Electronic component

Electronic component

Encyclopedia

An electronic component is a basic electronic
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

 element and may be available in a discrete form having two or more electrical terminal
Terminal (electronics)
A terminal is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits. A terminal may simply be the end of a wire or it may be fitted with a connector or fastener...

s (or leads
Lead (electronics)
In electronics, a lead is an electrical connection consisting of a length of wire or soldering pad that comes from a device. Leads are used for physical support, to transfer power, to probe circuits , and to transmit information...

). These are intended to be connected together, usually by soldering
Soldering
Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece...

 to a printed circuit board
Printed circuit board
A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also referred to as printed wiring board or etched wiring...

, in order to create an electronic circuit
Electrical network
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, transmission lines, voltage sources, current sources and switches. An electrical circuit is a special type of network, one that has a closed loop giving a return path for the current...

 with a particular function (for example an amplifier
Amplifier
Generally, an amplifier or simply amp, is a device for increasing the power of a signal.In popular use, the term usually describes an electronic amplifier, in which the input "signal" is usually a voltage or a current. In audio applications, amplifiers drive the loudspeakers used in PA systems to...

, radio receiver
Receiver (radio)
A radio receiver converts signals from a radio antenna to a usable form. It uses electronic filters to separate a wanted radio frequency signal from all other signals, the electronic amplifier increases the level suitable for further processing, and finally recovers the desired information through...

, or oscillator
Electronic oscillator
An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a repetitive electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave. They are widely used in innumerable electronic devices...

). Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arrays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material...

s or thick film
Thick film technology
Thick film technology is used to produce electronic devices such as surface mount devices, hybrid integrated circuits and sensors.Thick film circuits are widely used, in automotive industry, both in sensors ex...

 devices. The following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their own right.

Classification


A component may be classified as passive or active
Passivity (engineering)
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems...

. The strict physics definition treats passive components as ones that cannot supply energy themselves, whereas a battery
Battery (electricity)
An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power...

 would be seen as an active component since it truly acts as a source of energy.

However electronic engineers performing circuit analysis use a more restrictive definition of passivity. When we are only concerned with the energy due to signals it is convenient to ignore the so-called DC
Direct current
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through...

 circuit and pretend that the power supplying components such as transistors or integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material...

s is absent (as if each such component had its own battery built in) although it may in reality be supplied by the DC circuit which we are ignoring. Then the analysis only concerns the so-called AC circuit, an abstraction which ignores the DC voltages and currents (and the power associated with them) present in the real-life circuit. This fiction, for instance, allows us to view an oscillator as "producing energy" even though in reality the oscillator consumes even more energy from a power supply, obtained through the DC circuit which we have chosen to ignore. Under that restriction we define the terms as used in circuit analysis as follows:
  • Passive components are ones which cannot introduce net energy into the circuit they are connected to. They also cannot rely on a source of power except for what is available from the (AC) circuit they are connected to. As a consequence they are unable to amplify (increase the power of a signal), although they may well increase a voltage or current such as is done by a transformer or resonant circuit. Among passive components are familiar two-terminal components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers.
  • Active components rely on a source of energy (usually from the DC circuit, which we have chosen to ignore) and are usually able to inject power into a circuit although this is not part of the definition. This includes amplifying components such as transistors, triode vacuum tube
    Vacuum tube
    In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube , or thermionic valve , reduced to simply "tube" or "valve" in everyday parlance, is a device that relies on the flow of electric current through a vacuum...

    s (valves), and tunnel diode
    Tunnel diode
    A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor diode which is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region, by using quantum mechanical effects....

    s.


Passive components can be further divided into lossless and lossy components:
  • Lossless components do not have a net power flow into or out of the component. This would include ideal capacitors, inductors, transformers, and the (theoretical) gyrator
    Gyrator
    A gyrator is a passive, linear, lossless, two-port electrical network element proposed in 1948 by Tellegen as a hypothetical fifth linear element after the resistor, capacitor, inductor and ideal transformer. Unlike the four conventional elements, the gyrator is non-reciprocal...

    .
  • Lossy or dissipative components do not have that property and generally absorb power from the external circuit over time. The prototypical example is the resistor. In practice all non-ideal passive components are at least a little lossy, but these are typically modeled in circuit analysis as consisting of an ideal lossless component with an attached resistor to account for the loss.


Most passive components with more than two terminals can be described in terms of two-port parameters satisfying the principle of reciprocity
Reciprocity (electromagnetism)
In classical electromagnetism, reciprocity refers to a variety of related theorems involving the interchange of time-harmonic electric current densities and the resulting electromagnetic fields in Maxwell's equations for time-invariant linear media under certain constraints...

, although there are some rare exceptions. In contrast, active components (which have more than two terminals) generally lack that property.

Note that these distinctions only apply to components listed below which would be modeled as elements within circuit analysis. Practical items which act as transducers or have other connections to the outside world such as switches, cannot be subject to this form of classification since they defy the view of the electronic circuit as a closed system.

Terminals and connectors


Devices to make electrical connection
  • Terminal
    Terminal (electronics)
    A terminal is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits. A terminal may simply be the end of a wire or it may be fitted with a connector or fastener...

  • Connector
    Electrical connector
    An electrical connector is an electro-mechanical device for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly. The connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or...

    • Socket
      Jack (connector)
      In electronics and electrical assemblies, the term jack commonly refers to a surface-mounted connector, often, but not always, with the female electrical contact or socket, and is the "more fixed" connector of a connector pair...

    • Screw terminal, Terminal Blocks
      Screw terminal
      A screw terminal is a type of electrical connector where a wire is clamped down to metal by a screw.The wire is sometimes just stripped of electrical insulation at the end, and is bent in a U or J shape to fit around the shaft of the screw....

    • Header
      Header
      Header may refer to: Computers and engineering* Header , supplemental data at the beginning of a data block** E-mail header** HTTP header* Header file, a text file used in computer programming...


Cable assemblies


Cable
Cable
A cable is two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. In mechanics cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling and towing or conveying force through tension. In electrical engineering cables are used to carry...

s with connectors or terminals at their ends
  • Power cord
    Power cord
    A power cord, line cord, or mains cable is a cable that temporarily connects an appliance to the mains electricity supply via a wall socket or extension cord. The terms are generally used for cables using a power plug to connect to a single-phase alternating current power source at the local line...

  • Patch cord
  • Test lead

Switches


Components that can pass current ("closed") or break the flow of current ("open")
  • Switch
    Switch
    In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another....

     - Manually operated switch.
    • Electrical description: SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT, NPNT (general)
    • Technology: slide switches, toggle switches, rocker switches, rotary switches, pushbutton switches
  • Keypad
    Keypad
    A keypad is a set of buttons arranged in a block or "pad" which usually bear digits, symbols and usually a complete set of alphabetical letters. If it mostly contains numbers then it can also be called a numeric keypad...

     - Array of pushbutton switches
  • DIP switch
    DIP switch
    DIP switches are manual electric switches that are packaged in a group in a standard dual in-line package...

     - Small array of switches for internal configuration settings
  • Footswitch - Foot-operated switch
  • Knife switch
    Knife switch
    A knife switch is a type of switch used to control the flow of electricity in a circuit. It is composed of a hinge which allows a metal lever, or knife, to be lifted from or inserted into a slot or jaw. The hinge and jaw are both fixed to an insulated base, and the knife has an insulated handle to...

     - Switch with unenclosed conductors
  • Micro switch
    Micro switch
    A miniature snap-action switch, also trademarked and frequently known as a micro switch, is an electric switch that is actuated by very little physical force, through the use of a tipping-point mechanism, sometimes called an "over-center" mechanism. Switching happens reliably at specific and...

     - Mechanically activated switch with snap action
  • Limit switch - Mechanically activated switch to sense limit of motion
  • Mercury switch
    Mercury switch
    A mercury switch is a switch whose purpose is to allow or interrupt the flow of electric current in an electrical circuit in a manner that is dependent on the switch's physical position or alignment relative to the direction of the "pull" of earth's gravity, or other inertia.Mercury switches...

     - Switch sensing tilt
  • Centrifugal switch
    Centrifugal switch
    A centrifugal switch is an electric switch that operates using the centrifugal force created from a rotating shaft, most commonly that of an electric motor or gasoline engine. The switch is designed to activate or de-activate as a function of the rotational speed of the shaft.Perhaps the most...

     - Switch sensing centrifugal force due to rate of rotation
  • Relay
    Relay
    A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal , or where several circuits must be controlled...

     - Electrically operated switch (mechanical, also see Solid State Relay
    Solid state relay
    A solid state relay is an electronic switching device in which a small control signal controls a larger load current or voltage. It comprises a voltage or current sensor which responds to an appropriate input , a solid-state electronic switching device of some kind which switches power to the load...

     below)
  • Reed switch
    Reed switch
    The reed switch is an electrical switch operated by an applied magnetic field. It was invented at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1936 by W. B. Ellwood. It consists of a pair of contacts on ferrous metal reeds in a hermetically sealed glass envelope...

     - Magnetically activated switch
  • Thermostat
    Thermostat
    A thermostat is the component of a control system which regulates the temperature of a system so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. The thermostat does this by switching heating or cooling devices on or off, or regulating the flow of a heat transfer...

     - Thermally activated switch
  • Humidistat
    Humidistat
    An electronic device analogous to a thermostat but which responds to relative humidity not temperature. Humidistats are utilized in a number of devices including dehumidifiers, humidifiers, and microwave ovens...

     - Humidity activated switch
  • Circuit Breaker
    Circuit breaker
    A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow...

     - Switch opened in response to excessive current: a resettable fuse

Resistors


Pass current in proportion to voltage (Ohm's law
Ohm's law
Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points...

).
  • Resistor
    Resistor
    A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's...

     - fixed value
    • Power resistor
      Resistor
      A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's...

       - larger to safely dissipate heat generated
    • SIP or DIP resistor network - array of resistors in one package
  • Variable resistor
    • Rheostat - Two terminal variable resistor (often for high power)
    • Potentiometer
      Potentiometer
      A potentiometer , informally, a pot, is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used , it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on...

       - Three terminal variable resistor (variable voltage divider)
    • Trim pot
      Trimmer (electronics)
      A trimmer or preset is a miniature adjustable electrical component. It is meant to be set correctly when installed in some device, and never seen or adjusted by the device's user. Trimmers can be variable resistors , variable capacitors, trimmable inductors...

       - Small potentiometer, usually for internal adjustments
  • Heater
    Heater
    A heater is an object that emits heat or causes another body to achieve a higher temperature. In a household or domestic setting, heaters are usually appliances whose purpose is to generate heating...

     - heating element
    Heating element
    A heating element converts electricity into heat through the process of Joule heating. Electric current through the element encounters resistance, resulting in heating of the element....

  • Resistance wire
    Resistance wire
    Resistance wire is electrical wire used for its property of electrical resistance. It is routinely used at high temperatures, so normally also has high melting point....

    , Nichrome
    Nichrome
    Nichrome is a non-magnetic alloy of nickel, chromium, and often iron, usually used as a resistance wire. Patented in 1905, it is the oldest documented form of resistance heating alloy. A common alloy is 80% nickel and 20% chromium, by mass, but there are many others to accommodate various...

     wire - wire of high-resistance material, often used as heating element
  • Thermistor
    Thermistor
    A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor...

     - temperature-varied resistor
  • Humistor
    Humistor
    A humistor is a type of variable resistor whose resistance varies based on humidity.- Construction :A humistor has a ceramic composition comprising at least one component having a spinel type cubic symmetry selected from the group consisting of MgCr2 O4, FeCr2 O4, NiCr2 O4, CoCr2 O4, MnCr2 O4,...

     - humidity-varied resistor
  • Varistor
    Varistor
    A varistor is an electronic component with a "diode-like" nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. The name is a portmanteau of variable resistor...

    , Voltage Dependent Resistor, MOV
    MOV
    MOV may refer to:* MOV , a mnemonic for the copying of data from one location to another in the X86 assembly language* .mov, filename extension for the QuickTime multimedia file format...

     - Passes current when excessive voltage present

Protection devices


Passive components
Passivity (engineering)
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems...

 that protect circuits from excessive currents or voltages
  • Fuse
    Fuse (electrical)
    In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit...

     - Over-current protection, one time use
  • Circuit Breaker
    Circuit breaker
    A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow...

     - Resettable fuse in the form of a mechanical switch
  • PolySwitch
    Resettable fuse
    A polymeric positive temperature coefficient device is a passive electronic component used to protect against overcurrent faults in electronic circuits...

     or Resettable fuse
    Resettable fuse
    A polymeric positive temperature coefficient device is a passive electronic component used to protect against overcurrent faults in electronic circuits...

     - Circuit breaker action using solid state device
  • Ground-fault protection or Residual-current device
    Residual-current device
    A Residual Current Device is a generic term covering both RCCBs and RCBOs.A Residual-Current Circuit Breaker is an electrical wiring device that disconnects a circuit whenever it detects that the electric current is not balanced between the energized conductor and the return neutral conductor...

     - Circuit breaker sensitive to mains currents passing to ground
  • Metal Oxide Varistor, Surge Absorber
    Varistor
    A varistor is an electronic component with a "diode-like" nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. The name is a portmanteau of variable resistor...

     (MOV), TVS
    Transient voltage suppression diode
    A transient-voltage-suppression diode is an electronic component used to protect sensitive electronics from voltage spikes induced on connected wires....

     - Over-voltage protection.
  • Inrush current limiter
    Inrush current limiter
    An inrush current limiter is a component used to limit inrush current to avoid gradual damage to components and avoid tripping the supply's fuse or circuit breaker. Negative temperature coefficient thermistors and fixed resistors are often used for this. Less often, other components are also used...

     - Protection against initial Inrush current
    Inrush current
    Inrush current, input surge current or switch-on surge refers to the maximum, instantaneous input current drawn by an electrical device when first turned on. For example, incandescent light bulbs have high inrush currents until their filaments warm up and their resistance increases...

  • Gas Discharge Tube - Protection against high voltage surges
  • Spark gap
    Spark gap
    A spark gap consists of an arrangement of two conducting electrodes separated by a gap usually filled with a gas such as air, designed to allow an electric spark to pass between the conductors. When the voltage difference between the conductors exceeds the gap's breakdown voltage, a spark forms,...

     - Electrodes with a gap to arc over at a high voltage
  • Lightning arrester
    Lightning arrester
    A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning. Metal oxide varistors have been used for power system protection since the mid 1970s. The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has...

     - Spark gap used to protect against lightning strikes

Capacitors


Components that store and release electrical charge. Used for filtering power supply lines, for tuning resonant circuits, and for blocking DC voltages while passing AC signals, among numerous other uses.
  • Capacitor
    Capacitor
    A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric ; for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated...

     - fixed capacitance
    • Capacitor network (array)
  • Variable capacitor
    Variable capacitor
    A variable capacitor is a capacitor whose capacitance may be intentionally and repeatedly changed mechanically or electronically. Variable capacitors are often used in L/C circuits to set the resonance frequency, e.g. to tune a radio , or as a variable reactance, e.g...

     - Adjustable capacitance
    • Tuning capacitor - Variable capacitor for tuning a radio, oscillator, or tuned circuit
    • Trimmer capacitor - Small variable capacitor usually for internal adjustments
  • Varicap
    Varicap
    In electronics, a varicap diode, varactor diode, variable capacitance diode, variable reactance diode or tuning diode is a type of diode which has a variable capacitance that is a function of the voltage impressed on its terminals....

     diode - AC capacitance varies according to the DC voltage applied.

Magnetic (inductive) devices


Electrical components that use magnetism
  • Inductor
    Inductor
    An inductor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in a magnetic field. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries...

    , coil
    Coil
    A coil is a series of loops. A coiled coil is a structure in which the coil itself is in turn also looping.-Electromagnetic coils:An electromagnetic coil is formed when a conductor is wound around a core or form to create an inductor or electromagnet...

    , choke
  • Variable inductor
  • Saturable Inductor
    Saturable reactor
    A saturable reactor in electrical engineering is a special form of inductor where the magnetic core can be deliberately saturated by means of a direct electric current in a control winding...

  • Transformer
    Transformer
    A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field...

  • Magnetic amplifier
    Magnetic amplifier
    The magnetic amplifier is an electromagnetic device for amplifying electrical signals. The magnetic amplifier was invented early in the 20th century, and was used as an alternative to vacuum tube amplifiers where robustness and high current capacity were required...

     (toroid
    Toroid
    Toroid may refer to*Toroid , a doughnut-like solid whose surface is a torus.*Toroidal inductors and transformers which have wire windings on circular ring shaped magnetic cores.*Vortex ring, a toroidal flow in fluid mechanics....

    )
  • Ferrite impedances, beads
    Ferrite bead
    A ferrite bead is a passive electric component used to suppress high frequency noise in electronic circuits. It is a specific type of electronic choke. Ferrite beads employ the mechanism of high dissipation of high frequency currents in a ferrite to build high frequency noise suppression devices...

  • Motor
    Electric motor
    An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force...

     / Generator
    Electrical generator
    In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric charge to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is analogous to a water pump, which causes water to flow...

  • Solenoid
    Solenoid
    A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term solenoid refers to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it. Solenoids are important because they can create...

  • Speaker
    Loudspeaker
    A loudspeaker is an electroacoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed as accessories to telephone systems, but electronic amplification by vacuum tube made loudspeakers more generally useful...

     / Microphone
    Microphone
    A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. In 1877, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter...


Networks


Components that use more than one type of passive component
  • RC network - forms an RC circuit
    RC circuit
    A resistor–capacitor circuit ', or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source...

    , used in Snubber
    Snubber
    A snubber is a device used to suppress voltage transients in electrical systems, pressure transients in fluid systems, or excess force or rapid movement in mechanical systems.-Electrical systems:...

    s
  • LC Network - forms an LC circuit
    LC circuit
    An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit or tuned circuit, consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C...

    , used in tuneable transformers and RFI filters

Piezoelectric devices, crystals, resonators


Passive components
Passivity (engineering)
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems...

 that use piezoelectric effect
  • Components that use the effect to generate or filter high frequencies
    • Crystal
      Crystal oscillator
      A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency...

       - Is a ceramic crystal used to generate precise frequencies (See the Modules class below for complete oscillators)
    • Ceramic resonator
      Ceramic resonator
      A ceramic resonator is an electronic component that when combined with other appropriate components, can produce oscillations at a specific frequency...

       - Is a ceramic crystal used to generate semi-precise frequencies
    • Ceramic filter - Is a ceramic crystal used to filter a band of frequencies such as in radio receivers
    • Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filters
  • Components that use the effect as mechanical Transducer
    Transducer
    A transducer is a device that converts one type of energy to another. Energy types include electrical, mechanical, electromagnetic , chemical, acoustic or thermal energy. While the term transducer commonly implies the use of a sensor/detector, any device which converts energy can be considered a...

    s.
    • Ultrasonic motor
      Ultrasonic motor
      An ultrasonic motor is a type of electric motor powered by the ultrasonic vibration of a component, the stator, placedagainst another component, the rotor or slider depending on the scheme of operation...

       - Electric motor that uses the piezoelectric effect
    • For piezo buzzers and microphones, see the Transducer class below

Power sources


Sources of electrical power
  • Battery
    Battery (electricity)
    An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power...

     - acid- or alkali-based power supply
  • Fuel cell
    Fuel cell
    A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used...

     - an electrochemical generator
  • Power supply
    Power supply
    A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy to electrical energy...

     - usually a mains hook-up
  • Photo voltaic device - generates electricity from light
  • Thermo electric generator
    Thermogenerator
    Thermoelectric generators are devices which convert heat directly into electrical energy, using a phenomenon called the "Seebeck effect" . Their typical efficiencies are around 5-10%...

     - generates electricity from temperature gradients
  • Electrical generator
    Electrical generator
    In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric charge to flow through an external electrical circuit. It is analogous to a water pump, which causes water to flow...

     - an electromechanical power source

Transducers, sensors, detectors

  1. Transducer
    Transducer
    A transducer is a device that converts one type of energy to another. Energy types include electrical, mechanical, electromagnetic , chemical, acoustic or thermal energy. While the term transducer commonly implies the use of a sensor/detector, any device which converts energy can be considered a...

    s generate physical effects when driven by an electrical signal, or vice-versa.
  2. Sensor
    Sensor
    A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated...

    s (detectors) are transducers that react to environmental conditions by changing their electrical properties or generating an electrical signal.
  3. The Transducers listed here are single electronic components (as opposed to complete assemblies), and are passive
    Passivity (engineering)
    Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems...

     (see Semiconductors and Tubes for active
    Passivity (engineering)
    Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems...

     ones). Only the most common ones are listed here.
    • Audio (see also Piezoelectric devices)
      • Loudspeaker
        Loudspeaker
        A loudspeaker is an electroacoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed as accessories to telephone systems, but electronic amplification by vacuum tube made loudspeakers more generally useful...

         - Magnetic or piezoelectric device to generate full audio
      • Buzzer
        Buzzer
        A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke....

         - Magnetic or piezoelectric sounder to generate tones
    • Position, motion
      • Linear variable differential transformer
        Linear variable differential transformer
        The Linear Variable Differential Transformer is a type of electrical transformer used for measuring linear displacement. A counterpart to this device that is used for measuring rotary displacement is called a Rotary Variable Differential Transformer...

         (LVDT) - Magnetic - detects linear position
      • Rotary encoder
        Rotary encoder
        A rotary encoder, also called a shaft encoder, is an electro-mechanical device that converts the angular position or motion of a shaft or axle to an analog or digital code. The output of incremental encoders provides information about the motion of the shaft which is typically further processed...

        , Shaft Encoder - Optical, magnetic, resistive or switches - detects absolute or relative angle or rotational speed
      • Inclinometer
        Inclinometer
        An inclinometer or clinometer is an instrument for measuring angles of slope , elevation or depression of an object with respect to gravity...

         - Capacitive - detects angle with respect to gravity
      • Motion sensor, Vibration sensor
      • Flow meter - detects flow in liquid or gas
    • Force, torque
      • Strain gauge
        Strain gauge
        A strain gauge is a device used to measure the strain of an object. Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable...

         - Piezoelectric or resistive - detects squeezing, stretching, twisting
      • Accelerometer
        Accelerometer
        An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration, also called the four-acceleration. This is not necessarily the same as the coordinate acceleration , but is rather the type of acceleration associated with the phenomenon of weight experienced by a test mass that resides in the frame...

         - Piezoelectric - detects acceleration, gravity
    • Thermal
      • Thermocouple
        Thermocouple
        A thermocouple is a device consisting of two different conductors that produce a voltage proportional to a temperature difference between either end of the pair of conductors. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a...

        , thermopile
        Thermopile
        A thermopile is an electronic device that converts thermal energy into electrical energy. It is composed of several thermocouples connected usually in series or, less commonly, in parallel....

         - Wires that generate a voltage proportional to delta temperature
      • Thermistor
        Thermistor
        A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor...

         - Resistor whose resistance changes with temperature, up PTC or down NTC
      • Resistance Temperature Detector
        Resistance thermometer
        Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors or resistive thermal devices , are sensors used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance of the RTD element with temperature. Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass...

         (RTD) - Wire whose resistance changes with temperature
      • Bolometer
        Bolometer
        A bolometer is a device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation via the heating of a material with a temperature-dependent electrical resistance. It was invented in 1878 by the American astronomer Samuel Pierpont Langley...

         - Device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation
        Electromagnetic radiation
        Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space...

      • Thermal cutoff - Switch that is opened or closed when a set temperature is exceeded
    • Magnetic field (see also Hall Effect in semiconductors)
      • Magnetometer
        Magnetometer
        A magnetometer is a measuring instrument used to measure the strength or direction of a magnetic field either produced in the laboratory or existing in nature...

        , Gauss meter
    • Humidity
      • Hygrometer
        Hygrometer
        A hygrometer is an instrument used for measuring the moisture content in the environmental air, or humidity. Most measurement devices usually rely on measurements of some other quantity such as temperature, pressure, mass or a mechanical or electrical change in a substance as moisture is absorbed...

    • Electromagnetic, light
      • Photo resistor - Light dependent resistor (LDR)

Diodes


Conduct electricity easily in one direction, among more specific behaviors.
  • Standard Diode
    Diode
    In electronics, a diode is a type of two-terminal electronic component with a nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals...

    , Rectifier
    Rectifier
    A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current , which periodically reverses direction, to direct current , which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification...

    , Bridge Rectifier
  • Schottky Diode, Hot Carrier Diode
    Schottky diode
    The Schottky diode is a semiconductor diode with a low forward voltage drop and a very fast switching action...

     - super fast diode with lower forward voltage drop
  • Zener Diode
    Zener diode
    A Zener diode is a special kind of diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode, but will also permit it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage, "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener...

     - Passes current in reverse direction to provide a constant voltage reference
  • Transient Voltage Suppression Diode
    Transient voltage suppression diode
    A transient-voltage-suppression diode is an electronic component used to protect sensitive electronics from voltage spikes induced on connected wires....

     (TVS), Unipolar or Bipolar - used to absorb high-voltage spikes
  • Varactor, Tuning diode, Varicap, Variable Capacitance Diode
    Varicap
    In electronics, a varicap diode, varactor diode, variable capacitance diode, variable reactance diode or tuning diode is a type of diode which has a variable capacitance that is a function of the voltage impressed on its terminals....

     - A diode whose AC capacitance varies according to the DC voltage applied.
  • Light Emitting Diode
    Light-emitting diode
    A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting...

     (LED) - A diode which emits light
  • LASER Diode
    Laser diode
    The laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a semiconductor similar to that found in a light-emitting diode. The most common type of laser diode is formed from a p-n junction and powered by injected electric current...

     - A semiconductor laser
  • Photodiode
    Photodiode
    A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.The common, traditional solar cell used to generateelectric solar power is a large area photodiode....

     - Passes current in proportion to incident light
    • Avalanche Photodiode
      Avalanche photodiode
      An avalanche photodiode is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity. APDs can be thought of as photodetectors that provide a built-in first stage of gain through avalanche multiplication. From a functional standpoint,...

       Photodiode with internal gain
    • Solar Cell, photovoltaic cell, PV array
      Solar cell
      A solar cell is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect....

       or panel, produces power from light
  • Diode for Alternating Current
    DIAC
    The DIAC, or 'diode for alternating current', is a diode that conducts current only after its breakover voltage has been reached momentarily....

     (DIAC, Trigger Diode, SIDAC) - Often used to trigger an SCR
  • Constant current
    Current source
    A current source is an electrical or electronic device that delivers or absorbs electric current. A current source is the dual of a voltage source. The term constant-current sink is sometimes used for sources fed from a negative voltage supply...

     Diode
  • Peltier cooler - A semiconductor heat pump
    Heat pump
    A heat pump is a machine or device that effectively "moves" thermal energy from one location called the "source," which is at a lower temperature, to another location called the "sink" or "heat sink", which is at a higher temperature. An air conditioner is a particular type of heat pump, but the...


Transistors


Active components
Passivity (engineering)
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems...

 used for amplification
Amplifier
Generally, an amplifier or simply amp, is a device for increasing the power of a signal.In popular use, the term usually describes an electronic amplifier, in which the input "signal" is usually a voltage or a current. In audio applications, amplifiers drive the loudspeakers used in PA systems to...

.
  • Bipolar transistors
    • Bipolar Junction Transistor
      Bipolar junction transistor
      |- align = "center"| || PNP|- align = "center"| || NPNA bipolar transistor is a three-terminal electronic device constructed of doped semiconductor material and may be used in amplifying or switching applications. Bipolar transistors are so named because their operation involves both electrons...

       (BJT, or simply "transistor") - NPN or PNP
      • Photo transistor - Amplified photodetector
    • Darlington transistor
      Darlington transistor
      In electronics, the Darlington transistor is a compound structure consisting of two bipolar transistors connected in such a way that the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one...

       - NPN or PNP
      • Photo Darlington - Amplified photodetector
    • Sziklai pair
      Sziklai pair
      In electronics, the Sziklai pair is a configuration of two bipolar transistors, similar to a Darlington pair. In contrast to the Darlington arrangement, the Sziklai pair has one NPN and one PNP transistor, and so it is sometimes called the "complementary Darlington"...

       (Compound transistor, complementary Darlington)
  • Field effect transistor (FET)
    • Junction Field Effect Transistor
      JFET
      The junction gate field-effect transistor is the simplest type of field-effect transistor. It can be used as an electronically-controlled switch or as a voltage-controlled resistance. Electric charge flows through a semiconducting channel between "source" and "drain" terminals...

       (JFET) - N-CHANNEL or P-CHANNEL
    • Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET
      MOSFET
      The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor is a transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. The basic principle of this kind of transistor was first patented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925...

       (MOSFET) - N-CHANNEL or P-CHANNEL
    • MEtal Semiconductor FET
      MESFET
      MESFET stands for metal semiconductor field effect transistor. It is quite similar to a JFET in construction and terminology. The difference is that instead of using a p-n junction for a gate, a Schottky junction is used...

       (MESFET)
    • High Electron Mobility Transistor
      HEMT
      High electron mobility transistor , also known as heterostructure FET or modulation-doped FET , is a field effect transistor incorporating a junction between two materials with different band gaps as the channel instead of a doped region, as is generally the case for MOSFET...

       (HEMT)
  • Thyristor
    Thyristor
    A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased .Some sources define silicon controlled rectifiers and...

    s
    • Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) - Passes current only after triggered by a sufficient control voltage on its gate
    • TRIode for Alternating Current
      Triac
      Triac may refer to:* TRIAC , an electronics component* Triac , a green vehicle* Tiratricol, a common thyroid hormone analogue used for treating thyroid hormone resistance syndrome...

       (TRIAC) - Bidirectional SCR
    • UniJunction Transistor
      Unijunction transistor
      A unijunction transistor is an electronic semiconductor device that has only one junction. The UJT has three terminals: an emitter and two bases . The base is formed by lightly doped n-type bar of silicon. Two ohmic contacts B1 and B2 are attached at its ends. The emitter is of p-type and it is...

       (UJT)
    • Programmable UniJunction Transistor
      Unijunction transistor
      A unijunction transistor is an electronic semiconductor device that has only one junction. The UJT has three terminals: an emitter and two bases . The base is formed by lightly doped n-type bar of silicon. Two ohmic contacts B1 and B2 are attached at its ends. The emitter is of p-type and it is...

       (PUT)
    • Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor
      SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor)
      The Static induction thyristor is a thyristor with a buried gate structure in which the gate electrodes are placed in n-base region. Since they are normally on-state, gate electrodes must be negatively biased to hold off-state....

       (SIT, SITh)
  • Composite transistors
    • Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

Integrated circuits

  • Digital
    Digital
    A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values. By contrast, non-digital systems use a continuous range of values to represent information...

  • Analog
    • Hall effect sensor
      Hall effect sensor
      A Hall effect sensor is a transducer that varies its output voltage in response to a magnetic field. Hall effect sensors are used for proximity switching, positioning, speed detection, and current sensing applications....

       - Senses a magnetic field
    • Current sensor
      Current sensor
      A current sensor is a device that detects electrical current in a wire, and generates a signal proportional to it.The generated signal could be analog voltage or current or even digital output.It can be then utilized to display the measured current in an ammeter or can be stored for further...

       - Senses a current through it

Optoelectronic devices

  • Optoelectronics
    Optoelectronics
    Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics. In this context, light often includes invisible forms of radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared, in addition to visible light...

    • Opto-Isolator, Opto-Coupler, Photo-Coupler
      Opto-isolator
      In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is "an electronic device designed to transfer electrical signals by utilizing light waves to provide coupling with electrical isolation between its input and output"...

       - Photodiode, BJT, JFET, SCR, TRIAC, Zero-crossing TRIAC, Open collector IC, CMOS IC, Solid State Relay (SSR)
      Solid state relay
      A solid state relay is an electronic switching device in which a small control signal controls a larger load current or voltage. It comprises a voltage or current sensor which responds to an appropriate input , a solid-state electronic switching device of some kind which switches power to the load...

    • Opto Switch, Opto Interrupter, Optical Switch, Optical Interrupter, Photo switch, Photo Interrupter
    • LED Display
      LED display
      An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses light-emitting diodes as a video display. An LED panel is a small display, or a component of a larger display. They are typically used outdoors in store signs and billboards, and in recent years have also become commonly used in destination signs...

       - Seven-segment display
      Seven-segment display
      A seven-segment display , or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays...

      , Sixteen-segment display, Dot matrix display
      Dot matrix display
      A dot matrix display is a display device used to display information on machines, clocks, railway departure indicators and many other devices requiring a simple display device of limited resolution...


Display technologies


Current:
  • Filament lamp (indicator lamp)
  • Vacuum fluorescent display
    Vacuum fluorescent display
    A vacuum fluorescent display is a display device used commonly on consumer-electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens. Invented in Japan in 1967, the displays became common on calculators and other consumer electronics devices...

     (VFD) (preformed characters, 7 segment, starburst)
  • Cathode ray tube
    Cathode ray tube
    The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms , pictures , radar targets and...

     (CRT) (dot matrix
    Dot matrix
    A dot matrix is a 2-dimensional array of LED used to represent characters, symbols and images.Typically the dot matrix is used in older computer printers and many digital display devices. In printers, the dots are usually the darkened areas of the paper...

     scan (e.g. computer monitor), radial scan (e.g. radar
    Radar
    Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

    ), arbitrary scan (e.g. oscilloscope
    Oscilloscope
    An oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional graph of one or more electrical potential differences using the vertical or 'Y' axis, plotted as a function of time,...

    )) (monochrome
    Monochrome
    Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or shades of one color. A monochromatic object or image has colors in shades of limited colors or hues. Images using only shades of grey are called grayscale or black-and-white...

     & colour)
  • LCD (preformed characters, dot matrix) (passive, TFT
    TFT LCD
    Thin film transistor liquid crystal display is a variant of liquid crystal display which uses thin-film transistor technology to improve image quality . TFT LCD is one type of Active matrix LCD, though all LCD-screens are based on TFT active matrix addressing...

    ) (monochrome, colour)
  • Neon
    Neon
    Neon is the chemical element that has the symbol Ne and an atomic number of 10. Although a very common element in the universe, it is rare on Earth. A colorless, inert noble gas under standard conditions, neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in either low-voltage neon glow lamps or...

     (individual, 7 segment display)
  • LED
    LEd
    LEd is a TeX/LaTeX editing software working under Microsoft Windows. It is a freeware product....

     (individual, 7 segment display, starburst display, dot matrix)
  • Flap indicator (numeric, preprinted messages)
  • Plasma display
    Plasma display
    A plasma display panel is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger. They are called "plasma" displays because the technology utilizes small cells containing electrically charged ionized gases, or what are in essence chambers more commonly known as fluorescent...

     (dot matrix)


Obsolete:
  • Filament lamp 7 segment display (aka 'minitron')
  • Nixie Tube
    Nixie tube
    A nixie tube is an electronic device for displaying numerals or other information. The glass tube contains a wire-mesh anode and multiple cathodes. In most tubes, the cathodes are shaped like numerals. Applying power to one cathode surrounds it with an orange glow discharge...

  • Dekatron
    Dekatron
    In electronics, a Dekatron is a gas-filled decade counting tube. Dekatrons were used in computers, calculators and other counting-related products during the 1950s and 1960s...

     (aka glow transfer tube)
  • Magic eye tube
    Magic eye tube
    A magic eye tube gives a visual indication for audio output, radio-frequency signal strength, or other functions. It is also called a cat's eye, or tuning eye tube. These tubes were used by radio receivers from around 1936 onwards, replacing the earlier "Tuneon" neon lamp type tuning indicators,...

     indicator
  • Penetron
    Penetron
    The penetron, short for penetration tube, is a type of limited-color television used in some military applications. Unlike a conventional color television, the penetron produces a limited color gamut, typically two colors and their combination...

     (a 2 colour see-through CRT)

Vacuum tubes (Valves)


Based on current conduction through a vacuum (see Vacuum tube
Vacuum tube
In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube , or thermionic valve , reduced to simply "tube" or "valve" in everyday parlance, is a device that relies on the flow of electric current through a vacuum...

)
  • Diode or Rectifier tube


Amplifying tubes
  • Triode
    Triode
    A triode is an electronic amplification device having three active electrodes. The term most commonly applies to a vacuum tube with three elements: the filament or cathode, the grid, and the plate or anode. The triode vacuum tube was the first electronic amplification device...

  • Tetrode
    Tetrode
    A tetrode is an electronic device having four active electrodes. The term most commonly applies to a two-grid vacuum tube. It has the three electrodes of a triode and an additional screen grid which significantly changes its behaviour.-Control grid:...

  • Pentode
    Pentode
    A pentode is an electronic device having five active electrodes. The term most commonly applies to a three-grid vacuum tube , which was invented by the Dutchman Bernhard D.H. Tellegen in 1926...

  • Hexode
  • Pentagrid
    Pentagrid converter
    The pentagrid converter is a radio receiving valve with five grids used as the frequency mixer stage of a superheterodyne radio receiver....

  • Octode
  • Microwave
    Microwave
    Microwaves, a subset of radio waves, have wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. This broad definition includes both UHF and EHF , and various sources use different boundaries...

     tubes
    • Klystron
      Klystron
      A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube . Klystrons are used as amplifiers at microwave and radio frequencies to produce both low-power reference signals for superheterodyne radar receivers and to produce high-power carrier waves for communications and the driving force for modern...

    • Magnetron
    • Traveling-wave tube


Optical detectors
Photodetector
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy. There are several varieties:*Active pixel sensors are image sensors consisting of an integrated circuit that contains an array of pixel sensors, each pixel containing a both a light sensor and an active amplifier...

 or emitters
  • Phototube
    Phototube
    A phototube is a type of gas-filled or vacuum tube that is extremely sensitive to light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.-Operating principles:...

     or Photodiode - tube equivalent of semiconductor photodiode
    Photodiode
    A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.The common, traditional solar cell used to generateelectric solar power is a large area photodiode....

  • Photomultiplier
    Photomultiplier
    Photomultiplier tubes , members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum...

     tube - Phototube with internal gain
  • Cathode ray tube
    Cathode ray tube
    The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms , pictures , radar targets and...

     (CRT) or Television picture tube
  • Vacuum fluorescent display
    Vacuum fluorescent display
    A vacuum fluorescent display is a display device used commonly on consumer-electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens. Invented in Japan in 1967, the displays became common on calculators and other consumer electronics devices...

     (VFD) - Modern non-raster sort of small CRT display
  • Magic eye tube
    Magic eye tube
    A magic eye tube gives a visual indication for audio output, radio-frequency signal strength, or other functions. It is also called a cat's eye, or tuning eye tube. These tubes were used by radio receivers from around 1936 onwards, replacing the earlier "Tuneon" neon lamp type tuning indicators,...

     - Small CRT display used as a tuning meter (obsolete)
  • X-ray tube
    X-ray tube
    An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that produces X-rays. They are used in X-ray machines. X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, an ionizing radiation with wavelengths shorter than ultraviolet light...

     - Produces x-rays

Discharge devices

  • Gas discharge tube


Obsolete:
  • Mercury arc rectifier
  • Voltage regulator tube
  • Nixie tube
    Nixie tube
    A nixie tube is an electronic device for displaying numerals or other information. The glass tube contains a wire-mesh anode and multiple cathodes. In most tubes, the cathodes are shaped like numerals. Applying power to one cathode surrounds it with an orange glow discharge...

  • Thyratron
    Thyratron
    A thyratron is a type of gas filled tube used as a high energy electrical switch and controlled rectifier. Triode, tetrode and pentode variations of the thyratron have been manufactured in the past, though most are of the triode design...

  • Ignitron
    Ignitron
    An ignitron is a type of controlled rectifier dating from the 1930s. Invented by Joseph Slepian while employed by Westinghouse, Westinghouse was the original manufacturer and owned trademark rights to the name "Ignitron"....


Antennas


Antennas transmit or receive radio waves
  • Elemental dipole
    Dipole antenna
    A dipole antenna is a radio antenna that can be made of a simple wire, with a center-fed driven element. It consists of two metal conductors of rod or wire, oriented parallel and collinear with each other , with a small space between them. The radio frequency voltage is applied to the antenna at...

  • Yagi
    Yagi antenna
    A Yagi-Uda array, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna, is a directional antenna consisting of a driven element and additional parasitic elements...

  • Phased array
    Phased array
    In wave theory, a phased array is an array of antennas in which the relative phases of the respective signals feeding the antennas are varied in such a way that the effective radiation pattern of the array is reinforced in a desired direction and suppressed in undesired directions.An antenna array...

  • Loop antenna
    Loop antenna
    A loop antenna is a radio antenna consisting of a loop of wire, tubing, or other electrical conductor with its ends connected to a balanced transmission line...

  • Parabolic dish
  • Log-periodic dipole array
  • Biconical
    Biconical antenna
    In radio systems, a biconical antenna is a broad-bandwith antenna made of two roughly conical conductive objects, nearly touching at their points. Biconical antennas are broadband dipole antennas, typically exhibiting a bandwidth of 3 octaves or more....

  • Feedhorn

Assemblies, modules


Multiple electronic components assembled in a device that is in itself used as a component
  • Oscillator
  • Display devices
    • Liquid crystal display
      Liquid crystal display
      A liquid crystal display is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals . LCs do not emit light directly....

       (LCD)
    • Digital voltmeters
  • Filter
    Electronic filter
    Electronic filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both...


Mechanical accessories

  • Enclosure
    Enclosure
    Enclosure or inclosure is the process which ends traditional rights such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on common land. Once enclosed, these uses of the land become restricted to the owner, and it ceases to be common land. In England and Wales the term is also used for the...

  • Heat sink
    Heat sink
    A heat sink is a term for a component or assembly that transfers heat generated within a solid material to a fluid medium, such as air or a liquid. Examples of heat sinks are the heat exchangers used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems and the radiator in a car...

  • Heat sink paste & pads
  • Fan
    Fan (mechanical)
    A mechanical fan is a machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air.A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air. Usually, it is contained within some form of housing or case. This may direct the airflow or increase safety by preventing...


Other

  • Printed circuit board
    Printed circuit board
    A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also referred to as printed wiring board or etched wiring...

    s
  • Lamp
    Lamp (electrical component)
    A lamp is a replaceable component such as an incandescent light bulb, which is designed to produce light from electricity. These components usually have a base of ceramic, metal, glass or plastic, which makes an electrical connection in the socket of a light fixture. This connection may be made...

  • Waveguide
    Waveguide
    A waveguide is a structure which guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound waves. There are different types of waveguides for each type of wave...

  • Memristor
    Memristor
    Memristor is a passive two-terminal electrical component envisioned by Leon Chua as a fundamental non-linear circuit element relating charge and magnetic flux linkage...



Obsolete:
  • Carbon amplifier (see Carbon microphones used as amplifiers)
  • Carbon arc (negative resistance device)
  • Dynamo (historic rf generator)

Standard symbols


On a circuit diagram
Circuit diagram
A circuit diagram is a simplified conventional graphical representation of an electrical circuit...

, electronic devices are represented by conventional symbols. Reference designators are applied to the symbols to identify the component.

See also



  • Discrete device
    Discrete device
    A discrete device is an electronic component with just one circuit element, either passive...

  • Circuit design
    Circuit design
    The process of circuit design can cover systems ranging from complex electronic systems all the way down to the individual transistors within an integrated circuit...

  • Circuit diagram
    Circuit diagram
    A circuit diagram is a simplified conventional graphical representation of an electrical circuit...

  • Electrical element
    Electrical element
    Electrical elements are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electrical components, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors, used in the analysis of electrical networks...

  • Electronic components' Datasheet
    Datasheet
    thumb|A floppy disk controller datasheet.A datasheet, data sheet, or spec sheet is a document summarizing the performance and other technical characteristics of a product, machine, component , material, a subsystem or software in sufficient detail to be used by a design engineer to integrate the...

    s
  • IEEE 315-1975
  • Memristor
    Memristor
    Memristor is a passive two-terminal electrical component envisioned by Leon Chua as a fundamental non-linear circuit element relating charge and magnetic flux linkage...