Karachi

Karachi

Overview
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre
Financial Centre
A financial centre is a global city that is a company and business hub, as well as being home to many world famous banks and/or stock exchanges....

 of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million. Karachi is the most populous city in the country, one of the world's largest cities in terms of population and also the 10th largest urban agglomeration in the world.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Karachi'
Start a new discussion about 'Karachi'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre
Financial Centre
A financial centre is a global city that is a company and business hub, as well as being home to many world famous banks and/or stock exchanges....

 of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million. Karachi is the most populous city in the country, one of the world's largest cities in terms of population and also the 10th largest urban agglomeration in the world. It is Pakistan's premier centre of banking, industry, economic activity and trade and is home to Pakistan's largest corporations, including those involved in textiles, shipping, automotive industry
Automotive industry
The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue....

, entertainment
Entertainment
Entertainment consists of any activity which provides a diversion or permits people to amuse themselves in their leisure time. Entertainment is generally passive, such as watching opera or a movie. Active forms of amusement, such as sports, are more often considered to be recreation...

, the arts
The arts
The arts are a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which as a description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and...

, fashion, advertising, publishing
Publishing
Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information—the activity of making information available to the general public...

, software development
Software development
Software development is the development of a software product...

 and medical research. The city is a major hub of higher education in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 and the wider Muslim world
Muslim world
The term Muslim world has several meanings. In a religious sense, it refers to those who adhere to the teachings of Islam, referred to as Muslims. In a cultural sense, it refers to Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization...

.

Karachi is ranked as a Beta world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

. It was the original capital of Pakistan until the construction of Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 and is the location of the Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
The Port of Karachi is Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo . It is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar, close to the main business district and several industrial areas. The geographic position of the port places it in close...

 and Port Bin Qasim
Port Qasim
The Port Muhammad Bin Qasim , also known as Port Qasim, is a seaport in Karachi, Pakistan, on the coastline of the Arabian Sea. It is Pakistan's second busiest port, handling about 35% of the nation's cargo...

, two of the region's largest and busiest ports. After the independence of Pakistan, the city population increased dramatically when hundreds of thousands of Muhajirs from India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and other parts of South Asia came to settle in Karachi.

The city is located in the south of the country, along the coastline meeting the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

. It is spread over 3527 km² (1,361.8 sq mi) in area, almost four times bigger than Hong Kong. It is locally known as the "City of Lights" and "The bride of the cities" for its liveliness, and the "City of the Quaid" , having been the birth and burial place of Quaid-e-Azam (Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a Muslim lawyer, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan. He is popularly and officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam and Baba-e-Qaum ....

), the founder of Pakistan, who made the city his home after Pakistan's independence from the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 on 14 August 1947.

Early history


The area of Karachi was known to the ancient Greeks by many names: Muneeb, the place where Qureshi the Great camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia
Babylonia
Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

 after his campaign in the Indus Valley
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

; 'Morontobara' (probably Manora
Manora
Manora may refer to:* Manora, Karachi, a peninsula near Karachi, Pakistan* Manora Fort, Thanjavur, India* Manora, Washim, a taulka in Washim district of Maharashtra, India...

 island near Karachi harbour
Port of Karachi
The Port of Karachi is Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo . It is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar, close to the main business district and several industrial areas. The geographic position of the port places it in close...

), from whence Alexander's admiral Nearchus
Nearchus
Nearchus was one of the officers, a navarch, in the army of Alexander the Great. His celebrated voyage from India to Susa after Alexander's expedition in India is preserved in Arrian's account, the Indica....

 set sail; and Barbarikon
Barbarikon
Barbarikon was the name of a sea port near the modern-day city of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, important in the Hellenistic era in Indian Ocean trade...

, a port of the Bactria
Bactria
Bactria and also appears in the Zend Avesta as Bukhdi. It is the ancient name of a historical region located between south of the Amu Darya and west of the Indus River...

n kingdom. It was later known to the Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

s as Debal
Debal
-Introduction:Debal was an ancient port located near modern Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. In Arabic, it was usually called Daybul it is adjacent to the nearby Manora Island and was administered by Mansura, and later Thatta....

 from where Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi was a Umayyad general who, at the age of 17, began the conquest of the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was born in the city of Taif...

 led his conquering force into South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 in 712 AD

Karachi was founded as "Kolachi" by Sindhi and Baloch
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

 tribes from Balochistan
Balochistan (region)
Balochistan or Baluchistan is an arid, mountainous region in the Iranian plateau in Southwest Asia; it includes part of southeastern Iran, western Pakistan, and southwestern Afghanistan. The area is named after the numerous Baloch tribes, Iranian peoples who moved into the area from the west...

 and Makran
Makran
The present day Makran is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh, Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire....

, who established a small fishing community in the area. Descendants of the original community still live in the area on the small island of Abdullah Goth, which is located near the Karachi Port.The original name "Kolachi" survives in the name of a well-known Karachi locality named "Mai Kolachi" in Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

. Mirza Ghazi Beg
Mirza Ghazi Beg
Mirza Ghazi Beg Tarkhan of Thatta was the most powerful Mughal governor who administered Sindh, during his rule had become a region fiercely loyal to the Mughals, in Sindh a network of small and large forts manned by cavalry and musketeers further extended Mughal power during the reign of Mughal...

, the Mughal administrator of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

, is among the first historical figures credited for the development of Coastal Sindh (consisting of regions such as the Makran Coast and the Mehran Delta), including the cities of Thatta
Thatta
Thatta is a historic town of 220,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan, near Lake Keenjhar, the largest freshwater lake in the country. Thatta's major monuments especially its necropolis at Makli are listed among the World Heritage Sites. The Shah Jahan Mosque is also listed...

, Bhambore
Bhambore
Bhambore is the ruins of the ancient port city of Debal from the 7th century, located near modern Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, at the base of the Indus River. The ruins are located approximately 60 km between Dhabeji and Gharo on the N-5 National Highway. Its population was mainly Hindu with a...

 and Karachi.

During the rule of the Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 administrator of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

, Mirza Ghazi Beg
Mirza Ghazi Beg
Mirza Ghazi Beg Tarkhan of Thatta was the most powerful Mughal governor who administered Sindh, during his rule had become a region fiercely loyal to the Mughals, in Sindh a network of small and large forts manned by cavalry and musketeers further extended Mughal power during the reign of Mughal...

 the city was well fortified against Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 colonial incursions in Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

. During the reign of the Kalhora Dynasty
Kalhora Dynasty
Kalhora Dynasty or Kalhoro Dynasty ; ruled Sindh and other parts of present day Pakistan. This dynasty was founded by Kalhora tribe that ruled Sindh from 1701 to 1783...

 the present city started life as a fishing settlement when a Sindhi Balochi
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

 fisher-woman called Mai Kolachi
Mai Kolachi
Mai Kolachi was an old fisher woman who settled near the delta of the Indus River to start a community. This port was named after her as Kolachi and this community was later developed into modern Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan....

 took up residence and started a family. The city was an integral part of the Talpur dynasty
Talpur dynasty
The Talpur dynasty was a dynasty of the Talpur tribe that conquered and ruled Sindh, and other parts of present-day Pakistan, from 1783 to 1843. The Talpur army defeated the Kalhora Dynasty in the Battle of Halani in 1783 to become rulers of Sindh. The Talpur dynasty was defeated by the British...

 in 1720.

The village that later grew out of this settlement was known as Kolachi-jo-Goth (Village of Kolachi in Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

). By the late 1720s, the village was trading across the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 with Muscat
Muscat, Oman
Muscat is the capital of Oman. It is also the seat of government and largest city in the Governorate of Muscat. As of 2008, the population of the Muscat metropolitan area was 1,090,797. The metropolitan area spans approximately and includes six provinces called wilayats...

 and the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 region. The local Sindhi populace built a small fort was constructed for the protection of the city, armed with cannons imported by Sindhi sailors from Muscat, Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

. The fort had two main gateways: one facing the sea, known as Kharra Darwaaza (Brackish Gate) (Kharadar) and the other facing the Lyari River
Lyari River
Lyari River is a small ephemeral stream that flows through the Pakistani megacity of Karachi from north east to the center and drains into the Arabian Sea at the Monora channel. It is one of the two rivers of Karachi, the other one being Malir River. The river is about 50 kilometres long...

 known as the Meet'ha Darwaaza (Sweet Gate) (Mithadar
Mithadar
Mithadar is one of the neighbourhoods of Saddar Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Kharadar literally means salty gate in both Sindhi and Urdu; the neighbourhood might have received this name because it is located near the Arabian Sea....

). The location of these gates correspond to the modern areas of Kharadar and Mithadar .

British rule




After sending a couple of exploratory missions to the area, the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 conquered the town when HMS Wellesley
HMS Wellesley
Two ships of the Royal Navy and one shore establishment have been named HMS Wellesley after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.-Ships:* HMS Wellesley was a Royal Navy school ship, formerly HMS Cornwall and renamed Wellesley in 1868....

 anchored off Manora island on 1 February 1839. Two days later, the little fort surrendered. The town was later annexed to British India when Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 was conquered by Major-General
Major General
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

 Charles James Napier
Charles James Napier
General Sir Charles James Napier, GCB , was a general of the British Empire and the British Army's Commander-in-Chief in India, notable for conquering the Sindh Province in what is now Pakistan.- His genealogy :...

 at the Battle of Miani
Battle of Miani
The Battle of Miani was a battle between British forces under Sir Charles Napier and the Talpur Amirs of Sindh, Pakistan.-Background:...

 on 17 February 1843. On his departure in 1847, Napier is said to have remarked, "Would that I could come again to see you in your grandeur!" Karachi was made the capital of Sindh in the 1840s. On Napier's departure, it was added along with the rest of Sindh to the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
The Bombay Presidency was a province of British India. It was established in the 17th century as a trading post for the English East India Company, but later grew to encompass much of western and central India, as well as parts of post-partition Pakistan and the Arabian Peninsula.At its greatest...

, a move that caused considerable resentment among the native Sindhis. The British realised the importance of the city as a military cantonment and as a port for exporting the produce of the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

 basin, and rapidly developed its harbour for shipping. The foundations of a city municipal government were laid down and infrastructure development was undertaken. New businesses started opening up and the population of the town began rising rapidly. The arrival of the troops of the Kumpany Bahadur in 1839 spawned the foundation of the new section, the military cantonment. The cantonment formed the basis of the 'white' city, where the Indians were not allowed free access. The 'white' town was modeled after English industrial parent-cities, where work and residential spaces were separated, as were residential from recreational places. Karachi was divided into two major poles. The 'native' town in the northwest, now enlarged to accommodate the burgeoning Indian mercantile population. When the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

 broke out in South Asia, the 21st Native Infantry, then stationed in Karachi, declared allegiance to rebels and joining their numbers on 10 September 1857. Nevertheless, the British were able to quickly reassert control over Karachi and defeat the uprising.

In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from India to England, when a direct telegraph connection was laid between Karachi and London. In 1878, the city was connected to the rest of British India by rail. Public building projects, such as Frere Hall
Frere Hall
Frere Hall is one of the few well-preserved buildings from the days of the British Raj that still exists in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.It was built in honour of Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere , who was known for promoting economic development in Karachi.-Location:The Hall is located between Abdullah...

 (1865) and the Empress Market
Empress Market
The Empress Market is a famous marketplace situated in the Saddar Town locality of Karachi, Pakistan. The market traces its origins to the British Raj era, when it was first constructed. Today, it is amongst the most popular and busy places for shopping in Karachi and reflects as one of the few...

 (1890), were undertaken. In 1876, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a Muslim lawyer, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan. He is popularly and officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam and Baba-e-Qaum ....

, the founder of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, was born in the city, which by now had become a bustling city with mosques, churches, courthouses, brothels, paved streets and a magnificent harbour. By 1899, Karachi had become the largest wheat exporting port in the East. Before the year 1880 the majority of the population in Karachi consisted of the indigenous Sindhis
Sindhi people
Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province Formerly of British India, now in Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity...

 and Balochis
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

 (who spoke Sindhi as their mother tongue). Karachi was a small port town and part of Talpur dynasty
Talpur dynasty
The Talpur dynasty was a dynasty of the Talpur tribe that conquered and ruled Sindh, and other parts of present-day Pakistan, from 1783 to 1843. The Talpur army defeated the Kalhora Dynasty in the Battle of Halani in 1783 to become rulers of Sindh. The Talpur dynasty was defeated by the British...

 in Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

. The British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 conquered Karachi on February 3, 1839 and started developing it as a major port. As a result of British rule the local Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 population established a massive presence in the city.

These developments in Karachi resulted in large influx of economic migrants: Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

s, Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s, Christians, Jews, Marathis, Goans
Goans
Goan is the demonym used to describe the people of the Indian state of Goa who form an ethno-linguistic group which is a result of assimilation of Indo-Portuguese, Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Proto-Australoid, Indo-Scythian, Indo-Greeks and Indo-Iranians ethnic and/or linguistic ancestries.They speak...

, Chinese, British, Arabs and Gujaratis
Gujarati people
Gujarati people , or Gujaratis are an ethnic group that is traditionally Gujarati-speaking and can trace their ancestry to the state of Gujarat in western India...

. The population of the city was about 105,000 inhabitants by the end of the 19th century, with a cosmopolitan mix of different nationalities. British colonialists embarked on a number of public works of sanitation and transportation such as gravel paved streets, proper drains, street sweepers, and a network of trams and horse-drawn trolleys.

Independent Pakistan



By the time of independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 in 1947, Karachi had become a bustling metropolis with beautiful classical and colonial European styled buildings, lining the city’s thoroughfares. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan, which at the time included modern day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, a region located more than 1000 km (621.4 mi) away, and not physically connected to Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. In 1947, Karachi was the focus for settlement by Muslim migrants from India, who drastically expanded the city's population and transformed its demographics and economy. In 1958, the capital of Pakistan was moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

 and then in 1960, to the newly built Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

. This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city, marked by a lack of development. Karachi had both a municipal corporation and a Karachi Divisional Council in the 1960s, which developed plans for schools, colleges, roads, municipal gardens, and parks. The Karachi Divisional Council had separate working committees for education, roads, and residential societies development and planning. During the 1960s, Karachi was seen as an economic role model around the world. Many countries sought to emulate Pakistan's economic planning strategy and one of them, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

, copied the city's second "Five-Year Plan" and world Financial Centre in Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 is designed and modeled after Karachi.

The 1970s saw major labour struggles in Karachi's industrial estates (see Karachi labour unrest of 1972
Karachi labour unrest of 1972
In 1972, Pakistan's largest city, Karachi, witnessed major labour unrest in its industrial areas of S.I.T.E Industrial Area and Korangi-Landhi. Several protesting workers were killed or injured by police during this period. In a number of cases, workers briefly occupied their...

). The 1980s and 1990s saw an influx of refugees from the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

 into Karachi; they were followed in smaller numbers by refugees escaping from Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. Severe ethnic tensions between the Muhajir and other native groups (e.g. Sindhis
Sindhi people
Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province Formerly of British India, now in Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity...

, Punjabis
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

, Pashtuns
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 and others) erupted and the city was wracked with political and ethnic violence.

Today, Karachi continues to be an important financial
FINANCIAL
FINANCIAL is the weekly English-language newspaper with offices in Tbilisi, Georgia and Kiev, Ukraine. Published by Intelligence Group LLC, FINANCIAL is focused on opinion leaders and top business decision-makers; It's about world’s largest companies, investing, careers, and small business. It is...

 and industrial
Industry
Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

 centre and handles most of the overseas trade of Pakistan and the world, mainly the Asian countries. It accounts for a lion's share of the GDP of Pakistan, and a large proportion of the country's white collar workers.

Geography



Karachi is located in the south of Pakistan, on the coast of the Arabian Sea. Its geographic coordinates are 24°51′ N 67°02′ E. Most of the land consisted largely of flat or rolling plains, with hills on the western and Manora
Manora
Manora may refer to:* Manora, Karachi, a peninsula near Karachi, Pakistan* Manora Fort, Thanjavur, India* Manora, Washim, a taulka in Washim district of Maharashtra, India...

 Island and the Oyster Rocks. The Arabian Sea beach lines the southern coastline of Karachi. Mangroves and creeks of the Indus delta can be found toward the southeast side of the city. Toward the west and the north is Cape Monze
Cape Monze
Cape Monze is a beach on the Arabian Sea located near the Hub River and Gadani Beach in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan....

, locally known as Raas Muari, an area marked by projecting sea cliffs and rocky sandstone promontories. Some excellent beaches can be found in this area. Khasa Hills lie in the northwest and form the border between North Nazimabad Town
North Nazimabad Town
North Nazimabad Town is a town in the northern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. North Nazimabad named as such in reference to it being north of the suburb of Nazimabad...

 and Orangi Town
Orangi Town
Orangi Town is a town in the northwestern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is bordered by New Karachi Town to the north across the Shahrah-e-Zahid Hussain, Gulberg Town to the east across the Gujjar Nala stream, Liaquatabad Town to the south, and SITE Town to the west...

. The Manghopir mountain range lies northwest of Karachi, between Hub River
Hub River
Hub River is located in Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan. It forms the provincial boundary between Sindh and Balochistan, west of Karachi.Hub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981 on the River in the arid plains north of Karachi...

 and Manghopir
Manghopir
Manghopir or Mangopir is one of the neighbourhoods of Gadap Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.There are several ethnic groups in Manghopir including Muhajirs, Punjabis, Sindhis, Kashmiris, Seraikis, Pakhtuns, Balochis, Memons, Bohras, Ismailis, etc. Over 99% of the population is Muslim...

.

Climate


Located on the coast, Karachi has an arid climate with low average precipitation levels (approx. 250 mm (9.8 in) per annum), the bulk of which occurs during the July–August monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 season. Winters are mild and dry, while the summers are warm and humid; the proximity to the sea maintains humidity levels at a near-constant high and cool sea breezes relieve the heat of the summer months. December and January are dry and pleasant as compared to the warm summers that dominate through the late spring (March) to the pre-monsoon season (June). Compared to other parts of Pakistan, Karachi's weather is considered mild and can be compared to Florida's weather.

The city's highest monthly rainfall, 429.3 mm (16.9 in), occurred in July 1967. The city's highest rainfall in 24 hours occurred on 7 August 1953, when about 278.1 millimetres (10.9 in) of rain lashed the city, resulting in major flooding.
Karachi's highest recorded temperature is 47 °C (116.6 °F), which was recorded on June 18, 1979, and the lowest is 0 °C (32 °F), recorded on 21 January 1934.

Economy






Karachi is the financial and commercial capital of Pakistan.In line with its status as a major port and the country's largest metropolis, it accounts for a lion's share of Pakistan's revenue. According to the Federal Board of Revenue's 2006-2007 year book, tax and customs units in Karachi were responsible for 46.75% of direct taxes, 33.65% of federal excise tax, and 23.38% of domestic sales tax. Karachi accounts for 75.14% of customs duty and 79% of sales tax on imports. Therefore, Karachi collects a significant 53.38% of the total collections of the Federal Board of Revenue, out of which 53.33% are customs duty and sales tax on imports. (Note: Revenue collected from Karachi includes revenue from some other areas since the Large Tax Unit (LTU) Karachi and Regional Tax Offices (RTOs) Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur & Quetta cover the entire province of Sindh and Balochistan). Karachi's indigenous contribution to national revenue is around 25%.

Karachi's contribution to Pakistan's manufacturing sector amounts to approximately 30 percent. A substantial part of Sindh’s gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 (GDP) is attributed to Karachi (the GDP of Sindh as a percentage of Pakistan’s total GDP has traditionally hovered around 28%-30%; for more information, see economy of Sindh
Economy of Sindh
The economy of Sindh is the 2nd largest of all the provinces in Pakistan. Much of Sindh's economy is influenced by the economy of Karachi, the capital of the province and also the largest city and economic capital of the country. Sindh remarkably has a high GDP per capita was $1,400 in 2010 which...

). Karachi’s GDP is around 20% of the total GDP of Pakistan. A PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a global professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest professional services firm measured by revenues and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms....

 study released in 2009, which surveyed the 2008 GDP of the top cities in the world, calculated Karachi’s GDP (PPP) to be $78 billion (projected to be $193 billion in 2025 at a growth rate of 5.5%). It confirmed Karachi’s status as Pakistan’s largest economy, well ahead of the next two biggest cities Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

 and Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

, which had a reported GDP (PPP) in 2008 of $40 billion and $14 billion, respectively. Karachi's high GDP is based on its mega-industrial base, with a high dependency on the financial sector. Textiles, cement, steel, heavy machinery, chemicals, food, banking and insurance are the major segments contributing to Karachi's GDP. In February 2007, the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 identified Karachi as the most business-friendly city in Pakistan.
Karachi is the nerve center of Pakistan's economy. The economic stagnation caused by political anarchy, ethnic strife and resultant military operation during late 1980s and 90s led to efflux of industry from Karachi. Most of Pakistan's public and private banks are headquartered on Karachi's I. I. Chundrigar Road
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road aka I. I. Chundrigar Road could be considered the financial headquarters of Pakistan and the center of Karachi's banking and financial institutions. Situated in the heart of Karachi, Sindh, it was known as McLeod Road during the Colonial rule but was later renamed...

; according to a 2001 report, nearly 60% of the cashflow of the Pakistani economy takes place on I. I. Chundrigar Road. Most major foreign multinational corporation
Multinational corporation
A multi national corporation or enterprise , is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation...

s operating in Pakistan have their headquarters in Karachi. The Karachi Stock Exchange
Karachi Stock Exchange
The Karachi Stock Exchange or KSE is a stock exchange located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is Pakistan's largest and oldest stock exchange, with many Pakistani as well as overseas listings. Currently located in Stock Exchange Building on Stock Exchange Road, in the heart of Karachi's Business...

 is the largest stock exchange in Pakistan, and is considered by many economists to be one of the prime reasons for Pakistan's 8% GDP growth across 2005. A recent report by Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse
The Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational financial services company headquartered in Zurich, with more than 250 branches in Switzerland and operations in more than 50 countries.-History:...

 on Pakistan's stock market is a testimonial to its strong fundamentals, estimating Pakistan’s relative return on equities at 26.7 percent, compared to Asia’s 11 percent.
Recently, Karachi has seen an expansion of information and communications technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 and electronic media
Electronic media
Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end-user to access the content. This is in contrast to static media , which today are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed by the end-user in the printed form...

 and has become the software outsourcing hub of Pakistan. Call centre
Call centre
A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outgoing calls for telemarketing,...

s for foreign companies have been targeted as a significant area of growth, with the government making efforts to reduce taxes by as much as 10% in order to gain foreign investments in the IT sector. Many of Pakistan’s independent television and radio stations are based in Karachi, including world-popular Business Plus, AAJ News
AAJ TV
AAJ TV is a 24 hour Pakistani news television channel. Aaj in English means "Today".-Channel and its Programmes:AAJ News was initially started on March 23, 2005 by the Business Recorder Group...

, Geo TV
Geo TV
Geo TV or Geo Television is a Pakistani television network, founded by Mr. Mir Shakil ur Rehman in May 2002 and owned by Independent Media Corporation. The channel began test transmission on 14 August 2002, with regular transmission beginning 1 October 2002...

, KTN
Kawish Television Network
Kawish Television Network is the first private Sindhi TV channel of Pakistan. It is the most watched private Sindhi language channel based general entertainment television channel worldwide. The channel is part of the Kawish Television Network's bouquet of channels.-Early days:KTN was established...

, Sindh TV
Sindh TV
Sindh Television is a leading private television channel in Sindhi language in Sindh. It was founded by Dr. Abdul Kareem Rajpar and mr Ajeet Kumar ahuja. It is the second private Sindhi TV channel....

, CNBC Pakistan
CNBC Pakistan
CNBC Pakistan is Pakistan's 24-hour bilingual Urdu and English language business and news channel which reports financial and business information, presenting in-depth and up-to-the-minute coverage of regional and international affairs from a Pakistani economic perspective...

, TV ONE
TV ONE (Pakistan)
TVOne Global is an general entertainment channel from Pakistan that airs dramas, soaps and lifestyle programs.TVOne Global and sister station News One are part of Air Waves Media, owned by Interflow Communications, one of Pakistan’s leading advertising agencies...

, ARY Digital
ARY Digital
ARY Digital, a subsidiary of the ARY Group, is a popular Pakistani television network available in Pakistan, the Middle East, North America and Europe. The ARY Group of companies is a Dubai-based holding company founded by a Pakistani businessman, Abdul Razzak Yaqoob . The network caters to the...

, Indus Television Network
Indus Media Group
Indus Media Group is Pakistani company broadcasting a mix of free-to-air news and entertainment channels via satellite.IMG owns and operates the INDUS brand of television channels in various global markets.-Company:...

, Samaa TV
SAMAA TV
SAMAA TV is a Pakistani news network.- Competitors :*Dunya News*Geo News*ARY News*Express News*Indus News*Waqt News- External links :*...

 and Dawn News
Dawn News
Dawn News was Pakistan's 24-hour Urdu news channel. Based in Karachi, the station is a subsidiary of Pakistan Herald Publications Limited , Pakistan's largest English-language media group. The test transmission of the station occurred on May 25, 2007, and the channel went live on July 23, 2007...

, as well as several local stations.

Karachi has several large industrial zones such as Karachi Export Processing Zone, SITE, Korangi, Northern Bypass Industrial Zone, Bin Qasim and North Karachi, located on the fringes of the main city. Its primary areas of industry are textiles, pharmaceuticals, steel, and automobiles. In addition, Karachi has a vibrant cottage industry and there is a rapidly flourishing Free Zone with an annual growth rate of nearly 6.5%. The Karachi Expo Centre
Karachi Expo Centre
The Karachi Expo Centre is located in Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, Karachi, Pakistan. The Expo Centre is equipped with modern facilities based on international standards creating a market. It comprises three independent linked halls measuring 6690 m² base area. Two halls contain mezzanine floor...

 hosts many regional and international exhibitions. There are many development projects proposed, approved and under construction in Karachi. Among projects of note, Emaar Properties
Emaar Properties
Emaar Properties , based in the United Arab Emirates, is a Public Joint Stock Company listed on the Dubai Financial Market. Established in 1997 with an initial paid-up capital of AED 1 bn, Emaar Properties is currently the Persian Gulf region's largest land and real estate developer...

 is proposing to invest $43bn (£22.8bn) in Karachi to develop Bundal Island
Bundal Island
Bundal Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Bundal, pronounced Bhandar by local fishermen, is a twin island of Buddo and lies to its West. On Bundal Island the tomb of Muslim sufi Yusuf Shah is located. The annual urs of 'Yusuf Shah'...

, which is a 12000 acres (48.6 km²) island just off the coast of Karachi. The Karachi Port Trust
Karachi Port Trust
Karachi Port Trust is a Pakistani federal government agency that oversees the operations of the Port of Karachi in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.-History:...

 is planning a Rs. 20 billion, 1947 feet (593 m) high Port Tower Complex
Port tower complex
The Port Tower is a tall skyscraper proposed for construction in Karachi, the financial capital of Pakistan. It will be constructed with the collaboration of local and foreign investors, in association with the Karachi Port Trust...

 on the Clifton
Clifton, Karachi
Clifton is one of the neighbourhoods of Saddar Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.-Demographics:There are several ethnic groups in Clifton including Pakhtuns, Muhajirs, Sindhis, Punjabis, Kashmiris, Seraikis, Balochs, Memons, Tanolis, etc. Over 99% of the population is Muslim...

 shoreline. It will comprise a hotel, a shopping center, an exhibition center and a revolving restaurant
Revolving restaurant
A revolving restaurant is a usually tower restaurant eating space designed to rest atop a broad circular revolving platform that operates as a large turntable. The building remains stationary and the diners are carried on the revolving floor. The revolving rate varies between one and three times...

 with a viewing gallery offering a panoramic view of the coastline and the city.

As one of the most rapidly growing cities in the world, Karachi faces challenges that are central to many developing metropolises, including traffic congestion, pollution, poverty and street crime. These problems continue to earn Karachi low rankings in livability comparisons: The Economist
The Economist
The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd. and edited in offices in the City of Westminster, London, England. Continuous publication began under founder James Wilson in September 1843...

ranked Karachi fourth least livable city amongst the 132 cities surveyed and BusinessWeek
BusinessWeek
Bloomberg Businessweek, commonly and formerly known as BusinessWeek, is a weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. It is currently headquartered in New York City.- History :...

ranked it 175 out of 215 in livability in 2007, down from 170 in 2006.

Civic administration



The citystrict of Karachi is structured as a three-tier federation, with the two lower tiers composed of 18 towns
Tehsil
A Tehsil or Tahsil/Tahasil , also known as Taluk and Mandal, is an administrative division of some country/countries of South Asia....

 and 178 union councils
Union Councils of Pakistan
A sherwan or village council in Pakistan is an elected local government body consisting of 21 councillors, and headed by a nazim and a naib nazim...

, with each tier focussed on elected councils with some common members to provide "vertical linkage" within the federation. Each union council comprises thirteen members elected from specified electorates: four men and two women elected directly by the general population; two men and two women elected by peasants and workers; one member for minority communities; two members are elected jointly as the union mayor (nazim) and deputy union mayor (naib nazim). Each town council comprises all of the deputy union mayors in the town as well as elected representatives for women, peasants and workers, and minorities. The district council comprises all of the union mayors in the district as well as elected representatives for women, peasants and workers, and minorities. Each council also includes up to three council secretaries and a number of other civil servants. The main purpose of all of the councils is to provide municipal services, with specific responsibilities allocated to the district council, the town councils, and the union councils. There are also six military cantonment
Cantonment
A cantonment is a temporary or semi-permanent military or police quarters. The word cantonment is derived from the French word canton meaning corner or district, as is the name of the Cantons of Switzerland. In South Asia, the term cantonment also describes permanent military stations...

s which are administered by the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 and do not form part of the City District Government.

The current system of government was brought into existence by the Local Government Ordinance of 14 August 2001, the latest in a series of administrative setups for Karachi. The first form of government was a conservancy board established in 1846 to control the spread of cholera in the city. The board became a municipal commission in 1852, and a municipal committee the following year. The City of Karachi Municipal Act of 1933 transformed the city administration into a municipal corporation with a mayor, a deputy mayor and 57 councillors. In 1948, the Federal Capital Territory
Federal Capital Territory (Pakistan)
The Federal Capital Territory around Karachi was the original capital territory of Pakistan. The FCT was created in 1948 from the city of Karachi and surrounding areas as the location for Pakistan's capital following independence...

 of Pakistan was created, comprising approximately 2103 km² (812 sq mi) of Karachi and surrounding areas, but this was merged into the province of West Pakistan
West Pakistan
West Pakistan , common name West-Pakistan , in the period between its establishment on 22 November 1955 to disintegration on December 16, 1971. This period, during which, Pakistan was divided, ended when East-Pakistan was disintegrated and succeeded to become which is now what is known as Bangladesh...

 in 1961. However, the municipal corporation remained in existence and in 1976 became a metropolitan corporation, followed by the creation of zonal municipal committees, which lasted until 1994. Two years later the metropolitan area was divided into five districts, each with a municipal corporation.

Naimatullah Khan
Naimatullah Khan
Niamthullah Khan was the Nazim of largest city of Pakistan, Karachi from August 2001-June 2005. He graduated from Punjab University with a Masters in Journalism and a Law Degree from Karachi University. He is lawyer by profession. He is the chairman of the biggest NGO of Pakistan, Alkhidmat...

 was the first Nazim of Karachi and Shafiq-Ur-Rehman Paracha
Shafiq-Ur-Rehman Paracha
Shafiq ur Rehman Paracha is a retired member of the Civil Service of Sindh. He served in various key administrative and secretarial capacities, including Deputy Commissioner of Hyderabad, Larkana, Karachi, Mirpurkhas, Tharparkar and Sukkur, Commissioner of Karachi, Food Secretary, Excise and...

 was the first district coordination officer (DCO) of Karachi, Paracha even served as the last Commissioner of Karachi. Naimatullah Khan focused on building new parks, providing entertainment outlets to the youth (to celebrate events like Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
Saint Valentine's Day, commonly shortened to Valentine's Day, is an annual commemoration held on February 14 celebrating love and affection between intimate companions. The day is named after one or more early Christian martyrs named Saint Valentine, and was established by Pope Gelasius I in 496...

) and families (to celebrate events like Eid
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

). In the elections of 2005, Syed Mustafa Kamal was elected City Nazim of Karachi to succeed Naimatullah Khan, and Nasreen Jalil
Nasreen Jalil
Nasreen Jalil is currently the Naib Nazim of the district of Karachi, Sindh. Her father was the deputy commissioner of Lahore at the time of Partition...

 was elected as the City Naib Nazim. Mustafa Kamal was previously the provincial minister for information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 in Sindh. In 2010, Fazlur Rahman became caretaker administrator of the CDGK, replacing the Mustafa Kamal.

  1. Lyari Town
    Lyari Town
    Lyari Town is one of the eighteen constituent towns of the city of Karachi, in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It is the smallest town by area in the city but also the most densely populated town...


  2. Saddar Town
    Saddar Town
    Saddar Town is a town in the central part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The word Saddar generally means the “centre” and also “head” . The town is bordered by Jamshed Town and Clifton Cantonment to the east, Kiamari Town and the Arabian Sea to the south and Lyari Town to the west...


  3. Jamshed Town
    Jamshed Town
    Jamshed Town is the largest of the towns in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan and lies in the central part of Karachi. To the northwest is Liaquatabad Town across the Lyari River, while to the east is Gulshan Town and to the southeast is Korangi Town across the Malir River. Jamshed is bordered by Karachi...


  4. Gadap Town
    Gadap Town
    Gadap Town is a town located in the northwestern part of Karachi with the Hub River on its western limits also forming the provincial border between Sindh and Balochistan, while to the north and east are Dadu District and the Kirthar Mountains....


  5. SITE Town
    SITE Town
    SITE Town is a town in western part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan and is named after the Sindh Industrial and Trading Estate , which forms the heart of the town. The town is bordered by Gadap Town to the north, Liaquatabad and North Nazimabad to the east across the Orangi Nala stream, Lyari and...


  6. Kemari Town

  7. Shah Faisal Town
    Shah Faisal Town
    Shah Faisal Town is a small, densely populated town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Shah Faisal Town and is named after the late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. The town is bordered by Malir Town to the northeast, Bin Qasim Town to the east, Korangi Town and Landhi Town to the south, and Faisal...


  8. Korangi Town
    Korangi Town
    Korangi is a town in the Karachi district of Pakistan. It attained the status of a town following a local government reorganisation in 2000.- External links :* *...


  9. Landhi Town
    Landhi Town
    Landhi Town is a large industrial town in the eastern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is bordered by the Faisal Cantonment and Shah Faisal Town to the north across the Malir River, Bin Qasim Town to the south and east, and Korangi Town to the west. The population of Landhi Town was estimated...


  10. Bin Qasim Town
    Bin Qasim Town
    Bin Qasim Town is a town located in the southeastern part of Karachi along the Arabian Sea and the Indus River delta. The town and the adjacent Port Qasim are named after Muhammad bin Qasim who conquered large parts of Pakistan in the eighth century CE...


  11. Malir Town
    Malir Town
    Malir Town is one of the 18 towns of Karachi City, located in the eastern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Malir town is bordered by the Jinnah International Airport and the Malir Cantonment to the west and north, the Malir River and Shah Faisal Town to the south and Gadap Town to the east across...


  12. Gulshan Town
    Gulshan Town
    Gulshan Town is one of the towns in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The town is also known as Gulshan-E-Iqbal. This town was named in honor of Pakistan's national poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal. Gulshan-e-Iqbal literally translates to 'Garden of Iqbal'...



  1. Liaquatabad Town
    Liaquatabad Town
    Liaquatabad Town is a town in the central part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan named after Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. It is bordered by the towns of North Nazimabad to the north, Gulberg Town and Gulshan to the east, Jamshed to the south across the Lyari River, and SITE...


  2. North Nazimabad Town
    North Nazimabad Town
    North Nazimabad Town is a town in the northern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. North Nazimabad named as such in reference to it being north of the suburb of Nazimabad...


  3. Gulberg Town
    Gulberg Town, Karachi
    Gulberg Town is one of the towns of Karachi, Pakistan. Georaphically it is situated in the northern part of the city but previously fell in the jurisdiction of District Central. Gulberg is bordered by the Lyari River and Gulshan Town to the east and the Gujjar Nala stream and North Nazimabad Town...


  4. New Karachi Town
    New Karachi Town
    New Karachi Town is a town in the northern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. New Karachi Town is located between the Lyari River, the Manghopir Hills and two major roads - Surjani Road to the north and Shahrah-e-Zahid Hussain to the south. To the north and west lies Gadap Town, and to the south...


  5. Orangi Town
    Orangi Town
    Orangi Town is a town in the northwestern part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is bordered by New Karachi Town to the north across the Shahrah-e-Zahid Hussain, Gulberg Town to the east across the Gujjar Nala stream, Liaquatabad Town to the south, and SITE Town to the west...


  6. Baldia Town
    Baldia Town
    Baldia Town is a town located in the western part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan with a population of more than 400,000 at the 1998 census. It is bordered by SITE Town and Orangi to the east and by Kiamari Town to the north and west, with most of the western boundary formed by part of the RCD Highway...


A. Karachi Cantonment
Karachi Cantonment
The Karachi Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in August 1942, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947...

B. Clifton Cantonment
Clifton Cantonment
The Clifton Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947...

C. Korangi Creek Cantonment
Korangi Creek Cantonment
Korangi Creek Cantonment or Korangi Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army when Britain...

D. Faisal Cantonment
Faisal Cantonment
The Faisal Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947...

E. Malir Cantonment
Malir Cantonment
The Malir Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment.-History :...

F. Manora Cantonment
Manora Cantonment
The Manora Cantonment is a cantonment town in a small Manora Island, located just south of the Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army...


Demographics



Karachi's inhabitants, locally known as Karachiite
Karachiite
The term Karachiite is a denonym for a person who comes from or lives in Karachi, Pakistan. The term encompasses all the ethnicities and groups that make up the city and metropolis and has acquired very common usage in popular culture to refer to a native of Karachi...

s , are a cosmopolitan population composed of many ethno-linguistic groups from all parts of Pakistan as well as migrants from several different countries and regions, making the city a diverse melting pot
Melting pot
The melting pot is a metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture...

. The population and demographic distribution of the city has undergone considerable changes over the past 150 years. At the end of the 19th century, the population of the city was about 105,000, with a gradual increase over the next few decades, reaching more than 400,000 on the eve of independence. Current estimates of the population range from 15 to 18 million, of which an estimated 90% are migrants from different backgrounds. The city's population is estimated to be growing at about 5% per year (mainly as a result of internal rural-urban migration
Human migration
Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. Historically this movement was nomadic, often causing significant conflict with the indigenous population and their displacement or cultural assimilation. Only a few nomadic...

), including an estimated 45,000 migrant workers coming to the city every month from different parts of Pakistan.

The earlist inhabitants of the area that became Karachi included Baloch
Baloch people
The Baloch or Baluch are an ethnic group that belong to the larger Iranian peoples. Baluch people mainly inhabit the Balochistan region and Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast corner of the Iranian plateau in Western Asia....

 in the west, and Sindhi
Sindhi people
Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating from Sindh, a province Formerly of British India, now in Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan belong to various religious denominations including Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Christianity...

 tribes such as the Jokhio, Mallaah
Mallaah
The Mallah are the traditional boatmen caste and ethnic group of North India, East India and Pakistan. A small number of Mallah are also found in Nepal....

 and Jath
Jats of Sindh
The Jat or Jath are a Muslim community found in the province of Sindh in Pakistan and the Kutch region of India. They are also known as Jamote.-History and origin:...

 in the east. Before the departure of British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 colonial rule and the subsequent independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, the population of the city included Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s and Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s, but the community is still present numbering around 250,000 residents. The city was, and still is home to a large community of Gujarati Muslim
Gujarati Muslim
The term Gujarati Muslims is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim from the State of Gujarat in west India, who speaks the Gujarati Language as a mother-tongue and follows certain customs different from the rest of Indian Muslims...

s, who were one of the earliest settlers in the city, and still form the majority in Saddar Town
Saddar Town
Saddar Town is a town in the central part of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The word Saddar generally means the “centre” and also “head” . The town is bordered by Jamshed Town and Clifton Cantonment to the east, Kiamari Town and the Arabian Sea to the south and Lyari Town to the west...

. Important Gujarati Muslim
Gujarati Muslim
The term Gujarati Muslims is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim from the State of Gujarat in west India, who speaks the Gujarati Language as a mother-tongue and follows certain customs different from the rest of Indian Muslims...

 communities in the city include the Memon, Chhipa
Chhipa
The Chhipa are a Muslim community found in the state of Gujarat in India. A few Chhipa are also found in the city of Karachi in Pakistan.-History and origin:Chhipa is also hindu community which belives in Sant Namdev...

, Ghanchi
Ghanchi (Muslim)
The Ghanchi are a Gujarati Muslim community found in the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in India. A small number of Ghanchi are also found in the city of Karachi in Pakistan. - Origin :...

, Khoja
Khoja
The Khojas are ethnic group of Shia Muslims. The word Khoja derives from Khwaja, a Persian title .In Pakistan, many Khojas migrated to and settled in the province of Sindh and especially in the city of Karachi. While in India, most Khojas live in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and...

, Bohra
Mustaali
The Musta‘lī Ismā'īlī Muslims are so named because they accept Al-Musta'li as the nineteenth Fatimid caliph and legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir...

 and Tai
Tai (caste)
The Tai are a Muslim community found in the state of Gujarat in India. There is also a large diaspora in the city of Karachi in Pakistan.- History and origin :...

. Other early settlers included the Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

s, also originally from Gujarat, Konkani Muslims
Konkani Muslims
Konkani / Kokani Muslims is a Muslim sub-ethnic group of Maharashtrian Muslims living in the Konkan region of India. They speak the Konkani language. A good number of them live in Mumbai...

 from Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 (settled in Kokan Town), Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
The Goan Catholics are an ethno-religious community of Roman Catholics and their descendants from the state of Goa, located on the west coast of India. They are Konkani people and speak the Konkani language...

 and Anglo-Indians. Most non-Muslims left the city to India in the 1950s, after independence, but there are still small communities of Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

s, Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
The Goan Catholics are an ethno-religious community of Roman Catholics and their descendants from the state of Goa, located on the west coast of India. They are Konkani people and speak the Konkani language...

 and Anglo-Indians in the city.

The partition of Panjab and the subsequent independence of Pakistan in 1947 which consisted of numerous communal riots saw the settlement of the what is now the largest ethnic community in the city, the Muhajir
Muhajir people
Muhajir [literally – migrants] is a term commonly used especially by Pakistanis to describe the Muslim immigrants who chose to settle in Pakistan and shifted their domicile after partition of British India into Pakistan and India. Some had participated in the movement for creation of Pakistan in...

s who migrated from India in search of a muslim homeland and settled in Pakistan. Most properties vacated by fleeing Hindus were granted to Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

-speaking Muslim migrants who had migrated from India. Known as Muhajirs
Muhajir people
Muhajir [literally – migrants] is a term commonly used especially by Pakistanis to describe the Muslim immigrants who chose to settle in Pakistan and shifted their domicile after partition of British India into Pakistan and India. Some had participated in the movement for creation of Pakistan in...

, their descendants now form the majority of Karachi's residents. Partition also saw the settlement of a large number of Punjabi
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s from East Punjab
East Punjab
East Punjab was the part of the Punjab region that went to India following the Partition of the Punjab Province of British India between India and Pakistan in 1947...

, Kashmiri Muslims
Kashmiri Muslims
Kashmiri Muslims are Kashmiri people who are Muslims, currently living in Kashmir or those originally with Kashmiri kinship and descent living in Pakistan. Kashmiris are ethinically and culturally closer to central asian culture than Indian or Pakistani culture with significant influence of the...

 from the Kashmir Valley, and further immigration of Gujarati Muslim
Gujarati Muslim
The term Gujarati Muslims is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim from the State of Gujarat in west India, who speaks the Gujarati Language as a mother-tongue and follows certain customs different from the rest of Indian Muslims...

s and Konkani Muslims
Konkani Muslims
Konkani / Kokani Muslims is a Muslim sub-ethnic group of Maharashtrian Muslims living in the Konkan region of India. They speak the Konkani language. A good number of them live in Mumbai...

 from India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. There are some Hindkowans and Seraikis who migrated much later. Within the Muhajirs, there is also a sizeable community of Malayali Muslims in Karachi (the Mappila
Mappila
Mappila or Moplah refers to a Muslim community of Kerala, primarily in the northern region called Malabar, which arose in Malabar as a result of the pre and post Islamic Arab contacts. Significant numbers of the community are also present in the southern districts of Karnataka and western parts of...

), originally from Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

 in South India
South India
South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area...

.

The Pashtuns
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

, originally from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, FATA
Fata
The FATA or FC-ATA is a type of computer hard disk drive. FATA is simply the low cost ATA or SATA disk drive equipped with a small external converter, that changes the interface to Fibre Channel...

 and northern Balochistan, are now the city's second largest ethnic group. By some estimates, there are close to 7 million Pashtuns in Karachi, including approximately 50,000 registered Afghan refugees, Karachi hosts the largest Pashtun population
Pashtun diaspora
Pashtuns , also called Pathans have many communities around the world. Pukhtuns have long history to conquer and colonizing several regions especially the ancient regions of Sub-continent in duration of past few centuries...

 in the world outside Khyber Pukhtoonkhuwa. Many of these Pashtuns have been resident in Karachi for decades, and as a result, some no longer speak Pashto fluently, and instead primarily speak Urdu or English — especially those from wealthier communities. In addition, a small number of the Muhajir community (such as the Rohilla
Rohilla
The Rohilla are a community of Hindi-speaking Pashtun also known as Pathan, historically found in the state of Uttar Pradesh, in North India. Most are now also found in Pakistan where they are now part of the Mohajir community. At one time, they form one of the largest Pashtun diaspora community...

 community) in Karachi claim to be by origin ethnic Pashtuns.
After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

, thousands of Biharis
Bihari people
The Biharis are an ethnic group originating from the present state of Bihar with a history going back three millennia...

 and Bengalis
Bengali people
The Bengali people are an ethnic community native to the historic region of Bengal in South Asia. They speak Bengali , which is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit and Sanskrit languages. In their native language, they are referred to as বাঙালী...

 from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

 arrived in the city, and today Karachi is home to 1 to 2 million ethnic Bengalis from Bangladesh (see Bangladeshis in Pakistan
Bangladeshis in Pakistan
The population of Bengalis and Bangladeshis in Pakistan is said to be in millions however there is no exact figure. Different sources dub as much as between 1 - 3 million immigrants in Karachi with Bengali origin...

), many of whom migrated in the 1980s and 1990s. They were followed by Rohingya
Rohingya people
The Rohingya is a predominantly Muslim ethnic group of disputed origin who live in Arakan State, western Burma. The Rohingya population is mostly concentrated to the cities of Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Akyab, Rathedaung and Kyauktaw.-Etymology:...

 Muslim refugees from western Burma (for more information, see Burmese people in Pakistan
Burmese people in Pakistan
The Burmese people in Pakistan are a Muslim community based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. They are Rohingya Muslims from western Burma, who claim to have fled their homeland of Arakan State under the persecution of Muslim citizens by the Burmese junta...

), and Asian refugees from Uganda
Uganda
Uganda , officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by...

. One under-privileged ethnic group are the Siddi
Siddi
The Siddi, Siddhi, or Sheedi , also known as Habshi, are an Indian and Pakistani ethnic group of Afro-Arab and/or Black African descent. The Siddi population is currently estimated to be 20,000–55,000, with Gujarat and Hyderabad in India the main population centre. Siddis are mainly Sufi Muslims,...

s (Negro - Sheedi) who trace their roots to African slaves from earlier centuries. Many other refugees from Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and the Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

n countries constituting the former Soviet Union have also settled in the city as economic migrants. There also exists a small Nepali population, large numbers of Arabs, Filipinos
Filipino people
The Filipino people or Filipinos are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the islands of the Philippines. There are about 92 million Filipinos in the Philippines, and about 11 million living outside the Philippines ....

 and an economic elite of Sinhalese
Sinhalese people
The Sinhalese are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group,forming the majority of Sri Lanka,constituting 74% of the Sri Lankan population.They number approximately 15 million worldwide.The Sinhalese identity is based on language, heritage and religion. The Sinhalese speak Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan language and the...

 from Sri Lanka. Expatriates from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 have a history going back to the 1940s; today, many of the Chinese are second-generation children of immigrants who came to the city and worked as dentists, chefs and shoemakers.

Karachi is furthermore host to a large number of western expatriates in Pakistan. During World War II, about 30,000 Polish
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 refugees migrated to Karachi, at that time under British colonial rule.Many of these Polish families settled permanently in the city. There are also well-established communities of American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 expatriates.

According to the census of 1998, the religious breakdown of the city is as follows: Muslim (96.45%); Christian (2.42%); Hindu (0.86%); Ahmadi (0.17%) and others (Parsis, Sikhs, Bahá'ís, Jews and Buddhists) (0.10%). Karachi has been sometimes regarded as an ethnically segregated city, with 75% of the city regarded as being segregated along ethnic lines.

According to the census of 1998, the linguistic distribution of the city was : Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

: 48.52%; Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

: 13.94%; ; ; Balochi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

: 4.34%; Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

: 2.11%; others: 12.4%. The others include Dari
Dari (Eastern Persian)
Dari or Fārsī-ye Darī in historical terms refers to the Persian court language of the Sassanids. In contemporary usage, the term refers to the dialects of modern Persian language spoken in Afghanistan, and hence known as Afghan Persian in some Western sources. It is the term officially recognized...

, Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

, Dawoodi Bohra, Memon, Marwari
Marwari language
The Marwari language , also variously Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi), is spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and Haryana and in Eastern Pakistan...

, Brahui, Makrani, Khowar
Khowar language
For the ethnic group, see under Chitrali people.Khowar , also known as Chitrali, is a Dardic language spoken by 400,000 people in Chitral in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in the Ghizer district of Gilgit-Baltistan , and in parts of Upper Swat...

, Burushaski
Burushaski language
The Burushaski or Burushko language , is a language isolate . It is spoken by some 87,000 Burusho people in the Hunza, Nagar, Yasin, and Ishkoman valleys, and some parts of the Gilgit valley, in Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan and by about 300 Burusho people in Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, India...

. Non-Pakistani languages, such as Bengali, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

, and Arabic, are not included in the Pakistani census.

Art and culture




Karachi is home to some of Pakistan's important cultural institutions. The National Academy of Performing Arts
National Academy of Performing Arts
The National Academy of Performing Arts is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.NAPA was established as an institution to conserve and teach performing arts and music to students in Pakistan.- NAPA :...

, located in the newly renovated Hindu Gymkhana
Hindu Gymkhana
The Hindu Gymkhana was the first public building in Karachi to boldly adopt the Mughal-Revival style. The building established in 1925, Its located at Sarwar Shaheed Road in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan....

, offers a two-year diploma course in performing arts that includes classical music and contemporary theatre. The All Pakistan Music Conference
All Pakistan Music Conference
The All Pakistan Music Conference was founded in 1959 for the promotion of classical music in Pakistan. Ever since its inception, it has been a constant source of inspiration for thousands of music lovers nationwide.-History:...

, linked to the 45-year-old similar institution in Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, has been holding its Annual Music Festival since its inception in 2004. The Festival is now a well-established feature of the city life of Karachi that is attended by more than 3000 citizens of Karachi as well as people from other cities. The National Arts Council (Koocha-e-Saqafat) has musical performances and mushaira
Mushaira
Mushaira is a poetic symposium. Its a term in Urdu used to describe an event where poets gather to perform their works. A mushaira is a beloved part of the culture of Pakistan and North India, and it is greatly admired by participants as a forum for free self-expression.-Forms:A mushaira can take...

 (poetry recitations). The Kara Film Festival
Kara Film Festival
The KaraFilm Festival - Karachi International Film Festival is an internationally recognized film festival of Pakistan annually held in Karachi....

 annually showcases independent Pakistani and international films and documentaries. Karachi is home to many theatre, music and dance performance groups, such as Thespianz Theater, a professional youth-based, non-profit performing arts group, which works non-stop on theater and arts activities in Pakistan

Karachi has many museums that present exhibitions on a regular basis, including the Mohatta Palace
Mohatta Palace
The Mohatta Palace is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It was built by Shivratan Chandraratan Mohatta, an ambitious self-made businessman from Marwar as his summer home in 1927. The architect of the palace was Agha Ahmed Hussain. However, Mohatta could enjoy this building for only about two...

 and the National Museum of Pakistan
National Museum of Pakistan
The National Museum of Pakistan is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. National Museum of Pakistan was established in Frere Hall on April 17, 1950, replacing the defunct Victoria Museum. Frere Hall itself was built in 1865 as a tribute to Sir Bartle Frere, a Commissioner of Sind during the...

. Karachi Expo Centre
Karachi Expo Centre
The Karachi Expo Centre is located in Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, Karachi, Pakistan. The Expo Centre is equipped with modern facilities based on international standards creating a market. It comprises three independent linked halls measuring 6690 m² base area. Two halls contain mezzanine floor...

 hosts many regional and international exhibitions.

The everyday lifestyle of Karachi differs substantially from that of other Pakistani cities and towns. The culture of Karachi is characterized by the blending of South Asian, Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Western influences, as well as its status as a major international business centre. After the independence of Pakistan, Karachi received a large number of refugees from all over India, whose influence is now evident in the city's different sub-cultures. Karachi hosts the largest middle class stratum of the country and is the most liberal city in Pakistan.

Architecture


Karachi has a rich collection of buildings and structures of varied architectural style
Architectural style
Architectural styles classify architecture in terms of the use of form, techniques, materials, time period, region and other stylistic influences. It overlaps with, and emerges from the study of the evolution and history of architecture...

s. Many modern
Modern architecture
Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely...

 high-rise buildings are under construction. The downtown districts of Saddar
Saddar
Saddar is one of the neighbourhoods of Saddar Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Saddar is the central business district of Karachi. 'Saddar' generally means 'centre' and also 'head' ....

 and Clifton
Clifton, Karachi
Clifton is one of the neighbourhoods of Saddar Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.-Demographics:There are several ethnic groups in Clifton including Pakhtuns, Muhajirs, Sindhis, Punjabis, Kashmiris, Seraikis, Balochs, Memons, Tanolis, etc. Over 99% of the population is Muslim...

 contain a variety of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neo-classical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 KPT
Karachi Port Trust
Karachi Port Trust is a Pakistani federal government agency that oversees the operations of the Port of Karachi in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.-History:...

 building to the Sindh High Court
Sindh High Court
The High Court of Sindh is the highest judicial institution of Sindh province. Established in 1906, it is situated at provincial capital Karachi. Apart from being the highest Court of Appeal for Sindh in civil and criminal matters, the Court was the District Court and the Court of Session in...

 Building. During the period of British rule, classical architecture was preferred for monuments of the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

. Karachi acquired its first neo-Gothic or Indo-Gothic buildings when Frere Hall
Frere Hall
Frere Hall is one of the few well-preserved buildings from the days of the British Raj that still exists in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.It was built in honour of Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere , who was known for promoting economic development in Karachi.-Location:The Hall is located between Abdullah...

, Empress Market
Empress Market
The Empress Market is a famous marketplace situated in the Saddar Town locality of Karachi, Pakistan. The market traces its origins to the British Raj era, when it was first constructed. Today, it is amongst the most popular and busy places for shopping in Karachi and reflects as one of the few...

 and St. Patrick's Cathedral
Saint Patrick's Cathedral, Karachi
St. Patrick’s Cathedral, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Karachi, is situated on Shahrah-e-Iraq, formerly known as Clarke Street, located near the Empress Market in Karachi, Pakistan....

 were completed. The Mock Tudor architectural style was introduced in the Karachi Gymkhana and the Boat Club. Neo-Renaissance architecture was popular in the 19th century and was the language for St. Joseph's Convent (1870) and the Sind Club (1883). The classical style made a comeback in the late nineteenth century, as seen in Lady Dufferin Hospital
Lady Dufferin Hospital
Lady Dufferin Hospital is located in Karachi, Sindh, and it is the largest women's hospital in Pakistan. The hospital, which was completed in 1898, was named after the British peeress Lady Dufferin. Benazir Bhutto, the former Prime Minister of Pakistan, gave bith to a girl in the hospital in...

 (1898) and the Cantt. Railway Station
Karachi Cantonment Railway Station
Karachi Cantonment Railway Station is one of the principal railway stations in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It was earlier known as Frere Street Station. The construction of the station was started in 1896 and was completed in 1898 at a total cost of Rs. 80,000.-Train Services from Karachi Cantonment...

. While Italianate buildings remained popular, an eclectic blend termed Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
The Indo-Saracenic Revival was an architectural style movement by British architects in the late 19th century in British India...

 or Anglo-Mughal began to emerge in some locations.

The local mercantile community began acquiring impressive mercantile structures. Zaibunnisa Street in the Saddar
Saddar
Saddar is one of the neighbourhoods of Saddar Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Saddar is the central business district of Karachi. 'Saddar' generally means 'centre' and also 'head' ....

 area (known as Elphinstone Street in British days) is an example where the mercantile groups adopted the Italianate and Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
The Indo-Saracenic Revival was an architectural style movement by British architects in the late 19th century in British India...

 style to demonstrate their familiarity with Western culture and their own. The Hindu Gymkhana
Hindu Gymkhana
The Hindu Gymkhana was the first public building in Karachi to boldly adopt the Mughal-Revival style. The building established in 1925, Its located at Sarwar Shaheed Road in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan....

 (1925) and Mohatta Palace
Mohatta Palace
The Mohatta Palace is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It was built by Shivratan Chandraratan Mohatta, an ambitious self-made businessman from Marwar as his summer home in 1927. The architect of the palace was Agha Ahmed Hussain. However, Mohatta could enjoy this building for only about two...

 are the example of Mughal revival buildings. The Sindh Wildlife Conservation Building, located in Saddar, served as a Freemasonic Lodge until it was taken over by the government. There are talks of it being taken away from this custody and being renovated and the Lodge being preserved with its original woodwork and ornate wooden staircase.

In recent years, a large number of architecturally distinctive, even eccentric, buildings have sprung up throughout Karachi. Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Pakistan State Oil
Pakistan State Oil
Pakistan State Oil is the oil market leader in Pakistan. Its well established infrastructure, built at par with international standards, represents 82% of country’s storage...

 Headquarters building and the Karachi Financial Towers
Karachi Financial Towers
Karachi Financial Towers are two adjoining 40-storey mixed use towers set to rise located in the heart of Pakistan’s financial capital, Karachi. Upon completion Karachi Financial Towers will consists of office space, parking, retail, a health club,and a garden.The two towers will be identical in...

. The city has numerous examples of modern Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture....

, including the Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
The Aga Khan University is a coeducational research university spread over three continents. It was granted its charter in 1983 as Pakistan's first private, autonomous university. AKU was founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, and is part of the Aga Khan Development Network...

 hospital, Masjid e Tooba
Masjid e Tooba
Masjid e Tooba or Tooba Mosque is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.Locally, it is also known as the Gol Masjid. Masjid e Tooba was built in 1969 in Defense Housing Society, Karachi. It is located just off main Korangi Road. Masjid e Tooba is often claimed to be the largest single dome mosque in...

, Faran Mosque, Bait-ul Mukarram Mosque, Quaid's Mausoleum, and the Textile Institute of Pakistan
Textile Institute of Pakistan
Textile Institute of Pakistan is a not-for-profit degree-awarding institution in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The college was established by the All Pakistan Textile Mills Association in 1994 as a means to create professionals to support Pakistan's textile industry...

. One of the unique cultural elements of Karachi is that the residences, which are two- or three-story townhouse
Townhouse
A townhouse is the term historically used in the United Kingdom, Ireland and in many other countries to describe a residence of a peer or member of the aristocracy in the capital or major city. Most such figures owned one or more country houses in which they lived for much of the year...

s, are built with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road aka I. I. Chundrigar Road could be considered the financial headquarters of Pakistan and the center of Karachi's banking and financial institutions. Situated in the heart of Karachi, Sindh, it was known as McLeod Road during the Colonial rule but was later renamed...

 features a range of extremely tall buildings. The most prominent examples include the Habib Bank Plaza
Habib Bank Plaza
Habib Bank Plaza, located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, is the head office of Habib Bank. It was Pakistan's tallest building upon completion in 1963. It remained the tallest building for 4 decades until the 116m tall MCB Tower was completed in 2005...

, PRC Towers and the MCB Tower
MCB Tower
MCB Tower situated in Karachi, Pakistan is the headquarters of MCB Bank Limited formerly Muslim Commercial Bank. It is the tallest building in Pakistan. It is about 116 m tall and contains 29 floors and 3 basement floors. Construction began in 2000 and was completed in 2005.- External links :*...

 which is the tallest skyscraper in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

.

Many more high-rise buildings are under construction, such as Centre Point near Korangi Industrial Area
Korangi Industrial Area
Korangi Industrial Area is located in Korangi Town, in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is one of the largest industrial areas of Pakistan. It houses approximately 3000 facilities for various industries, including textile, steel, pharmaceutical, automobile, chemical, engineering and flour mills...

, IT Tower
IT Tower
IT Tower is a building currently under construction in Karachi, Pakistan. It is located at University Road, on which a completed Hassan Square flyover will form the main connection to the complex...

, Sofitel
Sofitel
Sofitel is a luxury hotel chain managed by Accor, which opened its first property in Strasbourg in 1964. Its first overseas opening in Minneapolis, USA was in 1974. In 1995 Sofitel had 100 hotels in 40 countries and employed 12500 people....

 Tower Karachi and Emerald Tower. The Government of Sindh recently approved the construction of two high-density zones, which will host the new city skyline.

Cuisine



Being a cosmopolitan city of Pakistan, Karachi has variety of restaurants from fast food to conventional restaurants and international. The Port Grand Food and Entertainment Complex
Port Grand Food and Entertainment Complex
Port Grand Food and Entertainment Complex is a recreational area built in the centre of Karachi, Pakistan along the waterfront of the 19th century Native Jetty bridge that connects the Karachi Port Trust to Keamari...

 is the largest food street of Asia. Port Grand project is a 13-acre world-class facility that has been designed and built in collaboration with top international architects/designers who employed the latest technology and building techniques to deliver a state-of-the-art facility. Boat basin is also a very famous food market. Burns Road in Saddar has traditionally been the place to find traditional Pakistani food.

Fashion, shopping and entertainment


The night life in Karachi is believed to be best among all over Pakistan,Karachi is also known as city of lights and the city which never sleeps,Almost every day entertainment events are held in Karachi ranging for fashion shows, concerts, seminars or even small gigs at local cafe.

Karachi has always been proactive in organizing large events but because of the political and economic crisis in the country, activities have recently been slowed down. Karachi continues to host many different cultural and fashion shows. In 2009 a four-day-long fashion show was organized in Karachi's luxury Marriott hotel. Karachi has many glitzy shopping malls in the Clifton area, Tariq Road, Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Hyderi shopping area, such as Park Towers, The Forum, Dolmen Mall and Millenium Mall. Zamzama Boulevard is known for its designer stores and many cafes. There are many bazaar
Bazaar
A bazaar , Cypriot Greek: pantopoula) is a permanent merchandising area, marketplace, or street of shops where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchants, bankers and craftsmen" who work that area...

s in Karachi selling different merchandise. The famous bazaars include Bohri Bazaar, Soldier Bazaar, and Urdu Bazaar. Foreign clothes brands and famous Pakistani fashion labels (such as Amir Adnan, Aijazz, Rizwan Beyg, Deepak Perwani, Shayanne Malik, Maria B, Khaadi, Sputnik Footwear, Metro Shoes, English Boot House, Cotton & Cotton, Men's Store and Junaid Jamshed) are present in shopping districts of the city. The newly built shopping center Port Grand Food and Entertainment Complex
Port Grand Food and Entertainment Complex
Port Grand Food and Entertainment Complex is a recreational area built in the centre of Karachi, Pakistan along the waterfront of the 19th century Native Jetty bridge that connects the Karachi Port Trust to Keamari...

 is located at Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
The Port of Karachi is Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo . It is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar, close to the main business district and several industrial areas. The geographic position of the port places it in close...

 near Native Jetty Bridge.

Sports


Cricket is the most popular Sport in Karachi, which is played in many small grounds around the city, as well as on city streets at night and on weekends. Gully cricket is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city. The National Stadium
National Stadium, Karachi
The National Stadium is a cricket stadium in Karachi, Pakistan. It is currently used for cricket matches, and is home to Karachi's domestic cricket teams. The stadium is able to hold 34,228 spectators, making it the second largest cricket stadium in Pakistan after Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore...

 is the city's only world-class cricket stadium, and is the second largest cricket stadium in Pakistan after the Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium is a cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. It was designed by Daghestani-born architect and engineer Nasreddin Murat-Khan who also designed Lahore's Minar-e-Pakistan and constructed by Mian Abdul Khaliq and Company in 1959. Following the ground's renovation for the 1996 Cricket World...

 in Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

. The inaugural first-class match at the National Stadium was played between Pakistan and India on 26 February 1955 and since then Pakistani national cricket team has won 20 of the 41 Test matches
Test cricket
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council , with four innings played between two teams of 11 players over a period of up to a maximum five days...

 played at the National Stadium. Since then, instability caused by terrorism has mean't that non-Asian sides have refused to play in Karachi. The first One Day International at the National Stadium was against the West Indies on 21 November 1980, with the match going to the last ball. The national team has been less successful in such limited-overs matches at the ground, including a five year stint between 1996 and 2001, when they failed to win any matches. The city has been host to a number of successful domestic cricket teams including Karachi, Karachi Blues, Karachi Greens, and Karachi Whites. The National Stadium hosted two group matches (Pakistan v. South Africa on 29 February and Pakistan v. England on 3 March), and a quarter-final match (South Africa v. West Indies on 11 March) during the 1996 Cricket World Cup
1996 Cricket World Cup
The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup after its official sponsors, was the sixth edition of the tournament organized by the International Cricket Council . It was the second World Cup to be hosted by Pakistan and India, and for the first time by Sri Lanka...

.

The city has also hosted seven editions of the National Games of Pakistan, most recently in 2007. Sports like badminton, volleyball and basketball are popular in schools and colleges. Football is especially popular in Lyari Town
Lyari Town
Lyari Town is one of the eighteen constituent towns of the city of Karachi, in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It is the smallest town by area in the city but also the most densely populated town...

, which has a large Afro-Balochi community and has always been a football-mad locality in Karachi. The Peoples Football Stadium
Peoples Football Stadium
The Peoples Football Stadium, is located near Port Grand, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is owned by the City District Government of Karachi. It has a capacity of over 40,000.The stadium was built in 1988, and opened on 9 December 1995. It covers an area of...

 is perhaps the largest football stadium in Pakistan with respect to capacity, easily accommodating around 40,000 people. In 2005, the city hosted the SAFF Championship
SAFF Championship
The SAFF Championship, also called the South Asian Football Federation Cup , is the main football competition of the men's national football teams governed by the South Asian Football Federation. Previous names have included the South Asian Association of Regional Co-operation Gold Cup in 1993 and...

 at this ground, as well as the Geo Super Football League 2007
Geo Super Football League 2007
The 2007 Geo Super Football League of Pakistan was the 1st season of the country's new inter-city football competition in collaboration between the Pakistan Football Federation and GEO Super. The 2007 season spanned from July 20 to September 9.-Format:...

, which attracted capacity crowds during the games.The popularity of golf
Golf
Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

 is also gradually increasing among the masses and many clubs in Karachi like Dreamworld Resort, Hotel & Golf Club, Arabian Sea Country Club
Arabian Sea Country Club
The Arabian Sea Country Club , is a golf course located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.The Country Club is the collective result of a group of companies, spearheaded by former test cricketer Javed Burki. The 18 hole, par 72 golf course has been designed by K. Okada San of Taisei Corporation of Japan....

, DA Country & Golf Club are providing finest golf facilities to the citizens of Karachi. The city has facilities for hockey (the Hockey Club of Pakistan
Hockey Club of Pakistan
Hockey Club of Pakistan is a national hockey stadium for the national sport conducted in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.Hockey Club of Pakistan hosted matches for the 1980, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1986 & 1992 Champions Trophy. The stadium holds 30,000 people....

, UBL Hockey Ground), boxing (KPT Sports Complex), Squash (sport)
Squash (sport)
Squash is a high-speed racquet sport played by two players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball...

 (Jahangir Khan
Jahangir Khan
Jahangir Khan, HI, is a former World No. 1 professional squash player from Pakistan, who is considered by many to be the greatest player in the history of the game. During his career he won the World Open six times and the British Open a record ten times...

 Squash Complex) and Polo
Polo
Polo is a team sport played on horseback in which the objective is to score goals against an opposing team. Sometimes called, "The Sport of Kings", it was highly popularized by the British. Players score by driving a small white plastic or wooden ball into the opposing team's goal using a...

. Marinas and boating clubs add to the diverse sporting activities in Karachi.

Professional Karachi teams
Club League Sport Venue Established
Karachi Dolphins
Karachi Dolphins
The Karachi Dolphins is a cricket team based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan that plays in the Pakistan Twenty20 Cup. The team is captained by Mohammad Sami and coached by Azam Khan. The National Stadium is the Dolphins' home ground...

Twenty-20 Cup Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

National Stadium
National Stadium, Karachi
The National Stadium is a cricket stadium in Karachi, Pakistan. It is currently used for cricket matches, and is home to Karachi's domestic cricket teams. The stadium is able to hold 34,228 spectators, making it the second largest cricket stadium in Pakistan after Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore...

2004
Karachi Zebras
Karachi Zebras
The Karachi Zebras are a Pakistan Super League team, based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The team was established in 2006 and its home ground is National Stadium. The team is one of several proposed franchises for the Pakistan Super League...

Twenty-20 Cup Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

National Stadium
National Stadium, Karachi
The National Stadium is a cricket stadium in Karachi, Pakistan. It is currently used for cricket matches, and is home to Karachi's domestic cricket teams. The stadium is able to hold 34,228 spectators, making it the second largest cricket stadium in Pakistan after Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore...

2004
Karachi Energy
Karachi Bazigar
Karachi Energy is a Football team of Karachi, in Pakistan, and they play in the Geo Super Football League. The club is a founding member of the SFL. Their homeground is People's Football Stadium...

SFL
Geo Super Football League
The Geo Super Football League or SFL is the first proper professional inter-city football league of Pakistan, with the support of the PFF. It was established in 2007 and is the first time that Pakistani club football matches are telecast live on television via GEO Super...

Football Peoples Football Stadium
Peoples Football Stadium
The Peoples Football Stadium, is located near Port Grand, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is owned by the City District Government of Karachi. It has a capacity of over 40,000.The stadium was built in 1988, and opened on 9 December 1995. It covers an area of...

2007
Karachi HBL FC
HBL FC
HBL FC are a Pakistani football club based in Karachi who play in the Pakistan Premier League. The club was formed in 1975 by the Habib Bank, hence the nickname, the Bankers....

PPL
Pakistan Premier League
The Pakistan Premier League is the first division of Pakistani football. It was established in 2004, in place of the National Championship by the Pakistan Football Federation.-Origins:...

Football Peoples Football Stadium
Peoples Football Stadium
The Peoples Football Stadium, is located near Port Grand, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is owned by the City District Government of Karachi. It has a capacity of over 40,000.The stadium was built in 1988, and opened on 9 December 1995. It covers an area of...

1975

Education




Karachi is one of the most literate cities in Pakistan, with the highest literacy rate along with a gross enrollment ratio of 111%, the highest in Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

.

Education in Karachi is divided into five levels: primary
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

 (grades one through five); middle
Middle school
Middle School and Junior High School are levels of schooling between elementary and high schools. Most school systems use one term or the other, not both. The terms are not interchangeable...

 (grades six through eight); high
Secondary education
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

 (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate
Secondary School Certificate
The Secondary School Certificate, also known as SSC, is a public examination taken by students in Bangladesh, Pakistan and in the states of Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Goa in India after successfully completing at least ten years of schooling. It is followed...

); intermediate
Secondary education
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

 (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programs leading to graduate
Undergraduate education
Undergraduate education is an education level taken prior to gaining a first degree . Hence, in many subjects in many educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a bachelor's degree, such as in the United States, where a university entry level is...

 and advanced
Graduate school
A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree...

 degrees. Karachi has both public and private educational institutions. Most educational institutions are gender-based, from primary to university level.

Karachi Grammar School
Karachi Grammar School
Karachi Grammar School is an independent, highly selective, coeducational, English-medium school in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.Established in 1847 by the Reverend Henry Brereton, the first chaplain of Karachi, as a school for "English and Anglo-Indo children", it is the oldest private school in...

 is the oldest school in Pakistan and has educated many Pakistani businessmen and politicians. The Narayan Jagannath High School
Narayan Jagannath High School
The Narayan Jagannath Vaidya High School at Karachi was the first government school established in Sindh. It was opened in October 1855 with 68 boys...

 in Karachi, which opened in 1855, was the first government school established in Sindh. Other well-known schools include the Hamdard Public School, Education Bay [EBay] school located in karachi (for higher education) Army Public School (C.O.D.), Karachi Public school, British Overseas School
British Overseas School
The British Overseas School is a selective coeducational, British school in Karachi, Pakistan, which offers classes ranging from Pre-Nursery through to IGCSE and A Level.- Introduction :...

, L'ecole for Advanced Studies, Bay View Academey, the CAS School
The CAS School, Karachi
The CAS School is an educational institution in the city of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is also known as the Centre for Advanced Studies....

, Generations School, Karachi American School
Karachi American School
The Karachi American School is a Preschool - Grade 12 day school located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. For some time it was called "International School of Karachi", but now is called Karachi American School....

, Aga Khan Higher Secondary School, the Froebel Education Centre (FEC), The Paradise School and College, Little Folks Secondary School, Habib Public School
Habib public school
Habib Public School Karachi is a boarding university-preparatory school located in Karachi, Pakistan.-History:The school started on 7 July 1959 with four blocks of buildings: Ahmed House, Ghulam Ali House, Dawood House, and Sharif House. The first administrator of the school was late Mr...

, Mama Parsi Girls Secondary School, B. V. S. Parsi High School
B. V. S. Parsi High School
Bai Virbaijee Soparivala Parsi High School is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It was opened on May 23, 1859, as Karachi Parsi Balak Shalla by the Zoroastrian residents of Karachi. The Government of Education of Sindh has rated B.V.S...

, Civilizations Public School, The Oasys School, Avicenna School
Avicenna School
The Avicenna School, is a co-education school in Karachi, Pakistan. Its main campus is in Clifton, Karachi. It is named after the famous Muslim polymath Avicenna ....

, The Lyceum School
The Lyceum School
The Lyceum School is a private co-educational institution in Karachi, Pakistan.The Lyceum was established in August 1987 to meet a growing demand for quality Advanced level education....

, Ladybird Grammar School, The City School, ABC Public School, Beaconhouse School System, The Educators schools, Sultan Mohamed Shah Aga Khan School, Shahwilayat Public School
Shahwilayat Public School
- Introduction :The Shahwilayat Public School is a co-educational private school in Karachi, Pakistan and one of the city's educational institutions. It was established in 1991.It was established by the community, "Anjuman-e-Saadaat-e-Amroha"...

, Springfield School, St Patrick's High School, St Paul's English High School
St Paul's English High School
St Paul's English High School is a a private boys' high school in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, operated by the Roman Catholic Church. Fr Anthony Martis was the principal, Angelo Borges the senior vice principal, and Leonard Dias the vice principal.-History:...

, St Joseph's Convent School
St Joseph's Convent School (Karachi)
St. Joseph's Convent School is a Catholic high school for girls located in Saddar Town, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.-History:In the year 1861, Monsignor Steins, Vicar Apostolic of Bombay passing through Belgium, called Mother Marie Therese, Superior General and founder of the Daughter of the Cross,...

, St Jude's High School, St Michael's Convent School
St Michael's Convent School
St. Michael's Convent School was established in 1986 in the city of Karachi in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The school started its first academic session on 23 November 1986 under its founder principal Bishop Anthony Theodore Lobo.-History:...

, Foundation Public School
Foundation Public School
Foundation Public School is a private institution in Pakistan, established in 1981 by Mr. and Mrs. Raza Kamal Minhas. With a student body of 6000 supported by over 500 members of the teaching staff and operating nine campuses in Hyderabad, FPS provides education to children from ages 3.5 years to...

,Aisha Bawanay Academy, Karachi Gems School, St Peter's High School and Chiniot Islamia School.


The University of Karachi
University of Karachi
The University of Karachi is a public university located in Karachi, Pakistan. It serves an on-campus student population of more than 24,000. According to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, it is ranked among the top three universities of the country...

, known as KU, is Pakistan's largest university, with a student population of 24,000 and one of the largest faculties in the world. It is located next to the NED University of Engineering and Technology
NED University of Engineering and Technology
The Nadirshaw Eduljee Dinshaw University of Engineering and Technology is a public university in Karachi, Pakistan. It was founded in 1922 as an engineering college, making it the oldest school in Pakistan for educating graduate engineers....

, the country's oldest engineering institute. In the private sector, The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences is a university in Pakistan with headquarters at Islamabad and campuses at Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad and Peshawar...

 (NUCES-FAST), one of Pakistan's top universities in computer education, operates two campuses in Karachi. Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology
Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology
Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology, or SSUET, is a private sector engineering university located in Karachi, Pakistan. It was named after the 19th-century Muslim education reformer Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology was founded by the current...

 (SSUET) provides reputable training in biomedical engineering, civil engineering, electronics engineering, telecom engineering and computer engineering. Dawood College of Engineering and Technology
Dawood College of Engineering and Technology
Dawood College of Engineering and Technology is a Public Degree-Awarding Institution located in Karachi, Pakistan. Established in 1962, the College is one of Pakistan's finest Engineering Institutes, and is one of the country's pioneers in the disciplines of Chemical, Electronics, Industrial and...

, which opened in 1962, offers degree programmes in electronic engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, materials engineering and architecture. Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology
Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology
Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology was established in 1997 with the aim of providing quality of education at affordable cost. Its academic programs are designed to prepare the students to meet the challenges of the nation and industry. KIET received the recognition by the Higher...

 (KIET) has two campuses in Karachi and has been growing rapidly since its inception in 1997. The Plastics Technology Center (PTC), located in Karachi's Korangi Industrial Area, is at present Pakistan's only educational institution providing training in the field of polymer engineering and plastics testing services. The Institute of Business Administration
Institute of Business Administration, Karachi
The Institute of Business Administration is a university and a business school in Karachi, Pakistan. According to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, IBA is one of the best business and IT institutes in Pakistan...

 (IBA), founded in 1955, is the oldest business school outside of North America. The Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology
Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology
Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology is a Pakistani university, with headquarters at Karachi and campuses at Islamabad, Karachi, Larkana and Dubai...

 (SZABIST), founded in 1995 by Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

, is located in Karachi, with its other campuses in Islamabad, Larkana and Dubai. Pakistan Navy Engineering College
Pakistan Navy Engineering College
Pakistan Navy Engineering College is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is one of the constituent colleges of the National University of Sciences and Technology. It is administered by the Pakistan Navy and the campus is referred to as PNS Jauhar...

 (PNEC) is a part of the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), offering a wide range of engineering programs, including electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. Hamdard University
Hamdard University
Hamdard University is a private institution of higher education in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. The university was founded in 1991 by Hakim Said of the Hamdard Foundation. Hamdard University has the largest campus of any private university in Pakistan, covering...

 is the largest private university in Pakistan with faculties including Eastern Medicine, Medical, Engineering, Pharmacy, and Law. It has got Asia's second largest library called 'BAIT UL HIKMA'. Jinnah University for Women
Jinnah University for Women
Jinnah University for Women was founded in 1998 by an act passed by the Sindh government and is recognised by the University Grants Commission of Pakistan. The university has 20 departments offering graduate and postgraduate degree courses. The university is currently ranked at No...

 is the first women university in Pakistan. Karachi is home of the head offices of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan
Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan is a professional accountancy body in Pakistan. , it had 5,078 members working in and outside Pakistan. The institute was established on July 1, 1961 to regulate the profession of accountancy in Pakistan. It is a statutory autonomous body...

 (ICAP) (established in 1961) and the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan
Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan
The Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan was established in 1951 and was granted statutory status under the Cost and Management Accountants Act, 1966 for the regulation of the profession of Cost and Management Accounting. The institute was established with the name Pakistan...

 (ICMAP). Among the many other institutions providing business education are the Institute of Business Management
Institute of Business Management
The Institute of Business Management is a university and business school in Pakistan. IoBM is composed of three colleges located in Karachi , the College of Business Management , the College of Economics and Social Development , and the College of Computer Science and Information Systems .-...

 (IoBM), SZABIST, Iqra University
Iqra University
IQRA University is a private higher education university in Pakistan with main campus located at Karachi, Sindh and campuses at Islamabad, Karachi and Quetta. It was established in 1998 by the businessman Hunaid H...

 and the Institute of Business and Technology (Biztek). Leading medical schools of Pakistan like the Dow University of Health Sciences
Dow University of Health Sciences
Dow University of Health Sciences is a coeducational medical university, owned by Mohammad Hamza Rahman and founded in 2003, in Karachi, Pakistan. It comprises two already established schools, Dow Medical College, and Sindh Medical College as well as the newly formed Dow International Medical...

 and the Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
The Aga Khan University is a coeducational research university spread over three continents. It was granted its charter in 1983 as Pakistan's first private, autonomous university. AKU was founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, and is part of the Aga Khan Development Network...

 are situated in Karachi. PLANWEL
PLANWEL
The Association of Planning Professionals for Social Welfare Works , is an independent Information and Communication Technology based,  non-profit NGO...

http://www.planwel.edu is another innovative institution it is a CISCO Network Academy as well as iCBT center for ETS Prometric and Pearsons VUE. Bahria University
Bahria University
Bahria University is a multi-campus university with headquarters in Islamabad, Pakistan. BU has two main campuses, one in Islamabad and the other in Karachi, Pakistan...

 also has a purpose-built campus in Karachi. The College of Accounting and Management Sciences (CAMS) also has three branches in the city. Sindh Muslim Govt. Science College located at Saddar Town is the eldest college in Karachi.

For religious education, the Jamia Uloom ul Islamia
Jamia Uloom ul Islamia, Banori Town, Karachi
Jamia Uloom-e-Islamia or Islamic University Karachi is an Islamic School situated in Binori Town, Karachi, Pakistan. The school continues the tradition of the Darul Uloom system initiated by Darul Uloom Deoband...

 (one of the largest Islamic education centres of Asia), Jamia Binoria
Jamia Binoria
Jamia Binoria is an international Sunni Islamic educational institute located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is regarded as one of the most modern madrassas. It should not be confused with the Jamiah Islamiya madrassa in Binori Town, Karachi....

 and Darul 'Uloom Karachi
Darul 'Uloom Karachi
Darul 'Uloom Karachi is an Islamic seminary located in Karachi, Pakistan. It continues the tradition of the Darul uloom system initiated by Darul Uloom Deoband. It was started by the late Grand Mufti of Pakistan, Mufti Muhammad Shafi and Mawlana Noor Ahmad, in 1951...

 are among the Islamic schools in Karachi.

Transport


Road


Traffic problems and pollution are major challenges for Karachi. The level of air pollution in Karachi is significantly higher than World Health Organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

 standards. A number of new parks (e.g., Bagh Ibne Qasim, Beach View Park and Jheel Park
Jheel Park
The Jheel Park or Society Jheel Park, is situated near Tariq Road in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.The park is constructed on of land. There is a natural pond of water in the park where in olden days people used to come to hunt migratory birds....

) have been developed and new trees are being planted in the city to improve the environment and reduce the pollution. The construction of new bridges/flyovers, underpasses and signal-free corridors (e.g., Corridor 1: S.I.T.E. to Shahrae Faisal, Corridor 2: North Karachi to Shahrae Faisal, Corridor 3: Safora Goth to Saddar) has improved the traffic flow in Karachi. The eventual completion of Corridor 4 (from the airport to Metropole Hotel) is expected to substantially reduce the travel time to reach the city centre and airport.

Rail



Karachi is linked by rail to the rest of the country by Pakistan Railways
Pakistan Railways
This article is about the rail company in Pakistan. For technical details and operations see: Transport in Pakistan.Pakistan Railways is a national state-owned rail transport service of Pakistan, head-quartered in Lahore. It is administered by the federal government under the Ministry of Railways....

. The Karachi City Station
Karachi City Station
Karachi City Railway Station or Karachi City Station is the first and the oldest railway station in Pakistan. It is located Off I. I. Chundrigar Road, Karachi in Sindh, Pakistan. After the construction of Karachi Cantt. Station, major passenger trains and traffic shifted to Karachi Cantt...

 and Karachi Cantonment Railway Station
Karachi Cantonment Railway Station
Karachi Cantonment Railway Station is one of the principal railway stations in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It was earlier known as Frere Street Station. The construction of the station was started in 1896 and was completed in 1898 at a total cost of Rs. 80,000.-Train Services from Karachi Cantonment...

 are the city's two major railway stations. The railway system handles a large amount of freight to and from the Karachi port and provides passenger services to people traveling up country. A project to transform the existing, but non-operational, Karachi Circular Railway
Karachi Circular Railway
Karachi Circular Railway is a revival and proposed Mass Rapid Transit System for Karachi, the largest city in Pakistan with aims to connect several industrial and commercial districts within the city and outlying suburbs. The system will consist of a loop line, encircling the entire city of...

 into a modern mass transit system had been approved by the government but has been delayed to 2050 due to lack of funds. The $1.6 billion project will be financed by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation
Japan Bank for International Cooperation
The , also known by its acronym, JBIC, is a Japanese public financial institution and export credit agency, and was created on October 1, 1999, through the merging of the Japan Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund ....

 and will be completed by 2013. The city government has introduced an initiative to alleviate the transport pains by introducing new CNG buses.

Air



The Jinnah International Airport
Jinnah International Airport
Jinnah International Airport is Pakistan's largest international and domestic airport. It is located in Karachi, Pakistan, and its passenger terminal is also commonly known as the جناح ٹرمینل Jinnah Terminal...

 is located in Karachi. It is the largest and busiest airport of Pakistan. It handles 10 million passenger
Passenger
A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination....

s a year. The airport receives the largest number of foreign airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

s, a total of 35 airlines and cargo operators fly to Jinnah International predominantly from the Middle East and Southeast Asia. All of Pakistan's airlines use Karachi as their primary transport hub including PIA - Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

http://www.piac.aero, Airblue
Airblue
Airblue Limited is a private airline with its head office on the 12th floor of the Islamabad Stock Exchange Towers in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is Pakistan's second largest airline with over 20% share of the domestic market...

, and Shaheen Air International. The city's old airport terminal
Airport terminal
An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft....

s are now used for Hajj
Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

 flights, offices, cargo facilities, and ceremonial visits from heads of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

. U.S. Coalition forces used the old terminals for their logistic
Military logistics
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is those aspects or military operations that deal with:...

 supply operations as well. The city has two other airstrips, used primarily by the armed forces
Armed forces
The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their governing body, and to defend that body and the nation it represents from external aggressors. In some countries paramilitary...

.

Sea



The largest shipping ports in Pakistan are the Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
The Port of Karachi is Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo . It is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar, close to the main business district and several industrial areas. The geographic position of the port places it in close...

 and the nearby Port Qasim
Port Qasim
The Port Muhammad Bin Qasim , also known as Port Qasim, is a seaport in Karachi, Pakistan, on the coastline of the Arabian Sea. It is Pakistan's second busiest port, handling about 35% of the nation's cargo...

. These seaports have modern facilities and not only handle trade for Pakistan, but serve as ports for Afghanistan and the landlocked Central Asian countries. Plans have been announced for new passenger facilities at the Port of Karachi.

Media



Many of Pakistan’s independent television and radio channels are based in Karachi, including Dawn News
Dawn News
Dawn News was Pakistan's 24-hour Urdu news channel. Based in Karachi, the station is a subsidiary of Pakistan Herald Publications Limited , Pakistan's largest English-language media group. The test transmission of the station occurred on May 25, 2007, and the channel went live on July 23, 2007...

, Business Plus, Geo TV
Geo TV
Geo TV or Geo Television is a Pakistani television network, founded by Mr. Mir Shakil ur Rehman in May 2002 and owned by Independent Media Corporation. The channel began test transmission on 14 August 2002, with regular transmission beginning 1 October 2002...

, CNBC Pakistan
CNBC Pakistan
CNBC Pakistan is Pakistan's 24-hour bilingual Urdu and English language business and news channel which reports financial and business information, presenting in-depth and up-to-the-minute coverage of regional and international affairs from a Pakistani economic perspective...

, Hum TV
Hum TV
Hum TV is a 24-hour Pakistani entertainment TV channel based in Karachi. It is the first brand of Eye Television Network Limited, Pakistan. Hum TV began its transmission on January 17, 2005.-Serials:* Manay Na Ye Dil * Akhri Barish...

, TV ONE
TV ONE (Pakistan)
TVOne Global is an general entertainment channel from Pakistan that airs dramas, soaps and lifestyle programs.TVOne Global and sister station News One are part of Air Waves Media, owned by Interflow Communications, one of Pakistan’s leading advertising agencies...

, AAJ TV
AAJ TV
AAJ TV is a 24 hour Pakistani news television channel. Aaj in English means "Today".-Channel and its Programmes:AAJ News was initially started on March 23, 2005 by the Business Recorder Group...

, SAMAA TV
SAMAA TV
SAMAA TV is a Pakistani news network.- Competitors :*Dunya News*Geo News*ARY News*Express News*Indus News*Waqt News- External links :*...

, ARY Digital
ARY Digital
ARY Digital, a subsidiary of the ARY Group, is a popular Pakistani television network available in Pakistan, the Middle East, North America and Europe. The ARY Group of companies is a Dubai-based holding company founded by a Pakistani businessman, Abdul Razzak Yaqoob . The network caters to the...

, Metro One, Indus Television Network
Indus Media Group
Indus Media Group is Pakistani company broadcasting a mix of free-to-air news and entertainment channels via satellite.IMG owns and operates the INDUS brand of television channels in various global markets.-Company:...

, Kawish Television Network
Kawish Television Network
Kawish Television Network is the first private Sindhi TV channel of Pakistan. It is the most watched private Sindhi language channel based general entertainment television channel worldwide. The channel is part of the Kawish Television Network's bouquet of channels.-Early days:KTN was established...

 (KTN) and Sindh TV
Sindh TV
Sindh Television is a leading private television channel in Sindhi language in Sindh. It was founded by Dr. Abdul Kareem Rajpar and mr Ajeet Kumar ahuja. It is the second private Sindhi TV channel....

 as well as several local stations; local channels include Good News TV
Good News TV
Good News TV started as a showcase produced by a small team in a studio in Karachi, Pakistan. It is a not-for-profit organization whose goal is to use modern media as a tool to connect people to their faith. It is supported by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Karachi. Good News TV offers...

. It also has Islamic channels ARY Qtv
ARY Qtv
ARY Qtv is a Pakistani television channel with a Sunni religious focus, producing programs mainly focusing on the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jama'at school of thought in Ummah. It is part of the ARY Digital Network. The channel has shows featuring well-known scholars such as Dr...

 and Madani Channel

Pakistan's premier news television networks are based in Karachi, including GEO News
GEO News
Geo News is a Karachi-based Pakistani news channel, fully owned and operated by Jang Group. The channel started its broadcasting in November 2005 and has millions of Urdu-language viewers around the world.- Popular Shows :...

, ARY One World
ARY One World
ARY News is a Dubai-based Pakistani news channel launched in 26 September 2004. A bilingual news channel in English and Urdu, it is a part of the ARY Digital Network, which is a subsidiary of ARY Group. It has a large audience and one main competitor in Geo News...

, Dawn News
Dawn News
Dawn News was Pakistan's 24-hour Urdu news channel. Based in Karachi, the station is a subsidiary of Pakistan Herald Publications Limited , Pakistan's largest English-language media group. The test transmission of the station occurred on May 25, 2007, and the channel went live on July 23, 2007...

 and AAJ News
AAJ TV
AAJ TV is a 24 hour Pakistani news television channel. Aaj in English means "Today".-Channel and its Programmes:AAJ News was initially started on March 23, 2005 by the Business Recorder Group...

. AAG TV
AAG TV
AAG TV is a youth entertainment channel in Pakistan, owned by Independent Media Corporation . The Urdu word "aag" means "fire."...

 and MTV Pakistan
MTV Pakistan
Music Television Pakistan is the Pakistani subsidiary of MTV, a cable television network owned by Viacom Inc. headquartered in New York. The Pakistan franchise has been set up in collaboration with Pakistan's first satellite channel media group known as Indus Media Group . Indus TV is Pakistan's...

 are the main music television channels, and Business Plus and CNBC Pakistan
CNBC Pakistan
CNBC Pakistan is Pakistan's 24-hour bilingual Urdu and English language business and news channel which reports financial and business information, presenting in-depth and up-to-the-minute coverage of regional and international affairs from a Pakistani economic perspective...

 are the main business television channels based in the city. The bulk of Pakistan's periodical publishing industry is centred in Karachi, including magazines such as Spider, The Herald
Herald (Pakistan)
The Herald is a monthly magazine published in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is a political magazine owned by Pakistan Herald Publications Limited , which also publishes the Dawn Group of Newspapers. It is considered to be a neutral magazine and produces many large or breaking stories...

, Humsay, The Cricketer, Moorad Shipping News, and The Internet.

Major advertising companies including Interflow Communications, and Orient McCann Erickson have their head offices in Karachi. Karachi has also been featured in the game Call of Duty Modern Warfare 2.

Health and medicine



Karachi is a centre of research in biomedicine, with at least 30 public hospitals and more than 80 private hospitals, including the Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases
Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases
The Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases , is located in Karachi, became functional on June 3, 2005. It is the second cardiac care facility of the metropolis after the National Institute of Cardio Vascular Diseases...

, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases
National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases
The National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases , was established in 1963 to meet the national need to cope with the increasing demand for the diagnosis, management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and also to keep pace with the rapid technological advances in the practice of cardiology...

 (NICVD), Spencer Eye Hospital, Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital Karachi is a 1900-bed tertiary care public hospital that imparts both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching and training. It is one of the teaching hospitals affiliated with the Dow Medical College now the Dow University of Health Sciences...

, PNS Rahat, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital
Abbasi Shaheed Hospital
Abbasi Shaheed Hospital is located in Paposh Nagar neighborhood of Nazimabad, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. This public hospital was constructed in the early 1970s and serves the residents of northern part of the city Abbasi Shaheed Hospital is located in Paposh Nagar neighborhood of Nazimabad,...

, Aga Khan University Hospital, Holy Family Hospital
Holy Family Hospital
Holy Family Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, was founded in 1948 by the Medical Mission Sisters, a Roman Catholic religious order for women based in Philadelphia, USA. This was at a time when very few health care facilities existed in Pakistan....

 and Liaquat National Hospital
Liaquat National Hospital
The Liaquat National Hospital , is located at Stadium Road, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.Liaquat National Hospital was established on October 16, 1958.- History :...

, as well as Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre
Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre
The Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre , a.k.a. Jinnah Hospital is located at Rafique Shaheed Road in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.The JPMC is a public hospital. The hospital was established in 1959...

, Hamid Hospital Pvt. Ltd, Ziauddin Hospital, National Medical Centre and Lady Dufferin Hospital
Lady Dufferin Hospital
Lady Dufferin Hospital is located in Karachi, Sindh, and it is the largest women's hospital in Pakistan. The hospital, which was completed in 1898, was named after the British peeress Lady Dufferin. Benazir Bhutto, the former Prime Minister of Pakistan, gave bith to a girl in the hospital in...

. Medical schools include the Dow Medical College
Dow Medical College
Dow Medical College, is the oldest medical school in Sindh, Pakistan and is located in Karachi. In 2003, it became a constituent college of the newly formed Dow University of Health Sciences. Dow Medical College is the best medical college of Pakistan and one of the oldest education institutions in...

, Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
The Aga Khan University is a coeducational research university spread over three continents. It was granted its charter in 1983 as Pakistan's first private, autonomous university. AKU was founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, and is part of the Aga Khan Development Network...

, Liaquat National Medical College, Sindh Medical College
Sindh Medical College
Sindh Medical College , is a medical college situated beside Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.SMC started functioning on April 7, 1973 after the final decision of a committee constituted by the Government of Sindh and after its budget was approved in the first week of...

, Dow International Medical College
Dow International Medical College
Dow INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE is a government-owned public medical college in Karachi, Pakistan, which is recognised by Pakistan medical and dental council to admit 100 students per year.It is affiliated with DOW UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARACHI....

, Baqai Medical University
Baqai Medical University
Baqai Medical University was founded in 1988 on the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan and is ranked no.3 in the HEC rankings for medical universities in Pakistan...

, Karachi Medical & Dental College, Jinnah Medical & Dental College
Jinnah Medical & Dental College
Jinnah Medical & Dental College was established in 1998 in Karachi, Pakistan. It is located in the heart of Karachi on Shaheed-e-Millat Road. The first batch of doctors and dentists graduated from JMDC in 2003 and 2004 where as first batch of pharmacy graduated in 2009. The college is affiliated...

, Hamdard College of Medicine & Dentistry
Hamdard College of Medicine & Dentistry
Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry trains students for the degree of Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery and Bachelor of Dental Surgery. These degrees will be awarded to candidates who successfully complete all requirements set out in the rules and regulations specified by the...

, Sir Syed College of Medical Sciences for Girls and Ziauddin Medical University
Ziauddin Medical University
Ziauddin University is a degree awarding private University in Karachi, Pakistan. After the necessary approval from the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council , the University established Ziauddin Medical College in 1995, which commenced its first academic session in April 1996. The first group of 55...

.

Sister cities

Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

, Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, since 15 February 1984 Port Louis
Port Louis
-Economy:The economy is dominated by its port, which handles Mauritius' international trade. The port was founded by the French who preferred Port Louis as the City is shielded by the Port Louis/Moka mountain range. It is the largest container handling facility in the Indian Ocean and can...

, Mauritius
Mauritius
Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...

 since 1 May 2007 Houston, United States since 8 May 2008
  • A twin city partnership with Chicago, United States, was contemplated and initiated in 2000, but was never implemented. Moscow
    Moscow
    Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

    , Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

     (Since 28 August 2011)

See also




Further reading


External links