irish and one of the most successful British commanders of the 19th century.-Early life:Born at Cawnpore, India, on...

    • Cavalry Brigade Brig Gen Hugh Gough
      Hugh Henry Gough
      General Sir Hugh Henry Gough VC, GCB was born in Calcutta, India and was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.-Details:He was 23 years old, and a lieutenant in the...

      • 10th Hussars (1 sqdn)
      • 12th Cavalry
      • 25th Cavalry
        12th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
        The 12th Cavalry is an armoured regiment of Pakistan Army. It was formed in the British Indian army in 1922 by the amalgamation of 22nd Sam Browne's Cavalry and 25th Cavalry ....

    • Royal Artillery Col A. H. Lindsay
    • First Infantry Brigade Brig Gen A. H. Cobbe
      • 2nd Battalion, 8th Foot
        8th (The King's) Regiment of Foot
        The 8th Regiment of Foot, also referred to diminutively as the 8th Foot and the King's, was an infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in 1685 and retitled the King's on 1 July 1881....

      • 23rd Pioneers
      • 29th Punjabis
        29th Punjabis
        The 29th Punjabis was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was raised in 1857, as the 21st Regiment of Punjab Infantry. It was designated as the 29th Punjabis in 1903 and became 10th Battalion of 15th Punjab Regiment in 1922. In 1943, it was converted into the 15th Punjab Regimental...

      • 58th Vaughn's Rifles
    • Second Infantry Brigade Brig Gen J. B. Thelwell
      • 72nd Seaforth Highlanders
      • 21st Punjabis
        21st Punjabis
        The 21st Punjabis were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was raised in 1857, as the 11th Regiment of Punjab Infantry. It was designated as the 21st Punjabis in 1903 and became 10th Battalion of 14th Punjab Regiment in 1922. In 1943, it was converted into the 14th Punjab...

      • 56th Rifles
      • 5th Gurkha Rifles

  • Kandahar Field Force
    • First Division Lt Gen Donald Stewart
      • Cavalry Brigade Brig Gen Walter Fane
        Walter Fane
        General Walter Fane CB was a British General who served in Central India, on the North West Frontier as well as in China during the Opium Wars. Fane raised a troop of irregular cavalry to fight in China made up of Indian volunteers and they went on to become Fane's Horse, a regiment that remains...

        • 15th Hussars
        • 8th Cavalry
        • 19th Fane's Lancers
          19th King George's Own Lancers
          The 19th Lancers is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army. Before 1956, it was known as 19th King George V's Own Lancers, which was a regular cavalry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1922, by the amalgamation of 18th King George's Own Lancers and 19th Lancers...

      • Royal Artillery Brig Gen C. G. Arbuthnot
        Charles George Arbuthnot
        Sir Charles George Arbuthnot GCB was a British Army officer. He served in the Royal Artillery in the Crimean War and rose to become a lieutenant general in British India....

      • First Infantry Brigade Brig Gen R. Barter
        • 2nd Battalion King's Royal Rifles
        • 15th Sikhs
        • 25th Punjabis
          25th Punjabis
          The 25th Punjabis were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was raised in 1857, as the 17th Regiment of Punjab Infantry. It was designated as the 25th Punjabis in 1903 and became 1st Battalion 15th Punjab Regiment in 1922...

      • Second Infantry Brigade Brig Gen W. Hughes
        • 59th East Lancashire Regiment
        • 12th Kelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment
        • 1st Gurkha Rifles
        • 3rd Gurkha Rifles
    • 2nd Division Maj Gen M A Biddulph
      • Cavalry Brigade Brig Gen C. H. Palliser
        • 21st Daly's Horse
        • 22nd Sam Browne's Horse
        • 35th Scinde Horse
      • Artillery Col Le Mesurier
      • First Infantry Brigade Brig Gen R. Lacy
        • 70th East Surrey Regiment
          East Surrey Regiment
          The East Surrey Regiment was a regiment in the British Army formed in 1881 from the amalgamation of the 31st Regiment of Foot and the 70th Regiment of Foot...

        • 19th Punjabis
          19th Punjabis
          The 19th Punjabis was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was raised in 1857, as the 7th Regiment of Punjab Infantry. It was designated as the 19th Punjabis in 1903 and became 1st Battalion 14th Punjab Regiment in 1922...

        • 127th Baluchis
      • Second Infantry Brigade Brig Gen Nuttall
        • 26th Punjabis
          26th Punjabis
          The 26th Punjabis were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was raised in 1857, as the 18th Regiment of Punjab Infantry. It was designated as the 26th Punjabis in 1903 and became 2nd Battalion 15th Punjab Regiment in 1922...

        • 32nd Pioneers
        • 55th Coke's Rifles
        • 129th Baluchis

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' friend (and story narrator) Dr. Watson
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John H. Watson, M.D. , known as Dr. Watson, is a character in the Sherlock Holmes stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Watson is Sherlock Holmes's friend, assistant and sometime flatmate, and is the first person narrator of all but four stories in the Sherlock Holmes canon.-Name:Doctor Watson's first...

 briefly served in the Second Afghan War, as described in the first chapter of A Study in Scarlet
A Study in Scarlet
A Study in Scarlet is a detective mystery novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, introducing his new character of Sherlock Holmes, who later became one of the most famous literary detective characters. He wrote the story in 1886, and it was published the next year...

. In subsequent books, occasional reference is made to the wound Watson suffered from a Jezail
Jezail
The jezail was a simple, cost-efficient and often hand-made muzzle-loading long arm commonly used in British India, Central Asia and parts of the Middle East in the past.-Features:...

 bullet, although Conan Doyle was notoriously poor at remembering whether the wound was in his shoulder or leg.

M M Kaye sets the finale of her novel The Far Pavilions
The Far Pavilions
The Far Pavilions is an epic novel of British-Indian history by M. M. Kaye, first published in 1978, which tells the story of an English officer during the Great Game. The novel, rooted deeply in the romantic epics of the 19th century, has been hailed as a masterpiece of storytelling...

during the Second Afghan War, the hero, Ashton Pelham Martyn (Ashok) is sent to Kabul to assist as a British spy and his best friend is made head of the military mission that accompanies Sir Pierre Louis Cavagnari when he goes to Kabul as an advisor. The book ends with the fall of the Bala Hissar in Kabul, where the British force is living; the death of all the British force, British officers and Indian soldiers, after a bitter and hard fought battle (almost all of which is based on original sources); and the hero and his wife riding north into the Himalyas.

See also



  • First Anglo-Afghan War
    First Anglo-Afghan War
    The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between British India and Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. It was one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game, the 19th century competition for power and influence in Central Asia between the United Kingdom and Russia, and also marked one of the worst...

  • Third Anglo-Afghan War
    Third Anglo-Afghan War
    The Third Anglo-Afghan War began on 6 May 1919 and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919. It was a minor tactical victory for the British. For the British, the Durand Line was reaffirmed as the political boundary between the Emirate of Afghanistan and British India and the Afghans agreed not to...

  • European influence in Afghanistan
    European influence in Afghanistan
    The European influence in Afghanistan refers to political, social, and sometimes imperialistic influence several European nations have had on this historical development of Afghanistan.-Rise of Dost Mohammad Khan:...

  • Military history of Afghanistan

External links