Afghan National Police

Afghan National Police

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The Afghan National Police - ANP - ( / ) is the primary national police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 force in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. It serves as a single law enforcement agency
Law enforcement agency
In North American English, a law enforcement agency is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.Outside North America, such organizations are called police services. In North America, some of these services are called police while others have other names In North American...

 all across the country. The Afghan police force was first created with the establishment of the Afghan nation
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 in the early 18th century. The agency is under the responsibility of Afghanistan's Ministry of Interior, headed by Bismillah Khan Mohammadi.

The Afghan National Police force is currently being trained mostly by Afghan trainers advised by U.S. armed forces
United States armed forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

 and various Federal government employees
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 as well as by many other NATO states such as Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

's Bundespolizei (BPOL) and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

's Ministry of Defence Police
Ministry of Defence Police
The Ministry of Defence Police is a civilian police force which is part of the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence. The force is part of the larger government agency, the Ministry of Defence Police and Guarding Agency , together with the Ministry of Defence Guard Service...

.

In 2002, the EU-led mission (EUPOL Afghanistan
European Union Police Mission
The European Union Police Mission is the European Union's mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina that aids the local police organizations, and is one of a number of European Union Police Missions worldwide. It is the first such mission undertaken by the EU within the framework of the Common Foreign and...

) was heading the civilian policing in the Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

 area but by 2005 the U.S. established training programs in all the provinces of Afghanistan
Provinces of Afghanistan
The provinces of Afghanistan are the primary administrative divisions of Afghanistan. As of 2004, there are thirty-four provinces in the country. Each province is further divided into smaller districts....

. The Afghan National Police agency currently has about 140,000 active members and is expected to reach 160,000 by November 2012. More recently, the Afghan government, with persuasion from NATO, has employed local police forces known as Arbakai or Afghan Local Police.

History



As is done with most modern states, the Afghan police force was created when the Afghan nation
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 was established in 1747 and over the centuries it was slowly modernized. The agency remained in existence throughout the Afghan Civil War and Soviet occupation that began in 1978/79 until Kabul fell in 1992 to the insurgents; the country descended into chaos and anarchy and then came under the heel of the Taliban, who enforced a primitive and barbaric justice. After the collapse of the Taliban regime in late 2001, there was little in the nation resembling a functional police department as private armed militias of warlords quickly filled yet again the vacuum left behind by a lack of central governance. The Ministry of Interior in Kabul, under the new Karzai government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, exercised little control over provincial police structures and was unable to effectively secure the remote provinces. Most of these problems were established after the Fall of Kabul in 1992
Siege of Kabul
The term Battle of Kabul refers to a series of intermittent battles and sieges for the city since the Soviet intervention in 1979. Between 1979 until the Soviet troop withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989 there were no sieges of the city and the area was largely peaceful. Fighting was mainly in the...

, when the Soviet-backed government of Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai , originally merely Najibullah, was the fourth and last President of the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. He is also considered the second President of the Republic of Afghanistan.-Early years:Najibullah was born in August 1947 to the Ahmadzai...

 fell apart and the country entered into anarchy and chaos. From 1978 to 1992 the Afghan police had firm control over the country, much thanks to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 and other factors related to the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was a government of Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. It was both ideologically close to and economically dependent on the Soviet Union, and was a major belligerent of the Afghan Civil War.- Saur Revolution :...

 or the Soviet war in the country
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

. Traditionally, police officers were poorly paid, recruited or conscripted from the poorest classes of society and frequently held in contempt by the communities they served. Compounding these factors, over two decades of unrest had also resulted in an illiteracy rate conservatively estimated at over 70% for police recruits.
Although early efforts had trained 35,000 officers in basic recruit schools during 2003 and 2004, this training was insufficient to strengthen the structures and senior command levels needed to create an effective police force. Germany, as lead nation for police under the Bonn II Agreement, concentrated its efforts on setting up the Kabul Police Academy and drafted the long range blueprint for restructuring the police services. Except for Konduz Province which had a Provisional Reconstruction Team (PRT), Germany’s program had only limited reach into the provinces. As the U.S. Department of State International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau’s (INL) activity at this time was limited in resources and scope, the U.S. Departments of Defense and State, in Spring 2005, decided to shift the implementation of the police training and equipment program to the Office of Security Cooperation-Afghanistan (OSC-A), under the authority of the Commanding General, Combined Forces Command (CFC-A). In April 2006 OSC-A became the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A) keeping the OSC-A mission.

The 2005 changes led to an increased impetus to implement significant reform programs, particularly the reform of higher staff levels at the Ministry of the Interior, the placement of police mentors throughout the country, substantial pay increases in the police salary plan and an impending, complete restructuring of the police payroll system. A nationwide reassessment of infrastructure and equipment needs was also undertaken, followed with the distribution of critically needed weapons, ammunition, vehicles, and office/dorm furniture. Although progress has been made in the areas of infrastructure, equipment and payroll distribution, these programs will take some time to reach fruition.

In the late 2000s the number of ANP officers getting killed in the line of duty jumped very sharply, with over 1,600 officers being killed in the years 2008 and 2009. Afghan officials estimate that over 100 police officers are killed in the line of duty each month. See List of Afghan security forces fatality reports in Afghanistan

Structure


The Afghan National Police (ANP) is an organization that falls under the control and responsibility of the Afghan Ministry of Interior, along with the Counter-Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) and the Counter Terrorism Department. The ANP is composed of the following sub-agencies:
  1. Afghan Border Police
    Afghan Border Police
    The Afghan Border Police secure Afghanistan's border and international airports. The ABP is also responsible to administer the country's immigration process and administer customs regulations. The ABP's anti-narcotic efforts are a prominent concern to the international community at present...

  2. Afghan Uniform Police
  3. Afghan Highway Police
  4. Criminal Investigation Department

Afghan Border Police



The Afghan Border Police (ABP) are responsible for securing the borders and airports of Afghanistan against the illegal entry of persons as well as the smuggling of contraband. As of January 2011, there are at least 25 U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is a federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Homeland Security , responsible for identifying, investigating, and dismantling vulnerabilities regarding the nation's border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security...

 and Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Customs and Border Protection is a federal law enforcement agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. regulations, including trade, customs and immigration. CBP is the...

 officers providing training to the Afghan Border Police. Homeland Security Secretary
United States Secretary of Homeland Security
The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The position was created by the...

 Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano is the third and current United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She is the fourth person to hold the position, which was created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. A member of the Democratic Party, she was the 21st...

 stated that the number could reach 65 or more by the end of 2011. Napolitano visited the Torkham
Torkham
Torkham is a border crossing town in the Nangarhar province of Afghanistan and the Khyber Agency of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, right on the Durand Line border....

 border crossing with Pakistan and was satisfied with the progress being made there. The ABP specific duties include the following:
  • Provide border security patrols within a security zone that extends 55 km into the territory of Afghanistan.
  • Provide immigration
    Immigration
    Immigration is the act of foreigners passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence...

     / visa services
    Visa (document)
    A visa is a document showing that a person is authorized to enter the territory for which it was issued, subject to permission of an immigration official at the time of actual entry. The authorization may be a document, but more commonly it is a stamp endorsed in the applicant's passport...

     and investigate immigration violations.
  • Establish and maintain Border Crossing Points, to include all international airports.
  • Provide perimeter, building, aircraft and passenger security of international airports.

Afghan Uniform Police


The Afghan Uniform Police (AUP) is the primary civil law enforcement agency in Afghanistan. The ANP is divided into five regional commands (north, south, east, west and central) as well as the Afghan National Civil Order Police, or ANCOP. Other forces falling under the command and control of the ANP include local traffic police departments as well as the fire department.
  • Afghan National Civil Order Police
    Afghan National Civil Order Police
    Afghan National Civil Order Police is a special police unit developed in July 2006 by Colonel Jack Stankiewicz, US Army, Police Reformation Directorate, CSTC-A of the law enforcement agency in Afghanistan.- Role :...

     (ANCOP)

Afghan Highway Police


The Afghan Highway Police (AHP) was a sub-department of the national police that is currently dissolved with only speculation of return. Their primary responsibility was to provide traffic safety and overall security of the "Ring Road" highway that connects most of the major population centers in Afghanistan. Most of the personnel, equipment and facilities that comprise the highway police were reorganized under the uniform police.

Criminal Investigation Department


The Criminal Investigation Department (CID) is staffed with 4148 investigators spread over the nation with the majority in Kabul. They are tasked with investigation, crime scene forensic procedures, documentation of crime, and assisting other agencies to include assistance through the crime lab housed at the Ministry of Interior.

Facilities


The United States Army Corps of Engineers
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 38,000 civilian and military personnel, making it the world's largest public engineering, design and construction management agency...

 is planning to build nearly 200 modern police stations for the ANP over the next year. The total cost of this project is reported to be over $600 million US dollars, and each police station is said to cost about $6 million.
  • National Police Training Center-Wardak - the premiere police training center in Afghanistan
  • Kabul Police Academy - established by the German
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

     police mission
  • Central Training Facility in Kabul
    Kabul
    Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

     led by US training
  • 7 Regional Training Centers - training from US forces
  • 200 modern-design stations - expected to be built before 2013

Rank Structure



Officers

  • Colonel
  • Lieutenant Colonel
  • Major
  • Staff Captain
  • Captain
  • First Lieutenant
  • Second Lieutenant
  • Third Lieutenant

Non-Commissioned and Enlisted

  • Staff Sergeant
  • Sergeant
  • First Corporal
  • Corporal
  • Soldier

Rank Disparities

Some ranks are known by several names. These disparities are most-likely caused through different translations from Dari to western languages as well as being interpreted differently by inherently unrelated agencies such as the U.S. military versus the German Police. The role of the "sergeant", or noncommissioned officer, is not well developed and is often overlooked by the prestige associated with being a regular, or commissioned, officer (lieutenant or higher). This lack of emphasis on the subordinate ranks has also stunted the clear definition of ranks as well as their roles and responsibilities.

The ranks of 3rd Lieutenant and Senior Captain are being phased out after the Ministry of Interior underwent a Rank Reform process in which they eliminated a disproportionate amount of senior-ranking officers within the police. These ranks are believed to have served as a way to better distinguish and balance out an extremely top-heavy leadership corps.

Known Alternative Titles
2nd Patrolman Soldier
1st Patrolman Soldier
Sergeant 3rd Sergeant
Staff Sergeant 2nd Sergeant
Senior Sergeant 1st Sergeant


Rank Reform

The original formation of police and security forces saw an overwhelming majority of senior-ranking personnel due to disorganization and corruption. It was not uncommon to find someone holding a senior rank, such as lieutenant colonel, possessing minimal qualifications or having little to no responsibilities for a rank of that stature. It was a period of total mismanagement that allowed people to use bribery and other forms of influence to gain prominent positions in the national police force. It was soon evident that the organization was “top heavy” and thus ineffective in conducting the daily duties expected of the police. Furthermore, many leaders inside the Ministry of Interior were guilty of human rights violations and other forms of blackmail and corruption. There was an obvious need to reorganize and repair this broken ministry.
MOI began a Rank Reform initiative in October 2005 to completely overhaul and replace it’s existing leadership structure and composition. The United Nations and ISAF forces conducted background check
Background check
A background check or background investigation is the process of looking up and compiling criminal records, commercial records and financial records of an individual....

s on all eligible candidates in attempt to thwart the acceptance of MOI leaders with past human rights violations or records of corruption. Concurrent with rank reform, salary reform was also implemented to match their pay with that of their equivalent counterparts in the Afghan National Army who had been receiving higher pay from their inception.

Despite rank and pay reform, it is still very common to see a disproportionate level of senior-ranking officers within the police force. Although these officers have been "reformed" and their rank and pay adjusted to "sergeant", for example, they will still wear the rank of "captain", or whatever they feel is appropriate, in an effort to retain more authority. Corruption, bribery and treason are also still very common in the national police.

Widespread corruption
Political corruption
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...

 in all levels of the ANP has long been a major problem for the combating of the Taliban insurgency
Taliban insurgency
The Taliban insurgency took root shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 war in Afghanistan. The Taliban continue to attack Afghan, U.S., and other ISAF troops and many terrorist incidents attributable to them have been registered. The war has also spread over the southern and...

. Taliban fighters of both high and low rank have been able to quickly buy their release from police custody with bribes ranging from $100–$10,000. Drug use, defections to the Taliban and sexual harassment of female officers is also widespread within the ANP.
Due to the high level of corruption, the Afghan government sends the relatively un-corrupted Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
The Afghan National Army is a service branch of the military of Afghanistan, which is currently trained by the coalition forces to ultimately take the role in land-based military operations in Afghanistan. , the Afghan National Army is divided into seven regional Corps. The strength of the Afghan...

 to more sensitive scenarios. The level of corruption has resulted in decreased monetary support of the National Police and increased monetary support of the National Army on the part of international donors.

Equipment


The primary vehicle of the ANP is the four-wheel drive, diesel, 4-door Ford Ranger
Ford Ranger
The Ford Ranger is a pickup truck produced by the Ford Motor Company. The "Ranger" name had previously been used for a premium styling package on the F-Series full-sized pickup trucks since 1965. The name was moved to this line of North American compact trucks for the 1983 model year.In North...

, provided by the thousands from the United States. Other vehicles include Humvees, diesel-powered variant of the U.S. consumer Nissan Frontiers, Toyota and SORV pickup trucks from Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 as well as Yamaha
Yamaha
Yamaha may refer to:* Yamaha Corporation, a Japanese company with a wide range of products and services** Yamaha Motor Company, a Japanese motorized vehicle-producing company...

 motorcycles donated by Japan. Older vehicles, like the UAZ-469
UAZ-469
The UAZ-469 is an all-terrain vehicle manufactured by UAZ. It was used by the Red Army and other Warsaw Pact forces, as well as paramilitary units in Eastern Bloc countries. In the Soviet Union, it also saw widespread service in all state organizations that needed a robust off-road vehicle.The...

 all-terrain vehicle, were obtained from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

.

Weapons

  • Smith & Wesson Sigma
    Smith & Wesson Sigma
    The Sigma is Smith & Wesson's venture into using synthetic materials in gun construction, using high-strength polymer material for the frame.Created in 1994, it also incorporates a self-cocking or double-action only firing mechanism, so that the pistol can be fired without delay or preparation...

     9mm  
  • AMD 65
    AMD 65
    AMD-65 is a Hungarian-manufactured variant of the venerable AKM rifle for use by that nation's armored infantry and paratrooper units...

     assault rifles  
  • AK-47
    AK-47
    The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova . It is also known as a Kalashnikov, an "AK", or in Russian slang, Kalash.Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year...

     assault rifles  / 
  • Vz. 58 assault rifles  
  • Rocket-propelled grenade systems


Uniforms and body armor sometimes mis-matched and poorly distributed. Most police personnel are issued at least one uniform that is traded out for warmer/cooler uniforms depending on the season. It is common to find a varying array of blue, green and gray uniforms amongst the police due to different manufacturers and the rapid growing of the force with many people joining. Some police have resorted to having their own uniforms custom made. Body armor and helmets are seldom given to individual soldiers and are often given out on an as-needed basis. The composition of this equipment varies between American, Russian and Chinese military grade equipment to 3rd party equipment that provides little-to-no real protection. Plans to upgrade weapons and uniform are being drafted by the Afghan government. Typically the ANP badge is worn on one shoulder and the Afghanistan flag on the other.

In August 2010, an order was placed for 2,526 M1152A1 Humvees with B2 armor kits, for the Afghan police and National Guard.

Current status


As of Nov 2011, the number of The Afghan National Police force is 140,000 and is expected to reach 160,000 by the end of 2012.

External links