Balochistan (Pakistan)

Balochistan (Pakistan)

Overview
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or (347,190 km2), it is the largest province of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of roughly 6.6 million. The largest city, Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

 is the summer capital while Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

, the port city located in the south-west, serves as the winter capital.

Balochistan is situated on the southwest of Pakistan and covers an area of 134,051 mi2 or (347,190 km2), thus constituting 44% of Pakistan's total land mass and making it Pakistan's largest province by area.

The province is bordered by Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 to the south-west; Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 to the west and Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the north; and Pakistan's Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

 and Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 provinces to the east.
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Encyclopedia
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or (347,190 km2), it is the largest province of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of roughly 6.6 million. The largest city, Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

 is the summer capital while Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

, the port city located in the south-west, serves as the winter capital.

Geography


Balochistan is situated on the southwest of Pakistan and covers an area of 134,051 mi2 or (347,190 km2), thus constituting 44% of Pakistan's total land mass and making it Pakistan's largest province by area.

The province is bordered by Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 to the south-west; Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 to the west and Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the north; and Pakistan's Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

 and Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 provinces to the east. To the south lies the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

.

The provincial capital is Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

 and Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

 is the developing port city . Balochistan is rich in mineral resources; it is the second major supplier of natural gas in Pakistan.

Balochistan is located on the south-eastern part of the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

. It strategically bridges the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 and Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia are terms that describe the westernmost portion of Asia. The terms are partly coterminous with the Middle East, which describes a geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than its location within Asia...

 to Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

 and South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

, and forms the closest oceanic frontage for the land-locked countries of Central Asia.
The Sulaiman Mountains
Sulaiman Mountains
The Sulaiman Mountains are a major geological feature of southeastern Afghanistan and northern Balochistan province of Pakistan. In Pakistan, it forms the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau where the Indus River separates it from the Asian Subcontient...

 dominate the northeast corner and the Bolan Pass
Bolan Pass
The Bolan Pass is a mountain pass through the Toba Kakar Range of Balochistan province in western Pakistan, 120 kilometres from the Afghanistan border....

 is a natural route into Afghanistan towards Kandahar
Kandahar
Kandahar is the second largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 512,200 as of 2011. It is the capital of Kandahar Province, located in the south of the country at about 1,005 m above sea level...

, used as a passageway during the British campaigns to Afghanistan. Much of the province south of the Quetta region is sparse desert terrain with pockets of towns mostly near rivers and streams.

The capital, Quetta, is located in the most densely populated district in the northeast of the province. It is situated in a river valley near the border with Afghanistan, with a road to Kandahar in the northwest.

Climate


Very cold winters and hot summers characterise the climate of the upper highlands. Winters of the lower highlands vary from extremely cold in Ziarat
Ziarat
Ziarat is the capital of Ziarat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. It is located at 30°22'47N 67°43'38E with an altitude of 2543 metres and is a famous holiday resort of Balochistan and nearly every trip from Karachi to Quetta stops at Ziarat...

, Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

, Kalat, Muslim Baagh and Khanozai the northern districts to mild conditions closer to the Makran coast. Summers are hot and dry, especially the arid zones of Chaghai and Kharan districts. The plain areas are also very hot in summer with temperatures rising as high as 50 °C (122 °F).The highest record breaking temperature of 53 °C (127.4 °F) has been recorded in Sibi
Sibi
Sibi is a city of Balochistan province of Pakistan. The city is located at 29°33'0N 67°52'60E at an altitude of 130 metres and is headquarters of the district and tehsil of the same name.. According to the 2001 census of Pakistan the population of Sibi is 52,100...

, it was on 26 May 2010. Previously, 52 °C (125.6 °F) was recorded in Sibi. Other hot areas includes, Turbat
Turbat
Turbat is a city located in southern Balochistan, a province of Pakistan. The town is the administrative center of Kech District and Turbat Tehsil, the town itself contains one Union council.-About:...

, and Dalbandin
Dalbandin
Dalbandin is a town and Union council of Balochistan, Pakistan. Dalbandin is famous for fruit orchards.On 19th January, 2011, it was struck by a 7.2 magnitude earthquake. At that time it was a sparsely populated area with a population of 15,000. It is located at 28°52'60N 64°25'0E at an altitude...

. Winters are mild on the plains with the temperature never falling below the freezing point. The desert climate is characterised by hot and very arid conditions. Occasionally strong windstorms make these areas very inhospitable.

Languages


The main languages in the province are Balochi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

, Brahui, Pashto
Pashto language
Pashto , known as Afghani in Persian and Pathani in Punjabi , is the native language of the indigenous Pashtun people or Afghan people who are found primarily between an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and...

, Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, and Urdu.

History


Forming the eastern portion of the Iranian Plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

, the area of Balochistan is the site of the earliest known farming settlements in the pre-Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

 era, the earliest of which was Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh , one of the most important Neolithic sites in archaeology, lies on the "Kachi plain" of Balochistan, Pakistan...

 dated at 6500 BC. Balochistan, like Pakhtunkhwa
Pakhtunkhwa
The Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been known by a number of names during its existence. In addition to North-West Frontier Province, the official name by which it was known from 1901 to 2010, other names used or proposed for the province include Afghania, Pakhtunistan, Pashtunistan,...

 to its north, was always an Iranic
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

 country. Known in history as the "seed of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil...

", Balochistan, then famous for its lakes, was one of the first places Zoroaster
Zoroaster
Zoroaster , also known as Zarathustra , was a prophet and the founder of Zoroastrianism who was either born in North Western or Eastern Iran. He is credited with the authorship of the Yasna Haptanghaiti as well as the Gathas, hymns which are at the liturgical core of Zoroastrianism...

 travelled south to, from Bactria
Bactria
Bactria and also appears in the Zend Avesta as Bukhdi. It is the ancient name of a historical region located between south of the Amu Darya and west of the Indus River...

 in order to seek converts to his religion. And it was here that some of the first proselytes of his religion lived before its spread into western portions of the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

. Balochistan in Pashto is known as Godar which was hellenized by the Greeks in to Gedrosia
Gedrosia
Gedrosia from Pashto Gwadar-khua is the hellenized name of an area that corresponds to today's Balochistan. Eastern Balochistan is southwestern province of Pakistan and parts of southwestern and south-central Afghanistan and western Balochistan is divided between Iranian provinces of Hormozgan and...

due to the fact that the Greeks derived the names of these Iranian
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

 lands from the Bactrian language
Bactrian language
The Bactrian language is an extinct Eastern Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria. Linguistically, it is classified as belonging to the middle period of the East Iranian branch...

. The Balochi people referred to their own land as Moka or Maka, a word which later became Makran. Balochistan was seemingly always sparsely populated by various tribes of Iranic origin for centuries following the decline of the nearby Harappa
Harappa
Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. The current village of Harappa is from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a train station left from...

-Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro is an archeological site situated in what is now the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BC, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, existing at the same time as the...

 civilization to the east. The spread of the Balochi
Balochi
Balochi or Baluchi may refer to:* Baloch people, an ethnic group primarily found in the Balochistan region of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan* Beluch, a Baluch ethnic sub-group in Turkmenistan* Balochi language* Balochi dialects...

 language led to the eventual decline in the numbers of Brahui
Brahui
The name Brahui may refer to:*The Brahui language*The Brahui people...

, the original Arachosian tribes of the region.

The Baloch
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

 have Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, Kurdish
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

 origins., all of whom populate portions of the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

. They are considered to be an Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ic group that has absorbed some Semitic
Semitic
In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages...

 genes and cultural traits. The northern point of Balochistan known in Pashto as Dzaranga was known as Drangiana
Drangiana
Drangiana or Zarangiana was a historical region of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around lake Hâmûn, wetlands in endorheic Sīstān basin on the Irano-Afghan-Pakistan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in nowadays southwestern Afghanistan and the "Nok Kondi" of...

 to the Greeks and came to be known to the Persians as Saka. The Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 epic of Shahnama does record the Baloch in the Qazvin
Qazvin
Qazvin is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 349,821, in 96,420 families....

-Zanjan
Zanjan
Zanjan may refer to:* Zanjan Province, Iran* Zanjan County, an area within Zanjan Province* Zanjan, Iran, the capital of Zanjan County and Zanjan Province* Zanjan University, located in the city of Zanjan* Senjan, a city in Markazi Province, Iran...

 region of old Iran in the 6th century AD, when they were engaged in battle by the Persian king Chosroes I Anoshervan, The Shahnama also records its heroes, Rustom and Sohrab, as being Saka (and not ethnic Persians) making Balochistan (instead of Pars
Pars
Pars may refer to:* Fārs Province, modern Persian language name for Pars Province, central Iranian kingdom of the ancient Persian empire* Pars News Agency and Pars Agency, names of the national Iranian news agency prior to the Iranian Revolution in 1979...

) their origin. With time, Baloch tribes linguistically absorbed all the local people in Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

, southern Sistan
Sistan
Sīstān is a border region in eastern Iran , southwestern Afghanistan and northern tip of Southwestern Pakistan .-Etymology:...

 and the Barahui country, becoming a sizeable group to rival in size the other Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ic group in the region .

The large district and tribe of Belijan/Beluchan still exist in northwest Zagros, stretching from just east of Sivas, south toward Aleppo
Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

. The current inhabitants and the tribe identify themselves as Kurds.

In the 7th century, the region was divided into two parts: the south was made part of the Kermān Province of the Persian Empire and the north became part of the Persian province Sistan
Sistan
Sīstān is a border region in eastern Iran , southwestern Afghanistan and northern tip of Southwestern Pakistan .-Etymology:...

. In early 644, the Islamic Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

, Umar
Umar
`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c. 2 November , was a leading companion and adviser to the Islamic prophet Muhammad who later became the second Muslim Caliph after Muhammad's death....

, sent Suhail ibn Adi from Busra to conquer the Kerman region of Iran. He was then made governor of that region. From Kerman, he conquered the western Balochistan
Balochistan (region)
Balochistan or Baluchistan is an arid, mountainous region in the Iranian plateau in Southwest Asia; it includes part of southeastern Iran, western Pakistan, and southwestern Afghanistan. The area is named after the numerous Baloch tribes, Iranian peoples who moved into the area from the west...

 region, near the Persian frontiers. South-western Balochistan was conquered during the campaign in Sistan the same year.

During the reign of Caliph Uthman in 652, Balochistan was reconquered during the counter-revolt in Kerman
Kerman
- Geological characteristics :For the Iranian paleontologists, Kerman has always been considered a fossil paradise. Finding new dinosaur footprints in 2005 has now revealed new hopes for paleontologists to better understand the history of this area.- Economy :...

, under the command of Majasha Ibn Masood. This was first time western Balochistan became directly controlled by the Caliphate
Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...

 and paid taxes on agriculture. In those days western Balochistan was included in the dominion of Kerman. In 654, Abdulrehman ibn Samrah, governor of Sistan, sent an Islamic army to crush a revolt in Zaranj
Zaranj
Zaranj or Zarang is a border town in south-western Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 49,851 people as of 2004. It is the capital of Nimruz province and is situated next to Milak, Iran. It is linked by highways with Lashkar Gah to the east, Farah to the north and Zabol in Iran to the...

, which is now in southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. After conquering Zaranj, a column of the army pushed north, conquering Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

 and Ghazni
Ghazni
For the Province of Ghazni see Ghazni ProvinceGhazni is a city in central-east Afghanistan with a population of about 141,000 people...

, in the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
The Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir in the Chitral region of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.It is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram Range, and is a...

 mountain range, while another column moved through North-western
Quetta District
Quetta is a district in the north-west of Balochistan province of Pakistan.It was part of Quetta Division until the year 2000 when divisions were abolished. The district is famous for its agriculture produce, most notably fruit orchards but also including apples and grapes. The Hanna Valley is an...

 Balochistan and conquered the area up to the ancient city of Dawar and Qandabil (Bolan
Bolan
Bolan may refer to:People*Sihag or Bolan, a gotra of Jat people.Music*Marc Bolan , British musician of T. Rex*Rachel Bolan, of band Skid Row*T-Bolan, Japanese rock bandPlaces...

). By 654, the whole of what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 was controlled by the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun Caliphate , comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death in 632, Year 10 A.H.. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia...

, except for the well-defended mountain town of QaiQan which is now Kalat
Kalat
Kalat or Qalat is a historical town located in Kalat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Kalat is the capital of Kalat District and is known locally as Kalat-i-Baloch and Kalat-i-Sewa....

, place in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. However, this town was later conquered during the reign of Caliph Ali
Ali
' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

. Abdulrehman ibn Samrah made Zaranj his provincial capital and remained governor of these conquered areas from 654 to 656, until Uthman was murdered.

During the Caliphate
Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...

 of Ali
Ali
' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

, a region of Balochistan, Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

, again revolted. Due to civil war
Civil war
A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic, or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly-united nation state....

 in the Islamic empire
Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun Caliphate , comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death in 632, Year 10 A.H.. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia...

, Ali was unable to deal with these areas until 660, when he sent a large force, under the command of Haris ibn Marah Abdi, towards Makran and Sind. Haris ibn Marah Abdi arrived in Makran and conquered it by force, and then moved northward to north-eastern
Quetta District
Quetta is a district in the north-west of Balochistan province of Pakistan.It was part of Quetta Division until the year 2000 when divisions were abolished. The district is famous for its agriculture produce, most notably fruit orchards but also including apples and grapes. The Hanna Valley is an...

 Balochistan and reconquered Qandabil (Bolan
Bolan
Bolan may refer to:People*Sihag or Bolan, a gotra of Jat people.Music*Marc Bolan , British musician of T. Rex*Rachel Bolan, of band Skid Row*T-Bolan, Japanese rock bandPlaces...

). Finally, he moved south and conquered Kalat after a fierce battle. In 663, during the reign of Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

 Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH...

, Muslims lost control of North-eastern
Quetta District
Quetta is a district in the north-west of Balochistan province of Pakistan.It was part of Quetta Division until the year 2000 when divisions were abolished. The district is famous for its agriculture produce, most notably fruit orchards but also including apples and grapes. The Hanna Valley is an...

 Balochistan and Kalat
Kalat
Kalat or Qalat is a historical town located in Kalat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Kalat is the capital of Kalat District and is known locally as Kalat-i-Baloch and Kalat-i-Sewa....

 when Haris ibn Marah and large part of his army died in battle against a revolt in Kalat
Kalat
Kalat or Qalat is a historical town located in Kalat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Kalat is the capital of Kalat District and is known locally as Kalat-i-Baloch and Kalat-i-Sewa....

. Muslim forces later regained control of the area during Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 reign. It also remained a part of the Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

 Caliphate
Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...

.

In the 15th century, Mir Chakar Khan Rind
Mir Chakar Khan Rind
Mir Chakar Khan Rind or Meer Chaakar Khan Rind or Chakar-i-Azam was a Baloch chieftain in the 15th century...

 became the first king of Balochistan. Subsequently, Balochistan was dominated by the Timurids
Timurid Dynasty
The Timurids , self-designated Gurkānī , were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turko-Mongol descent whose empire included the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Uzbekistan, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the...

, who controlled all of Persia and Afghanistan. The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 also controlled some parts of the area. When Nadir Shah won the allegiance of the rulers of Balochistan, he ceded Kalhora
Kalhora
The Kalhora are of Sindhi origin they trace their origins to a Sindhi warrior named, Sultan Ahmad Kalhora who married a daughter of Raja Rai Dhorang Sahta, receiving much territories as dowry. Amir Fathullah Khan Kalhora, is the recognized ancestor of the dynasty. He conquered the bhangar...

, one of the Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 territories of Sibi
Sibi
Sibi is a city of Balochistan province of Pakistan. The city is located at 29°33'0N 67°52'60E at an altitude of 130 metres and is headquarters of the district and tehsil of the same name.. According to the 2001 census of Pakistan the population of Sibi is 52,100...

-Kachi to the Khan of Kalat. The successor of Nadir Shah and founder of the Afghan Empire, Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

, also won the allegiance of that area's rulers. Most of the area would eventually revert to local Baloch control.

During the period of the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

, there were four Princely State
Princely state
A Princely State was a nominally sovereign entitity of British rule in India that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule such as suzerainty or paramountcy.-British relationship with the Princely States:India under the British Raj ...

s in Balochistan: Makran, Kharan, Las Bela and Kalat. In 1876, Sir Robert Sandeman
Robert Sandeman
Robert Sandeman may refer to:*Robert Sandeman , whose teachings became known as Sandemanianism*Robert Groves Sandeman , Indian officer and administrator...

 made a treaty with the Khan of Kalat and brought his territories (including Kharan
Kharan
Kharan can refer to:* Kharan, Pakistan, city in Balochistan.* Kharan District, district of Balochistan, Pakistan* Kharan , former princely state* Kharan Desert* The upper Halil River* Haran, Azerbaijan...

, Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

, and Las Bela) under British
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 suzerainty. After the Second Afghan War was ended by the Treaty of Gandamak
Treaty of Gandamak
The Treaty of Gandamak officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Afghanistan ceded various frontier areas to Britain to prevent invasion of further areas of the country....

 in May 1879, the Afghan Emir
Mohammad Yaqub Khan
Mohammad Yaqub Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from February 21 to October 12, 1879. He was the son of the previous ruler, Sher Ali Khan....

 ceded the districts of Quetta
Quetta District
Quetta is a district in the north-west of Balochistan province of Pakistan.It was part of Quetta Division until the year 2000 when divisions were abolished. The district is famous for its agriculture produce, most notably fruit orchards but also including apples and grapes. The Hanna Valley is an...

, Pishin
Pishin District
Pishin was a part of Quetta Pishin district. In 1975 it was separated from Quetta for administrative reasons. It derives its name from the locality Pishin. Pishin is a modernised form of ‘Pushang’, which is old Persian for the Arabic Fushang. Myth attributes the origin of the name to a son of the...

, Harnai
Harnai District
Harnai is a district in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Harnai is the principal town of this district. It is located in the north east of Balochistan province...

, and Thal Chotiali to the British. In 1883, the British took control of the Bolan Pass
Bolan Pass
The Bolan Pass is a mountain pass through the Toba Kakar Range of Balochistan province in western Pakistan, 120 kilometres from the Afghanistan border....

, southeast of Quetta, from the Khan of Kalat
Khan of Kalat
Khan of Kalat or Khan-e-Qalat is the title of former rulers of State of Kalat. Kalat state is now part of Balochistan, Pakistan. The rulers in Kalat were always subject to the political authority of a larger state, after the Mongol invasion they were subject to the Mughal emperors in Delhi, then...

. In 1887, some of the areas of Balochistan were declared British territory. In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand
Mortimer Durand
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India.-Background:Born at Sehore, Bhopal, India, he was the son of Sir Henry Marion Durand, the Resident of Baroda and he was educated at Blackheath Proprietary School, and Tonbridge School.-Career:Durand...

 negotiated an agreement with the Amir of Afghanistan, Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.The third son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan, Abdur Rahman Khan was considered a strong ruler who re-established the writ of the Afghan government in Kabul after the disarray that followed the second...

, to fix the Durand Line
Durand Line
The Durand Line refers to the porous international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan, which has divided the ethnic Pashtuns . This poorly marked line is approximately long...

 running from Chitral
Chitral
Chitral or Chetrar , translated as field in the native language Khowar, is the capital of the Chitral District, situated on the western bank of the Kunar River , in Pakistan. The town is at the foot of Tirich Mir, the highest peak of the Hindu Kush, high...

 to Balochistan as the boundary between the Emirate of Afghanistan
Emirate of Afghanistan
The Emirate of Afghanistan began with the end of the Durrani Empire and the reign of Dost Mohammad Khan in 1823 and ended when Amir Amanullah Khan became Shah in 1926. This period was characterized by the expansion of European colonial interests in Central Asia...

 and the British
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

.

Two devastating earthquakes occurred in Balochistan during the British colonial rule: The 1935 Balochistan Earthquake
1935 Balochistan earthquake
The 1935 Balochistan Earthquake occurred on May 31, 1935 at 3:02am at Quetta, Balochistan, British India . The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.7 Mw and anywhere between 30,000 and 60,000 people died from the impact. This ranks as one of the deadliest earthquakes that hit South Asia...

, which devastated Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

, and the 1945 Balochistan Earthquake
1945 Balochistan earthquake
The 1945 Balochistan Earthquake was an earthquake which occurred in British India at 05:26 PST on 28 November 1945 It was recorded with a magnitude of 8.1 on the Richter Scale....

 with its epicentre in the Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

 region.

After independence from the British, Balochistan has not experienced much development. Due to historical poverty as result of its geographic location and royalties formula which benefits only a few tribal leaders, it has developed at a much slower rate than other parts of Pakistan.

Since Pakistan's independence, Baloch nationalist groups and the Provincial government have been in conflict, the Balochistan conflict
Balochistan conflict
The Balochistan conflict is an ongoing conflict between Baloch nationalists and the Government of Pakistan over Balochistan, the country's largest province...

.

Demographics



The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 is very low due to the mountainous terrain and scarcity of water. The southern region is known as Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

. The central region is known as Kalat
Kalat District
Kalat or Qalat is a district in Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of 26 in that province, and encompasses an area of 6,621 km². The population of the district is estimated to be over 400,000 in 2005. The district is governed from the city of Kalat....

.

As of the 1998 census, Balochistan had a population of 8 million inhabitants, representing approximately 5% of the Pakistani population. Official estimates of Balochistan's population grew from approximately 7.45 million in 2003 to 7.8 million in 2005.
According to the 2008 Pakistan Statistical Year Book, households whose primary language is Balochi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

 represent 40% of Balochistan's population while 20% of households speak Brahui
Brahui
The name Brahui may refer to:*The Brahui language*The Brahui people...

, Pashtu is spoken by around 40% of the population making Balochi and Pashtu the two dominant languages in the region. Other languages include, Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 and Brahui
Brahui
The name Brahui may refer to:*The Brahui language*The Brahui people...

 , and Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

. Balochi-speaking people are concentrated in the sparsely populated west, east, south and southeast; Brahui speakers dominate in the centre of the province, while the Pashtuns are the majority in the north. The Kalat and Mastung
Mastung, Pakistan
Mustang the capital of Mastung District, is a town in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. It is located at 29°48'0N 66°50'60E and has an altitude of 1701 metres . The town is also the administrative centre of Mustang Tehsil, an administrative subdivision of the district - the town itself is...

 areas speak Brahui. Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

, the capital of the province, is largely populated with Pashtun people (actually more than 2 million afghan refugees settled in Quetta and the surrounding area) as prior to recent surge of migration various other Afghan refugee called as Afghani Khorasani tribes also migrated in 1960s decade like Nasar, Khilji, Kharoti, Andar, Sulemankhel Tokhai, Sulemankhel, Mullakhel, Hazara, Tajik etc. to Balochistan especially Quetta and other Pashtoon dominated areas.(See Pawanda Regulations 1952) In the Lasbela District
Lasbela District
Lasbela is a coastal district of Balochistan province of Pakistan. It became a separate district in Kalat Division on 30 June 1954. The name is derived from the words Las which in Sanskrit signifies a settlement or lived in or lively and Bela which means "A Sea's Shore" in Sanskrit and is also the...

, the majority of the population speaks Balochi, or Lasi
Lasi
Lasi is a tribe settled in Lasbela District of Balochistan, Pakistan....

. Baloch tribes of Sibi Naseerabad widely speak Sindhi due to a Hindu community's hold over the trade and local market. A large number of approximately over 4 million Afghan refugees moved to Quetta and other cities of Balochistan after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. Near the Kalat
Kalat District
Kalat or Qalat is a district in Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of 26 in that province, and encompasses an area of 6,621 km². The population of the district is estimated to be over 400,000 in 2005. The district is governed from the city of Kalat....

 region and other parts of the province there are significant numbers of Baloch Brahui speakers. Along the coast there are various Makrani
Makrani
Makrani are the inhabitants of Makran coast of Balochistan in Iran and Pakistan.-Sheedi:Black Africans were enslaved and brought to Balochistan in medieval times. The descendants are called Makrani or Sheedi. The Sheedis are a Negroid people in Pakistan...

 Balochi speakers who predominates. A large number of Afghan refugees can also be found in the province, including Pashtuns, Hazaras and Tajiks. Many Sindhi farmers have moved to the more arable lands in the east.There are substantial No of Hindkowans living in Quetta. Former education Minster Shafiq Ahmed Khan was from Hindko community.Shafiq was shot dead by terrorists. His brother Tahir Ahmed Khan is now Balochistan's education Ministers. Famous Businessman and preacher Peer Ali Shah was also from Hindko community. He was brother in law of Dr.Syed Mehboob famous Hindko, English and Urdu writer.
Historical populations
Census Population Urban

----
1951 1,167,167 12.38%
1961 1,353,484 16.87%
1972 2,428,678 16.45%
1981 4,332,376 15.62%
1998 6,565,885 23.89%

Society and culture



Balochistani culture is primarily tribal, deeply patriarchal and conservative. Baloch society is dominated by tribal chieftains called Mir
Mir (title)
Mir is a title which is derived from the Arabic title Emir or Amir . It was adopted in many languages under Islamic influence, such as Persian , Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, meaning leader of a group or tribe in Iran, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan.-Title:In Iran, mir has also been formally used as a...

s, Sardar
Sardar
Sardar is a title of Indo-Aryan origin that was originally used to denote feudal princes, noblemen, and other aristocrats. It was later applied to indicate a Head of State, a Commander-in-chief, and an Army military rank...

s and Nawab
Nawab
A Nawab or Nawaab is an honorific title given to Muslim rulers of princely states in South Asia. It is the Muslim equivalent of the term "maharaja" that was granted to Hindu rulers....

s, who are the ruling elite of Balochistan and have been criticized for blocking the educational development and empowerment of the common baloch people.

Government

Provincial symbols of Balochistan
Provincial animal Camel
Dromedary
The dromedary or Arabian camel is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back. Its native range is unclear, but it was probably the Arabian Peninsula. The domesticated form occurs widely in North Africa and the Middle East...

Provincial bird Houbara bustard
Houbara Bustard
The Houbara Bustard, Chlamydotis undulata, is a large bird in the bustard family.-Description:The Houbara Bustard is a small to mid-sized bustard. It measures in length and spans across the wings. It is brown above and white below, with a black stripe down the sides of its neck. In flight, the...

Provincial tree Date Palm
Date Palm
The date palm is a palm in the genus Phoenix, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around the Persian Gulf. It is a medium-sized plant, 15–25 m tall, growing singly or forming a clump with...

Provincial flower Ephedra distachya
Ephedra distachya
Ephedra distachya is a shrub in the family Ephedraceae, about 25 cm to 50 cm high, that grows in southern Europe and parts of western and central Asia. Its local names include somlatha.-Uses:...



In common with the other provinces of Pakistan, Balochistan has a parliamentary form of government. The ceremonial head of the province is the Governor, who is appointed by the President of Pakistan
President of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan is the head of state, as well as figurehead, of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment , Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government. According to the Constitution, the President is chosen by the Electoral College to serve a...

 on the advice of the provincial Chief Minister
Chief Minister of Balochistan
The Chief Minister of Balochistan is elected by the Provincial Assembly of the Balochistan to serve as the head of the provincial government in Balochistan, Pakistan. The current Chief Minister is Aslam Raisani of the Pakistan Peoples Party...

. The chief executive of the province is the Chief Minister who is normally the leader of the largest party or alliance in the provincial assembly. The unicameral Provincial Assembly of Balochistan
Provincial Assembly of Balochistan
The Provincial Assembly of Balochistan is one of the four provincial assemblies of Pakistan, and the seat of the Government of Balochistan. The Balochistan assembly is the unicameral legislature of the province of Balochistan. It was established under Article 106 of the Constitution of the Pakistan...

 comprises 65 seats of which 4% are reserved for non-Muslims and 16% for women only. The judicial branch of government is carried out by the Balochistan High Court
Balochistan High Court
The High Court of Balochistan is the highest judicial institution of Balochistan, Pakistan. The court is formally known as High Court of Balochistan...

, based in Quetta, and headed by a Chief Justice. For administrative purposes, the province is subdivided into 30 districts:

  1. Awaran
    Awaran District
    Awaran District is a district in the south of the Balochistan province of Pakistan. It was notified as a separate district on 11 November 1992...


  2. Barkhan
    Barkhan District
    Barkhan a district in the north-west of the Balochistan province of Pakistan. It was given the status of a district on 31 December 1991.-Population:...


  3. Bolan
    Bolan District
    Bolan district Well known as Kachhi is in the centre of Balochistan province of Pakistan. The Bolan area remained under one district Kachhi until 31 December 1991...


  4. Chagai
    Chagai District
    Chaghi/Chagai is the largest district of Pakistan and is located on the north west corner of Balochistan, Pakistan. It forms a triangular border with Afghanistan and Iran.Pakistan conducted a nuclear weapons test in 1998 at Ras Koh Hills Chagai District....


  5. Dera Bugti
    Dera Bugti District
    Dera Bugti is a district located in the south west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Dera Bugti is named after its headquarter town 'Dera Bugti'. Dera means `abode' or `habitat', while `Bugti' is the name of the major Baloch tribe. Thus Dera Bugti means the abode of the Bugtis, the dominant...


  6. Gwadar
    Gwadar District
    Gwadar District is a coastal district in Balochistan province of Pakistan. Gwadar city is the district headquarters of Gwadar District.-Administration:Gwadar District is subdivided into the following tehsils or subdistricts:* Gwadar* Jiwani* Ormara...


  7. Harnai
    Harnai District
    Harnai is a district in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Harnai is the principal town of this district. It is located in the north east of Balochistan province...


  8. Jafarabad
    Jafarabad District
    Jafarabad or Jaffarabad district lies in the South-East of the Pakistani province of Balochistan. Jafarabad’s headquarters are at Dera Allah Yar. Formerly known as the Jhatpat subdivision, the region was part of the Jacobabad District until 1970 and part of the Sibi District until 1975...


  9. Jhal Magsi
    Jhal Magsi District
    Jhal Magsi district is in the centre of Balochistan province of Pakistan.-Administration:The district is administratively subdivided into two tehsils Jhal Magsi and Gandawa which contain a total of nine Union Councils.-Population:...


  10. Kalat
    Kalat District
    Kalat or Qalat is a district in Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of 26 in that province, and encompasses an area of 6,621 km². The population of the district is estimated to be over 400,000 in 2005. The district is governed from the city of Kalat....


  11. Kech
    Kech District
    Kech or Turbat district is a district in Balochistan province of Pakistan.-Administration:The district of Kech is administratively subdivided into the following tehsils:* Buleda* Dasht* Turbat* Tump-Population:...


  12. Kharan
    Kharan District
    Kharan is a district in the north-west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Kharan was notified as a district in 1951 and the Deputy Commissioner’s office started functioning on March 15, 1952. The Deputy Commissioner directly supervises all activities in the district and the functions of all...


  13. Khuzdar
    Khuzdar District
    Khuzdar district is located in the centre of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Khuzdar is the capital of Khuzdar district. Khuzdar was created as a separate district on 1 March 1974. Previously, it was part of Kalat District....


  14. Kohlu
    Kohlu District
    Kohlu is a district of the Balochistan province of Pakistan. It is bounded in the north by Loralai District, Dera Bugti in the south, in the east Rojhan-Mazari and Sibi District in the west...


  15. Killa Abdullah

  1. Killa Saifullah
    Killa Saifullah District
    Killa Saifullah, Killa Saifullah or Saifullah Killa is a district in the north west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Saifullah Khan was a brave warrior of Khoidadzai, meerdadzai/mirdadzai a sub tribe of Kakar Sunzerkhel. A part of Zhob was named after him because of his bravery.Keeping in...


  2. Lasbela
    Lasbela District
    Lasbela is a coastal district of Balochistan province of Pakistan. It became a separate district in Kalat Division on 30 June 1954. The name is derived from the words Las which in Sanskrit signifies a settlement or lived in or lively and Bela which means "A Sea's Shore" in Sanskrit and is also the...


  3. Loralai
    Loralai District
    Loralai is a district in the centre of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Loralai district was created on October, 1903. Loralai town is the district headquarters...


  4. Mastung
    Mastung District
    Mastung District is a district located in the north west of Balochistan province, Pakistan. Prior to 1991, Mastung was part of Kalat District. For administrative purposes Mastung was separated from Kalat and made a new district in 1991.-Administration:...


  5. Musakhel
    Musakhel District
    Musakhel is a district in the northwest of Balochistan province of Pakistan. The language of the district are Pashto, Balochi and Jaffarki most of the people are Pashtuns- Geography :...


  6. Nasirabad
    Nasirabad District
    Nasirabad is a district in the centre-west of Balochistan, Pakistan. Nasirabad’s headquarters are at Dera Murad Jamali. The district was notified in 1974. For three years, from July 1987 to December 1990, it was known as Tamboo district. Tamboo is a small village 40 km west of Dera Murad...


  7. Nushki
    Nushki District
    Nushki District is one of the districts of Balochistan province, Pakistan. The administration of the Nushki district was taken over from the Khan of Kalat by the Indian government in 1896, and was leased from him on a perpetual quit rent in 1899....


  8. Panjgur
    Panjgur District
    Panjgur is a district in the west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Panjgur was one of the three tehsils of Makran District until 1 July 1977 when that district became Makran Division and Panjgur became a district...


  9. Pishin
    Pishin District
    Pishin was a part of Quetta Pishin district. In 1975 it was separated from Quetta for administrative reasons. It derives its name from the locality Pishin. Pishin is a modernised form of ‘Pushang’, which is old Persian for the Arabic Fushang. Myth attributes the origin of the name to a son of the...


  10. Quetta
    Quetta District
    Quetta is a district in the north-west of Balochistan province of Pakistan.It was part of Quetta Division until the year 2000 when divisions were abolished. The district is famous for its agriculture produce, most notably fruit orchards but also including apples and grapes. The Hanna Valley is an...


  11. Sherani
    Sherani District
    Sherani is a district in the Balochistan province of Pakistan.Sherani District was the second biggest tehsil of Zhob District until 2005. In 2006, It was officially graded as district with the name of "Sherani" . The main language of the district is pashto...


  12. Sibi
    Sibi District
    Sibi is a district in theBalochistan province of Pakistan. The main mountains range are Zen, Bambore and Dungan. The climatic and topography of Sibi District is quite varied compared to other districts of Balochistan. It is also known as the "Hot spot" of Pakistan where the temperatures in the...


  13. Washuk

  14. Zhob
    Zhob District
    Zhob is a district in the north west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Zhob district is a Provincially Administered Tribal Area . Zhob district is subdivided into three subdistricts: Zhob, Kakkar and Sherani. The population of Zhob district is estimated to be over 500,000 in 2005...


  15. Ziarat
    Ziarat District
    Ziarat is a district in the north of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Ziarat town is headquarters of the district of the Sub division, and also of the tehsil. Khilafat Hills are the highest peak with an altitude of in Ziarat district...



Economy


Balochistan's share of the national economy has historically ranged between 3.7% to 4.9%. Since 1972, Balochistan's economy has grown in size by 2.7 times. The economy of the province is largely based upon the production of natural gas, coal and minerals. Outside Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

, the infrastructure of the province is gradually developing but still lags far behind other parts of Pakistan. Tourism remains limited but has increased due to the exotic appeal of the province. Limited farming in the east as well as fishing along the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 coastline are other forms of income and sustenance for the local populations. Due to the tribal lifestyle of many Baloch and Brahui, animal husbandry is important, as are trading bazaars found throughout the province.

Though the province remains largely underdeveloped, there are currently several major development projects in progress in Balochistan, including the construction of a new deep sea port at the strategically important town of Gwadar
Gwadar
Gwadar also known as Godar is a developing port city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. It is the district headquarters of Gwadar District in Balochistan province and has a population of approximately 50,000.Gwadar is strategically located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the...

. The port is projected to be the hub of an energy and trade corridor to and from China and the Central Asian republics.

Further west is the Mirani Dam
Mirani Dam
Mirani Dam is a medium-size multi-purpose concrete-faced rock-filled dam located on the Dasht River south of the Central Makran Range in Kech District in Balochistan province of Pakistan. Its . reservoir is fed by the Kech River and the Nihing River....

 multipurpose project, on the Dasht River
Dasht River
Dasht River is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan.Mirani Dam is located on Dasht River to irrigate the surrounding areas and to provide drinking water to Gwadar....

, 50 kilometres (31.1 mi) west of Turbat
Turbat
Turbat is a city located in southern Balochistan, a province of Pakistan. The town is the administrative center of Kech District and Turbat Tehsil, the town itself contains one Union council.-About:...

 in the Makran Division
Makran Division
Makran Division was an administrative division of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan, until the reforms of 2000 abolished the third tier of government.Disctricts of Makran DivisionGwadarTurbatPanjgoor-See also:*Makran...

. It will provide dependable irrigation supplies for the development of agriculture and add more than 35,000 km² of arable land. There is also Chinese involvement in the nearby Saindak
Saindak
Saindak |Balochistan]], Pakistan. Large deposits of Copper and Gold have been discovered at Saindak. The Saindak Copper Gold Project has created economic prosperity in the town. Saindak is also regional headquarters of Pakistan Frontier Corps.-External links:...

 gold and copper mining project.

One of the world's largest copper deposits (and its matrix-associated residual gold) have been found at Reko Diq
Reko Diq
Reko Diq is a small town in Chagai District, Balochistan, Pakistan, in a desert area, 70 kilometres north-west of Naukundi, close to Pakistan's border with Iran and Afghanistan...

 in the Chagai District
Chagai District
Chaghi/Chagai is the largest district of Pakistan and is located on the north west corner of Balochistan, Pakistan. It forms a triangular border with Afghanistan and Iran.Pakistan conducted a nuclear weapons test in 1998 at Ras Koh Hills Chagai District....

 of Balochistan. Reko Diq is a giant mining project in Chaghi. The main license (EL5) is held jointly by the Government of Balochistan (25%), Antofagasta Minerals (37.5%) and Barrick Gold (37.5%). The deposits at Reko Diq are hoped to be even bigger than those of Sarcheshmeh in Iran and Escondida
Escondida
Minera Escondida, which means 'hidden' in Spanish, is a mining company that operates two open pit copper mines in the Atacama Desert, 170 km southeast of Antofagasta in northern Chile. It is currently the highest producing copper mine in the world...

 in Chile (presently, the second and the third largest proven deposits of copper in the world).

BHP Billiton, the world's largest copper mining company, began the project in cooperation with the Australian firm Tethyan, entering into a joint venture with the Balochistan government. The potential annual copper production has been estimated to be 900,000 to 2.2 million tons. The deposits seem to be largely of porphyry
Porphyry (geology)
Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. The larger crystals are called phenocrysts...

 rock nature.

See also


  • Balochistan
    Balochistan
    Balochistan or Baluchistan is a region which covers parts of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. It can also refer to one of several modern and historical territories within that region:...

  • Tourism in Balochistan, Pakistan
    Tourism in Balochistan, Pakistan
    Tourism in Balochistan, Pakistan is an undersized industry compared to other sectors of the Balochistani economy yet has a productive potential. Geographically lying on the Iranian plateau to the west and inhabited by the Iranic Baloch people, Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan in...

  • Balochistan (Afghanistan)
    Balochistan (Afghanistan)
    Balochistan or Baluchistan is an arid, mountainous region that includes part of southern and southwestern Afghanistan. It extends into southeastern Iran and western Pakistan and is named after the Baloch people.-Geography:...

  • Balochistan honour killings
    Balochistan honour killings
    The Balochistan honour killings refers to the August 2008 murder of five women who were killed by tribesmen of the Umrani Tribe of Balochistan. The five women — three teens, and two middle-aged women — were kidnapped, beaten, shot, and then buried alive because they refused the tribal...

  • Balochistan leopard
  • Baloch people
    Baloch people
    The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

  • Brahui people
    Brahui people
    The Brahui or Brohi are ethnic Baloch group of about 2.2 million people with the majority found in Kalat, Baluchistan, Pakistan, but they are also found in smaller numbers in neighboring Afghanistan and Iran. The Brahuis are almost entirely Sunni Muslims.-Origins:The ethnonym "Brahui" is a very...

  • Government of Balochistan, Pakistan
  • Jamot
    Jamot
    The Jamot is a Sindhi speaking tribe in Balochistan provinces of Pakistan.- Clans :This tribe is mainly divided into many clans including:* Manjhoo* Abro* Airi* Jokhio* Bhangar* Kalhora* Mangrio* Samma* Ansari* Qureshi* Hanbhi- Distribution :...

  • List of cities in Balochistan
  • Pashtun people
    Pashtun people
    Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

  • Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Iran)
  • Kakazai
    Kakazai
    The Kakazai , also known as Loye Mamund , are a Pashtun tribe originally from the Laghman province of Afghanistan.They came to South Asia during Afghan invasions such as those of Mahmud of Ghazni, settling in various regions....



External links