Foreign relations of Pakistan

Foreign relations of Pakistan

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Foreign relations of Pakistan'
Start a new discussion about 'Foreign relations of Pakistan'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Pakistan is the second largest Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 country in terms of population (after Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role.

Pakistan has a fierce independent foreign policy, especially when it comes to issues such as development of nuclear weapons, foreign military purchases and other issues that are vital to its national interests. Pakistan has a strategic geo-political location at the corridor of world major maritime oil supply lines, and has close proximity to the resource and oil rich central Asian countries. Pakistan is an important member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), a major non-NATO ally
Major non-NATO ally
Major non-NATO ally is a designation given by the United States government to close allies who have strategic working relationships with US armed forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

 of the war against terrorism, and has a highly disciplined military.The world's eighth-largest standing military force.

Pakistan foreign policy



Historically, Pakistan foreign policy has encompassed difficult relations with the Republic of India; especially on the core-issue of Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

, over which it has fought two wars. However it has had long-standing close relations with its other neighbors Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, extensive security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 and wide-ranging bilateral relations with the United States and other Western countries.

Wary of Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 expansion, Pakistan had strong relations with both the United States of America and the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 during much of the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

. Today, the two countries remain Pakistan's closest allies.

Major alliance


Pakistan has historically maintained brotherly and friendly relations with all the Arab and Muslim countries under the banner of OIC. Apart from friendly relations with Muslim countries, China and USA are also seen as major partners.

Major rivalries


Pakistan and India have fought 3 wars in the past. Pakistan and Israel maintain no diplomatic relations. The continuing dispute over the status of Kashmir inflames opinion in both nations and makes friendly relations difficult.

International organisation


Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

. It was a member of the CENTO
Cento
Cento is a city and comune in the province of Ferrara, part of the region Emilia-Romagna . In Italian "cento" means 100.-History:The name Cento is a reference to the centuriation of the Po Valley...

 and SEATO military alliances. Its alliance with the United States was especially close after the Soviets invaded the neighboring country of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. In 1964, Pakistan signed the Regional Cooperation for Development
Regional Cooperation for Development
Regional Cooperation for Development was a multi-governmental organization which was originally established in 1964 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey to allow socio-economic development of the member states. In 1979, this organization was dissolved...

 (RCD) Pact with Turkey and Iran, when all three countries were closely allied with the U.S., and as neighbors of the Soviet Union, wary of perceived Soviet expansionism. To this day, Pakistan has a close relationship with Turkey. RCD became defunct after the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
The Iranian Revolution refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the...

, and a Pakistani-Turkish initiative led to the founding of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) in 1985.

Pakistan is the leading member of the Coffee Club
Coffee Club
Uniting for Consensus is a movement, nicknamed the Coffee Club, that developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of the United Nations Security Council...

 to oppose Indian membership in the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
The United Nations Security Council is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of...

.

Middle East

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bahrain
Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 and Manama
Manama
Manama is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 155,000 people.Long an important trading center in the Persian Gulf, Manama is home to a very diverse population...

 enjoy close co-operations between the two in many fields of brotherhood.
Joint initiatives between Bahraini and Pakistani governments have started to further bilateral trades that reached to $250 million in 2007.
 Iran
 Iraq

Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 and Pakistan have had close, friendly, and cooperative relations since the latter's independence in 1947. Issues such as Iraqi support for Pakistan in its 1971 war with India (which Iraq also has excellent relations with
Indo-Iraqi relations
The bilateral relations between the Republic of Iraq and the Republic of India have been traditionally friendly and collaborative. Cultural interaction and economic trade between ancient India and Mesopotamia date back to 1800 BC. The 1952 Treaty of Friendship established and strengthened ties...

), and Pakistani support for Iraq against Iran in the Iran-Iraq War have forged relations between the two.
 Israel No diplomatic relations
 Jordan

There are very close relations between Jordan and Pakistan. Princess Sarvath wife of Prince Hassan is originally a Pakistani. At the international level Pakistan and Jordan have similar views such as the Israel/Palestine issue.
 Kuwait

After the end of the first Gulf War in 1991 Pakistani army engineers were involved in a programme of mine clearance in the country. Kuwait was also the first country to send aid to isolated mountain villages in Kashmir after the quake of 2005, also offering the largest amount of aid in the aftermath of the quake ($100m).
 Lebanon

Lebanon and Pakistan have good relations. Pakistan has also been a steadfast supporter of Lebanon particularly when it was invaded by Israel. Additionally, Pakistan has extended moral, diplomatic and material support to Lebanon and refuses to recognize Israel officially, as a legitimate country in solidarity with the Palestinian, Lebanese and other Middle Eastern countries.
 Oman

The relationship between Muscat
Muscat, Oman
Muscat is the capital of Oman. It is also the seat of government and largest city in the Governorate of Muscat. As of 2008, the population of the Muscat metropolitan area was 1,090,797. The metropolitan area spans approximately and includes six provinces called wilayats...

 and Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 is warm, because it is the nearest Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 country to Pakistan and the fact that some 30% of Omani's are of Balochi origin from Pakistan's Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

 province having settled Oman over a hundred years ago. In 1958 Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

 was part of Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

 but was transferred to Pakistan in that year.
 Palestinian territories

Pakistan fully supports the proposal of the creation of an independent Palestinian state. Due to Pakistan's pro-Palestinian stance, bilateral relations between Pakistan and Israel have continuously wavered over the last few years. Pakistan has also declined to recognise the state of Israel until the "liberation of Palestine" will take place.
 Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also provided extensive religious and educational aid to Pakistan. Saudi Arabia remains a major destination for immigration amongst Pakistanis, the number of whom living in Saudi Arabia stands between 900,000 and 1 million.
Saudi Arabia is the largest source of petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 for Pakistan. It also supplies extensive financial aid to Pakistan and remittance from Pakistani migrants to Saudi Arabia is also a major source of foreign currency.
 Syria

Both countries were on the silk route through which civilizational exchanges took place for centuries, Islamic missionaries that introduced Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 after 711 AD were from Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

. During the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

 of 1973 (usually referred to as the Ramadan war in Pakistan) several Pakistani pilots assisted the Syrian air force. In 2005 Syria and Pakistan agreed on mutual cooperation in the fields of science and technology.
 United Arab Emirates

Pakistan was the first country to accord formal recognition to UAE on its achieving independence. Bilateral relations and mutually beneficial cooperation have progressed steadily ever since. These relations date back to the UAE's formation in 1971, and have since evolved into wide-ranging co-operation in various fields. UAE has been a major donor of economic assistance to Pakistan.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan
 Azerbaijan
Pakistan recognized independence of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

 1991 (the second country after Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

) and the two countries established full diplomatic relations in 1992. Pakistan was one of the first countries to open its Embassy in Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

.
 Bangladesh 18/Jan/1976

Relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh are influenced by the fact that Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan until 1971, when it achieved independence after the Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladesh Liberation War
The Bangladesh Liberation War was an armed conflict pitting East Pakistan and India against West Pakistan. The war resulted in the secession of East Pakistan, which became the independent nation of Bangladesh....

 and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

. As part of Shimla Agreement, India sought to make sure that Pakistan would take steps to recognize Bangladesh. Pakistan established full diplomatic relations with Bangladesh on January 18, 1976 and relations improved in the following decades.
 Bhutan
Pakistan is one of the few countreis with which Bhutan maintains diplomatic relationship. Both countries are member of SAARC. Trade and bilateral relationship between the two countries can be largely regarded as being insignificant, and the diplomatic relationship as being largely symbolic.
 Brunei

Pakistan has a High Commission in Bandar Seri Begawan
Bandar Seri Begawan
Bandar Seri Begawan, with an estimated population 140,000 , is the capital and largest city of the Sultanate of Brunei...

 and Brunei has a High Commission in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

.
 Myanmar
Pakistan has an embassy in Yangon
Yangon
Yangon is a former capital of Burma and the capital of Yangon Region . Although the military government has officially relocated the capital to Naypyidaw since March 2006, Yangon, with a population of over four million, continues to be the country's largest city and the most important commercial...

, and Burma has an embassy in Islamabad.
 Cambodia

Pakistan has an embassy in Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city of Cambodia. Located on the banks of the Mekong River, Phnom Penh has been the national capital since the French colonized Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's center of economic and industrial activities, as well as the center of security,...

 although Cambodia does not have an embassy in Pakistan.
 Mainland China 1951
 India
 Indonesia 1949
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 has its Embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 and a Consulate in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 and Pakistan has its Embassy in Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

 and a consulate in Medan
Medan
- Demography :The city is Indonesia's fourth most populous after Jakarta, Surabaya, and Bandung, and Indonesia's largest city outside of Java island. Much of the population lies outside its city limits, especially in Deli Serdang....

. Bilateral trade between the two countries is $800 million but they hope to increase this to $2 billion. Both nations are members of the Developing 8 and Next 11 countries.
 Japan

Tokyo and Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 have long enjoyed cordial relations throughout chronology. Japan's economic assistance has played a very important role in the development of Pakistan's economic and social infrastructure. The major projects, which have been funded by the Government of Japan, include the Indus Highway Project, a number of power projects in various provinces of Pakistan, Rural Roads Construction Project and the Children Hospital PIMS lslamabad Project. Presently the Kohat Tunnel Project and the Ghazi Brotha Dam Project are being completed with the help of the Japanese assistance.
 Kazakhstan

Relations between the two countries began when Pakistan recognized Kazakhstan on December 20, 1991. On February 24, 1992, diplomatic and consular relations were established during an official visit by Kazakhstani president Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the nation received its independence in 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union...

 to Pakistan. Kazakhstan is an emerging market for Pakistani goods.
 Kyrgyzstan

Pakistan extended diplomatic recognition to the Kyrgyz Republic on December 20, 1991. A Protocol for the establishment of diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan was signed on May 10, 1992.
 Malaysia

Pakistan has its High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has its High Commission in Islamabad.
Pakistan has brotherly relations with Malaysia. Both are members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

. There is a trade and cultural pact between the two countries, under which the import and export of various goods is done on fairly large scale. Both the countries enjoy close relations and links of mutual friendship and the cooperation has further strengthened.
 Maldives

The Maldives and Pakistan are culturally very close in sharing a Sunni majority. Islamabad supports the Maldivian position in the territorial dispute over the southern Indian colony of Minicoy Island in the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep , formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 km off the coast of the South West Indian state of Kerala...

, whose population is Muslim by faith.
 Mongolia Pakistan and Mongolia maintain cordinal diplomatic relationship.
 Nepal 1960

Despite an extensive 1982 trade agreement, the volume of bilateral trade remains comparatively small at USD 4.8 million. Pakistan's total exports to Nepal are worth USD 1.631 million while Nepal's exports to Pakistan tally USD 3.166 million. Both countries have recently stepped up efforts to promote bilateral trade, especially in textiles, oilseeds, extraction of oil
Oil
An oil is any substance that is liquid at ambient temperatures and does not mix with water but may mix with other oils and organic solvents. This general definition includes vegetable oils, volatile essential oils, petrochemical oils, and synthetic oils....

 and tourism; Pakistan also offered a USD 5 million line of credit
Line of credit
A line of credit is any credit source extended to a government, business or individual by a bank or other financial institution. A line of credit may take several forms, such as overdraft protection, demand loan, special purpose, export packing credit, term loan, discounting, purchase of...

 to Nepal. Nepal and Pakistan are signatories to the South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) and members of the South Asian Economic Union.
 North Korea
 Philippines Sept/1949
 South Korea
 Singapore 17/Aug/1966
 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

's ties with Pakistan are warming gradually. Pakistan has been recently supplying military equipment to the Sri Lankan armed
Armed
Armed was an American Thoroughbred gelding race horse. He was sired by the great stakes winner Bull Lea, which made him a half-brother to Citation...

 forces.
Relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka are generally warm. In the past, Pakistan has been supplying military equipment to the Sri Lankan military in the prevailing civil war against the Tamil Tigers. There is a Pakistani embassy located in Sri Lanka and a Sri Lankan embassy situated in Pakistan.
 Tajikistan

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, established diplomatic relationship with the Republic of Tajikistan in 1992, but cooperation between these two countries started from 1991. Geographically Tajikistan is the nearest Central Asian State to Pakistan - fourteen kilometeres between two countries. Many Tajiks have immigrated to Pakistan, notably in the city of Ishkoman
Ishkoman
The Ishkoman valley lies in the north of Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and the Pamir corridor.-Political status:Administratively, Ishkoman valley constitutes a Tehsil of Ghizer District. It is located at a range of altitudes, from . The valley consists of 20 villages, with a total population of...

 where they have integrated into the local population.
 Thailand 10/Oct/1951
 Turkmenistan 10/May/1992

Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

 as an independent country in December 1991. Exchange of high-level visits during the last 10 years give credence to the fact that Pakistan and Turkmenistan have laid foundation of mutually beneficial relations, friendship and understanding. The two countries have signed 21 Agreements and Memoranda of understanding in the fields of oil and gas, transport, energy, trade, science and culture.
 Uzbekistan

Relations between the two states were established when the republic of Uzbekistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR, the relations between the two countries were initially strained by the situation in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 which both countries border as they supported different factions Afghan factions.

However relations improved after the fall of the Taliban, both countries seeking to improve relations for the sake of trade, Pakistan wishing to gain access to Central Asian markets and landlocked Uzbekistan to access ports on the Indian Ocean.
 Vietnam 1972

North Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria

There exists friendly foreign relations between Algeria and Pakistan. Pakistan supported the cause of Algeria's independence from France.
 Egypt

Pakistan and Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 (Misr), both being Muslim countries, share cordial relations. Both are also members of the OIC (Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), as well as "the next eleven" and "D8
Developing 8 Countries
The Developing 8 are a group of developing countries with large Muslim populations that have formed an economic development alliance. It consists of Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Turkey.-History:The D-8 was founded by Necmettin Erbakan, former Turkish Prime...

". After the foundation of Pakistan, it has established diplomatic and trade relations with Egypt.
 Libya

The relations between the two nations have always been deep and abiding, ever since the start. The two countries also share common religious and cultural links, especially the fact that both the countries are Islamic states.
 Morocco

Pakistan has an embassy in Rabat
Rabat
Rabat , is the capital and third largest city of the Kingdom of Morocco with a population of approximately 650,000...

 while Morocco also has its embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

. Both the countries have co-operated significantly since the past and continue to widely expand their relations, in the past Pakistan has said that it does not recognise Western Sahara
Western Sahara
Western Sahara is a disputed territory in North Africa, bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Its surface area amounts to . It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly...

 and that its status is disputed and remains to be decided by UN Resolutions, but at the same time it gave the Moroccan point of view that it is an internal matter.
 Sudan

Due to both states sharing the same religion
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, being former British colonies, and refusing to recognize Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 as a legitimate nation, Pakistan and Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

 have shared generally close and warm relations for decades. Sudan declared its support for Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani Wars
Indo-Pakistani Wars
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, as well as many border skirmishes and military stand-offs...

, and also due to the fact that Pakistan stood by the Sudanese people over its integrity and soveriengty, especially on its boundary disputes with both Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 and Kenya
Kenya
Kenya , officially known as the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa that lies on the equator, with the Indian Ocean to its south-east...

.
| Pakistan recognised South Sudan after South Sudan was added as a candidate in the United Nations General Assembly.
 Tunisia

Pakistan supported Tunisia on the issue of its complete control on Bizerte
Bizerte
Bizerte or Benzert , is the capital city of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia and the northernmost city in Africa. It has a population of 230,879 .-History:...

 and declared it an integral part of Tunisia. Former Tunisian president Habib Bourguiba
Habib Bourguiba
Habib Bourguiba was a Tunisian statesman, the Founder and the first President of the Republic of Tunisia from July 25, 1957 until 7 November 1987...

 had always supported Pakistan's point of view.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Botswana Botswana has diplomatic relations with Pakistan which is covered by the Botswana Embassy in Beijing, China and an Embassy located in Islamabad within the Republic of Yemen. Pakistan's Embassy in Botswana is located in Sana'a, Yemen
Trade between the 2 nations in 2001/02 accounted for $20 million
Mehru Khan of Pakistan and Botswana was crowned Miss NRI Global 2005 winner at an international pageant.
 Republic of the Congo
Pakistan embassy in Zimbawe is also accredited to Congo. Pakistan maintains an Honourary Consulate in Kinsasha. Pakistan also has up to 3500 troops in Congo under United Nations Operation in Congo
 Eritrea Eritrea maintains an embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan.
 Ethiopia
 Kenya

Relations between Pakistan and Kenya were first historically established in the 60's, when Pakistan expressed its support for Kenya in getting independence from British rule. Ever since from that time, relations between the two nations have been warm, with both countries having had discussed previously in the Pakistan-Kenya Joint Ministerial Commission session which was hosted in Nairobi
Nairobi
Nairobi is the capital and largest city of Kenya. The city and its surrounding area also forms the Nairobi County. The name "Nairobi" comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nyirobi, which translates to "the place of cool waters". However, it is popularly known as the "Green City in the Sun" and is...

 in 2004, about boosting bilateral trade and economic relations.
 Lesotho
Pakistan and Lesotho maintain honorary consulate in each other's country.
 Madagascar
Pakistan maintains an honorary consulate in Madagascar.
 Malawi Pakistan maintains an Honorary Cosulate in Malawi. Pakistan embassy in Zimbawe is also accredited to Malawi.
 Mauritius

Pakistan has an embassy at Port Louis
Port Louis
-Economy:The economy is dominated by its port, which handles Mauritius' international trade. The port was founded by the French who preferred Port Louis as the City is shielded by the Port Louis/Moka mountain range. It is the largest container handling facility in the Indian Ocean and can...

 and Mauritius has an embassy at Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

. The two countries are progressing the finalisation of a Free Trade Agreement.
 Mozambique Pakistan maintain cordinal relations with Mozambique. In 1976, on the eve of independence of Mozambique, technical support of Pakistani pilots, engineers and maintenance persons were despatched to Mozambique for making their helicopters airworthy and training of their pilots/ technicians.
 Niger

Pakistan has an embassy in Niamey
Niamey
-Population:While Niamey's population has grown steadily since independence, the droughts of the early 1970s and 1980s, along with the economic crisis of the early 1980s, have propelled an exodus of rural inhabitants to Niger's largest city...

, although Niger does not maintain a permanent embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

.
 Nigeria

Pakistan has a High Commission in Abuja
Abuja
Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria. It is located in the centre of Nigeria, within the Federal Capital Territory . Abuja is a planned city, and was built mainly in the 1980s. It officially became Nigeria's capital on 12 December 1991, replacing Lagos...

 and Nigeria has an embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

, as well as a Consulate-General in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

. The two states have maintained a close relationship, a relationship which is described by the Nigerian Defence Minister as "friendly" and like a "family tie"
 São Tomé and Príncipe Pakistan has had friendly political relations with the island country of São Tomé and Príncipe. Traditionally, the Pakistan Ambassador in Portugal is accredited to the islands. Mr. Fradique de Menezes
Fradique de Menezes
Fradique Bandeira Melo de Menezes was the President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 2003 to 2011.-Early life:Menezes was born on the then Portuguese colony of São Tomé in 1942, the son of a Portuguese man and a local woman. He attended high school in Portugal...

, the President of São Tomé and Príncipe specifically requested for Pakistan's assistance in promoting income generating skills in agriculture and textiles as well as in poverty alleviation programmes. Mr. Fradique de Menezes
Fradique de Menezes
Fradique Bandeira Melo de Menezes was the President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 2003 to 2011.-Early life:Menezes was born on the then Portuguese colony of São Tomé in 1942, the son of a Portuguese man and a local woman. He attended high school in Portugal...

, expressed his profound desire to enhance political, economic and cultural cooperation with Pakistan.
 Senegal
 Somalia
 South Africa
Pakistan maintains a high commission in Cape Town, and South Africa maintains a high commission in Islamabad. South Africa is also home to more than 2,500 Pakistanis
Pakistanis in South Africa
There are up to 2,500 Pakistanis in South Africa, based in various locations across Cape Town, Gauteng and Durban. They are post-Apartheid migrants from Pakistan, and should not be confused with Indian South Africans, who are largely descendants of late 19th and early 20th century immigrants from...

.
 Tanzania Pakistan maintains a High Commission in Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam , formerly Mzizima, is the largest city in Tanzania. It is also the country's richest city and a regionally important economic centre. Dar es Salaam is actually an administrative province within Tanzania, and consists of three local government areas or administrative districts: ...

, Tanzania.
 Uganda
Pakistan maintains an honorary consulate in Kampala
Kampala
Kampala is the largest city and capital of Uganda. The city is divided into five boroughs that oversee local planning: Kampala Central Division, Kawempe Division, Makindye Division, Nakawa Division and Lubaga Division. The city is coterminous with Kampala District.-History: of Buganda, had chosen...

. Pakistan also provide scholarships to Ugandan students under its technical assistance programme.
 Zambia Zambia maintains an Genral Honorary Consulate in Islamabad, whereas Pakistan's embassy in Zimbawe is also accredited to Zambia. In Feb 2008 a 11-member Pakistan Trade Delegation visited Lusaka for exploring bilateral trade cooperation.
 Zimbabwe

Pakistan is represented in Zimbabwe by embassy in Harare
Harare
Harare before 1982 known as Salisbury) is the largest city and capital of Zimbabwe. It has an estimated population of 1,600,000, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area . Administratively, Harare is an independent city equivalent to a province. It is Zimbabwe's largest city and its...

. The Pakistani government has pledged to always "stand by Zimbabwe in its challenging times and continue to render assistance in every way possible in an effort to cement the already cordial relations between the two countries." The friendship between Pakistan and Zimbabwe dates back to the times of the war of liberation of the country, during which Pakistan was known to have provided an immense amount of extended moral and material support to many Zimbabwean freedom fighters, by providing armed machinery and helping rebuild the Gweru airbase which was destroyed during the liberation struggle.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania Pakistan diplomatic relations with Albania are very cordinal given that Albania is a Muslim majortiy country, and the only European country with OIC membership. Albania has consistently supported Pakistan for the Kashmir cause. In Dec 2006, Albanian Deputy Foreign Minister Mr. Anton Gurakqui visited Pakistan to hold bilateral consultation with Pakistani political leadership. Pakistan also offers training facilities to young Albanian bureaucrats in the field of banking, finance, management and diplomacy.
 Andorra Pakistan embassy in Spain is accredited to Andorra.
 Austria 1956
Relations between the two countries are generally friendly. The diplomatic ties between Pakistan and Austria were established in 1956 when Pakistan formally recognized Austria.
 Belarus
Belarus Minsk Tractor Works
Minsk Tractor Works
Minsk Tractor Works may refer to two entities: a plant in Minsk, Belarus and a plant association in Belarus....

 has played a key role in supplying tractor
Tractor
A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction...

 to Pakistan and establiishing the tractor assembly plant in Pakistan. Belarus and Pakistan have also signed agreements on trade-economic cooperation and investments protection. Pakistan ambassador to Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 is accredited as a non-residential ambassador to Belarus.
 Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina

Both nations share close relations on the grounds of religion and politics. Pakistan was a staunch supporter of Bosnia during the civil war. Pakistan sent in UN Peacekeeping forces to the former Yugoslavia during the Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of wars, fought throughout the former Yugoslavia between 1991 and 1995. The wars were complex: characterized by bitter ethnic conflicts among the peoples of the former Yugoslavia, mostly between Serbs on the one side and Croats and Bosniaks on the other; but also...

. Pakistan and Bosnia have a free trade agreement.
 Kingdom of Bulgaria
 Independent State of Croatia
Pakistan maintains an Honorary Consulate in Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

. In May 2007, Pakistan Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Makhdum Khusro Bakhtyar made an official visit to Belarus and meet with high ranking government officials of Belarus.
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 Estonia 20/Sept/1993
 Finland
 Early Modern France

Pakistan and France have high levels of diplomatic meetings and are in good terms with one another. However, these good relations haven't been around very long. Trade between Pakistan and France is increasing and France has donated large funds to help Pakistan with its economic problems.
 Germany

Germany and Pakistan enjoy closely cordial relations. Germany has taken large measures to aid the South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

n country in its economic and governmental hardship. Commercial trade between Berlin and Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 has also been very essential in recent years seeing as Germany is Pakistan's fourth largest trade partner. Also, Germany is home to 35,081 Pakistani immigrants. Overall, the two nations have almost always had a friendly bond.
 Georgia (country) 12/May/1994 Pakistan ambassador to Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

 is accredited to be the non-residential ambassador to Georgia.
 Greece

In modern times, Pakistan's first embassy in Athens
Athens
Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

 was opened in 1975. Greece established an embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 in 1987. There are around 32,500 Pakistani people living and working in Greece.
 Holy See
 Hungary 26/Nov/1965

Since 1970, Hungary has an embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 and an honorary consulate in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

. Pakistan has an embassy in Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

 Iceland
Pakistan maintain cordinal diplomatic relations with Iceland.
 Republic of Ireland

Ireland is represented in Pakistan through its embassy in Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

 (Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

) and an honorary consualte in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

. Pakistan has an embassy in Dublin. Pakistanis continue to support the idea of unification of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

 to the rest of Éire
Éire
is the Irish name for the island of Ireland and the sovereign state of the same name.- Etymology :The modern Irish Éire evolved from the Old Irish word Ériu, which was the name of a Gaelic goddess. Ériu is generally believed to have been the matron goddess of Ireland, a goddess of sovereignty, or...

 which remained part of the United Kingdom after the Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

.
 Italy
 Latvia Latvia maintains an Honorary Consul in Karachi. Whereas Pakistan ambassador to Sweden is accredited as a non-residential ambassador to Latvia. There is also a growing number of Pakistanis (mostly university students) living in Riga
Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

.
 Liechtenstein Pakistan ambassador to Switzerland is accredited as a non-residential ambassador to Liechtenstein. Pakistan diplomatic relations with Liechtenstein is important, despite the small size of Liechtenstein, as Liechtenstein is member of European Free Trade Association, with which Pakistan is seeking Free Trade Agreement.
 Lithuania Pakistan maintains friendly diplomatic relations with Lithuania.
 Luxembourg Pakistan maintains cordinal diplomatic relations with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Pakistan also maintains an Honorary Consulate in Luxembourg.
 Malta
 Moldova Pakistan ambassador to Romania is accredited as a non-residential ambassador to Moldova.
 Monaco Pakistan maintains cordinal diplomatic relations with Monaco.
 Kingdom of Montenegro Jun/2006 Pakistan formally recognised the Republic of Montenegro as a sovereign and independent state, following the request of its government in Jun 2006. Both countries maintain cordinal diplomatic relationship.
 Netherlands
 Norway
Norway and Pakistan have strengthen ties. Pakistanis form the largest immigrant community in Norway. Norway has embassy in Islamabad and an honorary consulate in Lahore, whereas Pakistan has an embassy in Oslo.
 Portugal
 Kingdom of Romania

Pakistan has an embassy in Bucharest
Bucharest
Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

 and an honorary consulate in Iaşi
Iasi
Iași is the second most populous city and a municipality in Romania. Located in the historical Moldavia region, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural, academic and artistic life...

. Romania has an embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 and an honorary consulate in Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

.
 Russia 1948

Relations between these two countries have been strained in the past, because of Pakistan's close ties to America and its support for the Afghan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 rebels during the invasion by the USSR
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

.
 San Marino 12/Apr/2006
Pakistan established diplomatic relations with San Marino on 12 April 2006. Pakistan ambassador to Italy is accredited as a non-residential ambassador to San Marino.
 Serbia

Since July 2001, Pakistan has an embassy in Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

. Serbia has now closed its embassy in Pakistan after 2001 due to financial or reciprocal reasons because Pakistan's role in the desire for Sanjak
Sanjak
Sanjaks were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire. Sanjak, and the variant spellings sandjak, sanjaq, and sinjaq, are English transliterations of the Turkish word sancak, meaning district, banner, or flag...

's merger with their brethren of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 and is now represented in Pakistan through its embassy in Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 (China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

). However there is a bone of contention between the two, because of the latter's close relations with, India.
 Slovakia
Pakistan ambassador to Austria is accredited be the non-residential ambassador to Slovakia. Relations between Pakistan and the Slovak Republic are cordial and friendly. The two countries have agreements on cultural cooperation and visa abolition (for diplomatic/official passport holders). Some well known Slovak companies like Matador and Mediprogress are active in Pakistan through their agents.
 Spain
 Switzerland
 Sweden
 Turkey
Pakistani–Turkish relations have been traditionally strong. Both nations maintain extensive cultural, commercial, strategic and military cooperation. Both Turkey and Pakistan are Muslim-majority states and share extensive cultural and geopolitical links.
 Ukraine 1992

Pakistan recognized Ukraine's independence in 1991. Pakistan has an embassy in Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

. Ukraine has an embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

. Ukraine and Pakistan have been cooperating with each other in educational sector as well as cultural exchanges. Pakistan and Ukraine are also heavily cooperating with each other in aerospace engineering, aerospace technologies, bio-medical sciences and science and technology.
 United Kingdom

Pakistan has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 since independence in 1947. It was not a member of the British Commonwealth from 1972 until 1989, because of the Commonwealth's recognition of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

. It was readmitted to full membership of the Commonwealth in October 1989. It was suspended with the overthrow of the democratically elected government in 1999. Its full membership has been reinstated with the backing of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand for Pakistan's support in the War on Terrorism. Pakistan maintains diplomatic relations with all Commonwealth countries even though it does not have its own High Commission in each capital.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina

A memorandum of Understanding with the National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Argentina and the Pakistan Academy of Sciences was signed. In pursuit of its policy of establishing scientific cooperation with Argentina, the Pakistan has been actively engaged in signing Memorandum of understanding (MoUs) with various organizations.
 Brazil

The relation between Brazil and Pakistan is friendly and there is a lot of cooperation between in the two countries in military field.
 Canada

Pakistan is represented through its embassy in Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

 and consulates in Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 and Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

. Canada is represented through its embassy in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 and consulate in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

. The value of the bilateral trade relationship between Pakistan and Canada was close to C$694 million in 2007. There is also extensive people to people links between Canada and Pakistan with an estimated 300,000 Pakistanis living in Canada.
 Chile
 Cuba

The relations between the two countries strengthened after Cuba provided humanitarian assistance to the victims of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Both the nations continue to strengthen the bilateral relations especially in the fields of higher education, agriculture, industry and science and technology and have also held talks for military cooperation.
 Guyana | Guyana along with Suriname is one of the only 2 member state of OIC in the Americas. Pakistan maintains an Honorary Consulate in Guyana. The Muslims of Guyana provided moral support for the creation of the state of Pakistan. Many of the Muslim from British Guyana even took Pakistani citizenship after the creation of Pakistan in 1947 and migrated to Pakistan.
 Jamaica
Pakistan ambassador to USA is accredited as non-residential Pakistan's High Commissioner to Jamaica.
 Mexico

Pakistan maintains an embassy in Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, and Mexico is accredited to Pakistan through its embassy in Tehran. Both countries are also working on Mechanism of Bilateral Consultations on Issues of Mutual Interest for Mexico and Pakistan.
 Paraguay 23/Oct/1967
Relations were established on 23 October 1967. Pakistan maintains an embassy in Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 which is accredited to Paraguay
Paraguay
Paraguay , officially the Republic of Paraguay , is a landlocked country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the...

 and a consulate in Asuncion
Asunción
Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay.The "Ciudad de Asunción" is an autonomous capital district not part of any department. The metropolitan area, called Gran Asunción, includes the cities of San Lorenzo, Fernando de la Mora, Lambaré, Luque, Mariano Roque Alonso, Ñemby, San...

. Paraguay
Paraguay
Paraguay , officially the Republic of Paraguay , is a landlocked country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the...

 maintains an embassy in Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 accredited to Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. Government ministers met in 2005 to explore potential trade opportunities. Bilateral trade in 2010 totaled US $2.4 million per year and growing yearly. Pakistan exports carpets, surgical instruments to Paraguay, where as Paraguay exports pharmaceuticals
 Suriname
Pakistan and Suriname both maintain friendly and cooperative relations. Many of Suriname Hindoestanen
Hindoestanen
The Hindoestanen are an ethnic group of South Asian origin in the Netherlands and Suriname. After the Dutch government signed a treaty with the United Kingdom on the recruitment of contract workers, the Hindoestanen began migrating to Suriname in 1873 from what was then British India as indentured...

 Muslim speak Urdu, and maintain cultural link in Pakistan. Surinamese Islamic Association maintains its umberalla headquarters in Islamabad, Pakistan
 Trinidad and Tobago
Pakistan maintain a consulate general in North Trinidad. Trinidad is also home to a sizeable number of South Asian Muslim
Islam in Trinidad and Tobago
Muslims constitute 6 percent of the population on Trinidad and Tobago, representing 65,318 individuals. The majority live in Trinidad but there are a handful in Tobago as well. The first Muslims to arrive in the country arrived from Africa brought as slaves by the colonists...

 who draw links with Pakistan. During the 2010 Pakistan flooding, Trinidad Congress of the People
Congress of the People (Trinidad and Tobago)
The Congress of the People is a political party in Trinidad and Tobago. It is led by Prakash Ramadhar . Its symbol is the "Circle of Circles".- History :...

 party donated US$33,000 worth of aid to Pakistan flood victims.
United States of America  20/Oct/1947

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia

Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

 visited Australia in 2005 and the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard
John Howard
John Winston Howard AC, SSI, was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, from 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007. He was the second-longest serving Australian Prime Minister after Sir Robert Menzies....

, also having extended a visit to Pakistan in 2005 as well, following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake
2005 Kashmir earthquake
The 2005 Kashmir earthquake was a major earthquake centered in Pakistan-administered Kashmir known as Azad Kashmir, near the city of Muzaffarabad, affecting Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Time on 8 October 2005...

 which had immensely targeted the northern areas of Pakistan. He also announced 500 new scholarships for students in Pakistan to study in Australia.
 Fiji

While Pakistan and Fiji maintain formal diplomatic relationship, they do not have diplomatic mission in each other's country. Pakistan designates her high commissioner to Australia as a non-residential high commissioner to Fiji. Many of Fiji's large Indian Muslim
Islam in Fiji
The Muslims of Fiji comprise around 7% of the population . The Islamic community is made up of people of Indian origin, who were brought to the islands in the late 19th century by the British colonial power. The majority of the Indian community is however, Hindu. Around 16% of the Fiji's Indian...

 population maintain family links with Pakistan
 New Zealand

Pakistan has a High Commission located in Wellington
Wellington
Wellington is the capital city and third most populous urban area of New Zealand, although it is likely to have surpassed Christchurch due to the exodus following the Canterbury Earthquake. It is at the southwestern tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range...

 whilst New Zealand has a Consulate-General in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

. New Zealand was party to the Commonwealth Heads of Government
Commonwealth Heads of Government
The leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations are collectively known as the Commonwealth Heads of Government. They are invited to attend Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings every two years, with most countries being represented by either their Head of Government...

 decision to readmit Pakistan to the Councils of the Commonwealth after the restoration of civilian rule in May 2008.
 Tonga

While Pakistan and Tonga maintain diplomatic relationship, they do not have diplomatic mission in each other's country. Pakistan export to Tonga in 2007 was T$11,655. Pakistan also has bilateral visa-abolition scheme with Tonga, for all passport types of both the countries.

International organisations

Organisation Membership Notes
 Arab League Non-member
Pakistan has signed an MoU with the Arab League, and has shown interest to be granted oberver status. Pakistan has also lobbied for greater representation of the Arab League in the United Nation Security Council.
ASEAN Non-member See fesea report on Pakistan and ASEAN: Constraints and Opportunities
 European Union Non-member
IMF
International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund is an organization of 187 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world...

Pakistan is a full member of IMF, and has received several monetary assistance from IMF. IMF also maintains a Resident Representative Office in Pakistan
 NATO Non-member Pakistan is a major non-NATO ally
Major non-NATO ally
Major non-NATO ally is a designation given by the United States government to close allies who have strategic working relationships with US armed forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

 against the war against terrorism.
 Organization of the Islamic Conference 1969
SAARC 1985 Pakistan is one of the founding members of SAARC.
SCO Observer status Pakistan has shown strong interest to be a full member of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
 United Nations 30/Sept/1947

See also


  • Government of Pakistan
    Government of Pakistan
    The Government of Pakistan is a federal parliamentary system, with an indirectly-elected President as the Head of State and Commander in Chief of the Pakistani Armed Forces, and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the Head of Government. The President’s appointment and term are...

  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan)
    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, also known as Foreign Ministry, is a Government of Pakistan's federal and executive Ministry which is responsible for international and Foreign Affairs. The ministry was created in 1947, and was one of the first ministries to be established...

  • List of diplomatic missions in Pakistan
  • List of diplomatic missions of Pakistan
  • Visa requirements for Pakistani citizens
    Visa requirements for Pakistani citizens
    Ordinary Pakistani citizens are granted visa-on-arrival to 35 countries and territories for short-term tourism visits.The following countries granted the visa free travel/visa on arrival to Pakistani passport holders.-Africa:-Asia:...


External links