Indo-Pakistani Wars

Indo-Pakistani Wars

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Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 countries have been involved in four wars
Conventional warfare
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted byusing conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation. The forces on each side are well-defined, and fight using weapons that primarily target the opposing army...

, including one undeclared war
Undeclared war
An undeclared war is a conflict that is fought between two or more nations without a formal declaration of war being issued.Since United Nations action in Korea, a number of democratic governments have pursued usually limited warfare by characterizing them as something else, such as a "military...

, as well as many border skirmishes and military stand-offs. Additionally, India has accused Pakistan of engaging in proxy war
Proxy war
A proxy war or proxy warfare is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. While powers have sometimes used governments as proxies, violent non-state actors, mercenaries, or other third parties are more often employed...

s by providing military and financial assistance to violent non-state actors.

The dispute for Kashmir
Kashmir conflict
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region, the northwesternmost region of South Asia....

 has been the cause, whether direct or indirect of all major conflicts between the two countries with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

, where conflict originated due to turmoil in erstwhile East Pakistan
East Pakistan
East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

.

Background


The Partition of India
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

 came about in the aftermath of World War II
Aftermath of World War II
After World War II a new era of tensions emerged based on opposing ideologies, mutual distrust between nations, and a nuclear arms race. This emerged into an environment dominated by a international balance of power that had changed significantly from the status quo before the war...

, when both Great Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilization
Demobilization
Demobilization is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status. This may be as a result of victory in war, or because a crisis has been peacefully resolved and military force will not be necessary...

. It was the intention of those who wished for a Muslim state to come from British India to have a clean partition between independent and equal "Pakistan" and "Hindustan" once independence came.

The partition itself, according to leading politicians such as Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India Muslim League, and Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru , often referred to with the epithet of Panditji, was an Indian statesman who became the first Prime Minister of independent India and became noted for his “neutralist” policies in foreign affairs. He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the...

, leader of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

, should have resulted in peaceful relations. However, the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 did not divide the nations cleanly along religious lines. Nearly 50 percent of the Muslim population of British India remained in India. Inter-communal violence between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims resulted in between 500,000 to 1 million casualties.

Princely-ruled territories
Princely state
A Princely State was a nominally sovereign entitity of British rule in India that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule such as suzerainty or paramountcy.-British relationship with the Princely States:India under the British Raj ...

, such as Kashmir and Hyderabad, were also involved in Partition. Rulers of these territories had the choice of joining India or Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan laid claim on Kashmir and thus it became the main point of conflict. The ruler of Kashmir, which had a Muslim majority population, joined India by signing the Instrument of Accession
Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir)
The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharajah Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947...

.

Wars


  • Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
    The India-Pakistan War of 1947-48, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948. It was the first of four wars fought between the two newly independent nations...

    :
    This is also called the First Kashmir War. The war started in October 1947 when it was feared by the Kashmiris that Maharajah of the princely state
    Princely state
    A Princely State was a nominally sovereign entitity of British rule in India that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule such as suzerainty or paramountcy.-British relationship with the Princely States:India under the British Raj ...

     of Kashmir and Jammu
    Kashmir and Jammu
    Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1947, a princely state in the British Empire in India, and was ruled by a Maharaja. The state was created in 1846 when, after its victory in the First Anglo-Sikh War, the East India Company annexed the Kashmir valley and immediately sold it to the Dogra ruler...

     might accede to India as choice was given to him on the matter to accede to any of the newly independent nations. Tribal forces from Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

     attacked and occupied the princely state, resulting in Maharajah signing the Agreement to the accession
    Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir)
    The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharajah Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947...

     of the princely state to India. The United Nations was invited by India to mediate the quarrel resulting in the UN Security Council passing Resolution 47
    United Nations Security Council Resolution 47
    United Nations Security Council Resolution 47, adopted on April 21, 1948, after hearing arguments from both India and Pakistan the Council increased the size of the Commission established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 39 to five members, instructed the Commission to go to the...

     on 21 April 1948. The war ended in December 1948 with the Line of Control
    Line of Control
    The term Line of Control refers to the military control line between the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which, to this day, does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary but is the de facto border...

     dividing Kashmir into territories administered by Pakistan
    Pakistan-administered Kashmir
    Azad Kashmir borders the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north west, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China to the north and the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir, to the east.A...

     (northern and western
    Azad Kashmir
    Azad Jammu and Kashmir or Azad Kashmir for short, is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir...

     areas) and India
    Jammu and Kashmir
    Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

     (southern, central and northeastern areas
    Jammu and Kashmir
    Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

    ).

  • Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War fought by India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir, the first having been fought in 1947...

    :
    This war started following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar
    Operation Gibraltar
    Operation Gibraltar was the codename given to the strategy of Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state of India, and start a rebellion against Indian rule...

    , which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir
    Jammu and Kashmir
    Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

     to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. India retaliated by launching an attack on Pakistan. The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and was witness to the largest tank battle in military history since World War II. The outcome of this war was a strategic stalemate with some small tactical victories for both sides. The war concluded after diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and USA and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration
    Tashkent Declaration
    The Tashkent Declaration of 10 January 1966 was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan. In September 1965 before the two had engaged in the short run Indo-Pakistani War of 1965...

    .


  • Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

    :
    The war was unique in that it did not involve the issue of Kashmir, but was rather precipitated by the crisis brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan
    East Pakistan
    East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

    . Following Operation Searchlight
    Operation Searchlight
    Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in March 1971. Ordered by the central government in West Pakistan, this was seen as the sequel to "Operation Blitz" which had been...

     and the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities
    1971 Bangladesh atrocities
    Beginning with the start of Operation Searchlight on 25 March 1971 and continuing throughout the Bangladesh Liberation War, there were widespread violations of human rights in East Pakistan perpetrated by the Pakistan Army, with support from local political and religious militias, especially...

    , about 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighboring India. India intervened in the ongoing Bangladesh liberation movement
    Bangladesh Liberation War
    The Bangladesh Liberation War was an armed conflict pitting East Pakistan and India against West Pakistan. The war resulted in the secession of East Pakistan, which became the independent nation of Bangladesh....

    . After a large scale pre-emptive strike
    Operation Chengiz Khan
    Operation Chengiz Khan was the code name assigned to the pre-emptive strikes carried out by the Pakistani Air Force on the forward airbases and radar installations of the Indian Air Force on the evening of 3 December 1971, and marked the formal initiation of hostilities of the Indo-Pakistani war...

     by Pakistan, full-scale hostilities between the two countries commenced. Within two weeks of intense fighting, Pakistani forces in East Pakistan
    East Pakistan
    East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

     surrendered
    Instrument of Surrender (1971)
    The Instrument of Surrender was signed at Ramna Race Course in Dhaka at one past five in the evening , local time, on December 16, 1971, by Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, General Officer Commanding in Chief of Eastern Command of the Indian Army and Lieutenant General Amir Abdullah Khan...

     to India following which the People's Republic of Bangladesh was created. This war saw the highest number of casualties in any of the India-Pakistan conflicts, as well as the largest number of prisoners of war since the Second World War after the surrender of more than 90,000 Pakistani military and civilians.

  • Indo-Pakistani War of 1999
    Kargil War
    The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

    (minor war): Commonly known as Kargil War
    Kargil War
    The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

    , this conflict between the two countries was mostly limited. Pakistani troops along with Kashmiri insurgents infiltrated across the Line of Control
    Line of Control
    The term Line of Control refers to the military control line between the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which, to this day, does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary but is the de facto border...

     (LoC) and occupied Indian territory mostly in the Kargil district
    Kargil District
    Kargil is a district of Ladakh, Kashmir, India. Kargil lies near the Line of Control facing Pakistan-occupied Kashmir's Baltistan to the west, and Kashmir valley to the south. Zanskar is part of Kargil district along with Suru, Wakha and Dras valleys...

    . The Pakistani government believed that its nuclear weapons would deter a full-scale escalation in conflict but India launched a major military campaign to flush out the infiltrators. Due to Indian military advances and increasing foreign diplomatic pressure, Pakistan was forced to withdraw its forces back across the LoC.

Nuclear conflict


The Nuclear conflict between both countries is of passive strategic nature with Nuclear doctrine of Pakistan
Nuclear Doctrine of Pakistan
The nuclear doctrine of Pakistan is the nuclear strategy policy stated by Pakistan to be used in the event of a war, particularly against India....

 stating a first strike
First strike
In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force. First strike capability is a country's ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation while the opposing...

 policy while India on a declarative status of no first use
No first use
No first use refers to a pledge or a policy by a nuclear power not to use nuclear weapons as a means of warfare unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons...

:
  • Pokhran-I (Smiling Buddha
    Smiling Buddha
    The Smiling Buddha, formally designated as Pokhran-I, was the codename given to Republic of India's first nuclear test explosion that took place at the long-constructed Indian Army base, Pokhran Test Range at Pokhran municipality, Rajasthan state on 18 May 1974 at 8:05 a.m....

    ):
    On 18 May, 1974 India detonated an 8 Kiloton nuclear device at Pokhran Test Range becoming the first nation to become nuclear capable outside the five permanent members of United Nations Security Council
    United Nations Security Council
    The United Nations Security Council is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of...

     as well as dragging Pakistan along with it into a nuclear arms race with the Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

     swearing to reciprocate India. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, , is an administrative governmental and autonomous science and technology governmental department of Pakistan, responsible for development of nuclear energy and development of nuclear power sector in Pakistan...

     Chairman Munir Ahmed Khan said that the test would force Pakistan to test its own nuclear bomb.

  • Kirana-I: In 1980s a series of 24 different cold tests were conducted by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, , is an administrative governmental and autonomous science and technology governmental department of Pakistan, responsible for development of nuclear energy and development of nuclear power sector in Pakistan...

     led by Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan
    Munir Ahmad Khan
    Munir Ahmad Khan , HI, was a Pakistani nuclear engineer and a scientist who served as the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission from 1972 to 1991...

     under extreme secrecy. The tunnels at Kirana Hills, Sargodha, are reported to have been bored after the Chagai nuclear test sites, it is widely believed that the tunnels were constructed sometime between 1979 and 1983. As in Chagai, the tunnels at Kirana Hills had been bored and then sealed and this task was also undertaken by PAEC's DTD.. Later due to excessive US intelligence and satellite focus on the Kirana Hills site, it was abandoned and the WTL-I was shifted to the Kala-Chitta Range.

  • Pokhran-II
    Pokhran-II
    Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five nuclear devices, three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998, conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. These nuclear tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states....

     (Operation Shakti):
    On 11 May, 1998 India detonated another 5 nuclear devices at Pokhran Test Range. With jublication and large scale approval from the Indian society came International sanctions as a reaction to this test. The most vehement reaction of all coming from Pakistan. Great ire was raised in Pakistan, which issued a severe statement blaming India for instigating a nuclear arms race in the region. Pakistan vowed to match India's nuclear capability with statements like, "We are in a headlong arms race on the subcontinent."

  • Chagai-I
    Chagai-I
    The Chagai-I was a codename referring to the five underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15hrs in 28th May of 1998. It was named Chagai-I, as the tests were conducted in the Chagai District...

    :
    Within half a month of Pokhran-II
    Pokhran-II
    Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five nuclear devices, three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998, conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. These nuclear tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states....

    , on May 28, 1998 Pakistan detonated 5 nuclear devices to reciprocate India in the nuclear arms race. Pakistani public, like the Indian, reacted with a celebration and heightened sense of nationalism for responding to India in kind and becoming the only Muslim nuclear power. The day was later given the title Youm-e-Takbir to further proclaim such.

  • Chagai-II: Two days later, on May 30, 1998, Pakistan detonated a 6th nuclear device completing its own series of underground tests with this being the last test the two nations have carried out to date.

Other conflicts


Apart from the aforementioned wars, there have been skirmishes between the two nations from time to time. Some have bordered on all-out war, while others were limited in scope. The countries were expected to fight each other in 1955 after warlike posturing on both sides, but full-scale war did not break out.
  • Indian integration of Junagadh: The princely state
    Princely state
    A Princely State was a nominally sovereign entitity of British rule in India that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule such as suzerainty or paramountcy.-British relationship with the Princely States:India under the British Raj ...

     of Junagadh
    Junagadh
    Junagadh is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city is the 7th largest in Gujarat. The city is located at the foot of the Girnar hills, 355 km south west of state capital Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad. The city is in western India. Literally translated,...

    , which had a Hindu majority and a Muslim ruler acceded to Pakistan on 15 September 1947, claiming a connection by sea. Pakistan's acceptance of the Instrument of Accession
    Instrument of Accession
    The Instrument of Accession was a legal document created in 1947 to enable each of the rulers of the princely states under British suzerainty to join one of the new dominions of India or Pakistan created by the Partition of British India.-Background:...

     was seen as a strategy to get a plebiscite held in Kashmir
    Kashmir
    Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

     which had a Muslim majority and a Hindu ruler. Following communal tensions Indian military entered the territory which was protested by Pakistan as a violation of International law. Later a plebiscite was held and the accession was reversed for the state to join India.

  • Kashmir conflict
    Kashmir conflict
    The Kashmir conflict is a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region, the northwesternmost region of South Asia....

    :
    Other than the three wars mentioned in above section, the conflict, since accession of the state on October 26, 1947, has been an on and off major cause for the tensions between the two nations.

  • Siachen conflict
    Siachen conflict
    The Siachen Conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, is a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir. The conflict began in 1984 with India's successful Operation Meghdoot during which it wrested control of the Siachen Glacier from...

    :
    In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot
    Operation Meghdoot
    Operation Meghdoot was the name given to the attack launched by the Indian Military to capture the Siachen Glacier in the disputed Kashmir region, precipitating the Siachen Conflict. Launched on 13 April 1984, this military operation was unique as the first assault launched in the world's highest...

     capturing most of the Siachen Glacier
    Siachen Glacier
    The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains at about , just east of the Line of Control between India-Pakistan. India controls all of the Siachen Glacier itself, including all tributary glaciers. At long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and...

    . Further clashes erupted in the glacial area in 1985, 1987 and 1995 as Pakistan sought, without success, to oust India from its stronghold.

  • Operation Brasstacks
    Operation Brasstacks
    The Operation Brasstacks was a codename of a large military exercise undertaken by the Indian Army in Rajasthan region of India during November 1986 and March 1987. It was one of the largest mobilizations of Indian Armed Forces in the Indian subcontinent. Many regard this as one of the most...

    :
    (the largest of its kind in South Asia), conducted by India between November 1986 and March 1987, and Pakistani mobilisation in response, raised tensions and fears that it could lead to another war between the two neighbours.

  • Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir: An insurgency in Indian-administered Kashmir has been a cause for heightened tensions.

  • 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff
    2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff
    The 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff was a military standoff between India and Pakistan that resulted in the massing of troops on either side of the International Border and along the Line of Control in the region of Kashmir...

    :
    The terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament on 13 December 2001, which India blamed on the Pakistan-based terrorist organizations Lashkar-e-Taiba
    Lashkar-e-Taiba
    Lashkar-e-Taiba – also transliterated as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Lashkar-i-Taiba, Lashkar Taiba or LeT – is one of the largest and most active militant Islamist terrorist organizations in South Asia, operating mainly from Pakistan.It was founded by Hafiz Muhammad...

     and Jaish-e-Mohammed
    Jaish-e-Mohammed
    Jaish-e-Mohammed is a Pakistani-based, militant Islamic group established by Maulana Masood Azhar in March 2000...

    , prompted the 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff and brought both sides close to war.

Incidents

  • Atlantique Incident‎: Pakistan Navy
    Pakistan Navy
    The Pakistan Navy is the naval warfare/service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Pakistan's Navy is responsible for Pakistan's coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important civilian harbors and military bases...

    's Naval Air Arm
    Pakistan Naval Air Arm
    The Pakistan Naval Air Arm is the naval aviation branch of the Pakistan Navy.The Naval Air Arm is tasked to carry out air surveillance, limited aerial warfare, and reconnaissance operations...

     Breguet Atlantique
    Breguet Atlantique
    The Breguet Br.1150 Atlantic is a long-range reconnaissance aircraft, primarily designed for use over the sea. It is used in several NATO countries as a reconnaissance and patrol aircraft as well as anti-submarine aircraft. The Atlantic is also capable of carrying air-to-ground missiles...

     patrol plane, carrying 16 people on board, was shot down by the Indian Air Force
    Indian Air Force
    The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict...

     for alleged violation of airspace. The episode took place in the Rann of Kutch
    Rann of Kutch
    The Great Rann of Kutch, also called Greater Rann of Kutch or just Rann of Kutch , is a seasonal salt marsh located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch District of Gujarat, India and the Sindh province of Pakistan....

     on August 10, 1999, just a month after the Kargil War
    Kargil War
    The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

    , creating a tense atmosphere between India and Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

    . Foreign diplomats noted that the plane fell inside Pakistani territory, although it may have crossed the border. However, they also believe that India's reaction was unjustified.

  • 2008 Mumbai attacks
    2008 Mumbai attacks
    The 2008 Mumbai attacks were more than 10 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city, by Islamist attackers who came from Pakistan...

    :
    Following 10 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai
    Mumbai
    Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

    , India's largest city, tensions heightened
    Aftermath of the 2008 Mumbai attacks
    In the aftermath of the 2008 Mumbai attacks, multiple and far-ranging events were observed. Besides the immediate impact on the victims and their families, the attacks caused widespread anger among the Indian public, and condemnations from countries throughout the world.The immediate impact was...

     between the two countries since India claimed interogation results alleging Pakistan's ISI
    Inter-Services Intelligence
    The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence , is Pakistan's premier intelligence agency, responsible for providing critical national security intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan...

     supporting the attackers while Pakistan denied it. Pakistan placed its air force on alert and moved troops to the Indian border voicing concerns about proactive movements of Indian Army
    Indian Army
    The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

     and Indian government's possible plans to launch attacks on Pakistani soil. The tension diffused in short time and Pakistan moved its troops away from border.

Annual celebrations

  • May 28 (since 1998)
    Chagai-I
    The Chagai-I was a codename referring to the five underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15hrs in 28th May of 1998. It was named Chagai-I, as the tests were conducted in the Chagai District...

     as Youm-e-Takbir (The day of Greatness) in Pakistan.
  • July 26 (since 1999)
    Kargil War
    The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

     as Kargil Vijay Diwas
    Kargil vijay diwas
    Kargil Vijay Diwas, named after the success of Operation Vijay. On this day, 26 July 1999, India successfully took command of the high outposts which had been lost to Pakistani intruders. The Kargil war was fought for more than 60 days, ended on 26 July. and resulted in the loss of life on both...

    in India.
  • September 6 (since 1965)
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War fought by India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir, the first having been fought in 1947...

     as Defence Day
    Defence Day
    Defence Day is celebrated in Pakistan as a national day on 6 September every year, in memory of those who died in the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965 and successful defence of Lahore, Sialkot and other important areas of the country....

     (Youm-e-Difa)
    in Pakistan.
  • September 7 (since 1965)
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War fought by India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir, the first having been fought in 1947...

     as Air Force Day
    Air Force Day
    Air Force Day is celebrated in Pakistan as a national day on 7 September, after the annual celebration of the Defence Day. Airshows and other programs mark the Pakistan Air Force's role in defending the nation in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965....

    in Pakistan.
  • September 8 (since 1965)
    Operation Dwarka
    Operation Dwarka, also known as "Operation Somnath", was a naval operation commenced by the Pakistan Navy to attack the Indian coastal town of Dwarka on 7 September 1965. This was the first use of Pakistan Navy in any of the Indo-Pakistan Wars...

     as Victory Day
    Victory Day
    Victory Day is a common name of many different public holidays in various countries to commemorate victories in important battles or wars in the countries' history.- April 30 in Vietnam :...

    in Pakistan.
  • December 16 (since 1971)
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

     as Vijay Diwas
    Vijay Diwas
    Vijay Diwas may refer to:*Victory Day , celebrated on 16 December*Vijay Diwas , celebrated on 16 December for the same reason as Victory Day in Bangladesh*Kargil vijay diwas, celebrated on 26 July in India...

    in India.

In popular culture


These wars have provided source material for both Indian and Pakistani film and television dramatists, who have adapted events of the war for the purposes of drama and to please target audiences in their nations.

Films (Indian)
  • Hindustan Ki Kasam
    Hindustan Ki Kasam
    Hindustan Ki Kasam is a 1973 war movie based on the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 directed by Chetan Anand.-Cast:*Chetan Anand*Vijay Anand*Raaj Kumar*Priya Rajvansh*Balraj Sahni*Padma Khanna*Amjad Khan*Amrish Puri*Parikshat Sahni*Bharat Kapoor...

    , a 1973 Hindi
    Bollywood
    Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

     war film
    War film
    War films are a film genre concerned with warfare, usually about naval, air or land battles, sometimes focusing instead on prisoners of war, covert operations, military training or other related subjects. At times war films focus on daily military or civilian life in wartime without depicting battles...

     based on Operation Cactus Lilly of the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War, directed by Chetan Anand.
  • Border, a 1997 Hindi war film based on the Battle of Longewala
    Battle of Longewala
    The Battle of Longewala was one of the first major engagements in the Western Sector during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, fought between assaulting Pakistani forces and Indian defenders at the Indian border post of Longewala, in the Thar Desert of the Rajasthan state in India.The Indian infantry...

     of the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, directed by J.P.Dutta.
  • LOC Kargil
    LOC Kargil
    LOC Kargil is a 2003 Bollywood war film based on the Kargil War, directed and written by J. P. Dutta. The film stars a large number of Bollywood stars.- Plot :The film is an attempt to dramatize a synopsis of the 1999 Kargil War ....

    , a 2003 Hindi war film based on the Kargil War
    Kargil War
    The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

    , directed by J.P.Dutta
  • Lakshya
    Lakshya (film)
    Lakshya is a 2004 Bollywood film directed by Farhan Akhtar, with stars Hrithik Roshan, Preity Zinta, Amitabh Bachchan, Om Puri and Boman Irani. Roshan plays the role of Lieutenant Karan Shergill, who leads his team to victory over the Pakistani troops...

    , a 2004 Hindi film partially based on the events of the Kargil War, directed by Farhan Akhtar
    Farhan Akhtar
    Farhan Akhtar is an Indian filmmaker, script writer, actor, playback singer, lyricist, film producer in Hindi cinema and a television host.His directorial debut Dil Chahta Hai won a National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi...

    .
  • Param Vir Chakra, a 1995 Hindi film based on Indo-Pak War, directed by Ashok Kaul.
  • Kurukshetra, a 2008 Malayalam film based on Kargil War, directed by Major Ravi
    Major Ravi
    Major A.K. Ravindran, better known by his screen name Major Ravi is a former Indian Army Officer and a Malayali Indian filmmaker.He is a recipient of the President's medal, joined the Indian army as a jawan in 1975 and graduated from the Army Cadet College to become a commando in the year 1988...

    .
  • 1971
    1971 (film)
    1971 is a 2007 Hindi war film directed by Amrit Sagar, and written by Piyush Mishra and Amrit Sagar, based on a true story of prisoners of war after the Indo-Pak war of 1971. The film features an ensemble cast of Manoj Bajpai, Ravi Kishan, Piyush Mishra, Deepak Dobriyal and others...

    , 2007 Hindi war film based on a true story of prisoners of war after the Indo-Pak war of 1971, directed by Amrit Sagar
  • Aakraman
    Aakraman
    Aakraman is a 1975 Hindi war film. Produced by Jagdish Kumar and directed by J. Om Prakash. The war film stars Ashok Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Rekha, Rakesh Roshan, Farida Jalal, Sujit Kumar, Asrani, Keshto Mukherjee, Mumtaz Shanti and Rajesh Khanna...

    , a 1975 Hindi war film based on the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, directed by J. Om Prakash
    J. Om Prakash
    J. Om Prakash is a famous Indian film producer. His daughter is married to Rakesh Roshan, making him Hrithik Roshan's maternal grandfather.-Director:*Afsana Dilwalon Ka *Aadmi Khilona Hai *Ajeeb Dastaan Hai Yeh...

    .
  • Vijeta
    Vijeta
    Vijeta is a 1982 Hindi film produced by Shashi Kapoor and directed by Govind Nihalani. It stars Shashi Kapoor, Rekha, Kunal Kapoor and Amrish Puri.-Plot:Vijeta is the coming of age story of Angad...

    , a 1982 Hindi film based on the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war,produced by Shashi Kapoor
    Shashi Kapoor
    Shashi Kapoor , born Balbir-Raj Prithviraj Kapoor on 18 March 1938 in Calcutta , is an award-winning Indian film actor and film producer. He has also been film director and assistant director in Hindi Films. He is a member of the Kapoor family, a film dynasty in India's Bollywood cinema...

     and directed by Govind Nihalani
    Govind Nihalani
    Govind Nihalani is an Indian director, cinematographer, and also a screenwriter and film producer. He has been directing Hindi films since the late seventies, and worked in the television medium.- Biography :...

    .
  • Deewaar
    Deewaar (2004 film)
    Deewaar - Wall of War is an Indian action film directed by Milan Luthria, while produced by Gaurang Doshi and written by Anurag Kashyap. The film starred Amitabh Bachchan, Akshaye Khanna, Sanjay Dutt and Amrita Rao in lead roles. Raghuvir Yadav, Kay Kay Menon and Tanuja had supporting roles...

    , a 2004 Hindi film starring Amitabh Bachchan
    Amitabh Bachchan
    Amitabh Bachchan is an Indian film actor. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s as the "angry young man" of Hindi cinema, and has since appeared in over 180 Indian films in a career spanning more than four decades...

     based on the POW of the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, directed by Milan Luthria
    Milan Luthria
    Milan Luthria is an Indian film director of Hindi films. He is the son of noted hindi film director Raj Khosla. He is most known for his films, Taxi Number 9211 and Once Upon a Time in Mumbai .-Career:...

    .

Miniseries/Dramas (Pakistani)
  • Angaar Waadi, an Urdu drama serial based on Indian occupation of Kashmir
    Kashmir
    Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

    , directed by Rauf Khalid
    Rauf Khalid
    Abdul Rauf Khalid was a Pakistani actor, filmmaker and television writer/director. An ex-serviceman and bureaucrat, he worked in films and television plays after attendin Islamia College, Peshawar.-Career:...

  • Laag, an Urdu drama serial based on Indian occupation of Kashmir, directed by Rauf Khalid
    Rauf Khalid
    Abdul Rauf Khalid was a Pakistani actor, filmmaker and television writer/director. An ex-serviceman and bureaucrat, he worked in films and television plays after attendin Islamia College, Peshawar.-Career:...

  • Operation Dwarka, 1965
    Operation Dwarka
    Operation Dwarka, also known as "Operation Somnath", was a naval operation commenced by the Pakistan Navy to attack the Indian coastal town of Dwarka on 7 September 1965. This was the first use of Pakistan Navy in any of the Indo-Pakistan Wars...

    , an Urdu drama based on the naval Operation Dwarka
    Operation Dwarka
    Operation Dwarka, also known as "Operation Somnath", was a naval operation commenced by the Pakistan Navy to attack the Indian coastal town of Dwarka on 7 September 1965. This was the first use of Pakistan Navy in any of the Indo-Pakistan Wars...

     of 1965, directed by Qasim Jalali
  • PNS Ghazi (Shaheed), an Urdu drama based on sinking of PNS Ghazi, ISPR
    Inter Services Public Relations
    Inter Services Public Relations is an administrative military organization within the Pakistan Defence Forces that coordinates military information with the media and the civil society...

  • Alpha Bravo Charlie
    Alpha Bravo Charlie
    Alpha Bravo Charlie is an action and thriller drama series, produced by ISPR and directed by acclaimed Pakistani drama and film director Shoaib Mansoor. It was hugely popular and set a record for TRPs in Pakistan. It is a sequel to drama series Sunehre Din with some of the same cast...

    , an Urdu drama serial based on three different aspects of Pakistan Army
    Pakistan Army
    The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

    's involvement in action, directed by Shoaib Mansoor
    Shoaib Mansoor
    Shoaib Mansoor , PP, SI, is an acclaimed Pakistani film and television producer, director, writer, lyricist and composer.-Career:...

  • Shahpar, an Urdu drama serial based on Pakistan Air Force
    Pakistan Air Force
    The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...

    , directed by Qaisar Farooq & Syed Shakir Uzair
  • Sipahi Maqbool Hussain
    Sipahi Maqbool Hussain
    Siphai Maqbool Hussain co-produced by ISPR and Interflow Communications Limited is a Pakistani miniseries, aired during the month of April 2008, simultaneously on TV One and PTV, that narrates the true story of a Pakistani soldier, Maqbool Hussain, who was injured and taken prisoner by the Indian...

    , an Urdu drama serial based on a 1965 war POW, directed by Haider Imam Rizvi

See also


  • Indo-Pakistani relations
    Indo-Pakistani relations
    Relations between India and Pakistan have been strained by a number of historical and political issues, and are defined by the violent partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir dispute and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations...

  • Two-Nation Theory
    Two-Nation Theory
    The Two-Nation Theory proposed by Allama Iqbal is the ideology that the primary identity of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity, and therefore Indian Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nationalities, regardless of ethnic or other...


External Links