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Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Nazarbayev

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Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev ( nʊrsʊlˈtɑn æbəʃʊˈlɯ nɑzɑrˈbɑ.jɪf; nur.suɫˈtan ɐˈbʲi.ʂɨ.vʲɪt͡ɕ nə.zɐrˈba.jɪf) (born 6 July 1940) has served as the President of Kazakhstan
President of Kazakhstan
President of Kazakhstan is the head of state, supreme commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Kazakhstan. The authorities of this position are described in special section of Constitution of Kazakhstan....

 since the nation received its independence in 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union. In April 2011, President Nazarbayev was reelected
Kazakhstani presidential election, 2011
Early presidential elections were held in Kazakhstan on 3 April 2011, having been originally scheduled for 2012.The elections were called after a plan for holding a referendum to increase president term limits to 2020 was rejected by the Constitutional Council.Nazarbayev was re-elected for a third...

 to another five-year term receiving 95.54 percent of the vote with 89.9 percent of registered voters participating (up from 76.8 percent in the 2005 presidential election).

Rise to power



In 1984 Nazarbayev became the Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Prime Minister of Kazakhstan
-Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars:*Viktor Radus-Zenkovich *Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev *Saken Seyfullin *Nygmet Nurmakov...

, working under Dinmukhamed Kunayev, the First Secretary
General Secretary
The office of general secretary is staffed by the chief officer of:*The General Secretariat for Macedonia and Thrace, a government agency for the Greek regions of Macedonia and Thrace...

 of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan
Communist Party of Kazakhstan
The Communist Party of Kazakhstan is a political party in Kazakhstan. -Origin:The Communist Party of Kazakhstan was founded 1936 when Kazakhstan was granted a Union Republic status within the Soviet Union...

. He served as First Secretary of the Kazakh Communist Party from 1989 to 1991.

Nazarbayev criticized Askar Kunayev, head of the Academy of Sciences, at the 16th session of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

 in January 1986 for not reforming his department. Dinmukhamed Kunayev, Nazarbayev's boss and Askar's brother, felt deeply angered and betrayed. Kunayev went to Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 and demanded Nazarbayev's dismissal while Nazarbayev's supporters campaigned for Kunayev's dismissal and Nazarbayev's promotion. Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991...

 accepted the resignation of a deflated Kunayev, replacing him with Gennady Kolbin
Gennady Kolbin
Gennady Kolbin was the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakh SSR from December 16, 1986 to June 22, 1989.Kolbin had not worked in the Kazakh SSR prior to his appointment...

, an ethnic Russian, triggering three days of riots known as the Jeltoqsan
Jeltoqsan
The Jeltoqsan or "December" of 1986 were riots that took place in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Konayev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, and the subsequent appointment of Gennady...

.

Nazarbayev replaced Kolbin, who despite his office had little authority in Kazakhstan, on 22 June 1989. He was Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (head of state) from 22 February, to 24 April 1990. Nazarbayev was elected President of Kazakhstan by the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the Supreme Soviet in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments...

 on 24 April. He won the 1991 presidential election on 1 December, winning 91.5% of the vote in an election in which no other candidate ran against him.

Presidency



Nazarbayev renamed the former State Defense Committees as the Ministry of Defense and appointed Sagadat Nurmagambetov
Sagadat Nurmagambetov
Sagadat Nurmagambetov is a retired Soviet and Kazakhstani general who served as Chairman of Kazakhstan's State Defense Committee in 1991-1992 and Kazakhstan's first Minister of Defense following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, holding the office of Defense Minister from May 1992 to...

 as Defense Minister on 7 May 1992. The Supreme Council
Supreme Council
Supreme Council may refer to:In culture:* Supreme Council of Antiquities, part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture* Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes, an umbrella organisation in Greece established in 1997In Freemasonry:...

, under the leadership of Speaker Serikbolsyn Abdilin, began debating over a draft constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

 in June 1992.

The constitution created a strong executive branch with limited checks
Separation of powers
The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state. The model was first developed in ancient Greece and came into widespread use by the Roman Republic as part of the unmodified Constitution of the Roman Republic...

 on executive power. Opposition political parties Ezat, Zheltoqsan and the Republican Party, held demonstrations in Almaty
Almaty
Almaty , also known by its former names Verny and Alma-Ata , is the former capital of Kazakhstan and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,348,500...

 from 10 June-17 calling for the formation of a coalition government
Coalition government
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate. The usual reason given for this arrangement is that no party on its own can achieve a majority in the parliament...

 and the resignation of the government of Prime Minister Sergey Tereshchenko and the Supreme Council. Kazakh security personnel forcibly put down the protest on 18 June 1992. The Parliament of Kazakhstan
Parliament of Kazakhstan
The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the bicameral legislature of Kazakhstan, according to the 1995 Constitution of Kazakhstan. The lower house is the Majilis, with 77 seats, elected to four year terms, 67 in single seat constituencies and 10 by proportional representation...

, composed of Communist Party legislator
Legislator
A legislator is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are usually politicians and are often elected by the people...

s who had yet to stand in an election since the country gained its independence, adopted the constitution on 28 January 1993.

An April 1995 referendum
Referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of...

 extended his term until 2000. He was re-elected in January 1999 and again in December 2005. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe criticized the last presidential election as falling short of international democratic
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

 standards. An election requires two or more candidates running in opposition. A single candidate is not an election but a referendum. On May 18, 2007, the Parliament of Kazakhstan
Parliament of Kazakhstan
The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the bicameral legislature of Kazakhstan, according to the 1995 Constitution of Kazakhstan. The lower house is the Majilis, with 77 seats, elected to four year terms, 67 in single seat constituencies and 10 by proportional representation...

 approved a constitutional amendment which would allow Nazarbayev to seek re-election as many times as he wishes. This amendment applies specifically and only to Nazarbayev: the original constitution's prescribed maximum of two presidential terms will still apply to all future presidents of Kazakhstan.

Nazarbayev appointed Altynbek Sarsenbayev, who at the time served as the Minister of Culture, Information and Concord, the Secretary of the Kazakh Security Council, replacing Marat Tazhin
Marat Tazhin
Marat Muhanbetuly Tazhin is a Kazakh politician. He served as the Foreign Minister in the Government of Kazakhstan from 2007 to 2009. He previously served as Secretary of the National Security Committee...

, on 4 May 2001. Tazhin became the Chairman of the National Security Council, replacing Alnur Musayev. Musayev became the head of the Guards' Service of the President.
His government's policies are considered moderate and maintain a balance between the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

. Notwithstanding Kazakhstan's membership in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), under Nazarbayev the country has had good relations with Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. Diplomatic relations were established in 1992 and President Nazarbayev paid official visits to Israel in 1995 and 2000. Bilateral trade between the two countries amounted to $724 million in 2005. He initiated the move of the administration from Almaty
Almaty
Almaty , also known by its former names Verny and Alma-Ata , is the former capital of Kazakhstan and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,348,500...

 to Astana
Astana
Astana , formerly known as Akmola , Tselinograd and Akmolinsk , is the capital and second largest city of Kazakhstan, with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010...

.

A former minister in the Nazarbayev government, Zamanbek K. Nurkadilov, said that President Nazarbayev ought to answer allegations that Kazakh officials had accepted millions of US dollars in bribes from an intermediary for U.S. oil firms in the 1990s.

Corruption


In 2004 Transparency International
Transparency International
Transparency International is a non-governmental organization that monitors and publicizes corporate and political corruption in international development. It publishes an annual Corruption Perceptions Index, a comparative listing of corruption worldwide...

 ranked Kazakhstan 122nd (tied with several other nations) in its listing of 146 countries by level of corruption
Political corruption
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...

. Kazakhstan's total score out of 10, with 10 being the best, was 2.2 (any score under 3 indicated "rampant corruption). President Nazarbayev declared a holy war against corruption and ordered the adoption of "10 steps against corruption" to fight corruption at all levels of state and society.

A few international NGOs have accused the Nazarbayev government of merely paying lip service to anti-corruption efforts. Despite becoming the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, human rights, freedom of the press and fair elections...


chair in 2010, some civil activists inside and outside the country stated little was done to address “human rights abuses” and “widespread corruption”.
The Nazarbayev family itself was embroiled in a series of investigations by Western governments into money laundering, bribery, and assassinations. Among these investigations was the so-called Kazakhgate
Kazakhgate
Kаzаkhgаtе refers to the scandal surrounding James Giffen, an American businessman and former advisor of Kazakhstan president Nursultan Nazarbayev...

, as the result of which the US Department of Justice did not find Nazarbayev family guilty and closed the case in August 2010

Preventing global nuclear threats


Nazarbayev encouraged the United Nations General Assembly to establish August 29 as the International Day Against Nuclear Tests.
In his article he has proposed a new Non-Proliferation Treaty "that would guarantee clear obligations on the part of signatory governments and define real sanctions for those who fail to observe the terms of the agreement."

Dialogue between religions


President Nursultan Nazarbayev has put forward the initiative of holding a forum of world and traditional religions in the capital of Kazakhstan – city of Astana. Earlier the organizers of similar events were only representatives of leading religions and denominations. Among other similar events aimed at establishing interdenominational dialogue were the meetings of representatives of world religions and denominations held in Italian city Assisi in October 1986 and January 2002.

The first Congress of World and Traditional Religions which gathered in 2003 allowed the leaders of all major religions to open wide prospects for mutual cooperation and contributes to overcoming such negative manifestations. In 2009 the third Congress was held in Astana in Palace of Peace and Accord.

Views on Iran


In a speech given on 15 December 2006 marking the 15th anniversary of Kazakhstan's independence, Nazarbayev stated he wished to join with Iran in support of a single currency for all Central Asian states. He intends to push the idea forward with Iranian President Ahmadinejad on an upcoming visit. In one of his speeches however, the Kazakh president criticized Iran as one of the countries that provides support for terrorism. The Kazakh Foreign Ministry however, released a statement on 19 December, saying his remarks were not "what he really meant," and his comments were "mistakes." In a recent announcement of a railway link, Nazarbayev expressed religious solidarity with Iran, as he was quoted as saying, "Today I will pay a visit to Turkmenistan where we will agree on the construction of a railway through Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

 to Iran with access to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

. This will bring us closer to our Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 brothers."

In 2009, former UK cabinet minister Jonathan Aitken
Jonathan Aitken
Jonathan William Patrick Aitken is a former Conservative Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom, and British government minister. He was convicted of perjury in 1999 and received an 18-month prison sentence, of which he served seven months...

 released a biography of the Kazakhstani leader entitled Nazarbayev and the Making of Kazakhstan. The book takes a generally pro-Nazarbayev stance, asserting in the introduction that he is mostly responsible for the success of modern Kazakhstan.

Call for More Women In Politics


In 2011, President Nazarbayev called on his government to provide increased opportunities for women to serve in leadership positions in politics and government. "I instruct the government, together with the Presidential administration and the national commission for women's affairs, the leadership of the Nur Otan Party, to form a concrete plan effective to 2016 for the promotion of women in taking decisions," he said at the first women's congress.

2011 inaugural Address


Kazakhstan President Nazarbayev delivered his reelection inaugural address on April 8, 2011. In his remarks, President Nazarbayev underscored his commitment to economic reform and diversification, continued economic growth, environmental protection, democracy and political modernization, and regional and international stability.

2007 inaugural address



Nazarbayev delivered his annual presidential address on 28 February 2007. He advocated membership in the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which commenced in 1948...

, the establishment of a Eurasian Customs Union, and discussed cooperation with foreign states in the "fight against terrorism and fight against epidemics and environmental disasters."

Olympic torchbearer


On April 2, 2008 Nursultan Nazarbayev acted as the first torchbearer for Kazakhstan as part of the 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay
2008 Summer Olympics torch relay
The 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay was run from March 24 until August 8, 2008, prior to the 2008 Summer Olympics, with the theme of "one world, one dream". Plans for the relay were announced on April 26, 2007, in Beijing, China...

 in Almaty
Almaty
Almaty , also known by its former names Verny and Alma-Ata , is the former capital of Kazakhstan and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,348,500...

.

Personal life


He was born in in Chemolgan
Chemolgan
Chemolgan, or sometimes Shamalgan, is a rural community near Almaty in Kazakhstan. It is notable as the birthplace of current Kazakhstani president, Nursultan Nazarbayev-References:...

, Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Kazakh SSR for short, was one of republics that made up the Soviet Union.At in area, it was the second largest constituent republic in the USSR, after the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Alma-Ata . Today it is the independent state of...

, Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, and is married to Sara Alpysqyzy Nazarbayeva
Sara Nazarbayeva
Sara Alpysqyzy Nazarbayeva is the First Lady of Kazakhstan and wife of President Nursultan Nazarbayev. She married Nursultan in 1962 after her graduation. They now have three daughters; Dariga, Dinara and Aliya and three grandchildren...

, with whom he has three daughters; Dariga
Dariga Nazarbayeva
Dariga Nursultanqyzy Nazarbayeva is a Kazakh lawmaker and daughter of Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev....

, Dinara and Aliya. Dariga was married to Rakhat Aliyev
Rakhat Aliyev
Rakhat Mukhtaruly Aliyev served as the First Vice Foreign Minister in the government of Kazakhstan until February 2007 when he was appointed to his second tour as Kazakhstan's Ambassador to Austria...

, son of a former minister of healthcare, who served as the First Deputy Foreign Minister and twice as the Kazakh Ambassador to Austria. Dinara is married to Timur Kulibayev
Timur Kulibayev
Timur Askarovich Kulibayev is a significant Kazakhstani public figure, and son-in-law of Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev. Kulibayev has held several positions in important state-owned enterprises that manage Kazakhstan's natural resources, and has immense influence over the country's...

, son of a former Minister of Construction, who serves as the First Deputy Chairman of the national holding company Samruk-Kazyna
Samruk-Kazyna
Samruk-Kazyna , officially known as the National Welfare Fund "Samruk-Kazyna", is a joint stock company in Kazakhstan which owns, either in whole or in part, many important companies in the country, including the national rail and postal service, the state oil and gas company KazMunayGas, the state...

, which manages several state-owned companies and, formerly, as the first Vice President of the state-owned petroleum company KazMunaiGas. Aliya is a prominent businesswoman. She was married to a Aidar Akayev, the son of former Kyrgyz President, Askar Akaev. Now she is married to Daniyar Khassenov, a Kazakhstani businessman.

Nazarbayev is a practicing Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

. Previously he espoused anti-religious views in the Soviet era; he has now exerted effort to highlight his Muslim
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 heritage by performing the Hajj
Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

 pilgrimage, and supporting mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

 renovations. At the same time, he has been attempting to combat terrorism in Kazakhstan.

On 4 December 2005 new Presidential elections
Elections in Kazakhstan
Elections in Kazakhstan are held on a national level to elect a President and the Parliament, which is divided into two bodies, the Majilis and the Senate . Local elections for maslikhats are held every five years...

 were held and President Nazarbayev won by an overwhelming majority of 91.15% (from a total of 6,871,571 eligible participating voters) as reported by the Central Electoral Commission of Kazakhstan, an estimation criticized by the OSCE and other election watchdog organizations. Nazarbayev was sworn in for another seven-year term on 11 January 2006.

Nazarbayev himself has been called one of the "ultimate oligarch
Oligarchy
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with an elite class distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, commercial, and/or military legitimacy...

s" of the post-Soviet central Asia states. He is believed to have transferred at least $1 billion worth of oil revenues to his private bank accounts in other countries and his family controls many other key enterprises in Kazakhstan. He is also said to have benefited financially from his "special relations" with Kazakh-Israeli businessman Alexander Mashkevich, who, , was believed to control as much as one-fourth of Kazakhstan's economy.

Honours and awards

  • Knight of the Order of St. Andrew
    Order of St. Andrew
    The Order of St. Andrew the First-Called is the first and the highest order of chivalry of the Russian Empire.- Russian Empire :The Order was established in 1698 by Tsar Peter the Great, in honour of Saint Andrew, the first apostle of Jesus and patron saint of Russia...

     (Russia)
  • Grand Collar of the Order of Vytautas the Great
    Order of Vytautas the Great
    The Order of Vytautas the Great is the Lithuanian Presidential Award. It may be conferred on the heads of Lithuania and foreign states, as well as their citizens, for distinguished services to the State of Lithuania.-History:...

     (Lithuania)
  • Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania
    Order of the Star of Romania
    The Order of the Star of Romania is Romania's highest civil order. It is awarded by the President of Romania...

  • The First Class of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
    Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
    The Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise is an award of Ukraine. It is awarded for distinguished services to the state and people of the Ukrainian nation. The Order was instituted on August 23, 1995 by the Ukrainian President, Leonid Kuchma....

     (Ukraine, 1997)
  • Knight Grand Cross with Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
    Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
    The Order of Merit of the Italian Republic was founded as the senior order of knighthood by the second President of the Italian Republic, Luigi Einaudi in 1951...

  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion d'honneur
    Légion d'honneur
    The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic, on 19 May 1802...

     (France, 2008)
  • Knight Grand Cross with Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (Belgium)
  • Knight Grand Cross with Grand Cordon of the Order of the White Rose
    Order of the White Rose
    The Order of the White Rose of Finland is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the Cross of Liberty, and the Order of the Lion of Finland. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor,...

     (Finland, 2008)
  • Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
    Order of the Chrysanthemum
    is Japan's highest order. The Grand Cordon of the Order was established in 1876 by Emperor Meiji of Japan; the collar of the Order was added on January 4, 1888. Although technically the order has only one class, it can either be awarded with collar , or with grand cordon...

     (Japan)
  • Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile
    Order of the Nile
    The Order of the Nile is Egypt's highest state honor. The award was instituted in 1915 by Sultan Hussein Kamel to be awarded by Egypt for exceptional services to the nation...

     (Egypt)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Grand Order of King Tomislav
    Grand Order of King Tomislav
    The Grand Order of King Tomislav , or more fully the Grand Order of King Tomislav with Sash and Great Morning Star , is the highest state order of the Republic of Croatia...

     ("For outstanding contribution to promoting friendship and mutual cooperation between the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Kazakhstan.", August 24, 2001
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
    Order of St Michael and St George
    The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is an order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later George IV of the United Kingdom, while he was acting as Prince Regent for his father, George III....

     (United Kingdom)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
    Order of the Redeemer
    The Order of the Redeemer , also known as the Order of the Savior, is an order of Greece. The Order of the Redeemer is the oldest and highest decoration awarded by the modern Greek state.- History :...

     (Greece, 2001)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown
    Order of the Oak Crown
    The Order of the Oak Crown is an Order of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.-History:The Order of the Oak Crown was instituted by the Grand Duke-King William II, in 1841...

     (Luxembourg)
  • Great Star of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Austria (Ehrenzeichen Verdienste um für die Republik Österreich - 2000)
  • Commander Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of the Three Stars
    Order of the Three Stars
    Order of the Three Stars is order awarded for merits in service for Latvia. It was established in 1924 in remembrance of founding of Latvia. Its motto is "Per aspera ad astra"...

     (Latvia - 2008)
  • Member of the Order of the White Double Cross
    Order of the White Double Cross
    The Order of the White Double Cross is the highest state decoration of the Republic of Slovakia.The Order was instituted on 1 March 1994 after Slovakia became independent on 1 January 1993...

     (Slovakia)
  • Order of the White Eagle  (Poland, 2002)
  • Order of the Golden Eagle (Алтын Қыран ордені - 1996, Kazakhstan)
  • Medal of Astana (Kazakhstan)
  • Order of Akhmad Kadyrov (Chechnya)
  • Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion of Finland
    Order of the Lion of Finland
    There are three official orders in Finland: the Order of the Cross of Liberty, the Order of the White Rose of Finland and the Order of the Lion of Finland . The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a...

     (2009)
  • Order of Liberty
    Order of Liberty (Ukraine)
    The Order of Liberty is an award of Ukraine. The Order was instituted on April 10, 2008, by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine to honour special merits of citizens for strengthening the Sovereignty and Independence of Ukraine, consolidating Ukrainian society, developing Democracy, advancing...

     (Ukraine, 2010)
  • The Collar of the Cross of Terra Mariana
    Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
    The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana was instituted in 1995 to honour the independence of the Estonian state. The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana is bestowed upon the President of the Republic. Presidents of the Republic who have ceased to hold office shall keep the Order of the Cross of...

     (Estonia, 2011)

See also

  • Speeches by Kazakhstan President Nazarbayev
  • President Nazarbayev Biography
  • Government of Kazakhstan
    Government of Kazakhstan
    The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan oversees a presidential republic. The President of Kazakhstan, currently Nursultan Nazarbayev, is head of state and nominates the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government...

  • Politics of Kazakhstan
    Politics of Kazakhstan
    The politics of Kazakhstan takes place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Kazakhstan is head of state and nominates the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government...

  • List of national leaders
  • Friedhelm Eronat
    Friedhelm Eronat
    Friedhelm Eronat Friedhelm Eronat Friedhelm Eronat (born 1953 in Prien (Germany), the son of Anna and Josef Eronat, is a Geneva-based millionaire business leader mainly involved in oil trading, exploration and production. Eronat is one of the world's most successful oil dealmakers. His estimated...

  • Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan
    Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan
    Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan was a political party in Kazakhstan. It was disbanded in February 2005 before the presidential elections.-Origin:...

  • Zharmakhan Tuyakbay
    Zharmakhan Tuyakbay
    Jarmakhan Aytbayuli Tuyakbay , born on 22 November 1947 in South Kazakhstan Province of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union) is a Kazakh politician. At present, he is Chairman of the Nationwide Social Democratic Party and For a Just Kazakhstan political movement...

  • For a Just Kazakhstan
    For a Just Kazakhstan
    For a Just Kazakhstan is a political movement that was founded by the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, the Naghyz Ak Zhol Party and the Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan Party as an opposition coalition to nominate a single candidate in the 2005 presidential elections.The movement is led by...

  • Project Sapphire
    Project Sapphire
    Project Sapphire was a successful 1994 covert operation of the United States government to remove 1,278 pounds of weapons-grade enriched uranium for Alfa class submarines from a warehouse at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant outside Ust-Kamenogorsk in the former Soviet republic of far eastern...

  • The Way of Kazakhstan
    The Way of Kazakhstan
    The Way of Kazakhstan is a book by Nursultan Nazarbayev, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In the book, Nazarbayev describes the process of Kazakhstan's independence and the planning and execution of economic and political reforms...


External links



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