Lahore

Lahore

Overview
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

i province
Subdivisions of Pakistan
The administrative units of Pakistan consist of four provinces, one federal capital territory, and a group of federally-administered tribal areas...

 of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a vibrant economic, political, transportation, entertainment, and educational hub.
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Encyclopedia
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

i province
Subdivisions of Pakistan
The administrative units of Pakistan consist of four provinces, one federal capital territory, and a group of federally-administered tribal areas...

 of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a vibrant economic, political, transportation, entertainment, and educational hub. Considered a gamma+ world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

, Lahore maintains its historical status as one of the world's most cosmopolitan and lively of cities.

Lahore has been a center of cultural heritage for many civilizations. It successively served as regional capital of the empires of the Shahi
Shahi
The Shahi , Sahi, also called Shahiya dynasties ruled one of the Middle kingdoms of India which included portions of the Kabulistan and the old province of Gandhara , from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century...

 kingdoms in the 11th century, the Ghaznavids in the 12th century, the Ghurid State
Ghurids
The Ghurids or Ghorids were a medieval Muslim dynasty of Iranian origin that ruled during the 12th and 13th centuries in Khorasan. At its zenith, their empire, centred at Ghōr , stretched over an area that included the whole of modern Afghanistan, the eastern parts of Iran and the northern section...

 in the 12th and 13th century, the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 in the 16th century, the Sikh expansion in the early 19th century, and it was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 in the mid 19th and early 20th century. The traditional capital of Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

 for a thousand years, Lahore was the cultural center of the northern part of the subcontinent which extends from the eastern banks of the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

 to New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is...

. Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
The Badshahi Mosque or the 'King's Mosque' in Lahore, commissioned by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671 and completed in 1673, is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world...

, the Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore...

, Shalimar Gardens
Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)
The Shalimar Gardens , sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, is a Persian garden and it was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 CE and was completed the following year...

, and the mausolea of Jehangir
Tomb of Jahangir
Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. The mausoleum is located near the town of Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Pakistan. His son Shah Jahan built the mausoleum 10 years after his father's death. It is sited in an attractive walled garden....

 and Nur Jehan
Nur Jehan
Begum Nur Jahan , also known as Mehr-un-Nisaa, was an Empress of the Mughal Dynasty that ruled much of the Indian subcontinent...

 are popular tourist attractions for the city. Lahore is also home to many British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 colonial structures built in the Mughal-Gothic
Indo-Saracenic
The Indo-Saracenic Revival was an architectural style movement by British architects in the late 19th century in British India...

 style, such as the Lahore High Court
Lahore High Court
The Lahore High Court is based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It was established as a high court on March 21, 1919. The Lahore High Court has jurisdiction over Punjab...

, the General Post Office
General Post Office
General Post Office is the name of the British postal system from 1660 until 1969.General Post Office may also refer to:* General Post Office, Perth* General Post Office, Sydney* General Post Office, Melbourne* General Post Office, Brisbane...

, Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum , established in 1894, is located in The Mall, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Rudyard Kipling's father, John Lockwood Kipling, was one of the famous curators of the museum. Over 250,000 admissions were registered in 2005.-Attractions:...

 and many older universities including the University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab , colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The University of the Punjab is the oldest and biggest University of Pakistan. The University of the Punjab was formally established with the convening of the first meeting of its...

. The Lahore Zoo
Lahore Zoo
Lahore Zoo in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, established in 1872, one of the largest zoos in South Asia. It is currently managed by the Wildlife and Parks department of the Government of Pakistan. Today the zoo houses a collection of about 1380 animals of 136 species...

, thought to be the fourth oldest zoo in the world, is also situated here.

Lahore is referred to as the cultural heart of Punjab as it hosts most of the arts, cuisine, festivals, film-making, music, gardening and intelligentsia of the country. Known for its affiliation with poets and artists, it has the largest number of educational institutions in Punjab and some of the finest gardens in the continent. Lahore has always been a center for publications, where 80 percent of Punjab's books are published and remains the foremost center of literary, educational and cultural activity in Punjab. It is also an important religious center as it is home to hundreds of temples
Temples in Lahore
Before partition of India in 1947, Lahore was a cosmopolitan city with Hindu, Sikh and Jain residents. There were many temples in Lahore.In 1941, 48% of the population of Lahore was Hindu, Sikh or Jain...

, mosques
Mosques of Lahore
Mosques of Lahore: There are a large number of new, old, and ancient mosques in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. This is consistent with the general personality of the city, which has a culture that mixes the old and the new with superb ease....

, and shrines like Data Durbar Complex
Data Durbar Complex
Data Darbar , located in the city of Lahore, Pakistan is one of the oldest Muslim shrines in the sub-continent. It houses the remains of a Sufi saint, Abul Hassan Ali Hajvery...

.

According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,310,000. A 2010 government estimate now puts the population at 8,590,000. It is ranked 40 in the most populated urban areas in the world and the 8th largest city within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. In 2008, Lahore was ranked as a city with High Sufficiency to become a Gamma world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

. In 2010 it was ranked by The Guardian
The Guardian
The Guardian, formerly known as The Manchester Guardian , is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format...

as the 2nd Best Tourist Destination in Pakistan.

Origins



A legend based on oral traditions holds that Lahore, known in ancient times as Lavapuri ("City of Lava" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

),
was founded by Prince Lava
Lava (Ramayana)
Lava or Luv and his twin brother Kusha, were the children of the Lord Rama and his wife Sita, whose story is recounted in the Ramayana. Per that text, he is known as the founder of Lavapuri,that is, the modern day city of Lahore,...

 or Loh,
the son of Rama
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

, the Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 deity, while Kasur
Kasur
Kasur , the capital of Kasur District in Pakistan. Kasur is located adjacent to the border of Ganda Singh Wala between Pakistan and India, and is a tourist attraction because of the daily occurring Flags lowering ceremony...

 was founded by his twin brother Prince Kusha
Kusha (Ramayana)
Kusha , in Hindu mythology, was one of the twin sons of Lord Rama and Sita . Born in the Forest after Sita had been banished from Ayodhya, they were educated and trained in military skills and were under the care of Sage Valmiki....

.
To this day, Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore...

 has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence Loh-awar or "The Fort of Loh").

Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy , was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the...

, the celebrated 2nd-century Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

ian astronomer
Astronomer
An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

 and geographer
Geographer
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.Although geographers are historically known as people who make maps, map making is actually the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography...

, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

 and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

) mostly, in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

). It was described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum
Jhelum River
Jehlum River or Jhelum River , ) is a river that flows in India and Pakistan. It is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District...

), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi
Ravi River
The Ravi is a trans-boundary river flowing through Northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of the six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region ....

). This city may have been ancient Lahore.

The oldest authentic document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982. It is called Hudud-i-Alam
Hudud ul-'alam min al-mashriq ila al-maghrib
Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam , meaning The Limits of The World, is a tenth century geography book written in Persian by an unknown author from Jōzjān.- Contents :...

(The Regions of the World). In 1927 it was translated into English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 by Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky
Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky
Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky was a Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to Kurdish and Persian history, geography, literature, and culture.-Life and career:...

 and published in Lahore. In this document, Lahore is mentioned as a shehr or town inhabited by infidels "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist," and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum
British Museum
The British Museum is a museum of human history and culture in London. Its collections, which number more than seven million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its...

. Lahore was called by different names throughout history. To date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Some historians trace the history of the city as far back as 4000 years ago. However, historically, it has been proved that Lahore is at least 2,000 years old. Hieun-tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim has given a vivid description of Lahore which he visited in the early parts of the 7th century AD. Lying on the main trade and invasion routes to South Asia, Lahore has been ruled and plundered by a number of dynasties and hordes.

Ghaznavid Empire to Delhi Sultanate


Lahore appears as the capital of the Punjab for the first time under Anandapala
Anandapala
Anandapala/Anantpala was a Hindu Shahi King and the son of Indian ruler Jayapala.-References:...

 – the Hindu Shahi king who is referred to as the ruler of (hakim i lahur) –after leaving the earlier capital of Waihind.
Few references to Lahore remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...

 in the eleventh century. The sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz
Malik Ayaz
Malik Ayaz, son of Aymáq Abu'n-Najm, was a Turkic slave who rose to the rank of officer and general in the army of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni . His rise to power was a reward for the devotion he bore his master....

 to the throne and made Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire
Ghaznavid Empire
The Ghaznavids were a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic slave origin which existed from 975 to 1187 and ruled much of Persia, Transoxania, and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Ghaznavid state was centered in Ghazni, a city in modern-day Afghanistan...

 of India. As the first Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 governor of Lahore, Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city. He added many important features, such as city gates and a masonry fort, built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one, which had been demolished in the fighting (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695–96). The present Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore...

 stands on the same location. Under Ayaz's rule, the city became a cultural and academic center, renowned for poetry. The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.

After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 dynasties based in Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, known as the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

, including the Khiljis
Khilji dynasty
The Khilji Sultanate was a dynasty of Turko-Afghan Khalaj origin who ruled large parts of South Asia from 1290 - 1320. They were the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India...

, Tughlaqs
Tughlaq dynasty
The Tughlaq dynasty of north India started in 1321 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. The Tughluqs were a Muslim family of Turkic origin...

, Mamluk, Sayyid
Sayyid Dynasty
Sayyid Dynasty ruled Kashmir from 1339 to 1561 CE for nearly 222 years. During the rule of this dynasty Islam was firmly established in Kashmir. Shah Mir, under the title of Sultan Shamas-ud-Din founded Sultan dynasty in 1339.-See also:* Shah Mir...

 and Lodhis
Lodhi dynasty
Lodi Dynasty was a Pashtun dynasty that was the last dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate. The dynasty founded by Bahlul Lodi ruled from 1451 to 1526...

. During the reign of Qutb-ud-din Aibak, Lahore was known as the 'Ghazni of India'. Scholars and poets from as far away as Kashghar, Bukhara
Bukhara
Bukhara , from the Soghdian βuxārak , is the capital of the Bukhara Province of Uzbekistan. The nation's fifth-largest city, it has a population of 263,400 . The region around Bukhara has been inhabited for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time...

, Samarkand
Samarkand
Although a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest . In the 6th century it was within the domain of the Turkic kingdom of the Göktürks.At the start of the 8th century Samarkand came...

, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

 and Herat
Herat
Herāt is the capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. It is the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of about 397,456 as of 2006. It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan...

, gathered in Lahore and made it a city of learning. Under Aibak, Lahore had more poets of Persia than any other Islamic city.

In the 13th Century, the Loharana king, Chahir Ray, was betrayed by his confidant Kualnger, who turned traitor for a large fortune in gold and gems. Due to this, the Lohana community split, and a new leader emerged who again unified the Lohanas. Veer Jashraj, who is revered as Veer Dada Jashraj, was born in the city of Lohar (today's Lahore in Pakistan), which was the capital of Lohargadh. His domain extended from Lahore to Multan (also in Pakistan today). As the folklore goes, Mongol invader Changez Khan, attacked Multan and was killed by Dada Jashraj, Rana of Lohargadh.

This finds mention in Mongol folklore, which say, "King of Mongols was killed by Mirana, the tiger of Multan fort". His descendants who proudly carry the surname of 'Mirana' preserve the memory of this great warrior king. Dada Jashraj was also treacherously killed when only 28 - a life so short but full of heroic deeds.

After the death of Dada Jashraj, the decline of Lohana kingdom began and their reign at Lohargadh ended. King Dahir ruled for a while from Narayankot (today's Hyderabad, Sindh).

After his demise in a war against Muslims, Narayankot and Sindh fell to Muslims. It was around this time that some Lohanas converted to Islam. Many migrated to far-off southern regions like Kutchchh, Saurashtra and Gujarat and gradually became a trader community like Agarwals and Baranwals.

Mughal Era





In the early 16th century, Babur
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

, a Timurid
Timurid Dynasty
The Timurids , self-designated Gurkānī , were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turko-Mongol descent whose empire included the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Uzbekistan, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the...

 descendant of Timur
Timur
Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

 and Genghis Khan
Descent from Genghis Khan
Descent from Genghis Khan is traceable primarily in Central Asia. His four sons and other immediate descendants are famous by names and by deeds. Later Asian potentates attempted to claim descent from the House of Borjigin even on flimsy grounds. In the 14th century, valid sources all but dried...

 from Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley is a region in Central Asia spreading across eastern Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Divided across three subdivisions of the former Soviet Union, the valley is ethnically diverse, and in the early 21st century was the scene of ethnic conflict...

 (modern day Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

), swept across the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
The Khyber Pass, is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan.The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road. It is mentioned in the Bible as the "Pesh Habor," and it is one of the oldest known passes in the world....

 and founded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

, covering modern day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. The Mughals were descended from Central Asian Turks (with a significant Mongol admixture). Lahore reached the zenith of its glory during the Mughal rule from 1524 to 1752. Lahore reached the peak of its architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time. During this time, the massive Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore...

 was built. A few buildings within the fort were added by Akbar's son, the Mughal emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
Jahangir was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. The name Jahangir is from Persian جهانگیر,meaning "Conqueror of the World"...

, who is buried
Tomb of Jahangir
Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. The mausoleum is located near the town of Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Pakistan. His son Shah Jahan built the mausoleum 10 years after his father's death. It is sited in an attractive walled garden....

 in the city. Jahangir's son, Shahjahan Burki, was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, including the Shalimar Gardens
Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)
The Shalimar Gardens , sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, is a Persian garden and it was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 CE and was completed the following year...

. The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate
Alamgiri Gate
The Alamgiri Gate , built in 1673 A.D., is the main entrance to the Lahore Fort in present day Lahore, Pakistan. It was constructed to face west towards the Badshahi Mosque in the days of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb...

 next to the Lahore Fort.

Post Mughal Era


During the 18th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Punjab, including Lahore, was often invaded, and government authority was lacking. In 1739, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

, the Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 emperor of Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
The Afsharids were members of an Iranian dynasty of Turkmen origin from Khorasan who ruled Persia in the 18th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. During Nader's reign,...

 in Persia, invaded north western India, defeated the Mughal Emperor Mohammed Shah
Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah also known as Roshan Akhtar, was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. He was son of Khujista Akhtar Jahan Shah, the fourth son of Bahadur Shah I. Ascending the throne at 17 with the help of the Sayyid Brothers, he later got rid of them with the help of Nizam-ul-Mulk Chin...

 at the huge Battle of Karnal
Battle of Karnal
The Battle of Karnal , was a decisive victory for Nader Shah the emperor of Persia during his invasion of India. Shah's forces defeated the army of Muhammad Shah, the Mughal emperor in little more than three hours thus paving the way for the Persian sack of Delhi...

, and occupied most of Balochistan and the Indus plain including Lahore. In 1747, the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 was established by Ahmad Shah Abdali in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, during this period, Punjab saw frequent invasions by Ahmad Shah Abdali, The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah
Waris Shah
Waris Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, renowned for his contribution to Punjabi literature. He is best-known for his seminal work Heer Ranjha, based on the traditional folk tale of Heer and her lover Ranjha. Heer is considered one of the quintessential works of classical Punjabi literature...

 said of the situation, "khada peeta wahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da" — "we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

". In 1758 the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of South Asia, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km²....

's general Raghunathrao
Raghunathrao
Raghunathrao was Peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy from 1773 to 1774. He was instrumental in the downfall of the Peshwa clan.-Early life:Raghunathrao, also known as "Raghoba" and "Ragho Bharari," was the younger brother of Nanasaheb Peshwa. His father was Peshwa Bajirao I & mother was Kashibai....

 conquered Lahore and Attock
Attock
Attock is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan and the headquarters of Attock District...

 and drove out Timur Shah Durrani
Timur Shah Durrani
Timur Shah Durrani , was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire from October 16, 1772, until his death in 1793. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the second and eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani.- Early life :...

, the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Lahore, Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

, Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

 and other subahs on the south and eastern side of Attock
Attock
Attock is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan and the headquarters of Attock District...

 were under the Maratha rule for the most part. In Punjab and Kashmir, the Marathas were now major players. In 1761, following the victory at the Third battle of Panipat
Third battle of Panipat
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat , about 60 miles north of Delhi between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Confederacy and a coalition of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali with 2 Indian Muslim allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab, and the...

 between the Durrani
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 and the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of South Asia, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km²....

, Ahmad Shah Abdali captured remnants of the Maratha Empire in Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

 and Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

 regions and consolidated control over them.

Sikh reign



During the late 18th century, frequent invasions by Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 led to a lack of governance in the Punjab region
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

. The Sikh Misl
Misl
Misl generally refers to the twelve sovereign states in the Sikh Confederacy. The states formed a commonwealth that was described by Antoine Polier as an "aristocratic republic"...

s began to gain territory and eventually the Bhangi Misl
Bhangi Misl
The Bhangi Misl was a large Sikh Misl centered around a village around Amritsar. It was founded in the early 18th century by Hari Singh. It grew in strength and territory to cover an area from Attock to Multan and emerged as the strongest power in the western Punjab region. However, deaths among...

 captured Lahore. When Zaman Shah
Zaman Shah Durrani
Zaman Shah Durrani , , was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1793 until 1800. He was the grandson of Ahmad Shah Durrani and the fifth son of Timur Shah Durrani...

 invaded Punjab again in 1799 Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

 was able to make gains in the chaos. He defeated Zaman in a battle between Lahore and Amritsar
Amritsar
Amritsar is a city in the northern part of India and is the administrative headquarters of Amritsar district in the state of Punjab, India. The 2001 Indian census reported the population of the city to be over 1,500,000, with that of the entire district numbering 3,695,077...

. The citizens of Lahore, encouraged by Sada Kaur
Sada Kaur
Sada Kaur was a Punjabi Sikh who played an important role in Ranjit Singh's rise to power in Punjab. She was the mother-in-law of Maharajha Ranjit Singh and she was the chief of Kanheya misl.-Life and career:...

, offered him the city and he was able to take control of it in a series of battles with the Bhangi Misl
Bhangi Misl
The Bhangi Misl was a large Sikh Misl centered around a village around Amritsar. It was founded in the early 18th century by Hari Singh. It grew in strength and territory to cover an area from Attock to Multan and emerged as the strongest power in the western Punjab region. However, deaths among...

 and their allies. Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the end of eighteenth century, rebuilding efforts under the Sikhs were shaped by and indebted to Mughal practice. Ranjit Singh moved into the Mughal palace in Lahore's citadel. By 1812 he had mostly refurbished the city's defenses by adding a second circuit of outer walls that followed the outline of Akbar's original walls and were separated from them by a moat. The maharaja also partially restored Shah Jahan's decaying gardens at Shalimar [disambiguation needed], and British maps of the area surrounding Lahore dating from the mid-nineteenth century show that walled private gardens - many of them bearing the names of prominent Sikh nobles - continued in the Mughal pattern under Sikh rule. The Sikh court continued to endow religious architecture in the city, including a number of Sikh gurdwaras, Hindu temples, and mosques. In short, the decaying structures and architecture of Lahore was restored by the emperor. The Empire of the Sikhs was most exceptional in that it allowed men from religions other than their own to rise to commanding positions of authority. Besides the Sikh, Muslim and the Hindu feature as prominent administrators. The Christians formed a part of the militia of the Sikhs.

British Raj


Maharajah Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and was able to expand the kingdom to the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
The Khyber Pass, is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan.The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road. It is mentioned in the Bible as the "Pesh Habor," and it is one of the oldest known passes in the world....

 and also included Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

, while keeping the British from expanding across the River Sutlej
Sutlej
The Sutlej River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroad region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. It is located north of the Vindhya Range, south of the Hindu Kush segment of the Himalayas, and east of the Central Sulaiman Range in Pakistan.The Sutlej...

 for more than 40 years. After his death in 1839 the internecine fighting between the Sikhs and several rapid forfeitures of territory by his sons, along with the intrigues of the Dogras and two Anglo-Sikh wars, eventually led to British control of the Lahore Darbar ten years later. For the British, Punjab was a frontier province, because Lahore had boundaries with Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and Persia. Therefore, the Punjabis, unlike the Bengalis and the Sindhis, were not allowed to use their mother tongue as an official language. The British first introduced Urdu as an official language in Punjab, including Lahore, allegedly due to a fear of Punjabi nationalism. Under British rule (1849–1947), colonial architecture in Lahore combined Mughal
Mughal architecture
Mughal architecture, an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian architecture, is the distinctive style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries in what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. It is symmetrical and decorative in style.The Mughal dynasty was...

, Gothic
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 and Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 styles.
Under British rule, Sir Ganga Ram
Sir Ganga Ram
Sir Ganga Ram KCSI was an eminent civil engineer born in Mangtanwala, a small village of Punjab Province in British India now in Punjab, Pakistan and educated at the Thomason College of Civil Engineering 1873 batch...

 (referred to as the father of modern Lahore) designed and built the General Post Office, Lahore Museum, Aitchison College, Mayo School of Arts (now the NCA), Ganga Ram Hospital, Lady Mclagan Girls High School, the chemistry department of the Government College University, the Albert Victor wing of Mayo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram High School (now Lahore College for Women) the Hailey College of Commerce, Ravi Road House for the Disabled, the Ganga Ram Trust Building on Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, and the Lady Maynard Industrial School. He also constructed Model Town, a suburb that has recently developed into a cultural center for Lahore's growing socioeconomic elite.

The GPO and YMCA buildings in Lahore commemorated the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria, an event marked by the construction of clock towers and monuments all over British India. Other important British buildings included the High Court, the Government College University
Government College University
Government College University, Lahore is a co-educational public university located on The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan...

, the museums
Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum , established in 1894, is located in The Mall, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Rudyard Kipling's father, John Lockwood Kipling, was one of the famous curators of the museum. Over 250,000 admissions were registered in 2005.-Attractions:...

, the National College of Arts
National College of Arts
The National College of Arts Lahore, usually referred to by its acronym NCA, is a famous old college in Lahore, Pakistan.Like all old institutions, the National College of Arts, has a historical tradition. Much of its present tone was set long ago when it was known as the Mayo School of Arts...

, Montgomery Hall, Tollinton Market, the University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab , colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The University of the Punjab is the oldest and biggest University of Pakistan. The University of the Punjab was formally established with the convening of the first meeting of its...

 (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly. Even today, Mall Road retains a variety of Gothic and Victorian style buildings built during the British Raj. At one end of The Mall
The Mall (Lahore)
The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan , is one of the city's main roads, and, along with the Grand Trunk Road, one of its most famous as well...

 stands the university, one of the most prestigious in Pakistan. The British also launched the city's first horse-racing club in 1924, starting a tradition that continues today at the Lahore Race Club
Lahore Race Club
Lahore Race Club, in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, is a club concerned with the sport of horse racing, established in 1924 when Lahore was part of the Punjab Province of British India....

.

Partition of India


Lahore played a special role in the independence movements of India. The 1929 Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Pandit Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929. On this occasion, the contemporary tricolour of India
Flag of India
The National flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of deep saffron, white and India green; with the Ashok Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre. It was adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947, when it became the...

 (with a chakra
Chakra
Chakra is a concept originating in Hindu texts, featured in tantric and yogic traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Its name derives from the Sanskrit word for "wheel" or "turning" .Chakra is a concept referring to wheel-like vortices...

 at its centre) was hoisted for the first time as a national flag, and thousands of people saluted it.

Lahore's prison was used by the British to detain revolutionary freedom fighters. Noted freedom fighter Jatin Das died in Lahore's prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh, was hanged here.

The most important session of the All India Muslim League (later the Pakistan Muslim League
Pakistan Muslim League
The Pakistan Muslim League was founded in 1962, as a successor to the previously disbanded Muslim League in Pakistan. Unlike the original PML which ended in 1958 when General Ayub Khan banned all political parties, each subsequent Muslim League was in some way propped by the military dictators of...

), demanding the creation of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, was held in Lahore in 1940. Muslims under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a Muslim lawyer, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan. He is popularly and officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam and Baba-e-Qaum ....

 demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution
Lahore Resolution
The Lahore Resolution , commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution , was a formal political statement adopted by the Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22–24 March 1940 that called for greater Muslim autonomy in British India...

. It was during this session that Jinnah, the leader of the league, publicly proposed the Two-Nation Theory
Two-Nation Theory
The Two-Nation Theory proposed by Allama Iqbal is the ideology that the primary identity of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity, and therefore Indian Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nationalities, regardless of ethnic or other...

 for the first time.

Post-independence


Upon the creation of Pakistan, Lahore was made capital of the Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

 province in the new state of Pakistan. Almost immediately, large scale riots broke out among Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus, causing many deaths as well as damage to historic monuments—including the Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore...

, Badshahi mosque
Badshahi Mosque
The Badshahi Mosque or the 'King's Mosque' in Lahore, commissioned by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671 and completed in 1673, is the second largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fifth largest mosque in the world...

 and other colonial buildings. With United Nations assistance, the government
Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan is a federal parliamentary system, with an indirectly-elected President as the Head of State and Commander in Chief of the Pakistani Armed Forces, and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the Head of Government. The President’s appointment and term are...

 was able to rebuild Lahore, and most scars of the communal violence of independence were erased. Less than 20 years later, however, Lahore once again became a battleground in the War of 1965. The battlefield and trenches can still be observed today close to the Wagah border area
Wagah
Wagah is the only road border crossing between Pakistan and India , and lies on the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Lahore, Pakistan and Amritsar, India. Wagah itself is a village through which the controversial Radcliffe Line was drawn. The village was divided by independence in 1947...

.

After independence, Lahore lost much of its glory, but in the 1990s, Lahore once again gained its significance as an economic and cultural powerhouse through government reforms. The second Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city. In 1996 the International Cricket Council
International Cricket Council
The International Cricket Council is the international governing body of cricket. It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from England, Australia and South Africa, renamed the International Cricket Conference in 1965, and took up its current name in 1989.The...

 Cricket World Cup
1996 Cricket World Cup
The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup after its official sponsors, was the sixth edition of the tournament organized by the International Cricket Council . It was the second World Cup to be hosted by Pakistan and India, and for the first time by Sri Lanka...

 final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium is a cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. It was designed by Daghestani-born architect and engineer Nasreddin Murat-Khan who also designed Lahore's Minar-e-Pakistan and constructed by Mian Abdul Khaliq and Company in 1959. Following the ground's renovation for the 1996 Cricket World...

 in Lahore.

The Walled City of Lahore
Walled City of Lahore
The Walled City of Lahore, also known as the "Old City," or "Anderoon Shehr ," is the section of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, that was fortified by a city wall during the Mughal era.-Origins:The origins of the original Lahore are unspecific...

 known locally as the "Un-droone Shehr" is the oldest and most historic part of Lahore. The Punjab government embarked on a major project in 2009 to restore the Royal Trail (Shahi Guzar Gah) from Akbari Gate to the Lahore Fort with the help of the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 under the Sustainable Development of the Walled City of Lahore (SDWCL) project. The project aims at the Walled City development, at exploring and highlighting economic potential of the Walled City as a cultural heritage, exploring and highlighting the benefits of the SWDCL project for the residents, and at soliciting suggestions regarding maintenance of development and conservation of the Walled City. This city is famous of historic places i.e. Badshahi masjid, Minaar Pakistan .
(PATILdada)

Geography and climate



Lying between 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District
Sheikhupura District
Sheikhupura District is a district of Punjab province, Pakistan. Sheikhupura is the headquarters of Sheikhupura District. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the district had a population of 3,321,029 of which 25.45% were urban....

, on the east by Wagah
Wagah
Wagah is the only road border crossing between Pakistan and India , and lies on the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Lahore, Pakistan and Amritsar, India. Wagah itself is a village through which the controversial Radcliffe Line was drawn. The village was divided by independence in 1947...

, and on the south by Kasur District
Kasur District
Kasur District or Qasur District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan It came into existence on 1 July 1976. Earlier it was part of Lahore District....

. The Ravi River
Ravi River
The Ravi is a trans-boundary river flowing through Northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of the six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region ....

 flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 km² and is still growing.

Lahore features a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSh) with rainy, long and extremely hot summers, dry and warm winters, a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 and dust storms. The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June and July, when the temperatures soar to 40–48 °C (104–118.4 F). From late June till August, the monsoon seasons starts, with heavy rainfall throughout the province. The city’s highest maximum temperature was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) recorded on May 30, 1944. And 48 °C (118.4 °F) was recorded on June 10, 2007. At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 °C (131 °F). The lowest temperature recorded in Lahore is -1.1 C recorded on 13 January 1967. The highest rainfall in the city recorded during 24 hours is 221 millimetres (8.7 in), which occurred on 13 August 2008. The city on 26 February 2011, received heavy rain and hailstorm measuring 4.5 millimetres, which carpeted several roads and sidewalks with measurable hail for the first time in the climatic history of Lahore.

Civic administration


Under the latest revision of Pakistan's administrative structure, promulgated in 2001, Lahore was tagged as a City District, and divided into nine towns. Each town in turn consists of a group of union councils (U.C.'s).

Administrative towns

  1. Ravi Town
  2. Shalimar Town
  3. Wagah Town
  4. Aziz Bhatti Town
  5. Data Gunj Bakhsh Town
  6. Gulberg
  7. Samanabad Town
    Samanabad
    Samnabad is a major residential area and administrative subdivision of Lahore, Pakistan. It houses about 250,000 people and is neighboured by Multan Road, Mozang, Gulshan-e-Ravi, Islamia Park, Ichhra and Iqbal Town. Most of the residential units in the area were built in the 1960-70s...

  8. Iqbal Town
    Iqbal Town, Lahore
    Iqbal Town is a commercial and residential locality in the south-western Lahore. It is named after Allama Iqbal, the national poet of Pakistan. Development was started in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was previously famed for its name in Urdu, 'Sola Soo Acre سولہ سو ایکڑ' , due to its area...

  9. Nishtar Town
A. Lahore Cantonment

Localities



Other major residential areas within Lahore include: Garhi Shahu, Abdalian Housing Society
Abdalian Housing Society
Abdalian Cooperative Housing Society is one of the residential areas of Lahore, the capital of the province of Punjab in Pakistan. It is located near Johar Town and Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre....

, Awan Town
Awan Town
Awan Town is a housing society in Lahore, Pakistan. It is an approved housing society by Lahore Development Authority. It is located on Multan Road, opposite to Allama Iqbal Town and next to Hassan Town. It is divided into several blocks, mainly Rizwan Block and Madina Block. Other blocks are...

, Badami Bagh
Badami Bagh
Badami Bagh is a cantonment town in Srinagar district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India.-Geography:Badami Bagh is located at . It has an average elevation of 1727 metres .-Demographics:...

, Bahria Town
Behria Town
Bahria Town is one of the largest real-estate developers in Pakistan. Bahria Town has projects in Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Islamabad and is planning to develop projects in Murree and Karachi....

, Cavalry Ground
Cavalry Ground
Cavalry Ground is a largely residential locality in Lahore, Pakistan.There is an older part of the area, and a newer part known as Cavalry Ground Extension. Cavalry Ground is the main link between Defence, Gulberg and Shami Road, with a bridge helping to ease the flow of traffic...

, Defence Housing Authority
Defence Housing Authority, Lahore
The Defence Housing Authority , Lahore is a housing society located in southern Lahore, Pakistan. It was originally built for army officers, but is now a popular destination for potential residents and businessmen...

 (DHA), Faisal Town
Faisal Town
Faisal Town is one of the major residential areas of Lahore, close to Model Town. It lies at 31° 28' 40N 74° 18' 30E and has an altitude of 201 meters. In the last few years this area has undergone major changes and developments, with the value of property increasing quite considerably. It is...

, Garden Town
Garden Town
Garden Town is a suburban locality located in Lahore, Pakistan.-History:Garden Town was acquired in 1960 by the Lahore Development Authority, which at that time was called the Lahore Improvement Trust. Prior to that the majority of the land was being used for agriculture. Due to its close proximity...

, GCP Society, Green Town
Green Town
As being the town of Lahore City, Green Town has the same weather as of Lahore. Lying between 31⁰ 25'47.25" and 31⁰ 26'50.50" North latitude and 74⁰ 18'00.67" and 74⁰ 19'04.80" East longitude, Green Town is bounded on the north and west by the Township, on the east by Quaid-e-Azam Industrial...

, Gulberg, Gulshan-e-Lahore, Samanabad
Samanabad
Samnabad is a major residential area and administrative subdivision of Lahore, Pakistan. It houses about 250,000 people and is neighboured by Multan Road, Mozang, Gulshan-e-Ravi, Islamia Park, Ichhra and Iqbal Town. Most of the residential units in the area were built in the 1960-70s...

, Gulshan-e-Ravi
Gulshan-e-Ravi
Gulshan-e-Ravi is an area in Lahore, Pakistan. The name "Gulshan-e-Ravi" means "the Garden of Ravi" possibly due to its location which is near the Ravi River....

, Hassan Town
Hassan Town
Hassan Town is a locality on Multan Road in Lahore, Pakistan. The locality is divided into blocks, the main one being Waseem Block, where the local government is located. The other main block of Hassan Town is Madina block. It is a registered community board. This block consists of almost 60...

, Ichhra
Ichhra
Ichhra is a commercial and residential area in Lahore, Pakistan.-History:The neighbourhood was named after the death of an old woman who's nickname was Mai Ichhra of now Muslim Kamboja tribe who migrated from Mesopotamia/Mittani having worshipped in ancient times their mother goddess Ishara, sacred...

, Iqbal Town
Iqbal Town, Lahore
Iqbal Town is a commercial and residential locality in the south-western Lahore. It is named after Allama Iqbal, the national poet of Pakistan. Development was started in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was previously famed for its name in Urdu, 'Sola Soo Acre سولہ سو ایکڑ' , due to its area...

, Sabzazar Sheme
Sabzazar
Sabzazar situated in Lahore, Pakistan. It is also known as Sabzazar Scheme or Sabzazar Housing Scheme. It is between Multan Road of Lahore and Motorway of Islamabad. Sabzazar has two phases, Phase-1 have A, B, C, D, E, F, G blocks and Phase-2 has H, I, J, K, L, M, N blocks...

, Islampura
Islampura
Islampura is in the town of data gunj bakesh UC 82 ISLMPURA , Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Islampura has one of the largest Shia Mosques of Pakistan and this area also involved in shia activities because of highly numbers of shia families settled here...

, Ittefaq Town, Johar Town
Johar Town
Johar Town in Pakistan is a residential area located in the south of Lahore, neighbouring the motorway M-2. It is the largest residential society of Lahore developed by Lahore Development Authority- LDA. The population in this newly established suburban area is sprawling and the property rates...

, Model Town, Muhafiz Town, Mustafa Town
Mustafa Town
Mustafa Town is a residential locality in Lahore, Pakistan. It is located on Wahdat Road near Chungi. It is developed by Lahore Development Authority.A list of Mustafa Town blocks:*Mamdot Block*Hadayatullah Block*Qayyum Block*Abbas Block*Shahbaz Block...

, Nespak Society, New Muslim Town, NFC Employees Cooperative Housing Society
NFC Employees Cooperative Housing Society
NFC Employees Cooperative Housing Society is a private housing scheme, initiated by the employees of National Fertilizer Corporation of Pakistan Ltd. It is a society registered under Societies Registration Act of Pakistan...

, Pasco Society, Punjab Cooperative Housing Society, Sant Nagar, Saroba Gardens, Shad Bagh
Shad Bagh
-External links:*...

, Sukh Chayn Gardens
Sukh Chayn Gardens
Sukh Chayn Gardens Housing Estate is a Gated Community in the suburbs of Lahore, Pakistan. It is a joint venture between the governments of Pakistan and China.-History:...

, Township, Valencia Town
Valencia, Lahore
Valancia is a planned urban Gated Community located in south western part of Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to Wapda Town and Johar Town. It is named after the city Valencia, Spain. Valancia is located on Defence Road, connecting, Multan Road, Raiwind Road, Ferozepur Road and M2 Motorway. It was...

, WAPDA Town
WAPDA Town
WAPDA Town is one of the residential areas of Lahore in Pakistan. It was developed for employees of the Water and Power Development Authority but anyone can buy land or a house now....

, Iqbal Avenue Co-operative Housing Society, OPF Colony and Youhanabad
Youhanabad
Youhanabad is a suburb of Lahore, Pakistan. It is the largest majority Christian area in the city with about 200,000 inhabitants....

.

Neighbourhoods


Lahore's old city fabric has changed dramatically over time under the occupation of various South Asian empires. Some of the older remaining districts of Lahore are: Baghbanpura
Baghbanpura
Baghbanpura is a town and Union Council of Shalimar tehsil, Lahore District, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located along the Grand Trunk Road some 5 kilometres northeast of the main Lahore city....

, Batapur
Batapur
Batapur is a village near the city of Lahore, Pakistan. It was established as a residence for the workers of Bata shoe factory. The nearest international airport is the Allama Iqbal International Airport in Lahore. This village was ruined once during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965....

, Begum Kot, Canal View Housing Society, Central Park, Chah Miran, Chowk Yateem Khana, Defence Housing Authority (DHA)
Defence Housing Authority, Lahore
The Defence Housing Authority , Lahore is a housing society located in southern Lahore, Pakistan. It was originally built for army officers, but is now a popular destination for potential residents and businessmen...

, Gawalmandi
Gawalmandi
Gawalmandi is an iconic town located in the central part of Lahore. It is regarded as the cultural centre of Lahore. The famous Food Street of Lahore is located here.-Facilities :...

, Harbanspura, Jallo Mor, Krishan Nagar
Krishan Nagar
Krishan Nagar is part of the Islampura neighbourhood of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It was named so because of the Hindu temple dedicated to Krishna, one of the key Hindu deities...

, Lakshmi Chowk, Mozang Chungi
Mozang Chungi
Mozang Chungi or Mozang is an area in Lahore, Pakistan. Nearby areas are Jail Road, Choubarji and famous Anarkali Bazar. It is located at 31°32'55N 74°18'54E. The area came under attention after the controversial Raymond Allen Davis incident took place here....

, Mughalpura, Qila Gujar Singh
Qila Gujar Singh
Qila Gujar Singh is a town located in the central part of Lahore. As shown by name it was the fort of Gujjar Singh Banghi. Some walls and a gate still remains as a memory of the Gujar Singh's fort. All the area of fort has became local property. There is a busy market in streets of Qila Gujar...

, Raiwind
Raiwind
Raiwind is a town in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is part of the Nishter Town subdivision of Lahore District and is located at 31°15'16N 74°13'4E with an altitude of 203 metres and lies about 25 km from Lahore, the capital of the Punjab...

, Sanda
Sanda, Lahore
Sanda is a town in Lahore District near the bank of river Ravi....

, Shahdara Bagh
Shahdara Bagh
Shahdara Bagh, is a northern suburb of Lahore, Pakistan. It is situated on the northern side of the Ravi River.Shahdara means Shah and dara means the way of kings. In the 15th century it was the gate entrance of the Lahore and Mughal Emperor...

, Shadman and Tajpura Scheme LDA, Sultanpura and Al Faisal Town.

Economy



As of 2008, the city's gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 (GDP) by purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity
In economics, purchasing power parity is a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries. The prices of the goods between the countries would only reflect the exchange rates...

 (PPP) was estimated at billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent. This is at par with Pakistan's economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ( billion in 2008). The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is supposed to be around 13.2%. Lahore's GDP is projected to be billion by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum. Central to Lahore's economy is the Lahore Stock Exchange
Lahore Stock Exchange
Lahore Stock Exchange Limited is Pakistan's second largest stock exchange after the Karachi Stock Exchange. It is located in Lahore, Pakistan.- History :...

 (LSE), Pakistan's second largest stock exchange. Lahore has offices of several Pakistani government corporations including the Water and Power Development Authority
Water and Power Development Authority
The Water and Power Development Authority is a government-owned public utility maintaining power and water in Pakistan, although it does not manage thermal power. WAPDA includes Tarbela and Mangla dams among its resources...

 (WAPDA) and Water and Sewage Authority (WASA). Food and restaurant businesses remain open all night. Lahore is the second largest financial hub of Pakistan and has industrial areas including Kot Lakhpat and the new Sundar Industrial Estate (near Raiwand). Lahore’s economic base is broad and varied. The city is the engineering hub of Pakistan. Major industries include the manufacture of automobiles and motorcycles, Heavy Machinery, Railway Coaches, home appliances, steel, telecommunications, information technology, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, computers, engineering, and construction material. A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries. Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services. The city is Pakistan’s largest software producing center, and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry.
Lahore's economic strength relies on the fact that it is the biggest city of Pakistan's most populous province. It is also the most advanced in terms of infrastructure, having extensive and relatively well developed road links to all major cities in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a rail link with India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and the province's biggest International airport. It also has the most developed communications infrastructure in the Pakistan, which includes a wide network of fiber optic telephone and cable lines, GSM mobile network, IPP and WiMax
WiMAX
WiMAX is a communication technology for wirelessly delivering high-speed Internet service to large geographical areas. The 2005 WiMAX revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s with the 2011 update up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations...

. It has the most developed education and health sectors as well, making it the economic, political and educational hub of the Pakistan. ‎ As Lahore expands, former residential areas are being turned into commercial centres, and the suburban population is constantly moving outwards. This has resulted in the development of the Liberty Market, MM Alam Road, the new Jail Road (which has some of the largest office buildings in Lahore), and the Main Boulevard .

Lahore is famous as the hub of handmade carpet
Carpet
A carpet is a textile floor covering consisting of an upper layer of "pile" attached to a backing. The pile is generally either made from wool or a manmade fibre such as polypropylene,nylon or polyester and usually consists of twisted tufts which are often heat-treated to maintain their...

 manufacturing in Pakistan. At present, hand-knitted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan's leading export products, and their manufacturing is the second-largest cottage and small industry.

Craftsmen in Lahore produce almost every type of handmade carpet using popular motifs such as medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs. The Lahore Design Centre at the Punjab Small Industries Corporation maintains a separate section of carpet designing to experiment with new designs. Lahore is famous for single-weft
Weft
In weaving, weft or woof is the yarn which is drawn through the warp yarns to create cloth. In North America, it is sometimes referred to as the "fill" or the "filling yarn"....

ed designs in Turkoman and Caucasian style and double-wefted Mughal types.

Metro, Makro and Hyperstar (Carrefour) have situated their headquarters in Lahore.

Projects


The Lahore Expo Centre
Expo Centre Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore is an Pakistani Exhibition and Convention center located in Johar Town, Lahore. It was established and run by the government of Pakistan and Punjab....

 is one of the biggest projects in the history of the city and was inaugurated on 22 May 2010.

Lake City is a resort and residential development planned on the outskirts of Lahore. Covering an area of more than 2104 acre (851 ha), the resort will include lush green parks, sinuous lakes, an 18-hole regulation golf course and other features.

Defense Raya Golf Resort, also under construction, will be Pakistan's largest and Asia's largest golf course. The project is the result of a partnership between DHA Lahore and BRDB Malaysia. The rapid development of large projects such as these in the city is expected to boost the economy of the country.
Among the many other projects under construction in Lahore are: Pace Tower (24 floors, under construction), Mall99 (21 floors, under construction), Lahore Expo Center (completed), Expo Center tower (approved), IT Tower (23 floors, under construction), Alamgir Tower (31 floors, under construction), DHA Haly Tower (low rise, under construction), Lahore Ring Road (under construction), Lahore Sports City (approved), Kot Lakhpat elevated expressway (approved), Lahore Rapid Mass Transit System (vision), Xinhua Mall (20 floors, under construction), Lahore-Sialkot motorway
Sialkot Lahore Motorway
A 6-lane motorway from Sialkot to Lahore, the two important industrial centers of Punjab, was to be constructed which would have given impetus to economic activities in the province. NHA recognized this motorway as M11, however it was also known as LSM, SLM, Lahore-Sialkot Motorway or Shahrah-e-Sanat...

 (under construction), Boulevard Heights (19 floors, under construction), Pearl Continental Tower
Pearl Continental Tower
Pearl Continental Tower is a proposed extension project of the existing Pearl Continental Hotel in Lahore, Pakistan. The project was conceived by Pakistan Services Ltd., the owners & operators of Pearl Continental Hotels and Resorts....

 (40 floors, 152 meters, proposed), LDA Tower (40 floors, approved), Bank Square Gulberg (vision), Pace Circle and Hyatt Regency (12 floors, under construction) and Tricon Corporate Tower (18 floors, under construction).

The economy is also enhanced by Lahore's historic and cultural importance. Being the capital of the largest province in Pakistan brings the city one of the largest development budgets in the country.

Transportation



Lahore is one of Pakistan's most accessible cities and the only city in the country where one can find public and private transportation 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. This includes public buses, as well as thousands of rickshaws and taxis, which run on compressed natural gas to reduce pollution in the city. About 75% of residents have their own conveyances. The roads in the city are well maintained and are broadened when needed to meet increasing demand.

The Lahore Ring Road (LRR) Project was launched on December 22, 2004 at a groundbreaking ceremony attended by President General Pervez Musharaf. The LRR Project is a large road project being developed by the Punjab Government, intended to ensure efficient and speedy movement of freight and passengers, to alleviate traffic flow problems, and to boost the city's potential for industrial development. The project includes the construction of a six-lane divided highway, interchanges, RCC bridges, reinforced earth abutments and walls, overhead pedestrian bridges, culverts, tunnels, underpasses, flyovers and related works, at a total projected cost of over Rs. 20 billion and Rs. 13 billion respectively.

In addition to the historic Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road
The Grand Trunk Road also formerly known as Uttarapatha, Shah Rah-e-Azam or Sadak-e-Azam or Badshahi Sadak is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads...

 (G.T. Road), motorways connecting all major cities (Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

, Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

, Faisalabad
Faisalabad
Faisalabad , formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Before the foundation of the city in 1880, the area was very thinly populated. The population has...

, Peshawar
Peshawar
Peshawar is the capital of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative center and central economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan....

, Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

, etc.) have been built. A motorway to Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot is a city in Pakistan situated in the north-east of the Punjab province at the foothills of snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. It is the capital of Sialkot District. The city is about north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometers from Indian-controlled Jammu.The...

 is under construction. The government has built underpasses to ease congestion and prevent traffic jams, and according to official figures, Lahore has the highest number of underpasses in Pakistan. The government would undertake planned rehabilitation of the roads, which have outlived their designed life, construction of missing road links and development of province-wide secondary arteries linking national motorways and trade corridors to foster economic opportunities via meeting expanding domestic and international travel and trade demands.

The Punjab government had allocated Rs. 170.300 million for W/I of Thokar-Raiwind Road, Rs. 50 million for the dualisation of Lahore-Jaranwala Road from Ferozepur Interchange to Mandi Faizabad, Rs. 40 million for the construction of extending building for IWMI Thokar Niaz Baig Lahore, Rs. 2.7 million for the construction of an overhead bridge at Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jillani Road near University of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Rs. 56 million for PC-II for a feasibility study of elevated expressways in Lahore, Rs. 10 million for the construction of an elevated expressway from Lahore Bridge to Niazi Chowk, Rs. 50 million for the strengthening of Sheikhupura-Gujranwala Road, and Rs. 15 million for the construction of a bypass between Sargodha and Lahore Road.

Several bus companies operate in Lahore. Premier Bus Services, owned by the Beaconhouse Group, was started in 2003, and provides transportation services to the general public in Lahore. With over 240 buses running on exclusive routes, it is the largest public transport company in Pakistan. , the buses are in the process of being converted to compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

 for environmental and economic reasons. Sammi Daewoo
Daewoo Express
Daewoo Express or Sammi Daewoo Express is an inter-city common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 30 destinations in Pakistan and is headquartered in Lahore. It is operated by a Korean company, Sammi...

's City Bus Division operates four routes within the city and two suburban routes for Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

 and Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura
Sheikhupura or Shekhupur , formerly Kot Dayal Das or Singhpuria or Virkgarh , is an industrial city in the province of Punjab slightly northwest to Lahore in Pakistan. It is known for its historical places, and is commonly known locally as Qila Shaikhupura, because of the fort in the city,...

. Though these buses are fewer in number, they are air-conditioned and provide better comfort to passengers. In addition to these two major companies, there are several other small companies (New Khan Metro, Niazi, etc.) that provide services within Lahore; they cover only particular routes and are few in number.

Pakistan Railways
Pakistan Railways
This article is about the rail company in Pakistan. For technical details and operations see: Transport in Pakistan.Pakistan Railways is a national state-owned rail transport service of Pakistan, head-quartered in Lahore. It is administered by the federal government under the Ministry of Railways....

 is headquartered in Lahore. Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of transportation for commuters and connects distant parts of the country with Lahore for business, sightseeing, pilgrimage, and education. The Lahore Central Railway Station
Lahore Railway Station
The Lahore Railway Station in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan was built by British colonists between 1859-1860 at the cost of half a million Rupees. It is of typical grand British architecture in South Asia during the British Raj period...

, built during the British colonial era, is located in the heart of the city.

To accommodate increased air travel, the government built a new city airport in 2003. It was named Allama Iqbal International Airport
Allama Iqbal International Airport
Allama Iqbal International Airport is the second-largest civil airport in Pakistan, serving Lahore, the capital of Punjab province. Originally known as Lahore International Airport, it was renamed in 2003 for Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal, the Islamic poet-philosopher who was a major advocate for the...

 after the national poet-philosopher of Pakistan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
Sir Muhammad Iqbal , commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal , was a poet and philosopher born in Sialkot, then in the Punjab Province of British India, now in Pakistan...

, and is served by international airlines as well as the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

. The previous airport now operates as the Hajj
Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

 Terminal to facilitate the great influx of pilgrims traveling to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 to perform the hajj every year. Lahore also has a general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 airport known as Walton Airport
Walton Airport
Walton Airport is situated near Model Town, 10 km from the city centre of Lahore, the capital of the Punjab province in Pakistan. It caters to general aviation and is used by several flying clubs...

.

Lahore Rapid Mass Transit (LRMT) System is a project envisioned to provide mass transit facilities to Lahore. The project is expected to be completed in 2020. In the first phase, two light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 lines will be constructed. The first Green Line between Shahdra and Hamza Town (Ferozpur Road) will be completed by 2011 and cost billion. The second Orange Line between Pakistan Mint and Sabzazar will cost billion and will be completed by 2015. In the second phase, Blue and Purple lines will be constructed.

Demographics


Population


According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,318,745. Estimate for 2010 is 8,592,000, which makes it the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

. It is considered to be one of the 30 largest cities of the world.

Language


Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 is the native language of the province and is the most widely spoken language in Lahore. Punjabi is the primary means of communication in both the city and adjoining rural areas. Punjabi has no official status in Lahore and some Punjabi activists have raised demands for recognition of Punjabi. English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 has become increasingly popular with educated and younger people due to its official status in government
Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan is a federal parliamentary system, with an indirectly-elected President as the Head of State and Commander in Chief of the Pakistani Armed Forces, and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the Head of Government. The President’s appointment and term are...

 and preferred language status for business. Many Punjabi speakers in Lahore are known as Majha Dialect Of Punjabi. According to the 1998 census, 86.2% or 6,896,000 of the population are Punjabis
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

; 10.2% or 816,000 are Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 speakers and the Seraikis, at 0.4%, number about 32,000.

Religion


According to the 1998 census, 94% of Lahore's population is Sunni or Shia Muslim, up from 60% in 1941. Other religions include Christians (5.80% of the total population, though they form around 9.0% of the rural population), and a small number of Bahá'ís
Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

, Hindus, Parsis, and Sikhs. Due to Lahore's diverse culture, there are many mosques
Mosques of Lahore
Mosques of Lahore: There are a large number of new, old, and ancient mosques in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. This is consistent with the general personality of the city, which has a culture that mixes the old and the new with superb ease....

, shrine
Shrine
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines often contain idols, relics, or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated....

s, synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

s, Hindu and Jain temples
Temples in Lahore
Before partition of India in 1947, Lahore was a cosmopolitan city with Hindu, Sikh and Jain residents. There were many temples in Lahore.In 1941, 48% of the population of Lahore was Hindu, Sikh or Jain...

, Sikh Gurudwaras, and churches across the city. Some of the most famous mosques include: Badshahi Masjid, Dai Anga Mosque
Dai Anga Mosque
Dai Anga Mosque is a mosque situated near the railway station of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.This historic Mosque is in the Naulakha area, about quarter mile away from Lahore Railway Station. It is widely believed that Dai Anga built this mosque in 1635 AD , before she went to perform Hajj...

, Data Durbar Complex
Data Durbar Complex
Data Darbar , located in the city of Lahore, Pakistan is one of the oldest Muslim shrines in the sub-continent. It houses the remains of a Sufi saint, Abul Hassan Ali Hajvery...

, Shia Masjid
Shia Masjid
The Shia Masjid is one of the largest Shia mosques in the mainly Shi'ite populated area of Islampura in the city of Lahore, Pakistan....

, Suneri Mosque
Suneri Mosque
The Suneri Mosque or Golden Mosque is located in the centre of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The founder of the mosque was Nawab Syed Bhikari Khan, son of Raushan-ud-Daula Turrabaz Khan, deputy governor of Lahore during the reign of Muhammad Shah and the viceroyalty of Mir Noin-ul-Malik. The Golden...

, Wazir Khan Mosque
Wazir Khan Mosque
The Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is famous for its extensive faience tile work. It has been described as ' a mole on the cheek of Lahore'. It was built in seven years, starting around 1634-1635 AD, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan...

, Moti Masjid
Moti Masjid (Lahore)
Moti Masjid , one of the "Pearl Mosques", is a 17th century religious building located inside the Lahore Fort. It is a small, white marble structure built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, and is among his prominent extensions to the Lahore Fort Complex...

, Masjid-e-Shuhda (Martyr's Mosque) and Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum
Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum
Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum also known as Begum Shahi Mosque is a mosque situated Walled City of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It was built by Nuruddin Salim Jahangir, for his mother Mariam-uz-Zamani, and the wife of Mughal Emperor, Akbar...

. There are many shrines dedicated to different people. Some of the famous shrines include: Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal
Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal
The Tomb of Allama Muhammad Iqbal is a simple but impressive structure located in Lahore, Pakistan in the Hazuri Bagh lawn between the Badshahi Mosque and the Lahore Fort where both the grand structures face each other. Official guard is maintained by Pakistan Rangers...

, Bibi Pak Daman
Bibi Pak Daman
Bibi Pāk Dāman is the name given to the shrine and mausoleum of Ruqayyah bint Ali located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Legend has it that it holds the graves of six ladies from Muhammad's household...

, Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is the mausoleum of the Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It is located near the Lahore Fort and Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan...

, Tomb of Shah Jamal
Tomb of Shah Jamal
The Tomb of Shah Jamal is the tomb of Sufi Saint Baba Shah Jamal. It is located in the city of Lahore - the capital of Punjab, Pakistan. There is a masjid built around the tomb which incorporates a graveyard....

, Tomb of Lal Hussain
Shah Hussain
Shah Hussain was a Punjabi Sufi poet who is regarded as a Sufi saint. He was the son of Sheikh Usman, a weaver, and belonged to the Dhudha clan of Rajputs. He was born in Lahore...

, Tomb of Anārkalī, Tomb of Jahangir
Tomb of Jahangir
Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. The mausoleum is located near the town of Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Pakistan. His son Shah Jahan built the mausoleum 10 years after his father's death. It is sited in an attractive walled garden....

, Tomb of Empress Nur Jehan
Nur Jehan
Begum Nur Jahan , also known as Mehr-un-Nisaa, was an Empress of the Mughal Dynasty that ruled much of the Indian subcontinent...

 and Tomb of Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan
Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan
Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan was the father of Arjumand Banu Begum, also known as Mumtaz Mahal, who was the wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Emperor of India. Asaf Khan was also the elder brother of Mehrunissa, , the empress of Shah Jahan's father, Jahangir. Many scholars have been researching...

. Some of the well-known churches include Regal Church, Hall Road Church
Cathedral church of Resurrection
The Cathedral Church of Resurrection is a Church in the Heart of Lahore, Pakistan across the Lahore High Court. It is in the Neo-Gothic style of architecture...

, Convent of Jesus and Mary
Convent of Jesus and Mary (Lahore)
Convent of Jesus and Mary, Lahore is a girls-only school located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Classes start with preschool and end with Grade 11. It was founded on the 17th of November 1876 and received official recognition in 1881...

 and Sacred Heart Cathedral
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore was consecrated by Bishop Fabian Eestermans, Bishop of Lahore on 19 November 1907. The design of this Cathedral was made according to the Roman Byzantine style by a Belgian architect, Dr. Dubbeleere of Antwerp....

.

Culture




Lahore's culture is unique. Known as the Cultural Capital or Heart of Pakistan, the city was the seat of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 and the Sikh Empire as well as the capital of Punjab in Mahmud Ghaznavi's 11th century empire and in the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

.Lahore has so many glitzy and trendy shopping malls like Mall of Lahore which is most prestiguous shopping mall with a super market green valley in underground and food court with lots of fast food,Italian,Chinese,Pakistani and mediterranean restaurants.There are also al noor and vogue towers and ali towers on MM.Alam road,Gulberg.Gulberg and Defence and DHA Emi are Affluent suburbs of lahore.Urban neighbourhoods of lahore like bahria town Safari villas and ahram e misr,lake city,park view villas,tricon valley and raiwind are developing rapidly.

Lahore has played an important role in Pakistani history. It was in this city that Pakistan's independence declaration was made. It was the largest city in the newly formed Pakistan at the time of independence and provided the easiest access to India, with its porous border near the Indian city of Amritsar
Amritsar
Amritsar is a city in the northern part of India and is the administrative headquarters of Amritsar district in the state of Punjab, India. The 2001 Indian census reported the population of the city to be over 1,500,000, with that of the entire district numbering 3,695,077...

 only 30 miles (48 km) to the east. Large numbers of Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s, Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s, and Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s lived closely in Lahore before the independence of Pakistan.
The city suffered revolts, demonstrations and bloodshed at the time of independence due to the enmity between Muslims and Hindus at the time and the uncertainty which loomed over the fate of Lahore even after India and Pakistan became independent. Lahore's culture, its history, institutions, food, clothing, films, music, fashion, and liberal community lifestyle attract people from all over the country.

The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and other traditions. Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

 and Eid ul-Adha
Eid ul-Adha
Eid al-Adha or "Festival of Sacrifice" or "Greater Eid" is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide to commemorate the willingness of Abraham to sacrifice his son Ishmael as an act of obedience to God, before God intervened to provide him with a sheep— to sacrifice...

 are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. The mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri, also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Persian/Urdu: ) or Data Sahib, is located in Lahore, and an annual urs
Urs
Urs is the death anniversary of a Sufi saint in South Asia, usually held at the saint's dargah . South Asian Sufis being mainly Chishtiyya, refer to their saints as lovers and God as beloved...

is held every year as a big festival.

Basant is a Punjabi
Punjabi Culture
Punjabi Culture is the culture of the Punjab region. It is one of the oldest in world history, dating from ancient antiquity to the modern era. The Punjabi culture is the culture of the Punjabi people who are now distributed throughout the world. The scope, history, sophistication and complexity of...

 festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.

The Festival of Lamps, or Mela Chiraghan
Mela Chiraghan
Mela Chiraghan or Mela Shalamar is a three day annual festival to mark the urs of the Punjabi Sufi poet and saint Shah Hussain. It takes place at the shrine of Shah Hussain in Baghbanpura, on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the Shalimar Gardens...

, is an important and popular event in Lahore. This is celebrated at the same time as Basant, every spring on the last Friday of March, outside the Shalimar Gardens.

The National Horse and Cattle Show is one of the most famous annual festivals, held in spring in the Fortress Stadium. The week-long activities include a livestock display, horse and camel dances, tent pegging
Tent pegging
Tent pegging is a cavalry sport of ancient origin, and is one of only ten equestrian disciplines officially recognised by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Used narrowly, the term refers to a specific mounted game with ground targets...

, colourful folk dances from all regions of Pakistan, mass-band displays, and tattoo shows in the evenings.
On August 14, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day Pakistan gained its independence from the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

. There are lots of celebrations in Lahore; the streets are full of people singing and dancing. Parades of the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 and Pakistan Air Force
Pakistan Air Force
The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...

 are held early in the morning. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers.

The World Performing Arts Festival is held every autumn (usually in November) at the Alhambra cultural complex, a large venue consisting of several theatres and amphitheatres. This ten-day festival consists of musicals, theatre, concerts, dance, solo, mime, and puppetry shows. The festival has an international character, with nearly 80 percent of the shows performed by international performers. On average 15–20 different shows are performed every day of the festival.

Lahoris are known for their love of food and eating. While Lahore has a great many traditional and modern restaurants, in recent years Western fast food
Fast food
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a...

 chains, such as McDonald's
McDonald's
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

, Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread....

, Domino's Pizza
Domino's Pizza
Domino's Pizza, Inc. is an international pizza delivery corporation headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America. Founded in 1960, Domino's is the second-largest pizza chain in the United States and has over 9,000 corporate and franchised stores in 60 countries and all 50 U.S....

, Subway Sandwiches, Dunkin Donuts, Nando's
Nando's
Nando's is a casual dining restaurant group originating from South Africa with a Portuguese/Mozambican theme. Founded in 1987, Nando's operates in thirty countries on five continents....

, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Hardee's
Hardee's
Hardee's is a restaurant chain, located mostly in the Southeast and Midwestern regions of the United States. It has evolved through several corporate ownerships since its establishment in 1960. It is currently owned and operated by CKE Restaurants. Along with its sibling restaurant chain, Carl's...

 have appeared all over the city. Recently the food street
Food Street, Gawalmandi
Food Street in Gawalmandi, Lahore is a centre of traditional Pakistani food. The site is surrounded by centuries-old buildings and places like Landa Bazaar, Mayo Hospital and Baansan-wala Bazaar. The food street is open to traffic in the morning but as the sun sets, the street is closed to...

s in the historic locales of Lahore (Gawalmandi
Gawalmandi
Gawalmandi is an iconic town located in the central part of Lahore. It is regarded as the cultural centre of Lahore. The famous Food Street of Lahore is located here.-Facilities :...

, Anarkali
Anarkali
Anarkali ; Anārkalī ) was a legendary slave girl from Lahore, Punjab . During the Mughal period, she was supposedly ordered to be buried alive between two walls by Mughal emperor Akbar for having an illicit relationship with the Prince Nuruddin Saleem later to become Emperor Jahangir...

, and Badshahi) have attracted tourists. Food streets have undergone restorations and are cordoned off in the evenings for pedestrian traffic only; numerous cafés serve local delicacies under the lights and balconies of restored havelis (traditional residential dwellings). Some of the trendiest restaurants in Lahore are concentrated on the M M Alam Road in Gulberg. Here, dozens of high-class culinary outlets, ranging from Western franchises to traditional, ethnic, or theme restaurants, attract all classes of Lahore's citizens. New restaurants are constantly opening, and the business is extremely competitive. Many boisterous restaurants of Lahore are open late into the night. Some branches of Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread....

 and McDonald's
McDonald's
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

 are open 24/7; McDonald's and KFC
KFC
KFC, founded and also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is a chain of fast food restaurants based in Louisville, Kentucky, in the United States. KFC has been a brand and operating segment, termed a concept of Yum! Brands since 1997 when that company was spun off from PepsiCo as Tricon Global...

 also offer a home delivery service. Lahore also boasts a unique restaurant housed in a 300-year-old Kothi-style dwelling of a famous artist which was once a brothel. At different times in the life of this property, Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

, Buddhist, Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

, and Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 families have owned it. Another famous Lahore landmark is the Pak Tea House
Pak Tea House
Pak Tea House was an intellectual cafe in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan that has traditionally been frequented by the city's artistic, cultural and literary personalities. Some of the most well-known regulars were Faiz Ahmed Faiz, Ibn-e-Insha, Ahmed Faraz, Saadat Hasan Manto, Muneer Niazi, Mira Ji,...

 in Anarkali
Anarkali
Anarkali ; Anārkalī ) was a legendary slave girl from Lahore, Punjab . During the Mughal period, she was supposedly ordered to be buried alive between two walls by Mughal emperor Akbar for having an illicit relationship with the Prince Nuruddin Saleem later to become Emperor Jahangir...

, long a favored haunt of intellectuals and artists. Lahore remains a traditional center of Pakistani Chinese cuisine
Pakistani Chinese cuisine
Pakistani Chinese cuisine refers to the styles and variations of Chinese cuisine that are cooked and consumed in Pakistan. Chinese migrants to Pakistan have developed a distinct Pakistani-style Chinese cuisine.-History:...

, demonstrated through the large presence and popularity of Chinese restaurants in the city.

The alleys and lanes of these bazaars are full of traditional wares like leather articles, embroidered garments, glass bangles, beaten gold and silver jewelry, and creations in silk. Anarkali
Anarkali
Anarkali ; Anārkalī ) was a legendary slave girl from Lahore, Punjab . During the Mughal period, she was supposedly ordered to be buried alive between two walls by Mughal emperor Akbar for having an illicit relationship with the Prince Nuruddin Saleem later to become Emperor Jahangir...

 is named after the famous courtesan of Akbar’s time, Anarkali (Pomegranate Blossom). The grave of Sultan Qutbuddin Aibak, who died falling off his horse while playing polo, is located in Anarkali on Aibak Road. Rang Mahal is part of old Lahore and today's houses a largest wholesale and retail cloth markets in Punjab. Lahore's technology markets include the Hall Road, Pakistan's largest electronics market adjacent to the Mall Road, Abid Market on Queen's Road and the Hafeez Centre, Asia's largest computer market, located on the Gulberg Main Boulevard. Pace, a shopping centre, is also located on the Main Boulevard beside the Hafeez Centre. Other well-known and popular shopping areas are the Liberty Market in Gulberg and at the Fortress Stadium
Fortress Stadium (Lahore)
The Fortress Stadium is a popular open space consisting of shopping centres, restaurants, cafes and entertainment areas and a sports stadium. It is located Lahore Cantt, Lahore, Pakistan. Among the likes of M. M. Alam road and Liberty in Gulberg, this area is a popular locale for the urban youth...

, as well as malls in Gulberg, Model Town, M M Alam Road, and Cantonment. Apart from these, shopping areas are being developed in many of Lahore's new suburbs such as Bahria, Lake City, and Cantonment.

Lahore offers a variety of nighttime activities. There are popular shisha bars (offering the flavoured tobacco pipes commonly found in Middle Eastern nations), attractive food outlets, and musical concerts and shows. Alcohol is available to foreigners who request it at certain hotels, but is generally not sold in public. Lahoris are known for their exquisite taste in food, so the market has produced some of the most versatile, classy and inviting restaurants in the world. The blend of food and music at some uniquely expressive locales is exceptional. There are many shopping areas which remain open late into the night, offering an atmosphere of lively hustle and bustle (not to mention numerous bargains). There are scenic parks that are frequented by joggers, couples, children, students and seniors. Bagh-e-Jinnah
Bagh-e-Jinnah
Bagh-e-Jinnah is a historical park in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. It was formerly known as Lawrence Gardens. Today, the large green space contains a botanical garden, a mosque, and Jinnah library situated in a Victorian building.There are also entertainment and sports facilities within the...

 (formerly known as Lawrence Gardens) is one such place; it has a large variety of gorgeous plants, trees, long and varied pathways and creative light effects. The younger crowd is generally more attracted to shops and restaurants near Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium is a cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. It was designed by Daghestani-born architect and engineer Nasreddin Murat-Khan who also designed Lahore's Minar-e-Pakistan and constructed by Mian Abdul Khaliq and Company in 1959. Following the ground's renovation for the 1996 Cricket World...

, Fortress Stadium and Gulberg. Most of the food chains are also here.
The city has many significant connections with Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

 and played an important part in the history of the Sikh Gurus. Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and was given the title of Sikh Guru on 30 August 1574.-Early life:Ram Das was born in Lahore, Punjab on 24 September 1534[1] to a Sodhi family of the Khatri clan. His father was Hari Das and his mother Anup Devi. His wife was Bibi Bhani,...

 was born at Bazaar Chuna Mandi, Lahore in 1534 A.D. Guru Arjan Dev
Guru Arjan Dev
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was born in Goindval, Punjab, India, the youngest son of Guru Ram Das and Bibi Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He became the Guru of the Sikhs on 1 September 1581 after the death of his father Guru Ram Das. Guru Arjan died in...

 got the foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib, laid by a Muslim Saint Hazrat Mian Mir Ji of Lahore in December 1588. Guru Arjan met an untimely death when he was tortured on the orders of the Emperor Jahangir in 1606 in this city. The Gurdwara Dehra Sahib and the Ranjit Singh Samadhi are located in Lahore.

Parks and gardens



Lahore is known as the City of Gardens. Many gardens were built in Lahore during the Mughal era, some of which still survive. The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan, , Persian: شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (Full title: His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan...

 and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an
Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh
Charbagh
Charbagh is a Persian-style garden layout. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts...

 layout of four squares, with three descending terraces. The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th century British Viceroy to India. The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh
Hazuri Bagh
Hazuri Bagh is a garden in Lahore, Pakistan, bounded by the Lahore Fort , Badshahi Mosque , the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh and the Roshnai Gate...

, Iqbal Park
Iqbal Park
Iqbal Park is large area of green space, located at the heart of Lahore city in Pakistan. The park accommodates Minar-e-Pakistan , a 60 meters tall distinctive monument in the shape of a minaret that has been built in commemoration of the Lahore Resolution passed at the three-day general session...

, Mochi Bagh
Mochi Bagh
The Mochi Bagh is Pakistan's most famous political rally spot. It is located in Lahore, Pakistan. Mochi gate is entrance to the Mochi Bagh . All renowned leaders of Pakistan and pre-independent era have delivered speeches here....

, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park
Jilani Park
Jilani Park is located in the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is on the Jail Road in front of the Services Hospital. It is famous for its floral exhibitions and artificial waterfall. Annual horse racing competitions are held in this park....

, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga
Changa Manga
The Changa Manga is a planted forest and a wildlife park in Lahore District, Punjab, Pakistan.-Forestry:The forest is entered from a road from off the N-5 Highway near Bhai Pheru. The forest covers an area of and is one of the largest man-made forests on the planet...

, an artificial forest near Lahore in the Kasur
Kasur
Kasur , the capital of Kasur District in Pakistan. Kasur is located adjacent to the border of Ganda Singh Wala between Pakistan and India, and is a tourist attraction because of the daily occurring Flags lowering ceremony...

 district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah
Bagh-e-Jinnah
Bagh-e-Jinnah is a historical park in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. It was formerly known as Lawrence Gardens. Today, the large green space contains a botanical garden, a mosque, and Jinnah library situated in a Victorian building.There are also entertainment and sports facilities within the...

, a 141 acres (57.1 ha) botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.

The Lahore Zoo
Lahore Zoo
Lahore Zoo in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, established in 1872, one of the largest zoos in South Asia. It is currently managed by the Wildlife and Parks department of the Government of Pakistan. Today the zoo houses a collection of about 1380 animals of 136 species...

 is the second oldest zoo in the South Asia after Calcutta and has been a source of amusement and recreation for families for more than a 100 years. In December 2004, Pakistan and China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 signed a million contract for the construction of a housing project on Multan Road in Lahore. The result was Sukh Chayn Gardens
Sukh Chayn Gardens
Sukh Chayn Gardens Housing Estate is a Gated Community in the suburbs of Lahore, Pakistan. It is a joint venture between the governments of Pakistan and China.-History:...

, a beautiful housing society full of lush green parks and gardens.

Lahore also has a safari park covering more than 200 acre (81 ha). The park has safaris for different animals. The safaris with tigers, lions, rhinos, elephants, bear, apes, African and Indus plane animals cover an area of 80 acre (32 ha). Pakistan’s largest walkthrough aviary
Aviary
An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. Unlike cages, aviaries allow birds a larger living space where they can fly; hence, aviaries are also sometimes known as flight cages...

 is also located here, with all kinds of birds, including pheasants, waterfowls and peacocks. Birds are kept in their natural habitat instead of being caged; a net fence at the perimeter keeps birds in the aviary. There are more than a thousand species of animals in the park. Lahore's biggest lake is also situated here for boating and fishing.

Jilani Park
Jilani Park
Jilani Park is located in the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is on the Jail Road in front of the Services Hospital. It is famous for its floral exhibitions and artificial waterfall. Annual horse racing competitions are held in this park....

 (formerly Race Course Park) is famous for its floral exhibitions and artificial waterfall. Annual horse racing competitions are held in this park.

Health care



Lahore has a number of hospitals, including Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital
Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre
Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre is a state-of-the-art cancer centre located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is a project of the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Trust, which is a charitable organization established under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860 of Pakistan....

, Mayo Hospital
Mayo Hospital
Mayo Hospital is one of the oldest and biggest hospital in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. King Edward Medical University is the attached university which is Pakistan's most prestigious and South Asia's second oldest institution.-History:...

, Hamid Latif Hospital, Nawaz Sharif Social Security Hospital, Lahore General Hospital
Lahore General Hospital
Lahore General Hospital is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is famous for its Neurosurgery.-External links:*...

, Jinnah Hospital, Gulab Devi Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital (Pakistan)
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital is a hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, it was originally established by Sir Ganga Ram, a Hindu Civil Engineer in the British Government at Lahore in 1921. In 1946 the family of Sir Ganga Ram started a medical college by the name Balak Ram medical College named after a son of Sir...

, Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Ittefaq Hospital, Punjab Institute of Cardiology
Punjab Institute of Cardiology
Punjab Institute of Cardiology , located in Lahore, Pakistan, is a 292-bed tertiary care hospital providing nationwide comprehensive cardiac care services for the last 18 years. Its services include cardiac emergency, OPD, diagnostics, interventional and invasive cardiology and cardiac surgery....

 and Sharif Medical Complex. The current government of Punjab has a comprehensive plan to establish new hospitals and medical colleges in the city.

Education



Lahore is known as Pakistan's educational capital, with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan. Lahore is Pakistan’s largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics, Nanotechnology and the only future high tech center of Pakistan . Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. The current literacy rate of Lahore is 74%.

Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest educational institutes: Government College Lahore (now Government College University
Government College University
Government College University, Lahore is a co-educational public university located on The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan...

), established in 1864; Forman Christian College
Forman Christian College
Forman Christian College University, or FCCU, is a chartered university in Lahore, Pakistan, named after its American-born founder, Dr. Charles William Forman.- History :...

, a chartered university established in 1864; University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab , colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The University of the Punjab is the oldest and biggest University of Pakistan. The University of the Punjab was formally established with the convening of the first meeting of its...

, established in 1882; Kinnaird College
Kinnaird College
Kinnaird College for Women is a college in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is partially semi- government institute recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.-Early history:...

, established in 1913; and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (UET Lahore), established in 1921. UET is also Pakistan's oldest technical degree-awarding institute and its first university in the field of engineering and technology.

Lahore's institutes in the fields of computer science, IT, and engineering include the National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences is a university in Pakistan with headquarters at Islamabad and campuses at Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad and Peshawar...

 (NUCES or FAST-NU), Beaconhouse National University
Beaconhouse National University
Beaconhouse National University is a liberal arts university in Lahore, Pakistan. Chartered by the Government of Punjab, Beaconhouse National University was established in 2003 by the Beaconhouse School System and its owner, Mrs. Kasuri, to provide a modern education while ensuring that the...

 (SCIT,BNU) and Punjab University College of Information Technology. Notable architecture schools include Beaconhouse National University
Beaconhouse National University
Beaconhouse National University is a liberal arts university in Lahore, Pakistan. Chartered by the Government of Punjab, Beaconhouse National University was established in 2003 by the Beaconhouse School System and its owner, Mrs. Kasuri, to provide a modern education while ensuring that the...

, COMSATS University of Science and Technology, University of South Asia
University of South Asia, Lahore
University of South Asia is a chartered university located in Lahore, Pakistan. It was mainly developed to promote computer education but since then has expanded to provide certified degrees in various fields of academia which include business studies, engineering, pharmaceuticals, architecture,...

, National College of Arts
National College of Arts
The National College of Arts Lahore, usually referred to by its acronym NCA, is a famous old college in Lahore, Pakistan.Like all old institutions, the National College of Arts, has a historical tradition. Much of its present tone was set long ago when it was known as the Mayo School of Arts...

 and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore. Notable business schools include the Lahore University of Management Sciences
Lahore University of Management Sciences
The Lahore University of Management Sciences, usually referred to by its acronym LUMS, is a university located in Lahore, Pakistan. LUMS was established in 1984 by a group of industrialists and people belonging to Pakistan's leading private and public sector corporations, to provide rigorous...

 (LUMS), Lahore School of Economics
Lahore School of Economics
The Lahore School of Economics was established in 1993 and chartered by the Government of Punjab in January 1997, through The Lahore School of Economics Act 1997 . It is based in the city of Lahore, Pakistan....

, National College of Business Administration & Economics
National College of Business Administration & Economics
The National College of Business Administration & Economics , located in Lahore, Pakistan, is a private sector university. The five colleges in the university are the faculties of Business studies , Computer Science, Environmental Management, Mathematics and Social Sciences...

, Forman Christian College
Forman Christian College
Forman Christian College University, or FCCU, is a chartered university in Lahore, Pakistan, named after its American-born founder, Dr. Charles William Forman.- History :...

, University of Central Punjab
University of Central Punjab
The University of Central Punjab , located in Lahore, Pakistan, is a private sector university. The five colleges in the university are the faculties of Commerce, Management Studies, Information Technology, Engineering, and Law.-History:...

 and University of Management and Technology. University of Education
University of Education
The University of Education , at Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan is the first specialized university in the field of education in Pakistan. It was established on September 10, 2002...

, established in 2002, is Pakistan's first specialized university in the field of education.university of lahore

Lahore also provides education in many fields of health sciences. Notable medical colleges offering MBBS
MBBS
MBBS was a popular BBS system in the Nordic countries during the mid-1990s. It was created by a team of Oslo-based enthusiasts, led by Mike Robertson. As many BBS systems of that era, it was only available for the DOS platform. Since one process could only handle one node, multitaskers such as...

 degrees include Allama Iqbal Medical College
Allama Iqbal Medical College
Allama Iqbal Medical College Allama Iqbal Medical College Allama Iqbal Medical College (Urdu:, established in 1975, is a public school of medicine, nursing and allied health sciences located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Jinnah hospital is attached to the college as a teaching hospital. Today Allama...

, Fatima Jinnah Medical College
Fatima Jinnah Medical College
The Fatima Jinnah Medical College, named after Fatima Jinnah, is located in Lahore, the capital of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Fatima Jinnah Medical College/Sir Ganga Ram Hospital is a medical institution with purpose built facilities to teach and train female doctors and also impart...

, King Edward Medical University, Lahore Medical and Dental College
Lahore Medical and Dental College
Lahore Medical & Dental College was founded as a private medical college under the aegis of a non-profit trust after obtaining no objection certificate from the Government of Punjab...

, Services Institute of Medical Sciences
Services Institute of Medical Sciences
Services Institute of Medical Sciences is a public medical school, attached to Services Hospital, and located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Its Principal Chief Executive is Prof. Dr. Faisal Masud....

, Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical and Dental College
Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical and Dental College
Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical and Dental College is a public college of medicine and dentistry located in New Muslim Town, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It was established on September 8, 1986 and named in honor of the late Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan...

 and Shalamar Medical and Dental College
Shalamar Medical and Dental College
Shalamar Medical and Dental College , established in 2009 and named after Shalimar Gardens, is a private college of medicine and dentistry located in Shalimar Town, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is registered with PMDC, affiliated with LUMS, CPSP and UHS and approved by Ministry of Health...

. Important postgraduate institutes are Punjab Institute of Cardiology
Punjab Institute of Cardiology
Punjab Institute of Cardiology , located in Lahore, Pakistan, is a 292-bed tertiary care hospital providing nationwide comprehensive cardiac care services for the last 18 years. Its services include cardiac emergency, OPD, diagnostics, interventional and invasive cardiology and cardiac surgery....

 and University of Health Sciences, Lahore. University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences , located in Lahore, Pakistan, was established in 2002 by upgrading College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, which was established in 1882. The University comprises 5 Faculties, 3 Institutes, 5 Directorates, hospitals, and Library...

 is the only college in Lahore providing education in the field of veterinary medicine. De'Montmorency College of Dentistry is an important college of dentistry. There are many institutes offering education in fields of nursing and pharmacy as well.

Notable schools include Aitchison College
Aitchison College
Aitchison College, Lahore, is one of the most prestigious educational institutions of its kind in South Asia. Established in 1886, it has retained its character over the years, maintaining the public school tradition of providing an education that uses academics, sports and co-curricular activities...

, Beaconhouse School System, St. Anthony's College
St. Anthony's High School (Lahore)
St. Anthony's High School is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lahore in Pakistan. It is ranked among the best educational institutions in Punjab. It is situated at Lahore's historical road, The Mall....

, The Punjab School, Divisional Public School and Lahore Grammar School .

Arts and media


Lahore is at the core of Pakistan's media and arts scene. Pakistan's most prestigious art college, National College of Arts
National College of Arts
The National College of Arts Lahore, usually referred to by its acronym NCA, is a famous old college in Lahore, Pakistan.Like all old institutions, the National College of Arts, has a historical tradition. Much of its present tone was set long ago when it was known as the Mayo School of Arts...

, is located here. Every year, it hosts the World Performing Arts Festival, in which artists from dozens of countries show off their talents. This festival is managed by the Peerzada group, which is also the largest puppetry theater company in Pakistan.

Lahore is also home to the country's developing fashion industry.It houses Pakistan's most esteemed board of designers, the Pakistan Fashion Design Council, which features some of Pakistan's best names in the circles of fashion and design.As a result the city is supported by numerous designer outlets and the country's most prestigious fashion school, the Pakistan School of Fashion Design
Pakistan School of Fashion Design
Pakistan Institute of Fashion Design is a graduate school for fashion design located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The school was founded in 1995 and is known as the preeminent fashion school in Pakistan. PIFD was the first institution to offer graduate training in fashion design in Pakistan...

, which has some of the best photo studios and photographers in the country. The Pakistan Fashion Design Council, also successfully organized the Lahore Fashion Week 2010 as well as the PFDC Sunsilk Fashion Week Lahore 2011.

Lahore has also been home to Pakistan's old classical music, ghazal
Ghazal
The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century...

s and Qawwali
Qawwali
Qawwali is a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia, particularly in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan, Hyderabad, Delhi, and other parts of northern India...

s, with big names such as Noor Jehan
Noor Jehan
Noorjehan or Noorjehan was the adopted stage name for Allah Wasai who was a legendary singer and actress in British India and Pakistan. Her career spanned seven decades...

, Arif Lohar
Arif Lohar
Arif Lohar is a Pakistani folk singer. He usually sings with native musical instrument resembling tongs . His folk music is representative of traditional folk heritage of the Punjab...

, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Mehdi Hassan
Mehdi Hassan
Mehdi Hassan is a Pakistani ghazal singer and a former playback singer for Lollywood. He is famously known as the 'King of ghazal' . He has ruled the Pakistan film industry along with Ahmed Rushdi...

 and Ghulam Ali residing in the city. In recent years Lahore has produced some of Pakistan's greatest pop singers, such as Ali Azmat
Ali Azmat
Ali Azmat is a Ali Azmat is a...

, Atif Aslam
Atif Aslam
Atif Aslam is a Pakistani pop singer. He is widely recognized in South Asia and has given several hit songs such as Aadat, Woh Lamhe, Tere Bin, Bakhuda Tumhi Ho, Pehli Nazar Mein, Tera Hone Laga Hoon, Tu Jaane Na, Tere Liye. He is one of the most popular South Asian celebrity on Facebook with...

 and Ali Zafar
Ali Zafar
Ali Zafar is a Pakistani musician, composer, song writer, singer, actor, painter and model, popular in Pakistan for his music, including his hit songs like "Channo", "Rangeen", "Chal Dil Merey", "Dekha", "Masty" and "Sajania"...

. The city is recognized as the birthplace of South Asia's modern rock scene thanks to popular bands like Junoon, Jal
Jal (band)
Jal is a pop rock band from Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The band originally consisted of song writer, vocalist and lead guitarist, Goher Mumtaz and vocalist, Atif Aslam...

, Call, Roxen
Roxen (band)
Roxen is a Pakistani rock band from Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Formed in 2004, the band's original lineup included Mustafa Zahid on vocals, Haider Halim on lead guitar, Omar Halim and Jawad, more commonly known as Jodi.The band achieved mainstream success with their debut studio album...

, Noori
Noori
Noori is a rock band from Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, formed in 1996. The band is directed by founder, lead guitarist and songwriter, Ali Noor, and his brother, Ali Hamza, who were soon joined by bassist Muhammad Ali Jafri and drummer Salman Albert...

 and Entity Paradigm, some of whose songs have been featured in Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

 films.

Pakistan's film industry is based in the city and is called Lollywood
Lollywood
Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry based in the city of Lahore. The word "Lollywood" was first coined in the summer of 1989 in the now defunct magazine "Glamour" published from Karachi by a gossip columnist Saleem Nasir. The film industry in Lahore started in 1929 with the opening of...

. Many films are filmed in Lahore and the city has some of the oldest film studios in the country. Many actors and directors are based in Lahore, which brings many artists together to launch films. Cinema's popularity is on the upswing again in recent years and IMAX is building outlets in the city. Several FM radio stations and television stations have set up their operations here. Lahore is home to many popular news channels such as Dunya News
Dunya News
Dunya News is an Urdu language news and current affairs television channel from Pakistan. Dunya in English means "World". Since its launch in 2008, the channel have been giving strong competition to the other news channels in the country. Dunya News is now available throughout Pakistan on local...

 and Express News
Express News (Pakistan)
Express News is an Urdu language Pakistani television news channel launched on January 1, 2008. It is owned and run by the country's third largest Urdu daily, Daily Express...

 amongst others.Geo TV
Geo TV
Geo TV or Geo Television is a Pakistani television network, founded by Mr. Mir Shakil ur Rehman in May 2002 and owned by Independent Media Corporation. The channel began test transmission on 14 August 2002, with regular transmission beginning 1 October 2002...

's Infotainment Division and Pakistan's first children's television channel, Wikid, as well as Pakistan's first community channel, Asset Plus (available only in DHA Lahore
Defence Housing Authority, Lahore
The Defence Housing Authority , Lahore is a housing society located in southern Lahore, Pakistan. It was originally built for army officers, but is now a popular destination for potential residents and businessmen...

) and lifestyle channel, Value TV are all based here. The television channel, City 42
City 42
City 42 is a Lahore-based news channel which broadcasts news and information about latest happenings and events in the city of Lahore in Punjab, Pakistan. The channel contains a variety of programs in Urdu and English which span from current affairs to general infotainment....

 broadcasts news and information about latest happenings and events in the city. The channel contains a variety of programs in Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 and English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 which span from current affairs to general infotainment.

Sports


Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium
Gaddafi Stadium is a cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. It was designed by Daghestani-born architect and engineer Nasreddin Murat-Khan who also designed Lahore's Minar-e-Pakistan and constructed by Mian Abdul Khaliq and Company in 1959. Following the ground's renovation for the 1996 Cricket World...

 is a Test cricket ground in Lahore. Designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada
Nayyar Ali Dada
Nayyar Ali Dada is an architect, who is renowned in Pakistan.-Early life and Education:Born Nayyar Ali Zaidi, he was given his commonly recognized last name by a teacher for his painting and drawing skills...

, it was completed in 1959 and is one of the biggest cricket stadiums in Asia. After its renovation for the 1996 Cricket World Cup
1996 Cricket World Cup
The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup after its official sponsors, was the sixth edition of the tournament organized by the International Cricket Council . It was the second World Cup to be hosted by Pakistan and India, and for the first time by Sri Lanka...

, the stadium now boasts a capacity of over 60,000. Nearby is an athletics stadium, a basketball pitch, the Al Hamra, open-air hall similar in design to the coliseum, and the world's largest field hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

 stadium, Another Cricket Ground and Headquarters of Pakistan Cricket Board, all based in the city's Sports complex. In the same vicinity lie headquarters of the Pakistan Football Federation
Pakistan Football Federation
The Pakistan Football Federation is the governing body of football in Pakistan. The PFF’s headquarters is at FIFA Football House in Lahore, Punjab near the Punjab Stadium.-Overview:...

, as well as the multi-sport Punjab Stadium
Punjab Stadium
Punjab Stadium is a football stadium in Lahore, Pakistan. It is used for other sporting events. The stadium was built in 2003 and had been built at a cost of Rs. 110 million. The stadium has a capacity of 10,000.The architect of the project is Khalil ur Rehman & Associates. The Pakistan Football...

.

Lahore is home to Lahore Lions
Lahore Lions
The Lahore Lions are a Twenty-20 Cup team based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The team was established in 2004 and its home ground is Gaddafi Stadium. The team is one of several proposed franchises for the Pakistan Super League. The team has won 2010-11 Faysal Bank Twenty-20 Cup under the captaincy...

 and Lahore Eagles
Lahore Eagles
The Lahore Eagles are a Pakistan Super League team, based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The team was established in 2006 and its home ground is Gaddafi Stadium. The team is one of several proposed franchises for the Pakistan Super League...

 in Twenty-20 Cup, as well as to Pakistan Premier League
Pakistan Premier League
The Pakistan Premier League is the first division of Pakistani football. It was established in 2004, in place of the National Championship by the Pakistan Football Federation.-Origins:...

 giants WAPDA FC
WAPDA FC
WAPDA are a Pakistani football club who play in the Pakistan Premier League.WAPDA have been Pakistani champions 7 times. They won their first title in 1983, beating HBL FC, and repeated this feat in 1991 against HBL. In 2001 they overcame KRL FC to win their third title, and retained their title in...

, Pakistan Railways FC
Pakistan Railways FC
The Pakistan Railways are a Pakistani football club from Lahore who play in the Pakistan Premier League and play at the Railway Stadium. Nicknamed the Railwaymen, they are one of the oldest football clubs in Pakistan and were created by the railway workers on the Pakistan Railway.In 1969, they beat...

, PEL FC
PEL FC
PEL FC is a Pakistani football club based in Lahore that competes in Pakistan Premier League. It is affiliated with Pakistani appliance and electronics company Pak Elektron Limited....

, and Wohaib FC
Wohaib FC
Hafiz Wohaib Butt Memorial Football Club or simply Wohaib FC are a football club playing in the Pakistan Premier League. The club is based in the city of Lahore....

.
In addition to cricket and football, Kabaddi
Kabaddi
Kabaddi is a South Asian team sport...

, a South Asian team sport, is also popular in Lahore. Many citizens play Kabbadi after work.

Lahore's elites are very fond of golf. The city is home to several spectacular golf courses. Among them the most popular are the Lahore Gymkhana Golf Course
Lahore Gymkhana Club
Lahore Gymkhana Club is a sports club in Lahore, Pakistan. It offers sports including golf, swimming and squash, and organizes social activities for the members. It is situated on Upper Mall Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam...

 and the Bank Alfalah Mini Golf Course.

The newly opened Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort is a great addition to the city.It is a state-of-the-art facility featuring Golf, water parks, and leisure activities such as horse riding, archery and more.

The Lahore Marathon
Lahore Marathon
The Lahore Marathon is an annual road marathon held in Lahore, Pakistan since 2005. The main event is the traditional 42.195 km marathon race. Other races in the marathon include a 10 km race, 5 km "Family Fun Run", and 3 km races for people with physical and visual impairment...

 is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered PLC is a multinational financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom with operations in more than seventy countries...

 across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The Lahore race carries prize money of approximately More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on January 30, 2005, and again on January 29, 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on January 14, 2007.

Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the Ravi River
Ravi River
The Ravi is a trans-boundary river flowing through Northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is one of the six rivers of the Indus System in Punjab region ....

.

Twin towns and sister cities


Lahore is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, since 2007 Bogotá, Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

 Bukhara
Bukhara
Bukhara , from the Soghdian βuxārak , is the capital of the Bukhara Province of Uzbekistan. The nation's fifth-largest city, it has a population of 263,400 . The region around Bukhara has been inhabited for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time...

, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

 Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, since 2007 Coimbra
Coimbra
Coimbra is a city in the municipality of Coimbra in Portugal. Although it served as the nation's capital during the High Middle Ages, it is better-known for its university, the University of Coimbra, which is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest academic institution in the...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 Córdoba
Córdoba, Spain
-History:The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC. In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos period, a pre-urban settlement existed. The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy...

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, since 1994 Dushanbe
Dushanbe
-Economy:Coal, lead, and arsenic are mined nearby in the cities of Nurek and Kulob allowing for the industrialization of Dushanbe. The Nurek Dam, the world's highest as of 2008, generates 95% of Tajikistan's electricity, and another dam, the Roghun Dam, is planned on the Vakhsh River...

, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan , officially the Republic of Tajikistan , is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east....

 Fes
Fes, Morocco
Fes or Fez is the second largest city of Morocco, after Casablanca, with a population of approximately 1 million . It is the capital of the Fès-Boulemane region....

, Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

, since 1994 Fresno
Fresno, California
Fresno is a city in central California, United States, the county seat of Fresno County. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 510,365, making it the fifth largest city in California, the largest inland city in California, and the 34th largest in the nation...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, since 2006 Hounslow
Hounslow
Hounslow is the principal town in the London Borough of Hounslow. It is a suburban development situated 10.6 miles west south-west of Charing Cross. It forms a post town in the TW postcode area.-Etymology:...

, England Isfahan, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, since 2004 Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, since 1975 Kortrijk
Kortrijk
Kortrijk ; , ; ) is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province West Flanders...

, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, since 1993 Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

  Mashad, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, since 2006 Sariwon
Sariwon
Sariwŏn is the capital of North Hwanghae Province, North Korea. The city's population is estimated to be 310,100 people.-Healthcare:Sariwon has the only pediatric hospital in the entire region; it serves 16 districts and 500,000 children and teens annually....

, North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

, since 1988 Samarkand
Samarkand
Although a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest . In the 6th century it was within the domain of the Turkic kingdom of the Göktürks.At the start of the 8th century Samarkand came...

, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

, since 1995 Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, since 1992

External links