Islamabad

Islamabad

Overview
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
The Islamabad Capital Territory is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan. It includes Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, and covers an area of 1,165.5 km² of which 906 km² is Islamabad proper...

(ICT), the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011. The greater Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area is the third largest conurbation in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million inhabitants.

Combining a rich history, the confluence of many a civilization and temperate climate, Islamabad is one of the most beautiful cities in the South Asian region.
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Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
The Islamabad Capital Territory is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan. It includes Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, and covers an area of 1,165.5 km² of which 906 km² is Islamabad proper...

(ICT), the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011. The greater Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area is the third largest conurbation in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million inhabitants.

Combining a rich history, the confluence of many a civilization and temperate climate, Islamabad is one of the most beautiful cities in the South Asian region. A meticulously planned city, Islamabad is the fastest growing city in terms of population, economy, and urban development. Located in the Pothohar Plateau
Pothohar Plateau
The Pothohar Plateau is a plateau in north-eastern Pakistan and the western parts of Pakistan-administered Kashmir. The area was the home of the Soanian Culture, which is evidenced by the discovery of fossils, tools, coins, and remains of ancient archaeological sites...

 in the north of the country, the region has historically been at the crossroads of Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

 and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with Margalla pass
Margalla Hills
The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.- Etymology :Two...

 acting as the gateway between the two regions.

Islamabad is a well-organized city divided into different sectors and zones, which are adorned by wide, tree-lined streets. Known for its accessibility and vibrancy, it is regarded as the most developed city in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and was ranked as a Gamma world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 in 2008. The city is home to Faisal Mosque
Faisal Mosque
The Faisal Mosque is the largest mosque in Pakistan and is located in the national capital city of Islamabad.Faisal Mosque is conceived as the National Mosque of Pakistan...

, the largest mosque in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 and the sixth largest mosque in the world.

Islamabad has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan and is home to the some of the top-ranked universities in Pakistan, including Quaid-i-Azam University
Quaid-i-Azam University
The Quaid-i-Azam University is a public, research university in Islamabad Capital Territory of Pakistan. It was initially founded as the "University of Islamabad" in July 1967...

, Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences and the National University of Sciences and Technology. Allama Iqbal Open University
Allama Iqbal Open University
Allama Iqbal Open University , founded in 1974, is a university in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is one of the world's largest universities by enrollment, with 1,121,038 students in the year 2010 whereas Course Enrollment of these students are 3,305,948 -History:Allama Iqbal Open University was...

 in Islamabad is one of the world's largest universities by enrollment
World's largest universities
This list of largest universities by enrollment includes total active enrollment across all campuses . Enrollment numbers listed are the sum of undergraduate and graduate students in active enrollment...

.

Early history



Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
The Islamabad Capital Territory is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan. It includes Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, and covers an area of 1,165.5 km² of which 906 km² is Islamabad proper...

, located on the Pothohar Plateau
Pothohar Plateau
The Pothohar Plateau is a plateau in north-eastern Pakistan and the western parts of Pakistan-administered Kashmir. The area was the home of the Soanian Culture, which is evidenced by the discovery of fossils, tools, coins, and remains of ancient archaeological sites...

, is regarded to be one of the earliest sites of human settlement in Asia. Some of the earliest Stone Age artefacts in the world have been found on the plateau, dating from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. The crude stones recovered from the terraces of the Soan River
Soan River
The Soan , Sawaan , Sawan or Sohan River is a river in Punjab, Pakistan.- Location and Geography :...

 testify to the endeavours of early man in the inter-glacial
Glacial period
A glacial period is an interval of time within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate within an ice age...

 period. Items of pottery and utensils dating back to prehistory have been found.

Excavations have revealed evidence of a prehistoric culture. Relics and human skulls have been found dating back to 5000 BC that show this region was home to Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 people who settled on the banks of the Swaan River. The Neolithic people developed small communities in the region at around 3000 BC. A Buddhist town once existed in the region.

Situated at one end of the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

, the area was the first habitation of the Aryan
Aryan
Aryan is an English language loanword derived from Sanskrit ārya and denoting variously*In scholarly usage:**Indo-Iranian languages *in dated usage:**the Indo-European languages more generally and their speakers...

 community in Central Asia. Their civilisation flourished here between the 23rd and 18th centuries BC. Many great armies such as those of Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

, Timur
Timur
Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

 and Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

 used the corridor through Islamabad on their way to invade the Indian Subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

. Modern Islamabad is based on the old settlement known as Saidpur
Saidpur, Islamabad
-External Links:*...

. The British
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 took control of the region from the Sikhs in 1849 and built Asia's largest cantonment in the region.

Construction and Development


When Pakistan gained independence in 1947, Karachi was its first capital. In 1960, Islamabad was constructed as a forward capital for several reasons. Traditionally, development in Pakistan was focused on the colonial centre of Karachi, and President Ayub Khan wanted it to be equally distributed. Moreover, Karachi was located at one end of the country, making it vulnerable to attacks from the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

. A capital which was easily accessible from all parts of the country was needed. The newly selected location of Islamabad was closer to army headquarters in Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

 and the disputed territory of Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

 in the North.

In 1958, a commission was constituted to select a suitable site for the national capital with particular emphasis on location, climate, logistics, and defence requirements along with other attributes. After extensive study, research, and a thorough review of potential sites, the commission recommended the area northeast of Rawalpindi. A Greek firm of architects, Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis
Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis
Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis , was a Greek architect and town planner. He became world wide known as the lead architect of Islamabad, the new capital of Pakistan, and later as the father of Ekistics...

, designed the master plan of the city which was based on a grid plan
Grid plan
The grid plan, grid street plan or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid...

 and triangular in shape, with its apex towards the Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.- Etymology :Two...

. The capital was not moved directly from Karachi to Islamabad; it was first shifted temporarily to Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

 and then to Islamabad when the development was completed.

Recent history


Islamabad has attracted people from all over Pakistan, making it the most cosmopolitan city in the country. As the capital city it has hosted a number of important meetings, such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is an organisation of South Asian nations, founded in December 1985 by Ziaur Rahman and dedicated to economic, technological, social, and cultural development emphasising collective self-reliance. Its seven founding members are Bangladesh,...

 summit. In October 2005, the city suffered some damage due to the 2005 Kashmir earthquake
2005 Kashmir earthquake
The 2005 Kashmir earthquake was a major earthquake centered in Pakistan-administered Kashmir known as Azad Kashmir, near the city of Muzaffarabad, affecting Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Time on 8 October 2005...

 having a magnitude of 7.6. Islamabad has experienced a series of terrorist incidents including the July 2007 Siege of Lal Masjid
Siege of Lal Masjid
The siege of Lal Masjid was a confrontation in July 2007 between Islamic fundamentalist militants and the Government of Pakistan led by General Pervez Musharraf and Shaukat Aziz Administration, then Prime minister of Pakistan...

 (Red Mosque), the June 2008 Danish embassy bombing, and the September 2008 Marriott bombing
Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing
The Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing occurred during the night of 20 September 2008, when a dump truck filled with explosives detonated in front of the Marriott Hotel in the Pakistani capital Islamabad, killing at least 54 people, injuring at least 266 and leaving a 60 ft wide, 20 ft ...

.
A tragic incident took place on 28 July 2010, when a plane belonging to the Pakistani airline Air Blue, crashed in the Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.- Etymology :Two...

 killing all 152 flight crew and passengers on board.

Geography and climate




Islamabad is located at 33.43°N 73.04°E at the edge of the Pothohar Plateau
Pothohar Plateau
The Pothohar Plateau is a plateau in north-eastern Pakistan and the western parts of Pakistan-administered Kashmir. The area was the home of the Soanian Culture, which is evidenced by the discovery of fossils, tools, coins, and remains of ancient archaeological sites...

 at the foot of the Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.- Etymology :Two...

 in Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
The Islamabad Capital Territory is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan. It includes Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, and covers an area of 1,165.5 km² of which 906 km² is Islamabad proper...

. Its elevation is 507 metres (1,663.4 ft). The modern capital and the ancient Gakhar
Gakhars
The Gakhars are an ancient warrior clan who have predominantly resided in what is present day northern Punjab and South-Western Kashmir, Pakistan. In particular in the cities of Rawalpindi, Jhelum and regions of Gilgit, Baltistan, Chitral, Khanpur and Mirpur, Pakistan...

 city of Rawalpindi stand side by side and are commonly referred to as the Twin Cities. To the east of the city lies Murree
Murree
Murree city is a popular hill station and a summer resort, especially for the residents of Rawalpindi/Islamabad, and for the cities of the province of Punjab, Pakistan...

 and Kotli Sattian. To the north lies the Haripur District
Haripur District
Haripur is a district in the Hazara region of Khyber-Pukhtunkhwa, province of Pakistan with an altitude of around above sea level. Haripur District has the highest Human Development Index of all the districts in the Hazara....

 of North-West Frontier Province
North-West Frontier Province
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province and various other names, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the north-west of the country...

. Kahuta
Kahuta
Kahuta is a town and tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Pakistan's Punjab Province. According to Pakistan's 2008 census, Kahuta tehsil has a population of approximately 160,000....

 lies on the northeast, Taxila
Taxila
Taxila is a Tehsil in the Rawalpindi District of Punjab province of Pakistan. It is an important archaeological site.Taxila is situated about northwest of Islamabad Capital Territory and Rawalpindi in Panjab; just off the Grand Trunk Road...

, Wah Cantt
Wah Cantt
Wah Cantonment is a military city located in the Punjab province of Pakistan, to the north west of Rawalpindi/Islamabad.-History:...

, and Attock District
Attock District
Attock District is a district in the north-west Punjab Province of Pakistan.The district was created in April 1904 by the merger of Talagang Tehsil in the Jhelum District with the Pindigheb, Fatehjang and Attock tehsils from Rawalpindi District of the Punjab province of British India.Attock...

 to the northwest, Gujar Khan
Gujar Khan
Gujar Khan is a city in Rawalpindi District, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the headquarters of Gujar Khan Tehsil, the largest tehsil of Punjab. It is approximately 55 kilometres southeast of Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan and 220 km to the north west of Lahore, capital of Punjab...

, Kallar Syedian, Rawat, and Mandrah
Mandrah
Mandrah is a town in Gujar Khan Tehsil, Punjab, Pakistan. Mandrah is also chief town of Union Council Mandrah which is an administrative subdivision of the Tehsil.-Transport:...

 on the northeast, and Rawalpindi to the southwest. Islamabad is located 120 kilometres (74.6 mi) SSW of Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad
Muzaffarabad is the capital of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, Pakistan. It is located in Muzaffarabad District on the banks of the Jhelum and Neelum rivers...

, 185 kilometres (115 mi) east of Peshawar
Peshawar
Peshawar is the capital of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative center and central economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan....

, 295 kilometres (183.3 mi) NNE of Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, and 300 kilometres (186.4 mi) WSW of Srinagar
Srinagar
Srinagar is the summer seasonal capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated in Kashmir Valley and lies on the banks of the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus. It is one of the largest cities in India not to have a Hindu majority. The city is famous for its gardens, lakes and houseboats...

, the capital of Indian Kashmir.

The area of Islamabad is 906 square kilometres (349.8 sq mi). A further 2717 square kilometres (1,049 sq mi) area is known as the Specified Area, with the Margala Hills in the north and northeast. The southern portion of the city is an undulating plain. It is drained by the Kurang River, on which the Rawal Dam is located.

Islamabad's micro-climate is regulated by three artificial reservoirs; Rawal
Rawal lake
Rawal Lake in Pakistan is an artificial reservoir that provides the water needs for the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Korang River along with some other small streams coming from Margalla Hills have been set to form this artificial lake which covers an area of 8.8 km². Korang River is...

, Simli, and Khanpur Dam
Khanpur Dam
Khanpur Dam is a dam located on the Haro River near the town of Khanpur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Pakistan, about 25 miles from Islamabad, Pakistan...

. Khanpur Dam is located on the Haro River
Haro River
Haro is the name of a river and its valley in Abbottabad District in the North West Frontier Province of northern Pakistan, identified with the Rigvedic Arjikiya...

 near the town of Khanpur, about 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) from Islamabad. Simli Dam is located 30 kilometres (18.6 mi) north of Islamabad. 220 acres (89 ha) of the city consists of Margalla Hills National Park
Margalla Hills National Park
The Margalla Hills National Park is located in Northern Pakistan at the foothills of the Himalayas and is a National Park. It is approximately 17,386 hectares in size.-Location:...

. Loi Bher Forest is situated along the Islamabad Highway, covering an area of 1087 acres (439.9 ha).

Climate


Islamabad features an atypical version of a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

, with hot, humid summers accompanied by a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 season followed by cool winters. The hottest months are from May to July, where average highs routinely exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The monsoon season is from July through September, with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms. Highest monthly rainfall of 743.3 millimetres (29.3 in) was recorded during July 1995. Winters are from October to March with temperatures variable by location, generally with dense fog in the mornings and sunny afternoons. In the city, temperatures stay mild to cold with sparse snowfall over the highest elevations points on the Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.- Etymology :Two...

. The weather ranges from −3.6 C in January to 40 °C (104 °F) in June. The highest temperature recorded was 45 °C (113 °F) on 23 June 2005 while the lowest temperature was −6 C on 17 January 1967. On 23 July 2001, Islamabad received a record breaking 620 millimetres (24.4 in) of rainfall in just 10 hours. It was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad in the past 100 years and the highest rainfall in 24 hours as well.

Cityscape

Zones in Islamabad
Zone Area
acres km2

----
I 54958.25 acres (222.4 km²)
II 9804.92 acres (39.7 km²)
III 50393.01 acres (203.9 km²)
IV 69814.35 acres (282.5 km²)
V 39029.45 acres (157.9 km²)

----
Source: Lahore Real Estate

Civic administration


The main administrative authority of the city is Islamabad Capital Territory Administration (ICT) with some help from Capital Development Authority (CDA) which oversees the planning, development, construction, and administration of the city.

Islamabad Capital Territory is divided into eight zones: Administrative Zone, Commercial District, Educational Sector, Industrial Sector, Diplomatic Enclave, Residential Areas, Rural Areas and Green Area. Islamabad city is divided into five major zones: Zone I, Zone II, Zone III, Zone IV, and Zone V. Out of these, Zone IV is the largest in area. Zone I consists mainly of all the developed residential sectors while Zone II consists of the under-developed residential sectors. Each residential sector is identified by a letter of the alphabet and a number, and covers an area of approximately 2 km × 2 km ( mi ×  mi). The sectors are lettered from A to I, and each sector is divided into four numbered sub-sectors.
Series A, B, and C are still underdeveloped. The D series has seven sectors (D-11 to D-17), of which only sector D-12 is completely developed. This series is located at the foot of Margalla Hills. The E Sectors are named from E-7 to E-17. Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in these sectors. In the revised Master Plan of the city, CDA has decided to develop a park on the pattern of Fatima Jinnah Park
Fatima Jinnah Park
Fatima Jinnah Park is a public recreational park situated within the F-9 sector of Islamabad, Pakistan. The park is considered one of the largest covered areas in South Asia. It was named after the revered "Madre Millat" Miss Fatima Jinnah, the younger sister of the founder of Pakistan...

 in sector E-14. Sectors E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of three Defense universities: Bahria University
Bahria University
Bahria University is a multi-campus university with headquarters in Islamabad, Pakistan. BU has two main campuses, one in Islamabad and the other in Karachi, Pakistan...

, Air University, and the National Defence University
National Defence University
National Defence University may refer to:University*Finnish National Defence University*PLA National Defense University, People's Republic of China*National Defense University, USA...

.
The F and G series contains the most developed sectors. F series contains sectors F-5 to F-17; some sectors are still under-developed. F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as the two software technology parks are located here. The entire F-9 sector is covered with Fatima Jinnah Park. The Centaurus complex will be one of the major landmarks of the F-8 sector. G sectors are numbered G-5 through G-17. Some important places include the Jinnah Convention Center and Serena Hotel in G-5, the Red Mosque
Lal Masjid
The Lal Masjid is a mosque located in Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. A religious school for women, the Jamia Hafsa madrasah, and a male madrasah, Jamia Faridia are attached to the mosque.-History:...

 in G-6, and the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences is located in Islamabad, Pakistan. Objectives of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences are to provide a tertiary level patient care and serve as referral hospital and also to conduct teaching and training of doctors and other health workers at various level...

, the largest medical complex in the capital, located in G-8.

The H sectors are numbered H-8 through H-17. The H sectors are mostly dedicated to educational and health institutions. National University of Sciences and Technology covers a major portion of sector H-12. The I sectors are numbered from I-8 to I-18. With the exception of I-8, which is a well developed residential area, these sectors are primarily part of the industrial zone. Currently two sub-sectors of I-9 and one sub-sector of I-10 are used as industrial areas. CDA is planning to set up Islamabad Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in sector I-17.

Zone III consists primarily of the Margalla Hills
Margalla Hills
The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.- Etymology :Two...

 and Margalla Hills National Park
Margalla Hills National Park
The Margalla Hills National Park is located in Northern Pakistan at the foothills of the Himalayas and is a National Park. It is approximately 17,386 hectares in size.-Location:...

. Rawal Lake
Rawal lake
Rawal Lake in Pakistan is an artificial reservoir that provides the water needs for the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Korang River along with some other small streams coming from Margalla Hills have been set to form this artificial lake which covers an area of 8.8 km². Korang River is...

 is in this zone. Zone IV and V consist of Islamabad Park, and rural areas of the city. The Soan River
Soan River
The Soan , Sawaan , Sawan or Sohan River is a river in Punjab, Pakistan.- Location and Geography :...

 flows into the city through Zone V.

Islamabad/Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area


When the master plan for Islamabad was drawn up in 1960, Islamabad and Rawalpindi, along with the adjoining areas, would be integrated to form a large metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 called Islamabad/Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area. The area would consist of the developing Islamabad, the old colonial, cantonement city of Rawalpindi, and Margalla Hills National Park, including surrounding rural areas. The three combined areas are now called Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
The Islamabad Capital Territory is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan. It includes Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, and covers an area of 1,165.5 km² of which 906 km² is Islamabad proper...

.

Initially, it was proposed that the three areas would be connected by four major highways: Murree Highway, Islamabad Highway, Soan Highway, and Capital Highway. However, to date only two highways have been constructed: Kashmir Highway
Kashmir Highway
The Kashmir Highway was a route that used to traverse the length of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, it provided an important link into the Punjab. This highway was built by the then Maharaja of Kashmir Gulab Singh in 1882...

 (the former Murree Highway) and Islamabad Highway. Islamabad is the hub all the governmental activities while Rawalpindi is the centre of all industrial, commercial, and military activities. The two cities are considered sister cities and are highly interdependent.

Architecture


Islamabad's architecture is a combination of modernity and old Islamic
Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture....

 and regional traditions. The Saudi-Pak Tower
Saudi-Pak Tower
The Saudi-Pak Tower is an office building in the Blue Area section of Islamabad, Pakistan.The high-rise tower comprises 19 floors where more than a dozen multinational companies are operating, including European Companies, American TV channels and multinationals from Chinese and Middle Eastern...

 is an example of the integration of modern architecture with traditional styles. The beige-coloured edifice is trimmed with blue tile works in Islamic tradition, and is one of Islamabad's tallest buildings. Other examples of intertwined Islamic and modern architecture include Pakistan Monument and Faisal Mosque
Faisal Mosque
The Faisal Mosque is the largest mosque in Pakistan and is located in the national capital city of Islamabad.Faisal Mosque is conceived as the National Mosque of Pakistan...

.

The murals on the inside of the large petals of Pakistan Monument are based on Islamic architecture. The design of Shah Faisal Mosque is a fusion of contemporary architecture with a more traditional large triangular prayer hall and four minarets. The architecture of Faisal Mosque is unusual as it lacks a dome structure. It is a combination of Arabic, Turkish, and Mughal architectural traditions.

The Centaurus is an example of modern architecture under construction in Islamabad. The seven star hotel was designed by WS Atkins PLC
WS Atkins PLC
WS Atkins plc is a multinational engineering, design, planning, project management and consulting services company headquartered in Epsom, United Kingdom...

. The newly built Islamabad Stock Exchange Towers
Islamabad Stock Exchange Towers
The Islamabad Stock Exchange Towers are one of the highrises located on the Jinnah Avenue of the Blue Area business district of Islamabad. The airline Airblue has its head office on the 12th floor. The head offices of the oil and gas exploration company OMV Pakistan occupies 15th though 19th floor...

 is another example of modern architecture in the city.

Demographics


Population through decades
Census Population Urban

----
1951 95,940 70%
1961 117,669 80%
1972 237,549 85%
1981 340,286 90%
1998 805,235 95%
2009 (est.) 1,210,000 Not available
2011 1,700,000

----
Sources: 1998 Census of Pakistan

Islamabad had an estimated population of 1.21 million in 2009. The current population, in 2011, is estimated to be around 1.70 million.

Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, the national and first official language of the country, is predominantly spoken within the city due to the ethnic mix of populations. English, is widely used & is also commonly understood. Other languages include Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

, Pashto and Pothohari
Pothohari language
Potwari , also known as Potohari ), is a rich north Indian sub-continent dialect spoken in the Pothohar Plateau around Rawalpindi, Kahuta, Gujar Khan, Jehlum, up to Gujrat in the south and Chakwal in the West, Hazara in the north, Azad Kashmir in the east and also by Sikhs from the Pothohar...

. The mother tongue of the majority of the population is Punjabi, at 72%. 10% of the population are native Urdu speakers, 10% are native Pushto speakers, and 8% other languages.
The total migrant population of the city is 397,731, with the majority from Punjab (241,977). Around 76,614 of the migrated population came from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 75,143 from Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

, 24,438 from Pakistan-administered Kashmir
Pakistan-administered Kashmir
Azad Kashmir borders the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north west, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China to the north and the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir, to the east.A...

, and 21,372 from other countries. Smaller populations emigrated from Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas are a semi-autonomous tribal region in the northwest of Pakistan, lying between the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and the neighboring country of Afghanistan. The FATA comprise seven Agencies and six FRs...

, Balochistan, and Gilgit-Baltistan.

Islam is the largest religion in the city, with 95.53% of the population Muslim. In rural areas this percentage is 98.80%, while in urban areas the percentage of Muslims is 93.83%. The second largest religion is Christianity, with 4.07% of the population, 0.94% in rural areas and 5.70% in the city. Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 accounts for 0.02% of the population, and other minorities 0.03%.

The majority of the population lies in the age group of 15–64 years, around 59.38%. Only 2.73% of the population is above 65 years of age; 37.90% is below the age of 15. Islamabad has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan, at 87%. 9.8% of the population has done intermediate education (equivalent to grades 11 and 12). 10.26% have a bachelor or equivalent degree while 5.2% have a master or equivalent degree. The labour force of Islamabad is 185,213 and the unemployment rate is 15.70%.

Economy


Islamabad is a net contributor to the Pakistani economy, as whilst having only 0.8% of the country's population, it contributes 1% to the country's GDP. Islamabad Stock Exchange
Islamabad Stock Exchange
Islamabad Stock Exchange or ISE is one and youngest of the three stock exchanges of Pakistan and is located in the capital of Islamabad. Islamabad stock exchange was incorporated as a guarantee limited company on 25 October 1989 in Islamabad capital territory with the main object of setting up of...

, founded in 1989, is Pakistan's third largest stock exchange after Karachi Stock Exchange
Karachi Stock Exchange
The Karachi Stock Exchange or KSE is a stock exchange located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is Pakistan's largest and oldest stock exchange, with many Pakistani as well as overseas listings. Currently located in Stock Exchange Building on Stock Exchange Road, in the heart of Karachi's Business...

 and Lahore Stock Exchange
Lahore Stock Exchange
Lahore Stock Exchange Limited is Pakistan's second largest stock exchange after the Karachi Stock Exchange. It is located in Lahore, Pakistan.- History :...

. The exchange has 118 members with 104 corporate bodies and 18 individual members. The average daily turnover of the stock exchange is over 1 million shares.

Islamabad has seen an expansion in information and communications technology
Information and communication technologies
Information and communications technology or information and communication technology, usually abbreviated as ICT, is often used as an extended synonym for information technology , but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of...

 with the addition two Software Technology Parks
Science park
A research park, science park, or science and technology park is an area with a collection of buildings dedicated to scientific research on a business footing. There are many approximate synonyms for "science park", including research park, technology park, technopolis and biomedical park...

 which house numerous national and foreign technological and IT companies. The tech parks are located in Evacuee Trust Complex and Awami Markaz. Awami Markaz houses 36 IT
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 companies while Evacuee Trust house 29 companies. Call centres for foreign companies have been targeted as another significant area of growth, with the government making efforts to reduce taxes by as much as 10% in order to encourage foreign investments in the IT sector.

Most of Pakistan's state-owned companies like PIA
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

, PTV
Pakistan Television Corporation
The Pakistan Television Corporation is Pakistan's national television broadcaster. The first live transmission of PTV began on November 26, 1964, in Lahore...

, PTCL
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Ltd
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited is the largest telecommunication company in Pakistan.The company provides telephony services nation-wide and is the backbone for country's telecommunication infrastructure despite arrival of a dozen other telecommunication comanies, including giants like...

, OGDCL, and Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd. are based in Islamabad. The city is home to many branches of Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

-based companies, banks, and TV channels. Headquarters of all major telecommunication operators such as PTCL, Mobilink, Telenor, Ufone, China Mobile and are located in Islamabad.

Culture


Islamabad is home to many migrants from other regions of Pakistan and has a cultural and religious diversity of considerable antiquity. Due to its location on the Pothohar Plateau, remnants of ancient cultures and civilisations such as Aryan
Aryan
Aryan is an English language loanword derived from Sanskrit ārya and denoting variously*In scholarly usage:**Indo-Iranian languages *in dated usage:**the Indo-European languages more generally and their speakers...

, Soanian
Soanian
The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic in the Siwalik region of the Indian subcontinent. Contemporary to the Acheulean, it is named after the Soan Valley in the Sivalik Hills, Pakistan. Soanian sites are found along the Sivalik region in present-day India, Nepal and...

, and Indus Valley civilisation can still be found in the region. A 15th century Gakhar
Gakhar
Gakhar may refer to:*Gakhars, an ancient clan predominantly in present day Punjab, Pakistan.*Gakhar Hindus, the Hindu section of the Gakhar clan*Ghakhar Mandi, a small city in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan...

 fort, Pharwala
Pharwala
Pharwala is a historic fort located about 40 km from Rawalpindi in Punjab, Pakistan. It is naturally defended by one side by a small Himalayan range and the other by the Swaan River. It is a Gakhar fort built in the 15th century on the ruins of a 10th century Hindu Shahi Fort...

 Fort, is located near Islamabad which was built on the remains of a 10th century Hindu fort. Rawat Fort
Rawat Fort
Rawat Fort is located in Pothohar Pakistan. The fort was built in early 16th century by Gakhars, a tribe of the Pothohar plateau. It is 17 km east of Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road....

 in the region was built by the Gakhars
Gakhars
The Gakhars are an ancient warrior clan who have predominantly resided in what is present day northern Punjab and South-Western Kashmir, Pakistan. In particular in the cities of Rawalpindi, Jhelum and regions of Gilgit, Baltistan, Chitral, Khanpur and Mirpur, Pakistan...

 in 16th century where the grave of the Gakhar chief, Sultan Sarang Khan, is located.

Saidpur village
Saidpur, Islamabad
-External Links:*...

 in Islamabad is named after Said Khan, the son of Sultan Sarang Khan. The 500 year old village was converted into the a place of Hindu worship by a Mughal commander, Raja Man Singh. He constructed a number of small ponds: Rama kunda, Sita kunda, Lakshaman kunda, and Hanuman kunda. The region is home to many Hindu temples that are preserved, showing the history of Hindu civilisation and architecture in the region.

The shrine of Sufi mystic Pir Meher Ali Shah
Pir Meher Ali Shah
Pir Syed Meher Ali Shah Gilani was born 14 April 1859 in Golra Sharif, which is located midway between Rawalpindi and Islamabad, in present-day Pakistan. The time just before his birth saw the Indian Rebellion of 1857 fought between the British and the sepoys allied with seven of the Princely...

 is located at Golra Sharif
Golra Sharif
Golra Sharif is a town situated near the Margalla Hills, in the Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan, at about above sea level, from the ancient city of Taxila.Golra Sharif is a shrine of the Sufi Mystic Pir Meher Ali Shah in Islamabad, Pakistan....

, which has a rich cultural heritage of the pre-Islamic period. Archaeological remains of the Buddhist era can still be found in the region. The shrine of Bari Imam
Bari Imam
Bari Imam , or Shah Abdul Latif Kazmi, is the patron saint of Islamabad and the greater Potohar region. His spiritual title is Sultan-ul-Fuqra. His father, Syed Mehmood Shah, a sufi of standing, shifted his family from Karsal Village, Chakwal, to Bagh village, presently called Aabpara, Islamabad....

 was built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

. Thousands of devotees from across Pakistan attend the annual Urs
Urs
Urs is the death anniversary of a Sufi saint in South Asia, usually held at the saint's dargah . South Asian Sufis being mainly Chishtiyya, refer to their saints as lovers and God as beloved...

 of Bari Imam. The event is one of the largest religious gatherings in Islamabad. In 2004, the Urs was attended by more than 1.2 million people.

The Lok Virsa in Islamabad preserves the living folk and traditional culture of Pakistan. The Folk Heritage Museum
Lok Virsa Museum
Lok Virsa Museum is situated in Islamabad, Pakistan. It displays the cultural heritage of Pakistani people. The living style of the different areas of Pakistan is exhibited here in statues, pictures, pottery, music and textile work...

, located near Shakarparian hills, has a large display of embroidered costumes, jewellery, woodwork, black printing, ivory, and bone work from the region and other parts of Pakistan.

Education




Islamabad boasts the highest literacy rate in Pakistan at 87%. A large number of public
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

 and private
Private university
Private universities are universities not operated by governments, although many receive public subsidies, especially in the form of tax breaks and public student loans and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. Private universities are...

 sector educational institutes are present here. The higher education institutes in the capital are either federally chartered or administered by private organisations and almost all of them are recognised by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. High schools and colleges are either affiliated with the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education
Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education
Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Islamabad is the Intermediate Education Governmental body in Pakistan and overseas Pakistani schools.It is authorized with financial and administrative authority to organize, manage, regulate, develop and control intermediate and secondary...

 or with the UK universities education boards, O/A Levels, or IGCSE. According to Academy of Educational Planning And Management's report, in 2006 there were a total of 904 recognised institutions in Islamabad (30 pre-primary, 2 religious
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

, 384 primary, 157 middle
Middle school
Middle School and Junior High School are levels of schooling between elementary and high schools. Most school systems use one term or the other, not both. The terms are not interchangeable...

, 291 high, 15 intermediate, and 25 degree colleges
Undergraduate education
Undergraduate education is an education level taken prior to gaining a first degree . Hence, in many subjects in many educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a bachelor's degree, such as in the United States, where a university entry level is...

). There are seven teacher training
Teacher education
Teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community....

 institutes in Islamabad with a total enrolment of 581,068 students and 491 faculty.

The Gender Parity Index
Gender Parity Index
The Gender Parity Index is a socioeconomic index usually designed to measure the relative access to education of males and females. In its simplest form, it is calculated as the quotient of the number of females by the number of males enrolled in a given stage of education...

 in Islamabad is 0.93 compared to 0.95 for Pakistan. There are 178 boys only institutes, 175 girls, and 551 mixed institutes in the capital territory. Total enrolment of students in all categories is 273,583; 139,961 for boys and 133,622 for girls.

There are 17 recognised universities in Islamabad with a total enrolment of 279,820 students and 25,653 teachers. The world's second largest university by enrolment
World's largest universities
This list of largest universities by enrollment includes total active enrollment across all campuses . Enrollment numbers listed are the sum of undergraduate and graduate students in active enrollment...

, Allama Iqbal Open University
Allama Iqbal Open University
Allama Iqbal Open University , founded in 1974, is a university in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is one of the world's largest universities by enrollment, with 1,121,038 students in the year 2010 whereas Course Enrollment of these students are 3,305,948 -History:Allama Iqbal Open University was...

, is located in Islamabad. The two top engineering universities in Pakistan, Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences and National University of Sciences and Technology also have their headquarters in the capital. Quaid-i-Azam University
Quaid-i-Azam University
The Quaid-i-Azam University is a public, research university in Islamabad Capital Territory of Pakistan. It was initially founded as the "University of Islamabad" in July 1967...

 in Islamabad is the top ranked university in Pakistan in the general category. Other universities include Iqra University Islamabad, Air University, Bahria University
Bahria University
Bahria University is a multi-campus university with headquarters in Islamabad, Pakistan. BU has two main campuses, one in Islamabad and the other in Karachi, Pakistan...

, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences is a university in Pakistan with headquarters at Islamabad and campuses at Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad and Peshawar...

, COMSATS, Hamdard University
Hamdard University
Hamdard University is a private institution of higher education in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. The university was founded in 1991 by Hakim Said of the Hamdard Foundation. Hamdard University has the largest campus of any private university in Pakistan, covering...

, National Defence University
National Defence University
National Defence University may refer to:University*Finnish National Defence University*PLA National Defense University, People's Republic of China*National Defense University, USA...

, Shifa College of Medicine
Shifa College of Medicine
Shifa College of Medicine is a highly selective medical school located in Islamabad, Pakistan and affiliated with Bahria University. The school was founded in 1999 by the , an organization developed by American-Pakistani physicians, with the intention of creating an institution which imparted...

, National University of Modern Languages
National University of Modern Languages
- Administration :The President of Pakistan is the Chancellor while the Federal Minister of Education is the Pro-Chancellor. The day-to-day administration is controlled by a Board of Governors. Federal secretaries of different ministries and prominent citizens from both private and public sectors...

, International Islamic University, Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah University
Muhammad Ali Jinnah University
Muhammad Ali Jinnah University is a private sector university in Karachi, Pakistan, imparting education in business administration and information technology.It was founded by Dr...

.

In 2006–2007, the Federal Government
Ministry of Education (Pakistan)
The Ministry of Education, also referred as MEd, is a Cabinet-leveled ministry of the Government of Pakistan. The ministry's political figure is known as Education Minister of Pakistan, and Parliamentarian Sardar Asif Ahmad Ali is the current Federal Education Minister of Pakistan while Mr. Ghulam...

 spent a total of 54,523.637 million Rs. on the education sector out of which 25,830.670 million was the developmental fund. This amount is 25.18% of the total educational budget spend in that year, which was 216,518.059 million Rs. The public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government spending that year was 14.09%.

Health care



Islamabad has the lowest rate of infant mortality in the country at 38 deaths per thousand compared to the national average of 78 deaths per thousand. Islamabad has both public and private medical centres. The largest hospital in Islamabad is Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS)
Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences
Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences is located in Islamabad, Pakistan. Objectives of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences are to provide a tertiary level patient care and serve as referral hospital and also to conduct teaching and training of doctors and other health workers at various level...

 hospital. It was established in 1985 as a teaching and doctor training institute. PIMS functions as a National Reference Center and provides specialised diagnostic and curative services. The hospital has 30 major medical departments. PIMS is divided into five administrative branches. Islamabad Hospital is the major component with a 592 bed facility and 22 medical and surgical specialities. Children's Hospital is a 230 bed hospital completed in 1985. It contains six major facilities: Surgical and Allied Specialities, Medical and Allied Specialties, Diagnostic Facilities, Operation Theatre, Critical Care (NICU, PICU, Isolation & Accident Emergency), and a Blood Bank. The Maternal and Child Health Care Center is a training institute with an attached hospital of 125 beds offering different clinical and operational services.
PIMS consists of five academic institutes: Quaid-e-Azam Postgraduate Medical College, College of Nursing, College of Medical Technology, School of Nursing, and Mother and Child Health Center.

PAEC General Hospital and teaching institute, established in 2006, is affiliated with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The hospital consists of a 100 bed facility and 10 major departments: Obstetrics
Obstetrics
Obstetrics is the medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy , childbirth and the postnatal period...

 and Gynecology, Pediatric, General Medicine, General Surgery
General surgery
General surgery, despite its name, is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal organs, e.g., intestines including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland . They also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft...

, Intensive Care Unit
Intensive Care Unit
thumb|220px|ICU roomAn intensive-care unit , critical-care unit , intensive-therapy unit/intensive-treatment unit is a specialized department in a hospital that provides intensive-care medicine...

/Coronary Care Unit
Coronary care unit
A coronary care unit is a hospital ward specialized in the care of patients with heart attacks, unstable angina, Cardiac dysrhythmia and various other cardiac conditions that require continuous monitoring and treatment.-Characteristics:...

, Orthopedics
Orthopedics
Orthopedics is the study of the musculoskeletal system. The Greek word 'ortho' means straight or correct and 'pedics' comes from the Greek 'pais' meaning children. For many centuries, orthopedists have been involved in the treatment of crippled children...

, Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems...

, Pathology
Pathology
Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. The word pathology is from Ancient Greek , pathos, "feeling, suffering"; and , -logia, "the study of". Pathologization, to pathologize, refers to the process of defining a condition or behavior as pathological, e.g. pathological gambling....

, Radiology
Radiology
Radiology is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualized within the human body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies to diagnose or treat diseases...

, and Dental
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

 Department.

Shifa International Hospital is a teaching hospital in Islamabad that was founded in 1987 and became a public company in 1989. The hospital has 70 qualified consultants in almost all specialities, 150 IPD beds and OPD facilities in 35 different specialisations.

According to the Federal Bureau of Statistics of the Government of Pakistan, in 2008 there were 12 hospitals, 76 dispensaries, and 5 Maternity and Child Welfare Centers in the city with a total of 5,158 beds.

Transport



Islamabad is connected to major destinations around the world through Benazir Bhutto International Airport
Benazir Bhutto International Airport
Benazir Bhutto International Airport بینظیر بھٹّو بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈہ is the third-largest airport in Pakistan, serving the capital Islamabad and its twin city Rawalpindi in the province of Punjab...

, previously known as Islamabad International Airport. The airport is the third largest in Pakistan and is located outside Islamabad, in Chaklala, Rawalpindi. In fiscal year 2004–2005, over 2.88 million passengers used Benazir Bhutto International Airport and 23,436 aircraft movements were registered.
New Islamabad International Airport
New Islamabad International Airport
The New Islamabad International Airport is a international airport that is being built to serve the twin cites of Islamabad and Rawalpindi and the adjoining provinces of the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is located in Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District, which is 30 km southwest of...

 is under construction at Fateh Jang
Fateh Jang
Fateh Jang is a town and the tehsil headquarters of Attock District in the Punjab province of Pakistan...

 to cope with the increasing number of passengers. When completed in June 2013, the airport will be the largest in Pakistan. The airport will be built at a cost of $400 million and will be completed by mid 2013. This will be the first green field airport in Pakistan with an area of 3600 acres (14.6 km²).
All major cities and towns are accessible through regular trains and bus services running mostly from the neighbouring city of Rawalpindi. Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

 and Peshawar
Peshawar
Peshawar is the capital of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative center and central economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan....

 are linked to Islamabad through a network of motorways which has resulted in a significant reduction in travelling times between these cities. M-2 Motorway
M2 motorway (Pakistan)
The M-2 is a motorway in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is 367 km long and connects Lahore with Islamabad. It passes through Kala Shah Kaku, Sheikhupura, Khanqah Dogran,Kot Sarwar, Pindi Bhattian, Salem, Lilla, Kot Momin, Kallar Kahar, Balksar, and Chakri before ending just outside the...

 is 367 km long and connect Islamabad and Lahore. M-1 Motorway
M1 motorway (Pakistan)
The M1 is a motorway in Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is 155 km long, with 67 km in Punjab and the remaining 108 km in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. It has become a vital link to Afghanistan and Central Asia and is expected to take much traffic off the highly used N5...

 connects Islamabad with Peshawar and is 155 km long. Islamabad is linked to its 'Father' city Rawalpindi through the Faizabad Interchange, the cloverleaf interchange
Cloverleaf interchange
A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level interchange in which left turns, reverse direction in left-driving regions, are handled by ramp roads...

 has with a daily traffic volume of about 48,000 vehicles.


Points of interest

  • Constitution Avenue, Islamabad
    Constitution Avenue, Islamabad
    Constitution Avenue is a large road that runs through Islamabad, Pakistan. It is considered among one of the most important zones in the city as a number of landmark and government buildings exist along the road, such as the Aiwan-e-Sadr, the Prime Minister's Secretariat, the Grand Hyatt Islamabad,...

  • Faisal Masjid
  • Margalla Hills
    Margalla Hills
    The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.- Etymology :Two...

  • Daman-e-Koh
    Daman-e-Koh
    Daman-e-Koh, about 3000ft from sea level and almost 1000ft higher than City of Islamabad, is a viewing point and hill top modern garden, popular among the residents as well as the visitors to this capital town of the nation....

  • Fatima Jinnah Park
    Fatima Jinnah Park
    Fatima Jinnah Park is a public recreational park situated within the F-9 sector of Islamabad, Pakistan. The park is considered one of the largest covered areas in South Asia. It was named after the revered "Madre Millat" Miss Fatima Jinnah, the younger sister of the founder of Pakistan...

  • Pir Sohawa
    Pir Sohawa
    Pir Sohawa is an upland scenic rural location, at an elevation of about 5000 ft, popular for recreational walk and picnics in Islamabad and is located close to Monal village which exists on the slope towards Islamabad city. Actually Pir Sohawa is a village located in district Haripur of Khyber...

  • Saidpur Village
    Saidpur, Islamabad
    -External Links:*...

  • Margalla Hills National Park
    Margalla Hills National Park
    The Margalla Hills National Park is located in Northern Pakistan at the foothills of the Himalayas and is a National Park. It is approximately 17,386 hectares in size.-Location:...

  • Rawal Lake
    Rawal lake
    Rawal Lake in Pakistan is an artificial reservoir that provides the water needs for the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Korang River along with some other small streams coming from Margalla Hills have been set to form this artificial lake which covers an area of 8.8 km². Korang River is...

  • Potwar Plateau
  • Losar Baoli
    Losar Baoli
    Losar Baoli is a stepwell situation in the Margalla Hills near Islamabad, Pakistan. Situated near the town of Shah Allah Ditta in the potohar plateau, the area was known to be a passage way for caravans and armies moving along the east-west direction.-History:...

  • Jinnah Super Market
  • Lok Virsa (Folk Art Museum)

Sister cities


Country Location City Since
 People's Republic of China China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 
Beijing Municipality  Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 
8 Oct 1993
 Italy Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 
Venetian Province
Venetian Province
The Venetian Province was the name of the territory of former Republic of Venice ceded by the French First Republic to the Habsburg Monarchy under the terms of the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio that ended the War of the First Coalition...

 
Venice
Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

 
1960
 Turkey Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 
Ankara Province
Ankara Province
Ankara Province in central Turkey is the location of the country's capital, the city of Ankara.Ankara also gave its name to the Ottoman Empire's Ankara Province which covered a larger area than the current province.- Geography :...

 
Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

 
1982
 Jordan Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 
Levant
Levant
The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

 
Amman
Amman
Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

 
19 March 1989
 South Korea South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 
Gyeonggi-do
Gyeonggi-do
Gyeonggi-do is the most populous province in South Korea. The provincial capital is located at Suwon. Seoul—South Korea's largest city and national capital—is located in the heart of the province, but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946...

 
Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 
7 November 2008
Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 
Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...

 
Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 
5 June 2010
 Indonesia Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

 
Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

 
1984. Restarted in 2010


See also


  • Birds of Islamabad
    Birds of Islamabad
    -Birds:Here is a list of birds found in Islamabad, Pakistan. 72 species of birds have been found in this area. The best places to watch are Margalla Hills and Rawal Lake.*Little Grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis*Little Cormorant, Phalacrocorax niger...

  • Developments in Islamabad
    Developments in Islamabad
    Since 2003 Islamabad has seen large-scale development and infrastructure projects. The most prominent one is The Centaurus, which is a complex of four towers; it includes a seven-star hotel, a residential tower, office and shopping Mall towers, upon completion the hotel will be the fourth...

  • Kakazai
    Kakazai
    The Kakazai , also known as Loye Mamund , are a Pashtun tribe originally from the Laghman province of Afghanistan.They came to South Asia during Afghan invasions such as those of Mahmud of Ghazni, settling in various regions....

  • Margalla Hills
    Margalla Hills
    The Margalla Hills—the foothills of the Himalayas—are a series of small-elevation hills located north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east.- Etymology :Two...



External links