Electronic oscillator

# Electronic oscillator

Overview
An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit
Electronic circuit
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow...

that produces a repetitive electronic signal, often a sine wave
Sine wave
The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It occurs often in pure mathematics, as well as physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other fields...

or a square wave
Square wave
A square wave is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform, most typically encountered in electronics and signal processing. An ideal square wave alternates regularly and instantaneously between two levels...

. They are widely used in innumerable electronic devices. Common examples of signals generated by oscillators include signals broadcast by radio and television transmitter
Television transmitter
A television transmitter is a device which broadcasts an electromagnetic signal to the television receivers. Television transmitters may be analog or digital.- Types of transmitters :There are many types of transmitters depending on* The system standard...

s, clock signals that regulate computers and quartz clock
Quartz clock
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time. This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than good mechanical clocks...

s, and the sounds produced by electronic beepers and video games.
Discussion

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Encyclopedia
An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit
Electronic circuit
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow...

that produces a repetitive electronic signal, often a sine wave
Sine wave
The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It occurs often in pure mathematics, as well as physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other fields...

or a square wave
Square wave
A square wave is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform, most typically encountered in electronics and signal processing. An ideal square wave alternates regularly and instantaneously between two levels...

. They are widely used in innumerable electronic devices. Common examples of signals generated by oscillators include signals broadcast by radio and television transmitter
Television transmitter
A television transmitter is a device which broadcasts an electromagnetic signal to the television receivers. Television transmitters may be analog or digital.- Types of transmitters :There are many types of transmitters depending on* The system standard...

s, clock signals that regulate computers and quartz clock
Quartz clock
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time. This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than good mechanical clocks...

s, and the sounds produced by electronic beepers and video games.

A low-frequency oscillator
Low frequency oscillation
Low-frequency oscillation is an electronic signal, which is usually below 20 Hz and creates a rhythmic pulse or sweep. This pulse or sweep is often used to modulate synthesizers, delay lines and other audio equipment in order to create effects used in the production of electronic music. Audio...

(LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates an AC
Alternating current
In alternating current the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current , the flow of electric charge is only in one direction....

waveform
Waveform
Waveform means the shape and form of a signal such as a wave moving in a physical medium or an abstract representation.In many cases the medium in which the wave is being propagated does not permit a direct visual image of the form. In these cases, the term 'waveform' refers to the shape of a graph...

at a frequency below ≈20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator.

Oscillators designed to produce a high-power AC output from a DC supply are usually called inverters
Inverter (electrical)
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current to alternating current ; the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits....

.

There are two main types of electronic oscillator: the harmonic oscillator
Harmonic oscillator
In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x: \vec F = -k \vec x \, where k is a positive constant....

and the relaxation oscillator
Relaxation oscillator
A relaxation oscillator is an oscillator based upon the behavior of a physical system's return to equilibrium after being disturbed. That is, a dynamical system within the oscillator continuously dissipates its internal energy...

.

## Harmonic oscillator

The harmonic, or linear
Linear circuit
A linear circuit is an electronic circuit in which, for a sinusoidal input voltage of frequency f, any output of the circuit is also sinusoidal with frequency f...

, oscillator produces a sinusoidal output.

The basic form of a harmonic oscillator is an electronic amplifier
Electronic amplifier
An electronic amplifier is a device for increasing the power of a signal.It does this by taking energy from a power supply and controlling the output to match the input signal shape but with a larger amplitude...

connected in a positive feedback loop with its output fed back into its input through a filter. When the power supply to the amplifier is first switched on, the amplifier's output consists only of noise. The noise travels around the loop and is filtered
Filter (signal processing)
In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that removes from a signal some unwanted component or feature. Filtering is a class of signal processing, the defining feature of filters being the complete or partial suppression of some aspect of the signal...

and re-amplified until it increasingly resembles a sine wave
Sine wave
The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It occurs often in pure mathematics, as well as physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other fields...

at a single frequency.

In inductive-capacitive or LC oscillators, the filter is a tuned circuit (often called a tank circuit) consisting of an inductor
Inductor
An inductor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in a magnetic field. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries...

(L) and capacitor
Capacitor
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric ; for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated...

(C) connected together. Charge flows back and forth between the capacitor's plates through the inductor, so the tuned circuit can store electrical energy oscillating at its resonant frequency. There are small losses in the tank circuit, but the amplifier compensates for those losses and supplies the power for the output signal. LC oscillators are typically used when a tunable frequency source is necessary, such as in signal generator
Signal generator
Signal generators, also known variously as function generators, RF and microwave signal generators, pitch generators, arbitrary waveform generators, digital pattern generators or frequency generators are electronic devices that generate repeating or non-repeating electronic signals...

Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which, with the aid of an antenna, produces radio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating...

s and the local oscillator
Local oscillator
A local oscillator is an electronic device used to generate a signal normally for the purpose of converting a signal of interest to a different frequency using a mixer. This process of frequency conversion, also referred to as heterodyning, produces the sum and difference frequencies of the...

Hartley oscillator
The Hartley oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses an inductor and a capacitor in parallel to determine the frequency. Invented in 1915 by American engineer Ralph Hartley, the distinguishing feature of the Hartley circuit is that the feedback needed for oscillation is taken from...

, Colpitts
Colpitts oscillator
A Colpitts oscillator, invented in 1920 by American engineer Edwin H. Colpitts, is one of a number of designs for electronic oscillator circuits using the combination of an inductance with a capacitor for frequency determination, thus also called LC oscillator...

and Clapp
Clapp oscillator
The Clapp oscillator is one of several types of electronic oscillator constructed from a transistor and a positive feedback network, using the combination of an inductance with a capacitor for frequency determination, thus also called LC oscillator.It was published by James Kilton Clapp in 1948...

circuits. On-chip inductors usually don't have a high enough Q-factor to use in the tuned circuit.

A piezoelectric crystal
Crystal
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography...

(commonly quartz
Quartz
Quartz is the second-most-abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz,...

) may take the place of the filter to stabilise the frequency of oscillation
Oscillation
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value or between two or more different states. Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and AC power. The term vibration is sometimes used more narrowly to mean a mechanical oscillation but sometimes...

, this is called a crystal oscillator
Crystal oscillator
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency...

. These kinds of oscillators contain quartz crystals that mechanically vibrate as resonator
Resonator
A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonant frequencies, with greater amplitude than at others. The oscillations in a resonator can be either electromagnetic or mechanical...

s, and their vibration determines the oscillation frequency. Crystals have very high Q-factor and also better temperature stability than tuned circuits, so crystal oscillators have much better frequency stability than LC or RC oscillators. They are used to stabilize the frequency of most radio transmitters, and to generate the clock signal in computers. The Pierce oscillator
Pierce oscillator
The Pierce oscillator is a type of electronic oscillator particularly well-suited for use in piezoelectric crystal oscillator circuits. Named for its inventor, George W. Pierce , the Pierce oscillator is a derivative of the Colpitts oscillator...

circuit is often used for crystal oscillators. Because the crystal is an off-chip component, it adds some cost and complexity to the system design, but the crystal itself is generally quite inexpensive.

Surface acoustic wave
Surface acoustic wave
]A surface acoustic wave is an acoustic wave traveling along the surface of a material exhibiting elasticity, with an amplitude that typically decays exponentially with depth into the substrate.-Discovery:...

(SAW) devices are a kind of crystal oscillator, but achieve much higher frequencies by establishing standing waves on the surface of a quartz crystal lattice. These are more expensive than crystal oscillators, and are used in specialized applications which require a direct and very accurate high frequency reference, for example, in cellular telephones.

There are many ways to implement harmonic oscillators, because there are different ways to amplify and filter. Some of the different circuits are:
• Armstrong oscillator
Armstrong oscillator
The Armstrong oscillator is named after its inventor, the electrical engineer Edwin Armstrong. It is sometimes called a tickler oscillator because the feedback needed to produce oscillations is provided using a tickler coil via magnetic coupling between coil L and coil T...

• Hartley oscillator
Hartley oscillator
The Hartley oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses an inductor and a capacitor in parallel to determine the frequency. Invented in 1915 by American engineer Ralph Hartley, the distinguishing feature of the Hartley circuit is that the feedback needed for oscillation is taken from...

• Colpitts oscillator
Colpitts oscillator
A Colpitts oscillator, invented in 1920 by American engineer Edwin H. Colpitts, is one of a number of designs for electronic oscillator circuits using the combination of an inductance with a capacitor for frequency determination, thus also called LC oscillator...

• Clapp oscillator
Clapp oscillator
The Clapp oscillator is one of several types of electronic oscillator constructed from a transistor and a positive feedback network, using the combination of an inductance with a capacitor for frequency determination, thus also called LC oscillator.It was published by James Kilton Clapp in 1948...

• Delay line oscillator
Delay line oscillator
A delay line oscillator is a form of electronic oscillator that uses a delay line as its principal timing element.The circuit is set to oscillate by inverting the output of the delay line and feeding that signal back to the input of the delay line with appropriate amplification...

• Pierce oscillator
Pierce oscillator
The Pierce oscillator is a type of electronic oscillator particularly well-suited for use in piezoelectric crystal oscillator circuits. Named for its inventor, George W. Pierce , the Pierce oscillator is a derivative of the Colpitts oscillator...

(crystal)
• Phase-shift oscillator
Phase-shift oscillator
A phase-shift oscillator is a simple electronic oscillator. It contains an inverting amplifier, and a feedback filter which 'shifts' the phase of the amplifier output by 180 degrees at a specific oscillation frequency....

• RC oscillator
RC oscillator
Linear electronic oscillator circuits, which generate a sinusoidal output signal, are composed of an amplifier and a frequency selective element, a filter. An oscillator circuit which uses an RC network, a combination of resistors and capacitors, for its frequency selective part is called an RC...

(Wien Bridge
Wien bridge oscillator
A Wien bridge oscillator is a type of electronic oscillator that generates sine waves. It can generate a large range of frequencies. The oscillator is based on a bridge circuit originally developed by Max Wien in 1891....

and "Twin-T")
• Cross-coupled LC
LC circuit
An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit or tuned circuit, consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C...

oscillator
• Vackář oscillator
Vackár oscillator
A Vackář oscillator is a variation of the split-capacitance oscillator model. It is similar to a Colpitts oscillator or a Clapp oscillator in this respect. It differs in that the output level is relatively stable over frequency, and has a wider bandwidth when compared to a Clapp design.In 1949,...

• Opto-Electronic Oscillator
Opto-electronic oscillator
An opto-electronic oscillator is an optoelectronic circuit that produces repetitive electronic sine wave and/or modulated optical continuous wave signals....

.

## Relaxation oscillator

A relaxation oscillator
Relaxation oscillator
A relaxation oscillator is an oscillator based upon the behavior of a physical system's return to equilibrium after being disturbed. That is, a dynamical system within the oscillator continuously dissipates its internal energy...

produces a non-sinusoidal output, such as a square
Square wave
A square wave is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform, most typically encountered in electronics and signal processing. An ideal square wave alternates regularly and instantaneously between two levels...

, sawtooth
Sawtooth wave
The sawtooth wave is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform. It is named a sawtooth based on its resemblance to the teeth on the blade of a saw....

or triangle
Triangle wave
A triangle wave is a non-sinusoidal waveform named for its triangular shape.Like a square wave, the triangle wave contains only odd harmonics...

wave. It contains an energy-storing element (a capacitor
Capacitor
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric ; for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated...

or, more rarely, an inductor
Inductor
An inductor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in a magnetic field. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries...

) and a nonlinear trigger circuit (a latch
Latch
Latch may refer to:* Latch , a type of door or window fastener* Latch , a circuit used to store information** A latching relay* Latch , lock on a system data-structure like an index...

, Schmitt trigger, or negative resistance element) that periodically charges and discharges the energy stored in the storage element thus causing abrupt changes in the output waveform.

Square-wave relaxation oscillators are used to provide the clock signal
Clock signal
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is utilized like a metronome to coordinate actions of circuits...

for sequential logic
Sequential logic
In digital circuit theory, sequential logic is a type of logic circuit whose output depends not only on the present input but also on the history of the input. This is in contrast to combinational logic, whose output is a function of, and only of, the present input...

circuits such as timers and counters, although crystal oscillators are often preferred for their greater stability. Triangle wave or sawtooth oscillators are used in the timebase circuits that generate the horizontal deflection signals for cathode ray tube
Cathode ray tube
The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms , pictures , radar targets and...

s in analogue oscilloscope
Oscilloscope
An oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional graph of one or more electrical potential differences using the vertical or 'Y' axis, plotted as a function of time,...

s and television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

sets. In function generator
Function generator
A function generator is a piece of electronic test equipment or software used to generate different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies. These waveforms can be either repetitive or single-shot, in which case some kind of triggering source is required...

s, this triangle wave may then be further shaped into a close approximation of a sine wave
Sine wave
The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It occurs often in pure mathematics, as well as physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other fields...

.

Ring oscillator
Ring oscillator
A ring oscillator is a device composed of an odd number of NOT gates whose output oscillates between two voltage levels, representing true and false...

s are built of a ring of active delay stages. Generally the ring has an odd number of inverting stages, so that there is no single stable state for the internal ring voltages. Instead, a single transition propagates endlessly around the ring.

Types of relaxation oscillator circuits include:
• multivibrator
Multivibrator
A multivibrator is an electronic circuit used to implement a variety of simple two-state systems such as oscillators, timers and flip-flops. It is characterized by two amplifying devices cross-coupled by resistors or capacitors...

• ring oscillator
Ring oscillator
A ring oscillator is a device composed of an odd number of NOT gates whose output oscillates between two voltage levels, representing true and false...

• delay line oscillator
Delay line oscillator
A delay line oscillator is a form of electronic oscillator that uses a delay line as its principal timing element.The circuit is set to oscillate by inverting the output of the delay line and feeding that signal back to the input of the delay line with appropriate amplification...

• rotary traveling wave oscillator
Time to digital converter
In electronic instrumentation and signal processing, a time to digital converter is a device for converting a signal of sporadic pulses into a digital representation of their time indices. In other words, a TDC outputs the time of arrival for each incoming pulse...

.

• Voltage-controlled oscillator
Voltage-controlled oscillator
A voltage-controlled oscillator or VCO is an electronic oscillator designed to be controlled in oscillation frequency by a voltage input. The frequency of oscillation is varied by the applied DC voltage, while modulating signals may also be fed into the VCO to cause frequency modulation or phase...

• Injection locked oscillator
• Numerically controlled oscillator
• Opto-Electronic Oscillator
Opto-electronic oscillator
An opto-electronic oscillator is an optoelectronic circuit that produces repetitive electronic sine wave and/or modulated optical continuous wave signals....

• Phase-locked loop
Phase-locked loop
A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input "reference" signal. It is an electronic circuit consisting of a variable frequency oscillator and a phase detector...

• Barkhausen stability criterion
Barkhausen stability criterion
The Barkhausen stability criterion is a mathematical condition to determine when a linear electronic circuit will oscillate. It was put forth in 1921 by German physicist Heinrich Georg Barkhausen...