Baloch people

Baloch people

Overview
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region
Balochistan
Balochistan or Baluchistan is a region which covers parts of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. It can also refer to one of several modern and historical territories within that region:...

 and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

 in Western Asia.

The Baluch people mainly speak Baluchi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

, which is a branch of the Iranian languages
Iranian languages
The Iranian languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages which in turn is a subgroup of Indo-European language family. They have been and are spoken by Iranian peoples....

, and more specifically of the North-western Iranian languages
Western Iranian languages
The Western Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian .The two sub-branches are:*Northwestern Iranian languages*Southwestern Iranian languages...

, that is highly influenced by that of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

 and shares similarities with Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

 and other languages of the region.
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Encyclopedia
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region
Balochistan
Balochistan or Baluchistan is a region which covers parts of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. It can also refer to one of several modern and historical territories within that region:...

 and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

 in Western Asia.

The Baluch people mainly speak Baluchi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

, which is a branch of the Iranian languages
Iranian languages
The Iranian languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages which in turn is a subgroup of Indo-European language family. They have been and are spoken by Iranian peoples....

, and more specifically of the North-western Iranian languages
Western Iranian languages
The Western Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian .The two sub-branches are:*Northwestern Iranian languages*Southwestern Iranian languages...

, that is highly influenced by that of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

 and shares similarities with Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

 and other languages of the region. It also contains archaic features reminiscent of Old Persian and Avestan
Avestan language
Avestan is an East Iranian language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, i.e. the Avesta, from which it derives its name...

. They inhabit mountainous terrains and deserts, and maintain a very distinct cultural identity.
The Baloch-speaking population worldwide is estimated to be in the range of 10 to 15 million.[citation needed] However, the exact number of Baloch and those who are or claim to be of Baloch ancestry is difficult to determine. In the Punjab province of Pakistan almost 10% of peoples are Balochi.[citation needed] Most of them speak Saraiki but in the Jhang area of Punjab, the majority of the Baloch population speak Punjabi also.[citation needed]
The baloch living in the Southern punjab is almost 20% of the whole baloch living in balochistan. They all speak in the saraiki language

It is possible that there are more Baloch than simply those who claim Balochi as their mother tongue. This, however, raises the question as to who is and is not a Baloch, as many surrounding peoples claim to be of Baloch descent but do not speak Balochi. The Brahui, having lived in proximity to the Baloch, have absorbed substantial linguistic and genetic admixture from the Baloch and in many cases are indistinguishable. Despite very few cultural differences from the Baloch, the Brahui are still regarded as a separate group on account of language difference.

The higher population figures for the Baloch may only be possible if a large number of "Baloch" are included who speak different languages like Saraiki, Sindhi, Panjabi and Brahui, and who often claim descent from Baloch ancestors. Many Baloch outside of Balochistan are also bilingual or of mixed ancestry due to their proximity to other ethnic groups, including the Sindhis, Brahui, Persians, Saraikis and Pashtuns. A large number of Baloch have been migrating to or living in provinces adjacent to Balochistan for centuries. Balochs make up 2% of Iran's population (1.5 million) and live in its southeastern provinces. In addition, there are many Baloch living in other parts of the world, with the bulk living in the GCC countries of the Persian Gulf.

About 60 percent of the Baluch live in Balochistan, a western province in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. Around 25 percent inhabit the eastern province of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the Islamic Republic of Iran; a significant number of Baluch people also live in Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 and South Punjab
South Punjab
South Punjab is the southernmost region of Pakistan's Punjab province. The districts of Bahawalpur, Multan, Rahim Yar Khan and D. G. Khan are geographically regarded as components of the region...

 in Pakistan. Many of the rest live in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

, Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

 and in some parts of Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, namely Kenya, and Tanzania (Tabora has a large community). Small communities of Baluch people also live in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 (particularly Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 & England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

) and in Perth, Australia
Perth, Western Australia
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the fourth most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000....

, where they arrived in the 19th century.

Origins and history






The Baluch people of today are descendants of ancient Median
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

and Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 tribes. Historical references of ancient Persia have made it possible to arrive at this conclusion. Maka
Maka (satrapy)
Maka was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire and later a satrapy of the Parthian and Sassanian empires , corresponding to modern day Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates, plus the northern half of Oman and also Balochistan and Sindh province of Pakistan...

 is mentioned by Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria and lived in the 5th century BC . He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a...

 as one of the early satrap
Satrap
Satrap was the name given to the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sassanid Empire and the Hellenistic empires....

s of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia , commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much...

, who successfully united several ancient Iranian tribes to create an empire. In the Behistun Inscription, Darius the Great mentions Maka as one of his eastern territories. Darius is recorded to have personally led his elite forces
Persian Immortals
The "Immortals" was the name given by Herodotus to an elite force of soldiers who fought for the Achaemenid Empire. This force performed the dual roles of both Imperial Guard and standing army during the Persian Empire's expansion and during the Greco-Persian Wars...

, whose ranks were restricted to those with Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, Mede or Elamite ancestry, to fight the invading Scythians of Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 and then led the conquests in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

, where he conquered Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 in 519 BC, constituted it as his 20th Satrapy, and made use of the oceans there. Darius wanted to know more about Asia, according to Herodotus; he also wished to know where the "Indus (which is the only river save one that produces crocodiles) emptied itself into the sea". The present region of Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

, which is inhabited by Baluch people, derived its name from the word "Maka
Maka (satrapy)
Maka was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire and later a satrapy of the Parthian and Sassanian empires , corresponding to modern day Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates, plus the northern half of Oman and also Balochistan and Sindh province of Pakistan...

". The Babylonians had also made voyages using Maka to communicate with India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Maka had also communicated with Euphrates
Euphrates
The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia...

, Tigris
Tigris
The Tigris River is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq.-Geography:...

 and Indus valley, objects from the Harappan
Harappan
Harappan can refer to:* Aspects related to Harappa an archaeological site and city in northeast Pakistan* The Indus Valley Civilization that thrived along Indus River...

 culture have also been found in modern-day Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, other archaeology
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 suggest that Maka was exporting copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

. Herodotus mentions the inhabitants of Maka as "Mykians" who were also previously involved in several conquests with Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia , commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much...

 and after the conquest of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 with Cambyses
Cambyses
Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

, they went to Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 in command of Darius I, and also took in army of Xerxes the great
Xerxes I of Persia
Xerxes I of Persia , Ḫšayāršā, ), also known as Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire.-Youth and rise to power:...

 at the battle of Thermopylae
Thermopylae
Thermopylae is a location in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. It derives its name from its hot sulphur springs. "Hot gates" is also "the place of hot springs and cavernous entrances to Hades"....

, where they were equipped the same as Pactyans
Pakthas
For the present-day Afghan provinces of , see Paktia Province, Paktika Province and Khost Province.Pakthas are an ancient people, that find reference in Sanskrit and Greek sources and as a people living in the areas now in Afghanistan, as well as the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan...

, Utians and Paricanians, the tribes adjacent to the Mykians. The word Maka
Maka (satrapy)
Maka was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire and later a satrapy of the Parthian and Sassanian empires , corresponding to modern day Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates, plus the northern half of Oman and also Balochistan and Sindh province of Pakistan...

 later became Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

 as it is common in closely related ancient Avestan and Old Persian language
Old Persian language
The Old Persian language is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages . Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets, and seals of the Achaemenid era...

s to use "an" and "ran" at the end of plurals, which then translates as "the land of Mykians". They are mentioned as "the men from Maka" in daeva inscriptions. The "daeva
Daeva
Daeva in Avestan language meaning "a being of shining light", is a term for a particular sort of supernatural entity with disagreeable characteristics. Equivalents in Iranian languages include Pashto dêw , Baluchi dêw , Persian dīv , Kurdish dêw...

inscription" is one of the most important of all Achaemenid inscriptions; in the Baluchi language, dêw translates as "giant devil
Devil
The Devil is believed in many religions and cultures to be a powerful, supernatural entity that is the personification of evil and the enemy of God and humankind. The nature of the role varies greatly...

 or monster
Monster
A monster is any fictional creature, usually found in legends or horror fiction, that is somewhat hideous and may produce physical harm or mental fear by either its appearance or its actions...

". Mykians were also responsible for many inventions, such as qanat
Qanat
A qanāt is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates...

s
and underground drainage galleries that brought water from aquifers on the piedmont to gardens or palm groves on the plains. These inventions were important reasons behind the success of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire , sometimes known as First Persian Empire and/or Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation...

 and survival of Mykians in their largely harsh natural environment
Natural environment
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species....

. Other inscriptions also record that gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

, silver
Silver
Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

, lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli is a relatively rare semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense blue color....

, turquise, cornalin, cedar wood
Cedar wood
Cedar wood comes from several different trees that grow in different parts of the world, and may have different uses.* California incense-cedar, from Calocedrus decurrens, is the primary type of wood used for making pencils...

, wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

 and the decoration for the relief at Susa
Susa
Susa was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers....

 were from Maka. The Mykians of the other side of ancient Maka, the present-day region of Baluchistan and Sindh had later taken independence because they are not mentioned in the book written by Arrian of Nicomedia about campaigns of Alexander the Great but he only mentions the Oman side of Maka which he calls "Maketa". The reasons for this may have been the arguably unjust rule of Xerxes. It is highly likely that the ancient Mykians were one of the Median or Persian tribes and an important part of Achaemenid empire, as they are not mentioned as one of the ancient Iranian tribes that Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia , commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much...

 and Darius I had fought with. Cyrus himself was of both Persian and Median ancestry as his father was Cambyses I, who is believed to have married Mandane of Media
Mandane of Media
Mandane of Media was a princess of Media and, later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great, ruler of the Persia's Achaemenid Dynasty.-Mandane in Herodotus' histories:...

, the daughter of Astyages
Astyages
Astyages Astyages Astyages (spelled by Herodotus as Ἀστυάγης - Astyages; by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus as Aspadas; Akkadian: Ištumegu, was the last king of the Median Empire, r...

, a Median king.

Historical evidence suggests that Baluch people were the ancient inhabitants of the Maka satrapy in Achaemenid empire
Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire , sometimes known as First Persian Empire and/or Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation...

. Baluch inhabiting the coastal areas in the region of Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

 (Chabahar
Chabahar
Chah Bahar is a city in and capital of Chah Bahar County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. Chah Bahar is a free port on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. At the 2006 census, its population was 71,070, in 13,837 families...

, Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

), Gulf (Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

, Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

) and Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 (Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 and other parts of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

) and tribes including the Jatoi
Jatoi
Jatoi is the name of a Baloch tribe in Sindh, Pakistan. The Jatoi originated from Balochistan.sub clans of jatoi baloch are bullo,misrani,nacharani,shar,kharoos...

, Rind
Rind
Rind may refer to:*Peel *Pork rind*Rind , a giantess in Norse mythology*Rind, Armenia, also Rrind*Rind et al. controversy, about a study on child sexual abuse*Rind , a tribe in Baluchistan...

, Bizenjo
Bizenjo
Bizenjo is a Baloch tribe in Balochistan. This tribe is mainly located in Awaran Districtkolwa and grashag and district khuzdar,naal,ornach mountains till jhaoo and lasbella,and in district makran,gwadar,pasni,turbat the bizenjo tribe has four clans hamalani,tumrani,omrani,sehpaad sardar aslam...

, Brahvi and Gabol
Gabol
Gabol is a Baloch tribe settled in the Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. Gabols are of Rind origin and are mostly settled in Tikko Baran surrounding the Kirthar Mountains Range, Karachi, Ghotki, Alipur, Sibi, and Jacobabad. This tribe is also considered to be present in Iran...

 are highly skilled in designing boats, fishing and other skills required to survive in their environment. Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria and lived in the 5th century BC . He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a...

 also mentions that Darius had made use of the ocean in this region of Sindh. The Slemani Baluch who inhabit the region of Balochistan including Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

—for example, tribes including the Brahvi, Marri
Marri
Marri ) is one of the largest ethnic Baloch tribes in Balochistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. Marri was considered to be a clan of the Rind tribe in the early history of Baloch and Balochistan...

, Bugti
Bugti
Bugti , is a Baloch tribe located in Balochistan, Pakistan. They are divided into various clans such as Rahija, Mandawani , Kalpar, Nauthani, Masuri, Ferozani, Salamaan Zai, Mundarani, Qasimani, Shambani, Sobazai, Pahi, Maretha and Moharkanzai etc., numbering around 300,000.On a bigger scale the...

, Buzdar, Mazari
Mazari
Mazari may refer to:*Mazari tribe, a prominent Baloch tribe settled in Rajanpur and Sindh, Pakistan*Abdul Ali Mazari, Afghan Hazara leader of Hizb-e-Wahdat*A local of Mazar-e-Sharif city in northern Afghanistan...

, Mengal
Mengal
Mengal is a Brahui / Baloch tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan- Demographics :The Mengal tribe is one of the largest Baloch tribe. Mengal people speak Brahui, a Dravidian language that has been heavily influenced by other Iranian languages spoken in the area, especially Balochi...

, Nutkani
Nutkani
The Nutkani or Notkani Nodhkani are a Saraiki, Sindhi and Balochi speaking Baloch tribe of Eastern Pakistan.The name of the Nutkani tribe is derived from Notak Khan, who was with the chieftain Sardar Mir Chaker Khan Rind when he migrated to Punjab from Baluchistan .-Sub tribe :The descendants of...

, Jiskani
Jiskani
The Jiskani are a Baloch tribe located in the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab.- Distribution :The Jiskani tribe is settled in Tando Jam, Badin, Tando Allah Yar, Ghotki, Sukkur, Khairpur, Mirpur Khas District, Dadu and Matiari districts of Sindh province and Bhakkar, Layyah,...

, Muhammad Hassani
Muhammad Hassani
Muhammad Hasni are the largest Baloch tribe. They reside in the following districts of Pakistan: Chagai, Kharan, Dalbandin, Washuk, Kalat, Awaran, Khuzdar, Quetta, Nushki, Mastung, Panjgur, Makran and other...

,Nousherwani, Rind
Rind
Rind may refer to:*Peel *Pork rind*Rind , a giantess in Norse mythology*Rind, Armenia, also Rrind*Rind et al. controversy, about a study on child sexual abuse*Rind , a tribe in Baluchistan...

, Bizenjo
Bizenjo
Bizenjo is a Baloch tribe in Balochistan. This tribe is mainly located in Awaran Districtkolwa and grashag and district khuzdar,naal,ornach mountains till jhaoo and lasbella,and in district makran,gwadar,pasni,turbat the bizenjo tribe has four clans hamalani,tumrani,omrani,sehpaad sardar aslam...

, Zehri
Zehri
Zehri is a Brahui speaking Baloch tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan.-Distribution:The tribe is spread throughout Sindh and Balochistan and speak Brahui and Balochi as native languages. The Zehri tribe is a Brahui speaking Baloch tribe mainly living in the Jhalawan region of the province of...

, Dehwar
Dehwar
Dehwar is a name of Baloch tribe in Balochistan. The tribe is settled primarily in Kalat, Khuzdar, Kharan, Noshkey, Sarlath, Dalbandin, and Mastung. The principal clans into which the tribe is divided are the Yusufzai dodaki Sanjarzai and Khwajakhail...

, Changwani and others—carry different skills to survive in their mostly mountainous environment and have a history of aggressive behavior towards invasions. These tribes are not confined to one specific location as they also contain sub-tribes and can be found all over the region.

The origins of the word "Baluch" or "Baloch" are shrouded in controversy. According to German
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

 archaeologist and Iranologist Ernst Herzfeld
Ernst Herzfeld
Ernst Emil Herzfeld was a German archaeologist and Iranologist.-Life:Herzfeld was born in Celle, Province of Hanover...

, it is derived from the Median word brza-vaciya, which means "loud cry", while others claim the word derives from ancient Iranian languages
Iranian languages
The Iranian languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages which in turn is a subgroup of Indo-European language family. They have been and are spoken by Iranian peoples....

.

Baluchi culture



The origins of Baluchi culture and traditions can be traced back to Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

, which is widely accepted as the origin of the Baluch people.
Baluchi customs and traditions are conducted according to codes imposed by tribal laws. These strong traditions and cultural values are important to Baluch people and have enabled them to keep their distinctive ancient cultural identity and way of life with little change to this day. The culture and traditions of the Baluch have historically been passed down from mother to daughter, and men from father to son.

Baluchi culture is mentioned in the Pir M. Zehi's account of his travel to the province of Sakestan, or the present-day Sistan va Balochistan province of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, which holds strong significance to the culture of Baluch people. Baluch people have preserved their traditional dress with little change over the centuries. The Baluch men wear long shirts with long sleeves and loose pants resembling the Achaemenid outfits of ancient Persians; the dress is occasionally accompanied by a turban or a hat on their heads.
The dress worn by Baluch women is one of the most interesting aspects of Baluchi culture. They are of strong significance to the culture of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and hold a special place in the society. The women put on loose dress and pants with sophisticated and colorful needlework, including a large pocket at the front of the dress to hold their accessories. The upper part of the dress and sleeves are also decorated with needlework, a form of artistry that is specific to the clothing of the Baluch women. Often the dress also contains round or square pieces of glass to further enhance the presentation. They cover their hair with a scarf, called a sarig in the local dialect.
These customs are unique to the people of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and the art of this needlework on women's clothing may provide one with a picture of the freedom and high status of Baluch women in Achaemenid era.
Gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

 ornaments such as necklaces and bracelets are an important aspect of Baluch women's traditions and among their most favored items of jewelry are dorr, heavy earrings that are fastened to the head with gold chains so that the heavy weight will not cause harm to the ears. They usually wear a gold brooch (tasni) that is made by local jewelers in different shapes and sizes and is used to fasten the two parts of the dress together over the chest. In ancient times, especially during the pre-Islamic era, it was common for Baluch women to perform dances
Persian dance
Persian dance refers to the type of dancing from Iran. Persian dance is very sensual, circular and slow which makes it a dance that is unique to Iran amongst all other Middle Eastern dance forms....

 and sing folk songs
Balochi music
Balochi music refers to music performed by the Baloch people in Sistan and Baluchestan Province an eastern province in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Balochistan, a western province in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, southern Oman, some parts of Afghanistan and Middle East. Baluchi music is very...

 at different events. The tradition of a Baluch mother singing lullabies to her children has played an important role in the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation since ancient times. Apart from the dressing style of the Baluch, indigenous and local traditions and customs are also of great importance to the Baluch.

Baluch people are culturally and traditionally regarded as secular. However, Baluch people are a minority, and growing Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the "fundamentals" of Islam: the Quran and the Sunnah. Definitions of the term vary. According to Christine L...

 in the region is seen as a threat to Baluchi culture.

Baluchi music



Folk music has always played a great role in Baluchi traditions. Baluchi music and instruments belong to the same branch of Iranian music performed by many other Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

 including Persians, Kurds, Lurs
Lurs
Lurs are an Iranic people living mainly in south-western Iran. Their population is estimated at above two million. They occupy Lorestan, Bakhtiari, and Kuh-Gilu-Boir Ahmed. "....

, Tajiks
Tajiks
Tajik is a general designation for a wide range of Persian-speaking people of Iranic origin, with traditional homelands in present-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan...

 and others. Traditions like the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation by singing lullabies to children and praising warriors also have a significant role in Baluchi music traditions. The fact that both men and women participate in folk music reflects on the pre-Islamic significance of folk music in Baluchi culture. Many years of invasions, wars and later adopted religious values have prevented Balouchi music from prevailing further in the 21st century. However, a Swedish folk band, Golbang and Padik with the lead singer Rostam Mirlashari
Rostam Mirlashari
Rostam Mirlashari was born in Zahedan city. He is originally from the Lashari tribe and Zahedan. He is one of the best singers in the Balouchi community. In 1991, the political situation and fear for his life in Baluchistan convinced him to leave Iran and move to Sweden...

 originally from Zahedan
Zahedan
Zahedan is a city in and the capital of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 552,706, in 109,488 families.-Geography:...

 & Lashar
Lashar
Lashar is a small village in the southeastern province Sistan and Baluchestan in IranThe people of Lashar are Black Africans. It is said that these blacks were brought to the Persian Gulf by Portuguese slave traders as early as the sixteenth century, they are called Ahl-i Hava and worship the winds...

 in Balochistan
Balochistan
Balochistan or Baluchistan is a region which covers parts of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. It can also refer to one of several modern and historical territories within that region:...

, has made progress in introducing Balouchi folk music to the Western world. The most commonly used instruments in Balouchi folk music are tanbur
Tembûr
The tembûr, a fretted string instrument, is a form of tanbūr. It is associated with the Ahl-e Haqq religion in Kurdish areas and in the Lorestān and Sistan va Baluchestan provinces of Iran. It is currently the only musical instrument used in Ahl-e Haqq rituals, and practitioners venerate the...

, long-necked lutes. Lutes have been present in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

 since the Akkadian era, or the third millennium BCE. The dohol
Dohol
A dohol is a large cylindrical drum with two skin heads. It is generally struck on one side with a wooden stick bowed at the end, and with a large thin stick on the other side, though it is also played by the bare hands. It is the principal accompaniment for the sorna...

, a large cylindrical drum with two skin heads, is the principal accompaniment for the surna
Zurna
The zurna , is a multinational outdoor wind instrument, usually accompanied by a davul in Anatolian folk music. The name is from Turkish zurna, itself derived from Persian سرنای surnāy, composed of sūr “banquet, feast” and nāy “reed, pipe”...

, an ancient Iranian woodwind instrument that dates back to the Achaemenid Dynasty (550-330 BCE). The ney
Flute
The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening...

is also commonly played, using single or double flutes. The suroz, a Baluchi folk violin, is also commonly played. Other Baluchi musical instruments include the tar
Tar
Tar is modified pitch produced primarily from the wood and roots of pine by destructive distillation under pyrolysis. Production and trade in tar was a major contributor in the economies of Northern Europe and Colonial America. Its main use was in preserving wooden vessels against rot. The largest...

and the saz
Baglama
thumb|180px|Cura and bağlamaThe bağlama is a stringed musical instrument shared by various cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean, Near East, and Central Asia....

. Baluchi music has also influenced Sindhi and Seraiki folk music.

Geographic distribution



The total population of ethnic Baluch people is estimated to be around 9 million worldwide. However, the exact number of those who are Baluch or claim to be of Baluch ancestry is difficult to determine. As of 2010, the Baluch are 4.97% of Pakistan's 177,276,594 million people. They make up 2% of Afghanistan's roughly 30 million people and 2% of Iran's estimated 67 million.
Baluch ancestry is also claimed in the neighboring areas that adjoin Baluch majority lands. The Brahui
Brahui people
The Brahui or Brohi are ethnic Baloch group of about 2.2 million people with the majority found in Kalat, Baluchistan, Pakistan, but they are also found in smaller numbers in neighboring Afghanistan and Iran. The Brahuis are almost entirely Sunni Muslims.-Origins:The ethnonym "Brahui" is a very...

 are also considered Baluch but they speak the Brahui language. Despite very few cultural differences from the Baluch. Many Baluch outside of Balochistan are also bilingual or of mixed ancestry due to their proximity to other ethnic groups, including the Sindhis
Sindhi people
Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province Formerly of British India, now in Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity...

, Saraikis
Saraiki people
The Saraiki people or Multani people are an ethnic group from the central and south-eastern areas of Pakistan, especially the former princely state of Bahawalpur and the districts of Multan, Lodhran, Vehari, Khanewal, Rahim Yar Khan, Rajanpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh,...

 and Pashtuns
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

. A large number of Baluch have been migrating to or living in provinces adjacent to Balochistan for centuries. In addition, there are many Baluch living in other parts of the world, with the bulk living in the GCC
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf , also known as the Gulf Cooperation Council , is a political and economic union of the Arab states bordering the Persian Gulf and constituting the Arabian Peninsula, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates...

 countries of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

. The Baluch are an important community in Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, where they make up a sizable minority.

There is a small population of Baluch in several Western countries such as Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 and Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. Some Baluch settled in Australia in the 19th century; some fourth-generation Baluch still live there, mainly in the western city of Perth
Perth, Western Australia
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the fourth most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000....

.

Baluch in Oman


The Baluch in Oman have maintained their ethnic and linguistic distinctions. The Southern Baluch comprise approximately 22% of the country's population. The traditional economy of Baluch in Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

 is based on a combination of trade, farming and semi-nomadic shepherding.

Baluchi language


The Balochi language
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

 is spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Persian Gulf Arab states, Turkmenistan, and as far as East Africa and some Western countries. It is classified as a member of the Iranian group of the Indo-European language family, which includes Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

, Pashto, Dari, Tajik
Tajik language
Tajik, Tajik Persian, or Tajiki, is a variety of modern Persian spoken in Central Asia. Historically Tajiks called their language zabani farsī , meaning Persian language in English; the term zabani tajikī, or Tajik language, was introduced in the 20th century by the Soviets...

 and Ossetian. The Baluchi language has the closest similarities to Kurdish, Avestan, old Persian and other Iranian languages
Iranian languages
The Iranian languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages which in turn is a subgroup of Indo-European language family. They have been and are spoken by Iranian peoples....

.

Two main dialects are spoken in Sistan va Balochestan and Balochestan
Balochistan (region)
Balochistan or Baluchistan is an arid, mountainous region in the Iranian plateau in Southwest Asia; it includes part of southeastern Iran, western Pakistan, and southwestern Afghanistan. The area is named after the numerous Baloch tribes, Iranian peoples who moved into the area from the west...

: Eastern and Western. The exact number of Baluch speakers is difficult to know, but the estimated number could be around six million. The majority speak Western Baluchi, which is also the dialect that has been most widely used in Baluchi literature. Within the Western dialect are two further dialects, Rakhshani and Nousherwani (spoken mainly in the northern areas) and Makkurani (in the south).

The Baluch have several tribes and sub-tribes. Some of these tribes speak Brahui, while most speak Balochi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

. Multilingualism is common, with many Baluch speaking both Brahui and Baluchi. The Marri
Marri
Marri ) is one of the largest ethnic Baloch tribes in Balochistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. Marri was considered to be a clan of the Rind tribe in the early history of Baloch and Balochistan...

 tribe Domki and the Bugti
Bugti
Bugti , is a Baloch tribe located in Balochistan, Pakistan. They are divided into various clans such as Rahija, Mandawani , Kalpar, Nauthani, Masuri, Ferozani, Salamaan Zai, Mundarani, Qasimani, Shambani, Sobazai, Pahi, Maretha and Moharkanzai etc., numbering around 300,000.On a bigger scale the...

 tribe speak Baluchi. The Mengal
Mengal
Mengal is a Brahui / Baloch tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan- Demographics :The Mengal tribe is one of the largest Baloch tribe. Mengal people speak Brahui, a Dravidian language that has been heavily influenced by other Iranian languages spoken in the area, especially Balochi...

 tribe, who live in the Chagai
Chagai District
Chaghi/Chagai is the largest district of Pakistan and is located on the north west corner of Balochistan, Pakistan. It forms a triangular border with Afghanistan and Iran.Pakistan conducted a nuclear weapons test in 1998 at Ras Koh Hills Chagai District....

, Khuzdar
Khuzdar District
Khuzdar district is located in the centre of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Khuzdar is the capital of Khuzdar district. Khuzdar was created as a separate district on 1 March 1974. Previously, it was part of Kalat District....

, Kharan
Kharan District
Kharan is a district in the north-west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Kharan was notified as a district in 1951 and the Deputy Commissioner’s office started functioning on March 15, 1952. The Deputy Commissioner directly supervises all activities in the district and the functions of all...

 districts of Balochistan and in southern parts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, speak Brahui
Brahui
The name Brahui may refer to:*The Brahui language*The Brahui people...

. The Muhammad Hasni tribe speak Brahui
Brahui
The name Brahui may refer to:*The Brahui language*The Brahui people...

, Balochi
Balochi
Balochi or Baluchi may refer to:* Baloch people, an ethnic group primarily found in the Balochistan region of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan* Beluch, a Baluch ethnic sub-group in Turkmenistan* Balochi language* Balochi dialects...

 and some other languages according to the area they are living. The Lango
Lango (tribe)
Lango is a Baloch tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan....

 tribe, who live in central Balochistan in the Mangochar area, speak Baluchi as their first language and Brahui as their second. The Bizanjo tribe speak both languages. The Bangulzai tribe mostly speaks Brahui, but has a Baluchi-speaking minority (known as Garanis).

The Mazari
Mazari tribe
The Mazari tribe is one of the oldest Baloch tribes in Pakistan. Mazari means "lion" in Balochi. Rojhan-Mazari, a town in the Rajanpur District of the Punjab near the inter-provincial borders of Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab, is the stronghold of the Mazari tribe.-History:The Mazari tribe is one...

s widely speak Baluchi or both dialects. The Malghani are part of the Nutkani
Nutkani
The Nutkani or Notkani Nodhkani are a Saraiki, Sindhi and Balochi speaking Baloch tribe of Eastern Pakistan.The name of the Nutkani tribe is derived from Notak Khan, who was with the chieftain Sardar Mir Chaker Khan Rind when he migrated to Punjab from Baluchistan .-Sub tribe :The descendants of...

 tribe, which is the largest tribe in the tehsil
Tehsil
A Tehsil or Tahsil/Tahasil , also known as Taluk and Mandal, is an administrative division of some country/countries of South Asia....

. The Talpur, Mastoi
Mastoi
The Mastoi or Mustoi are a Baloch tribe in the Balochistan, Sindh, and Punjab provinces of Pakistan.- History and origins :Mastois are the descendants of Mir Chakar Khan Rind Baloch...

, Jatoi, Gabol
Gabol
Gabol is a Baloch tribe settled in the Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. Gabols are of Rind origin and are mostly settled in Tikko Baran surrounding the Kirthar Mountains Range, Karachi, Ghotki, Alipur, Sibi, and Jacobabad. This tribe is also considered to be present in Iran...

, Lashari, Chandio, Khushk, Khosa, Bozdar, Jiskani
Jiskani
The Jiskani are a Baloch tribe located in the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab.- Distribution :The Jiskani tribe is settled in Tando Jam, Badin, Tando Allah Yar, Ghotki, Sukkur, Khairpur, Mirpur Khas District, Dadu and Matiari districts of Sindh province and Bhakkar, Layyah,...

, Heesbani, Magsi, Zardari, Rind, Bhurgri, Jakhranim,Mirjat,Jamali and other Baluch tribes that settled in Sindh speak Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, Baluchi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

 and Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

. The Gadhi
Gadhi
Gadhi is a village development committee in Rautahat District in the Narayani Zone of south-eastern Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 1063....

 and Qaisrani
Qaisrani
Qaisrani Also spelled as is a Baloch tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan. The Qaisranis claim their ancestry from Qaiser Khan who was the nephew of Mir Chakar Khan Rind.-Location:...

 Baluch living near Taunsa Sharif
Taunsa Sharif
Taunsa Sharif تونسه شريف , or Taunsa, is a Tehsil of Dera Ghazi Khan District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The town of Taunsa Sharif is the headquarters of the tehsil...

 in the Punjab province of Pakistan speak Saraiki and Baluchi, while their clansmen living the Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan is a city located in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, Pakistan. Dera Ghazi Khan is one of the most populous cities in Southern Punjab, and it is the largest district in Punjab in terms of area, being approximately in extent....

 tribal areas speak Baluchi. The Lund
Lund (tribe)
Lund is a Baloch tribe of Pakistan. It is a tribe of Balochistan Lund, Setharja, Khairpur mir's, Khairpur_District, Sindh, originated from other tribes . Exact origins are not known but by seeing their generations now residing it is found that they are originated from central Balochistan...

 Baluch living in Shadan Lund
Shadan Lund
Shadan Lund is a town and union council of Dera Ghazi Khan District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is located at 30°28'13N 70°43'45E and has an altitude of 125 metres .-References:...

 speak Sindhi, Sairaki and Baluchi. The Leghari
Leghari
The Leghari , or Laghari) are a Baloch tribe living in Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. The Leghari Baloch primarily speak the Seraiki, Sindhi, and Balochi language, and are largely Sunni Muslims....

, Jiskani
Jiskani
The Jiskani are a Baloch tribe located in the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab.- Distribution :The Jiskani tribe is settled in Tando Jam, Badin, Tando Allah Yar, Ghotki, Sukkur, Khairpur, Mirpur Khas District, Dadu and Matiari districts of Sindh province and Bhakkar, Layyah,...

, Lashari
Lashari
Lashari is the name of a Baloch tribe in Pakistan and Iran. The Lasharis have migrated and settled in the United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, India, Indonesia, USA, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, England, and many other countries of the world...

, Gadhi
Gadhi
Gadhi is a village development committee in Rautahat District in the Narayani Zone of south-eastern Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 1063....

, Laskani, Soomrani
Soomrani
The Soomrani are a sub-tribe of the Magsi, a Baloch tribe of Pakistan, Iraq and Iran. Many Soomrani live in Pakistan in the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. In Punjab, their communities can be found in Layyah, Sahiwal and Dera Ismail Khan,. Soomrani are powerful and...

, Pitafi
Pitafi
- History :Pitafi is a very old tribe originally living around the Petaf river in South-Eastern Iran. Most Pitafis migrated to different areas in Southern Pakistan. Pitafis are predominantly agricultural people and some of them are well-reputed producers of rich verities of organic mangoes.In the...

 Korai
Korai
The Korai are a Baloch tribe settled in the Balochistan province of Iran, Balochistan Province of Pakistan; Sindh; Punjab provinces of Pakistan; and the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujrat, Maharastra, Haryana, and Indian Punjab....

, and Kunara
Kunara
The Kunara are a Baloch tribe, sub tribe of Azam Khel clan, which is a major clan of Lashari tribe. Azam Khel and Kundo Khel had been migrated to Mianwali District after the Baloch civil war in Balochistan. They are a branch from the main Baluchi tribe...

 Baluch in the Dera Ismail Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan District
Dera Ghazi Khan is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The district covers an area of 5,306 m² and it is a long narrow strip of country, 198 m...

 and Mianwali
Mianwali District
Mianwali is a district in the northwest of Punjab province, Pakistan. It borders eight districts: Attock District in the north, Chakwal District in the northeast, Khushab District in the east, and Bhakkar District in the south, while Lakki Marwat lies to the west, Kohat and Karak districts to the...

 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa speak Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

 as their first language. The Tauqi
Tauqi
Tauqi is a Rakhshani Baloch Tribe living in four Districts of Balochistan i.e. Kharan, Noshki, Chaghi and Washuk as well as in Afghanistan and Iran...

 Baluch in the Khara
Khara, Punjab
Khara is a village located within the Faridkot District in the Punjab region of India. It is part of Faridkot TehsilAlso, Khara is a village located within the Kasur District in the Punjab region of Pakistan. It is part of Kasur Tehsil and is located at 31°9'41N 74°25'28E with an altitude of 195...

, Noshki, Chaghai
Chaghai
Chaghai is area in Balochistan region in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.* Chagai Hills, a Pakistani nuclear test site and a region of landform in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran.* Chagai-I, refers to five Pakistan's nuclear tests....

 and Washuk districts of Balochistan can speak both Baluchi and Brahui, but their primary language is Baluchi. The Buzdar and Ahmadani are one of the largest tribes of Baluch in southern Punjab, living in the Koh-e-Suleman range and Mana Ahmadani. Ahmadani tribe speak Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

 and Baluchi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

. Changwani Baluch with lands in Chotti Zaren speak Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

 and Baluchi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

.

See also

  • Ancient Persia
  • Balochi music
    Balochi music
    Balochi music refers to music performed by the Baloch people in Sistan and Baluchestan Province an eastern province in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Balochistan, a western province in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, southern Oman, some parts of Afghanistan and Middle East. Baluchi music is very...

  • Balochistan conflict
    Balochistan conflict
    The Balochistan conflict is an ongoing conflict between Baloch nationalists and the Government of Pakistan over Balochistan, the country's largest province...

  • Firoud
    Firoud
    Firoud was an ancient king of Kelat in his early youth and makes up a chapter in the Shahnameh "The Book of Kings" by Ferdowsi where he is mentioned as the brother of Kai Khosrow....

  • Iranian peoples
    Iranian peoples
    The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

  • Kai Khosrow
    Kai Khosrow
    Kai Khosrow is a legendary king of the Kayanian dynasty and a character in the Persian epic book, Shahnameh. He was the son of the Iranian prince Siavash who married princess Farangis of Turan while in exile. Before Kai Khosrow was born, his father was murdered in Turan by his maternal grandfather...

  • Kurdish people
    Kurdish people
    The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

  • Luristan Province
  • Missing persons (Pakistan)
    Missing persons (Pakistan)
    Missing persons is the term used in Pakistan to refer to the ostensibly hundreds or thousands of people in Pakistan who have been forcefully disappeared. Reports of forced abductions by the Pakistani state first began arising in 2001, in the aftermath of the United States invasion of Afghanistan...

  • Sistan and Baluchestan Province

External links