Anhui

Anhui

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Anhui'
Start a new discussion about 'Anhui'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 and the Huai River
Huai River
The Huai River is a major river in China. The Huai River is located about mid-way between the Yellow River and Yangtze River, the two largest rivers in China, and like them runs from west to east...

, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

 to the southeast, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

 to the south, Hubei
Hubei
' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

 to the southwest, Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

 to the northwest, and Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 for a tiny section in the north. The capital of the province is Hefei
Hefei
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

.

The name "Anhui" derives from the names of two cities in south Anhui, Anqing
Anqing
Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

 and Huizhou
Huizhou (region)
Huizhou is a historical region in southeastern China. It corresponds to the southernmost part of Anhui Province plus Wuyuan County in northeastern Jiangxi Province. Anhui, the name of the province, is a portmanteau word combining the first characters of Anqing and Huizhou.-Geography:Huizhou is a...

 (now Huangshan City). The abbreviation for Anhui is "皖" (Wǎn), because there were historically a State of Wan, a Mount Wan, and a Wan river in the province.

History



The province of Anhui was formed in the seventeenth century. Before then, there was no coherent concept of "Anhui". Northern Anhui was firmly a part of the North China Plain
North China Plain
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. The plain is bordered on the north by the Yanshan Mountains and on the west by the Taihang Mountains edge of the Shanxi plateau. To the south, it merges into the Yangtze Plain...

 in terms of culture, together with modern-day Henan
Henan
Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

 province. Central Anhui constituted most of the fertile and densely-populated Huai He River watershed. Southern Anhui, along the Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

, was closer to Hubei
Hubei
' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

 and southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

 provinces in culture. Finally, the hills of southeastern Anhui formed a unique and distinct cultural sphere of its own.

During the Warring States Period
Warring States Period
The Warring States Period , also known as the Era of Warring States, or the Warring Kingdoms period, covers the Iron Age period from about 475 BC to the reunification of China under the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC...

, Shouchun (modern Shou County
Shou County
Shou County is a county in Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of Lu'an City. It has population is 1,280,000 and its area is 2986 square kilometers...

) in central Anhui became a refugee capital for the state of Chu after its heartlands in modern Hubei
Hubei
' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

 province was overrun by the powerful state of Qin in the west, in 278 BC. Qin nevertheless managed to conquer all of China in 221 BC, creating the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

.

Anhui was administered under several different commanderies during the Qin Dynasty and the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

. Near the end of the Han Dynasty, Shouchun became the base for the warlord
Warlord
A warlord is a person with power who has both military and civil control over a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. The term can also mean one who espouses the ideal that war is necessary, and has the means and authority to engage in war...

 Yuan Shu
Yuan Shu
Yuan Shu was a warlord during the late Han Dynasty era of Chinese history. He rose to prominence following the collapse of the imperial court in 189. He was said to be a younger cousin of the warlord Yuan Shao, but was actually Yuan Shao's younger half-brother...

, who declared himself emperor at one point, but soon succumbed to illness, allowing his small realm to come under the powerful warlord Cao Cao
Cao Cao
Cao Cao was a warlord and the penultimate chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during the dynasty's final years. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid the foundations for what was to become the state of Cao Wei and was posthumously titled...

, founder of the Wei Kingdom, one of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
The Three Kingdoms period was a period in Chinese history, part of an era of disunity called the "Six Dynasties" following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty rulers. In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the...

.

The 4th century saw the influx of nomadic tribes from Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

 into North China
North China
thumb|250px|Northern [[People's Republic of China]] region.Northern China or North China is a geographical region of China. The heartland of North China is the North China Plain....

. This began several centuries of political division of northern and southern China
Northern and southern China
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions has never been precisely defined...

. Being at the juncture of north and south, the lands comprising modern Anhui changed hands frequently and was usually bisected through the middle politically. The Battle of Feishui, between the Former Qin
Former Qin
The Former Qin was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Founded by the Fu family of the Di ethnicity, it completed the unification of North China in 376. Its capital had been Xi'an up to the death of the ruler Fu Jiān. Despite its name, the Former Qin was much later and less powerful than...

 of the north and the Eastern Jin Dynasty of the south, took place in 383 AD in modern Anhui.

The Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty was a powerful, but short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it ended nearly four centuries of division between rival regimes. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty....

 (581-618) and the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 (618-907) oversaw several centuries of relative peace and unity in China. During this period Anhui was once again ruled under several different jurisdictions.

During the division of China between the Jin Dynasty in the north and the Southern Song Dynasty in the south, Anhui was once again bisected, this time along the Huai He River. This lasted until Mongol reunification of China in 1279.

The Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 drove out the Mongols in 1368. Due to a short stint as the capital of China by the city of Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

 in nearby Jiangsu
Jiangsu
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

 province, the entirety of Jiangsu and Anhui kept their special status as territory-governed directly by the central government, and were called Nanzhili (南直隸 "Southern directly-governed").

The Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

, which conquered China in 1644, changed this situation by establishing Nanzhili as Jiangnan province; in 1666 Jiangsu and Anhui were split apart as separate provinces. This was the beginning of the contemporary Anhui province, which has since kept almost the same borders as today. The one significant change that occurred was the move of the provincial capital from Anqing
Anqing
Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

 to Hefei
Hefei
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

 in 1946.

When the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 was founded in 1949, Anhui was briefly split into two separate administrative regions: Wanbei (North Anhui) and Wannan (South Anhui). They were merged into a province in 1952.

In the 2007 book China Road, author Rob Gifford
Rob Gifford
Rob Gifford is a British-born radio correspondent. He has degrees in Chinese Studies from Durham University and in Regional Studies from Harvard University. He began to learn Mandarin Chinese in 1987 whilst in China....

 stated that the Chinese refer to Anhui as a "big agricultural province" (农业大省). According to Gifford, this is a euphemism
Euphemism
A euphemism is the substitution of a mild, inoffensive, relatively uncontroversial phrase for another more frank expression that might offend or otherwise suggest something unpleasant to the audience...

 for a "very poor" area and that people have referred to Anhui as the "Appalachia
Appalachia
Appalachia is a term used to describe a cultural region in the eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York state to northern Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia. While the Appalachian Mountains stretch from Belle Isle in Canada to Cheaha Mountain in the U.S...

 of China."

Geography



Anhui is quite diverse topographically. The north of the province is part of the North China Plain
North China Plain
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. The plain is bordered on the north by the Yanshan Mountains and on the west by the Taihang Mountains edge of the Shanxi plateau. To the south, it merges into the Yangtze Plain...

 while the north-central areas are part of the Huai He River watershed. Both of these regions are very flat and densely populated. The land becomes more uneven further south, with the Dabie Mountains occupying much of southwestern Anhui and a series of hills and ranges cutting through southeastern Anhui. The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 finds its way through south Anhui in between these two mountainous regions. The highest peak in Anhui is Lotus Peak, part of the Huangshan Mountains
Huangshan Mountains
Huangshan , is a mountain range in southern Anhui province in eastern China. The range composed of material that was uplifted from an ancient sea during the Mesozoic era, 100 million years ago. The mountains themselves were carved by glaciers during the Quaternary...

 in southeastern Anhui. It has an altitude of 1873 m.

Major rivers include the Huai He in the north and the Yangtze in the south. The largest lake is Lake Chaohu in the center of the province, with an area of about 800 km². The southeastern part of the province near the Yangtze River has many lakes as well.

As with topography, the province differs in climate from north to south. The north is more temperate and has more clearcut seasons. January temperatures average at around -1 to 2 °C north of the Huai He, and 0 to 3 °C south of the Huai He; in July temperatures average 27 °C or above. Plum rains
East Asian rainy season
The East Asian rainy season, commonly called the plum rain , is caused by precipitation along a persistent stationary front known as the Meiyu front for nearly two months during the late spring and early summer between eastern China, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan...

 occur in June and July and may cause flooding.

Major cities:
  • Hefei
    Hefei
    Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

  • Anqing
    Anqing
    Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

  • Huangshan City
  • Tongling
    Tongling
    Tongling is a prefecture-level city in southern Anhui province, People's Republic of China. A river port along the Yangtze River, Tongling borders Chaohu to the north, Wuhu to the east, Chizhou to the southwest and Anqing to the west....

  • Ma'anshan
    Ma'anshan
    Ma'anshan , also written as Maanshan, is a prefecture-level city in the east of Anhui province in Eastern China. An industrial city stretching across the Yangtze River, Ma'anshan borders Hefei to the west, Wuhu to the southwest, and Nanjing to the east...

  • Huainan
    Huainan
    Huainan is a prefecture-level city with 2,334,000 inhabitants in central Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the south, Lu’an to the southwest, Fuyang to the west, Bozhou to the northwest, Bengbu to the northeast and Chuzhou to the east.Its...

  • Bengbu
    Bengbu
    Bengbu , formerly known as P'engpu and Peng-pu, is a prefecture-level city with a population of 3,164,467 at the last census in northern Anhui Province, People's Republic of China...

  • Bozhou
    Bozhou
    Bozhou is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Anhui province, People's Republic of China. It borders Huaibei to the northeast, Bengbu to the southeast, Huainan to the south, Fuyang to the southwest, and the province of Henan to the north.-Administration:...


  • Administrative divisions


    Anhui is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions:
    Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat Population (2010
    Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
    The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010....

    )
    Prefecture-level city
    Prefecture-level city
    A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

     —
    1 Hefei
    Hefei
    Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

    合肥市 Héféi Shì Luyang District
    Luyang District
    Luyang District is a district under the administration of Hefei city in Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. It makes up the main part of the old city area of Hefei...

    7,457,000
    2 Anqing
    Anqing
    Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

    安庆市 Ānqìng Shì Yingjiang District
    Yingjiang District
    Yingjiang District is a district in Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of Anqing City. It has a population of 244,000 and an area of .-Administrative divisions:...

    5,311,000
    3 Bengbu
    Bengbu
    Bengbu , formerly known as P'engpu and Peng-pu, is a prefecture-level city with a population of 3,164,467 at the last census in northern Anhui Province, People's Republic of China...

    蚌埠市 Bèngbù Shì Longzihu District
    Longzihu District
    Longzihu District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Bengbu city.-Qiugang village:The release in 2010 of a documentary called The Warriors of Qiugang: A Chinese Village Fights Back, chronicles how the 1876 village residents of Qiugang mobilized themselves to...

    3,164,000
    4 Bozhou
    Bozhou
    Bozhou is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Anhui province, People's Republic of China. It borders Huaibei to the northeast, Bengbu to the southeast, Huainan to the south, Fuyang to the southwest, and the province of Henan to the north.-Administration:...

    亳州市 Bózhōu Shì Qiaocheng District
    Qiaocheng District
    Qiaocheng District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Bozhou city....

    4,851,000
    6 Chizhou
    Chizhou
    Chizhou is a prefecture-level city in Anhui province, People's Republic of China. It borders Anqing to the northwest, Tongling and Wuhu to the northeast, Xuancheng to the east, Huangshan to the southeast, and the province of Jiangxi to the southwest....

    池州市 Chízhōu Shì Guichi District
    Guichi District
    Guichi District is a district of Anhui Province, People's Republic of China under the jurisdiction of Chizhou City and the seat of the city government...

    1,403,000
    7 Chuzhou
    Chuzhou
    Chuzhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the southwest, Huainan to the west, Bengbu to the northwest, Chaohu to the south, and the province of Jiangsu to the east...

    滁州市 Chúzhōu Shì Langya District
    Langya District
    Langya District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Chuzhou city....

    3,938,000
    8 Fuyang
    Fuyang, Anhui
    Fuyang is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Anhui province, People's Republic of China. It borders Bozhou to the northeast, Huainan to the southeast, Lu'an to the south, and the province of Henan on all other sides.-Climate:-Administration:...

    阜阳市 Fǔyáng Shì Yingzhou District
    Yingzhou District
    Yingzhou District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuyang city....

    7,600,000
    9 Huaibei
    Huaibei
    Huaibei is a prefecture-level city in northern Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. It borders Suzhou to the east, Bengbu to the south, Bozhou to the west, and the province of Henan to the north.-Administration:...

    淮北市 Huáiběi Shì Lieshan District
    Lieshan District
    Lieshan District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Huaibei city....

    2,114,000
    10 Huainan
    Huainan
    Huainan is a prefecture-level city with 2,334,000 inhabitants in central Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the south, Lu’an to the southwest, Fuyang to the west, Bozhou to the northwest, Bengbu to the northeast and Chuzhou to the east.Its...

    淮南市 Huáinán Shì Tianjia'an District
    Tianjia'an District
    Tianjia'an District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Huainan city....

    2,334,000
    11 Huangshan 黄山市 Huángshān Shì Tunxi District
    Tunxi District
    Tunxi District forms the central district of Huangshan City, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. It has a population of 150,000 and an area of .Tunxi District has jurisdiction over four subdistricts and five towns....

    1,359,000
    12 Lu'an
    Lu'an
    Lu'an , is a prefecture-level city in western Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, with a population of 5,612,590 inhabitants at 2010 census. Its built up area is home to 1,482,729 inhabitants spread out on 2 urban districts...

    六安市 Lù'ān Shì Jin'an District
    Jin'an District, Lu'an
    Jin'an District is a district of Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of Lu'an City. It has a population of 830,000 and an area of . The government of Jin'an district is located on Renmin St....

    5,612,000
    13 Ma'anshan
    Ma'anshan
    Ma'anshan , also written as Maanshan, is a prefecture-level city in the east of Anhui province in Eastern China. An industrial city stretching across the Yangtze River, Ma'anshan borders Hefei to the west, Wuhu to the southwest, and Nanjing to the east...

    马鞍山市 Mǎ'ānshān Shì Yushan District
    Yushan District
    Yushan District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Ma'anshan city....

    2,304,000
    14 Suzhou
    Suzhou, Anhui
    -Administration:Suzhou administers five county-level divisions, including one district and four counties.*Yongqiao District *Dangshan County *Xiao County *Lingbi County *Si County...

    宿州市 Sùzhōu Shì Yongqiao District
    Yongqiao District
    Yongqiao District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Suzhou city....

    5,353,000
    15 Tongling
    Tongling
    Tongling is a prefecture-level city in southern Anhui province, People's Republic of China. A river port along the Yangtze River, Tongling borders Chaohu to the north, Wuhu to the east, Chizhou to the southwest and Anqing to the west....

    铜陵市 Tónglíng Shì Tongguanshan District
    Tongguanshan District
    Tongguanshan District is a district under the administration of Tongling City in, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China]]. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 260,000. The district's postal code is 244000.-Administrative divisions:...

    724,000
    16 Wuhu 芜湖市 Wúhú Shì Jinghu District
    Jinghu District
    Jinghu District is a district of Anhui Province, China. It is under the administration of Wuhu city....

    3,443,000
    17 Xuancheng
    Xuancheng
    Xuancheng is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Anhui province of Eastern China. It borders Wuhu to the northwest, Chizhou to the west, Huangshan to the southwest, and the provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu to the southeast and northeast respectively....

    宣城市 Xuānchéng Shì Xuanzhou District
    Xuanzhou District
    Xuanzhou District is a district in Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, administered by Xuancheng City. It has a population of 840,000 and an area of .Xuanzhou District has jurisdiction over five subdistricts, sixteen towns and eighteen townships....

    2,533,000


    The seventeen prefecture-level divisions of Anhui are subdivided into 105 county-level divisions (44 districts, five county-level cities, and 56 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1845 township-level divisions (972 towns, 634 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 230 subdistrict
    Subdistrict
    Subdistrict is a low level administrative division of a country. In Thailand it may refer to the King Amphoe or to the Tambon. In England and Wales it was part of a Registration district....

    s).

    See List of administrative divisions of Anhui for a complete list of county-level divisions.

    Politics



    The Politics of Anhui Province is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

    The Governor of Anhui is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Anhui. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Anhui Communist Party of China
    Communist Party of China
    The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

     Provincial Committee Secretary , colloquially termed the "Anhui Party Chief".

    Economy


    Agriculture in Anhui varies according to the climate zones that the province crosses. North of the Huai He river wheat
    Wheat
    Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

     and sweet potato
    Sweet potato
    The sweet potato is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Its large, starchy, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. The young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. Of the approximately 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of...

    es are grown, while south of the Huai He it is rice
    Rice
    Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

     and wheat instead.

    Natural resources of Anhui include iron
    Iron
    Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

     in Ma'anshan
    Ma'anshan
    Ma'anshan , also written as Maanshan, is a prefecture-level city in the east of Anhui province in Eastern China. An industrial city stretching across the Yangtze River, Ma'anshan borders Hefei to the west, Wuhu to the southwest, and Nanjing to the east...

    , coal
    Coal
    Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

     in Huainan
    Huainan
    Huainan is a prefecture-level city with 2,334,000 inhabitants in central Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the south, Lu’an to the southwest, Fuyang to the west, Bozhou to the northwest, Bengbu to the northeast and Chuzhou to the east.Its...

    , and copper
    Copper
    Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

     in Tongling
    Tongling
    Tongling is a prefecture-level city in southern Anhui province, People's Republic of China. A river port along the Yangtze River, Tongling borders Chaohu to the north, Wuhu to the east, Chizhou to the southwest and Anqing to the west....

    . There are industries related to these natural resources (e.g. steel industry at Ma'anshan). One of the famous Anhui-based corporations is the automobile company Chery
    Chéry
    Chéry is a commune in the Cher department in the Centre region of France.-Geography:An area of farming and forestry, comprising the main village and a hamlet, situated in the valley of the river Arnon some south of Vierzon, at the junction of the D75, D165 and the D68 roads.-Population:-External...

    , which is based in Wuhu.

    Compared to its more successful neighbours to the east, Zhejiang
    Zhejiang
    Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

     and Jiangsu
    Jiangsu
    ' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

    , Anhui has lagged markedly behind in economic development, with a GDP
    Gross domestic product
    Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

     per capita around one third the level of those two provinces. There is great regional disparity as well, and most of the wealth is concentrated in industrial regions close to the Yangtze River
    Yangtze River
    The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

    , such as Hefei
    Hefei
    Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

    , Wuhu, and Ma'anshan.

    Anhui's nominal GDP for 2010 was approximately 1.22 trillion yuan (US$181.1 billion), up 12.9% from 2008 and a per capita of 16,391 yuan (US$2,400). It is considered a mid-size economy in terms of economic output. Anhui's GDP is largely driven by fixed-asset investment, and the province's GDP to FAI ratio as of 2009 was 0.89, the highest in China.

    Anhui's largest companies include Anhui Conch Cement Company
    Anhui Conch Cement Company
    Anhui Conch Cement Company or simply Anhui Conch Cement, Anhui Conch or Conch Cement, is the largest cement manufacturer or seller in Mainland China, headquartered in Anhui Province...

    , a producer and distributor of cement, Guoyang Securities Co (SHE: 000728), a financial services provider, and Ma’anshan Iron & Steel, a producer of steel and iron.

    Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone


    Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone is located in the southwest of Hefei. The zone is divided into two functional areas. The east part is allocated for manufacturing purpose and it also has two parks; the west part is where the business center, Hefei university town, and the international community center are located. It is established in 1993, and it is located close to Hefei Luogang International Airport.

    Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone


    Hefei Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in October 1990 and approved by the State Council as a state-level Development Zone in March 1991. In 1997, the Development Zone was ratified as an APEC Science and Technology Industrial Park, with special open policies to APEC and EU members. Hefei High Tech Park was also approved as a National High Tech Export Base in 2000 and obtained the award of a Advanced High Tech Zone under the Torch Program in 2003. So far, more than 100 hi-tech enterprises have entered the zone. Industries encouraged in the zone include Chemicals Production and Processing, Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Research and Development, Telecommunications Equipment.

    Wuhu Economic and Technological Development Zone


    Established in 1993, Wuhu Economic & Technological Development Zone is the first state-level development zone approved by central government in Anhui Province. As the hub in the west of the Yangtze Delta, it is an ideal place for business in Central China and East China such as manufacturing place or logistic center due to great transportation advantage. Wuhu port is the last fine deepwater port here going against the Yangtse River. It is the main foreign trade base and overseas transportation center. It takes 1 hour from Wuhu to Nanjing Lukou International Airport and to Hefei Luogang Airport.

    Wuhu Export Processing Zone


    Wuhu Export Processing Zone was approved to be a national level export processing zone by State Council. Wuhu Export Processing Zone is located in the Wuhu EDZ, with a total planned area of 2.95 sqkm with the first-stage are being 1.1 sqkm. It is located close to Wuhu Airport and Wuhu Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Trading and Distribution.

    Demographics


    Han Chinese
    Han Chinese
    Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

     make up the vast majority of the population. The Hui and She nationalities are the two largest minorities.

    Anhui has a highly unbalanced gender ratio. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal
    British Medical Journal
    BMJ is a partially open-access peer-reviewed medical journal. Originally called the British Medical Journal, the title was officially shortened to BMJ in 1988. The journal is published by the BMJ Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Medical Association...

    , in the 1-4 age group, there are 138 boys for every 100 girls, making it among the most unbalanced of provinces in China.

    Culture


    Anhui spans many geographical and cultural regions. The northern, flatter parts of the province, along the river Huai He and further north, are most akin to neighbouring provinces like Henan
    Henan
    Henan , is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "豫" , named after Yuzhou , a Han Dynasty state that included parts of Henan...

     and Shandong
    Shandong
    ' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

    . In contrast, the southern, hilly parts of the province are more similar in culture and dialect to other southern, hilly provinces, like Zhejiang
    Zhejiang
    Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

     and Jiangxi
    Jiangxi
    ' is a southern province in the People's Republic of China. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to...

    .

    Mandarin dialects are spoken over the northern and central parts of the province, north of the Yangzi river. Dialects to the north (e.g. Bengbu dialect) are classified as Zhongyuan Mandarin
    Zhongyuan Mandarin
    Central Plains or Zhongyuan Mandarin is a dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken in the central part of Shaanxi, Henan, and southern part of Shandong.The archaic dialect of Peking opera is a form of Zhongyuan Mandarin....

    , together with dialects in provinces such as Henan and Shandong; dialects in the central parts (e.g. Hefei dialect) are classified as Jianghuai Mandarin, together with dialects in the central parts of neighbouring Jiangsu
    Jiangsu
    ' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...

     province. Non-Mandarin dialects are spoken to the south of the Yangzi: dialects of Wu are spoken in Xuancheng
    Xuancheng
    Xuancheng is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Anhui province of Eastern China. It borders Wuhu to the northwest, Chizhou to the west, Huangshan to the southwest, and the provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu to the southeast and northeast respectively....

     prefecture-level city
    Prefecture-level city
    A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

    , though these are rapidly being replaced by Jianghuai Mandarin; dialects of Gan are spoken in a few counties in the southwest bordering Jiangxi province; and the Huizhou dialects are spoken in about ten counties in the far south, a small but highly diverse and unique group of Chinese dialects.

    Huangmeixi, which originated in the environs of Anqing
    Anqing
    Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

     in southwestern Anhui, is a form of traditional Chinese opera
    Chinese opera
    Chinese opera is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back as far as the third century CE...

     popular across China. Huiju
    Huiju
    Huiju is a variety of Chinese opera from the east-central province of Anhui, China, and was formerly also popular in neighboring Zhejiang...

    , a form of traditional opera originating in the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, is one of the major precursors of Beijing Opera
    Beijing opera
    Peking opera or Beijing opera is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics. It arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century. The form was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty court...

    ; in the 1950s, Huiju (which had disappeared) was revived. Luju
    Luju
    Luju is a variety of Chinese opera from the east-central province of Anhui, China....

     is a type of traditional opera found across central Anhui, from east to west.

    Anhui cuisine
    Anhui cuisine
    Anhui cuisine is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China. It is derived from the native cooking styles of the Huangshan Mountains region in China and is similar to Jiangsu cuisine.-Methods and Ingredients:...

     is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine
    Chinese cuisine
    Chinese cuisine is any of several styles originating in the regions of China, some of which have become highly popular in other parts of the world – from Asia to the Americas, Australia, Western Europe and Southern Africa...

    . Combining elements of cooking from northern Anhui, south-central Anhui, and the Huizhou-speaking areas of southern Anhui, Anhui cuisine is known for its use of wild game and herbs, both land and sea, and comparatively simple methods of preparation.

    Anhui has a high concentration of traditional products related to calligraphy: Xuanzhou (today Xuancheng
    Xuancheng
    Xuancheng is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Anhui province of Eastern China. It borders Wuhu to the northwest, Chizhou to the west, Huangshan to the southwest, and the provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu to the southeast and northeast respectively....

    ) and Huizhou (today Huangshan City) are revered for producing Xuan Paper
    Xuan paper
    Xuan paper , or Shuen paper or rice paper, is a kind of paper originating in ancient China used for writing and painting...

     and Hui Ink, respectively, which are traditionally considered the best types of paper and ink for Chinese calligraphy
    Calligraphy
    Calligraphy is a type of visual art. It is often called the art of fancy lettering . A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner"...

    . She County is famous for the She Inkstone, one of the most preferred types of inkstones (a required tool in traditional calligraphy).

    Tourism


    Anhui's principal tourism sites include the following:
    • Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi
      Xidi
      Xidi , is a village in southern Anhui province , in China, which was declared a part of the "Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui" World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000, along with the village of Hongcun.- History :...

       and Hongcun
      Hongcun
      Hongcun is a village in Yi County county, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, near the southwest slope of Mount Huangshan.The village is arranged in the shape of an ox with the nearby hill interpreted as the head, and two trees standing on it as the horns. Four bridges across the Jiyin...

       (World Heritage Site).
    • Mount Huangshan (World Heritage Site)
    • Mount Jiuhua
    • Mount Qiyun
      Mount Qiyun
      Mount Qiyun, is a mountain located in Qingyang County, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. A Chinese National Park, it lies some to the west of Huangshan City and is sacred to Taoists. The mountain is also called "Landform of the Rosy Clouds" due to the red conglomerate and sandstone of...

    • Mount Tianzhu
      Mount Tianzhu
      Tianzhu Mountain or Mount Tianzhu is a mountain in Anhui, China. Tianzhu Mountain has another name called Mount Wan. The abbreviation for Anhui province "Wǎn" derives from it. The mountain locates in Qianshan County, Anqing City. Tianzhu Mountain has 45 peaks which are 1000 meters above sea level....

    • Old Town of Tunxi
    • Mount Langya
      Mount Langya
      Mount Langya is a mountain located south west of Chuzhou City, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. A National Forest Park, National Scenic Area and 4A Tourism Attraction, the mountain is one of Anhui's five biggest scenic attractions...

    • Zuiweng Pavilion
      Zuiweng Pavilion
      The Zuiweng Pavilion , the structure is also known as the "Number one pavilion under heaven" . It was originally constructed in 1046 CE during the Northern Song Dynasty whilst the structure that exists today dates to the Qing Dynasty...

      , named after the poet Ouyang Xiu
      Ouyang Xiu
      Ouyang Xiu was a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet of the Song Dynasty. He is also known by his courtesy name of Yongshu, and was also self nicknamed The Old Drunkard 醉翁, or Householder of the One of Six 六一居士 in his old age...

       (1007–1072 CE).
    • Chao Lake
    • Taiji Cave
      Taiji Cave
      Taiji Cave is a karst cave located on Shilong Mountain in Guangde County, Xuancheng City, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, where the provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui meet. Ming Dynasty writer and poet Feng Menglong described the cave as one of the "Four Absolutes Under Heaven"...

      , the longest karst
      KARST
      Kilometer-square Area Radio Synthesis Telescope is a Chinese telescope project to which FAST is a forerunner. KARST is a set of large spherical reflectors on karst landforms, which are bowlshaped limestone sinkholes named after the Kras region in Slovenia and Northern Italy. It will consist of...

       cave in East China
      East China
      East China is a geographical and a loosely-defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.Although an intangible and loosely defined concept, for administrative and governmental purposes, the region is defined by the government of the People's Republic of China to include...

      .
    • Zhenfeng Pagoda
      Zhenfeng Pagoda
      The Zhenfeng Pagoda in Anqing City, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, is a pagoda originally built in 1570 during the Ming Dynasty. Due to its location near a bend in the Yangtze River, the pagoda was formerly used as a lighthouse, and contains niches for lanterns.After construction, the...

      , a Ming Dynasty
      Ming Dynasty
      The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

       pagoda
      Pagoda
      A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in Nepal, India, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist,...

       in Anqing
      Anqing
      Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

       City.

    Development


    In 2008, France
    Tourism in France
    France attracted 78.95 million foreign tourists in 2010, making it the most popular tourist destination in the world. France offers mountain ranges, coastlines such as in Brittany or along the Mediterranean Sea, cities with a rich cultural heritage, châteaux like Versailles, and vineyards...

     helped the Anhui Provincial Tourism Bureau develop a rural tourism demonstration project.

    Notable people

    • Gao Yao
      Gao Yao
      Gao Yao is a former Chinese football player who was able to play in both midfield or defence. He was known as a 'One club man' as he spent his whole career with Shandong Luneng playing in the Chinese Super League, while internationally he was also included in the Chinese team that was a...

       (皋陶) (lived in the 21st century BCE), political advisor of the Yu the Great
      Yu the Great
      Yu the Great , was a legendary ruler of Ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by founding the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character....

      .
    • Guan Zhong
      Guan Zhong
      Guǎn Zhòng was a politician and statesman during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. His given name was Yíwú . Zhong was his courtesy name. Recommended by Bao Shuya, he was appointed Prime Minister by Duke Huan of Qi in 685 BC.-Achievements:Guan Zhong modernized the Qi State by...

       (管仲) (720-645 BC), Prime Minister of Duke Huan of Qi.
    • Zhuang Zi (庄子) (369-286 BC), philosopher of Taoism
      Taoism
      Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

      .
    • Fan Zeng
      Fan Zeng
      Fan Zeng was an advisor to Xiang Yu during the Chu–Han contention period of Chinese history.-Starting his career:Fan Zeng was a native of Juchao . He had a keen interest towards military strategy and politics...

       (范增) (277-204 BC), advisor to Xiang Yu
      Xiang Yu
      Xiang Yu was a prominent military leader and political figure during the late Qin Dynasty. His given name was Ji while his style name was Yu ....

      .
    • Zhang Liang
      Zhang Liang
      Zhang Liang , style name Zifang , was a strategist and statesman of the early Han Dynasty. He is also known as one of the "Three Heroes of the early Han Dynasty" , along with Han Xin and Xiao He...

       (张良) (262–189 BC), strategist and statesman of the early Han Dynasty
      Han Dynasty
      The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

      .
    • Liu An
      Liu An
      Líu Ān was a Chinese prince and advisor to his nephew, Emperor Wu of Han of the Han Dynasty in China and the legendary inventor of t'ai chi...

       (刘安) (179-122 BC), King of Huainan.
    • Hua Tuo
      Hua Tuo
      Hua Tuo was an ancient Chinese physician who lived during the late Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history. The Records of Three Kingdoms and Book of Later Han record Hua as the first person in China to use anesthesia during surgery. He used a general anesthetic combining wine with a...

       (华陀) (140-208), physician.
    • Cao Cao
      Cao Cao
      Cao Cao was a warlord and the penultimate chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during the dynasty's final years. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid the foundations for what was to become the state of Cao Wei and was posthumously titled...

       (曹操) (155-220), warlord and the penultimate chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty
      Han Dynasty
      The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

      .
    • Cao Pi
      Cao Pi
      Cao Pi , formally known as Emperor Wen of Wei, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. Born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery , he was the second son of the late Han Dynasty warlord Cao Cao.Cao Pi, like his father, was a poet...

       (曹丕) (187-226), Emperor Wen of Wei, first emperor of the state of Cao Wei
      Cao Wei
      Cao Wei was one of the states that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period. With the capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations that his father Cao Cao laid...

      .
    • The Three Kingdoms
      Three Kingdoms
      The Three Kingdoms period was a period in Chinese history, part of an era of disunity called the "Six Dynasties" following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty rulers. In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the...

       era Cao Wei
      Cao Wei
      Cao Wei was one of the states that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period. With the capital at Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations that his father Cao Cao laid...

       generals Cao Ren
      Cao Ren
      Cao Ren was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao during the late Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history. He played a significant part in assisting Cao Cao in the civil wars leading to the end of the Han Dynasty...

       (曹仁) , Cao Hong
      Cao Hong
      Cao Hong was a military general of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history. He started his career during the late Han Dynasty under the warlord Cao Cao, who was also his cousin.-Early career:...

       (曹洪) , Xiahou Dun
      Xiahou Dun
      Xiahou Dun was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history. Cao Cao's original family name was Xiahou, but his father Cao Song was the adopted son of the eunuch Cao Teng, so Xiahou Dun and Cao Cao share blood relations...

       (夏侯惇) , Xiahou Yuan
      Xiahou Yuan
      Xiahou Yuan was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history. He was killed in the Battle of Mount Dingjun against Liu Bei's general Huang Zhong in 219, and was given the posthumous title of Marquis Min , literally meaning "sympathetic...

       (夏侯渊) , Cao Zhen
      Cao Zhen
      Cao Zhen was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history. He served the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. He was also a distant nephew of Cao Cao, though the latter treated him like a son. Cao Zhen participated in many...

       (曹真).
    • The Three Kingdoms
      Three Kingdoms
      The Three Kingdoms period was a period in Chinese history, part of an era of disunity called the "Six Dynasties" following immediately the loss of de facto power of the Han Dynasty rulers. In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the...

       era Sun Wu
      Sun Wu
      Sun Wu may mean:*Sun Tzu, a Chinese military strategist of the sixth century BC and the author of The Art of War*Sun Wukong, or the Monkey King, a figure from Chinese legend*Eastern Wu, a state in southeastern China during the Three Kingdoms Period...

       generals Zhou Yu
      Zhou Yu
      Zhou Yu was a military general and strategist who served his close friend, the warlord Sun Ce, during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history...

       (周瑜) , Lu Su
      Lu Su
      Lu Su , style name Zijing , was a politician, militarist and diplomat serving under the warlord Sun Quan during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history...

       (鲁肃) , Lü Meng
      Lü Meng
      Lü Meng was a military general serving under the warlord Sun Quan during the late Han Dynasty period of Chinese history. He served as the commanding general in the invasion of Jing Province that led to the death of Guan Yu.-Early life:Lü Meng was born in Fupo, Runan Commandery in 178...

       (吕蒙).
    • Ji Kang (嵇康) (223–262), musician.
    • Huan Wen
      Huan Wen
      Huan Wen , courtesy name Yuanzi , formally Duke Xuanwu of Nan Commandery , was a general of the Jin Dynasty...

       (桓温) (312–373), general of the Jin Dynasty
      Jin Dynasty
      Jin Dynasty may refer to:* Jin Dynasty , Chinese dynasty, subdivided into the Western and Eastern Jin periods* Later Jin Dynasty , one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China.* Jin Dynasty , a Jurchen kingdom in northern China* Later Jīn Dynasty, or...

      .
    • Huan Xuan
      Huan Xuan
      Huan Xuan , courtesy name Jingdao , nickname Lingbao , formally Emperor Wudao of Chu , was a Jin Dynasty warlord who briefly took over the imperial throne from Emperor An of Jin and declared his own state of Chu in 403, but was defeated by an uprising led by the general Liu Yu in 404 and killed...

       (桓玄) (369–404), founder of the state of Huan Chu.
    • Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (852–912), founder of Later Liang Dynasty
      Later Liang Dynasty
      The Later Liang was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. It was founded by Zhu Wen, posthumously known as Taizu of Later Liang, after he forced the last emperor of the Tang dynasty to abdicate in his favour...

      .
    • Yang Xingmi
      Yang Xingmi
      Yang Xingmi , né Yang Xingmin , courtesy name Huayuan , formally Prince Wuzhong of Wu , later posthumously honored King Xiaowu of Wu then Emperor Wu of Wu with the temple name of Taizu , was a military governor of...

       (杨行密) (852–905), founder of the state of Wu (Ten Kingdoms)
      Wu (Ten Kingdoms)
      Wu , also referred to as Huainan , Hongnong , Southern Wu , or Yang Wu , was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China which was in existence between the years of 907 and 937. Its capital was Jiangdu Municipality...

      .
    • Bao Zheng (包拯) (999–1062)
    • Li Gonglin
      Li Gonglin
      Li Gonglin , style name Boshi , pseudonym Longmian Jushi , was a Chinese painter, civil officer and archaeologist in the Northern Song Dynasty....

       (李公麟) (1049–1106), painter.
    • Zhu Xi
      Zhu Xi
      Zhū​ Xī​ or Chu Hsi was a Song Dynasty Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China...

       (朱熹) (1130–1200), philosopher of Neo-Confucianism.
    • Zhu Yuanzhang (朱元璋) (1328-1398), Hongwu Emperor
      Hongwu Emperor
      The Hongwu Emperor , known variably by his given name Zhu Yuanzhang and by his temple name Taizu of Ming , was the founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China...

      , founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty
      Ming Dynasty
      The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

      .
    • The Ming Dynasty
      Ming Dynasty
      The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

       generals Xu Da
      Xu Da
      Xu Da was a Chinese military general who lived in the early Ming Dynasty and contributed to the founding of the dynasty. Apart from being a friend of the Hongwu Emperor, founding emperor of the dynasty, Xu was also the father of Empress Xu, who would marry the third ruler of the Ming, the Yongle...

       (徐达), Chang Yuchun
      Chang Yuchun
      Chang Yuchun , style name Boren and pseudonym Yanheng , was a Chinese Muslim military general. He was a follower of the Ming Dynasty's founder, Zhu Yuanzhang, and contributed greatly to the founding of the dynasty...

       (常遇春), Tang He (汤和), Mu Ying
      Mu Ying
      Mu Ying was a general during the Ming Dynasty, and an adopted son of its founder, the Hongwu Emperor . Mu Ying was a Chinese Muslim. Mu Ying was one of the few capable generals who survived the massacre of the Hongwu Emperor....

       (沐英).
    • Hong Ren
      Hong Ren
      Hong Ren, who is also known as Hongren, was an early Qing painter and a member of the Anhui school of painting. His birth name was Jiang Fang. After the fall of the Ming dynasty he became a monk, as did Zhu Da, Shitao, and Kun Can. They protested the fall of the Ming dynasty by becoming monks...

       (弘仁), painter.
    • Zhang Tingyu
      Zhang Tingyu
      Zhang Tingyu was a Han Chinese politician and historian during the Qing Dynasty.Zhang Tingyu was born in Tongcheng in Anhui province. In 1700, he was awarded the highest degree in the imperial examinations and shortly afterwards he was appointed to the Hanlin Academy...

       (张廷玉), politician and historian of Qing Dynasty.
    • Yao Nai
      Yao Nai
      Yao Nai was a well-known scholar of the Qing Dynasty.Born in Tongcheng , Anhui province, Yao Nai achieved the degree of Jinshi in 1763, and was appointed to the Hanlin Academy . Later he worked as official of several central administrative departements...

       (姚鼐), main figure of Tongcheng Schoolof Qing Dynasty.
    • Wu Jingzi
      Wu Jingzi
      Wu Jingzi was a Chinese scholar and writer who was born in the city now known as Chuzhou, Anhui and who died in Yangzhou, Jiangsu.-Biography:...

       (吴敬梓) (1701—1754)
    • Dai Zhen
      Dai Zhen
      Dai Zhen was a notable Chinese scholar of the Qing Dynasty from Xiuning, Anhui. A versatile scholar, he made great contributions to mathematics, geography, phonology and philosophy...

       (戴震) (1724-1777), a notable scholar.
    • Cheng Changgeng (程长庚) (1811-1880), one of the founders of Beijing opera
      Beijing opera
      Peking opera or Beijing opera is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics. It arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century. The form was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty court...

      .
    • Li Hongzhang
      Li Hongzhang
      Li Hongzhang or Li Hung-chang , Marquis Suyi of the First Class , GCVO, was a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire...

       (李鸿章) (1823-1901), leading statesman of the late Qing Empire.
    • Liu Mingchuan
      Liu Mingchuan
      Liu Mingchuan was a Chinese official during the Qing dynasty. He adopted a style name of Xingsan . Liu became involved in the suppression of the Taiping rebellion at an early age, and worked closely with Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang as he emerged as an important Huai Army officer...

       (刘铭传) (1836–1896), first governor of the province of Taiwan.
    • Jeme Tien Yow (詹天佑) (1861-1919)
    • Duan Qirui
      Duan Qirui
      Duan Qirui was a Chinese warlord and politician, commander in the Beiyang Army, and the Provisional Chief Executive of Republic of China from November 24, 1924 to April 20, 1926. He was arguably the most powerful man in China from 1916 to 1920.- Early life :Born in Hefei as Duan Qirui , his...

       (段祺瑞) (1865-1936), warlord and politician, commander in the Beiyang Army
      Beiyang Army
      The Beiyang Army was a powerful, Western-style Chinese military force created by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century. It was the centerpiece of a general reconstruction of China's military system. The Beiyang Army played a major role in Chinese politics for at least three decades...

      .
    • Feng Yuxiang
      Feng Yuxiang
      Feng Yuxiang was a warlord and leader in Republican China. He was also known as the Christian General for his zeal to convert his troops and the Betrayal General for his penchant to break with the establishment. In 1911, he was an officer in the ranks of Yuan Shikai's Beiyang Army but joined...

       (冯玉祥) (1882-1948), warlord and leader in Republican China.
    • Hu Shih
      Hu Shih
      Hu Shih , born Hu Hung-hsing , was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat. His courtesy name was Shih-chih . Hu is widely recognized today as a key contributor to Chinese liberalism and language reform in his advocacy for the use of written vernacular Chinese...

       (胡适) (1891-1962), philosopher, essayist and diplomat.
    • Zhang Zhizhong
      Zhang Zhizhong
      Zhang Zhizhong was a general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China. He was born in Chaohu, Anhui, and attended the Baoding Military Academy from which he graduated in 1916...

       (张治中) (1895-1969), Kuomintang (KMT) General.
    • Wei Lihuang (卫立煌) (1897-1960), Kuomintang (KMT) General.
    • Sun Li-jen
      Sun Li-jen
      Sun Li-jen was a Kuomintang General, best known for his leadership in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. His achievements earned him the laudatory nickname "Rommel of the East". His New 1st Army was reputed as the "1st [Best] Army under heaven" and credited with defeating...

       (孙立人) (1900-1990), Kuomintang (KMT) General.
    • Tao Xingzhi
      Tao Xingzhi
      Tao Xingzhi , was a renowned 20th century Chinese educator and reformer. He studied at Teachers College, Columbia University and returned to China to champion progressive education. His career in China as a liberal educator was not derivative of John Dewey, as some have alleged, but creative and...

       (陶行知) (1891-1946), a renowned Chinese educator and reformer.
    • Chen Duxiu
      Chen Duxiu
      Chen Duxiu played many different roles in Chinese history. He was a leading figure in the anti-imperial Xinhai Revolution and the May Fourth Movement for Science and Democracy. Along with Li Dazhao, Chen was a co-founder of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. He was its first General Secretary....

       (陈独秀) (1879-1942), co-founder of the Chinese Communist Party.
    • Wang Ming
      Wang Ming
      Wang Ming was a senior leader of the early Chinese Communist Party and the mastermind of the famous 28 Bolsheviks group. Wang was also a major political rival of Mao Zedong during the 1930s, opposing Mao's nationalist deviation from the Comintern and orthodox Marxism and Leninism lines...

       (王明) (1904-1974), senior leader of the early Chinese Communist Party.
    • Wang Jiaxiang
      Wang Jiaxiang
      Wang Jiaxiang , one of the senior leaders of the Communist Party of China in its early stage and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks, with his life of up and down indicating the cruel reality of politics.-Biography:...

       (王稼祥) (1906-1974), one of the senior leaders of the early Communist Party of China
      Communist Party of China
      The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

      .
    • Li Kenong
      Li Kenong
      Li Kenong was a major figure in the early history of Chinese Communist intelligence, and was rewarded the rank of Colonel General in 1955. Recognized on the Chinese mainland as such, he is almost unknown in the West.-Early years:...

       (李克农) (1899–1962), a major figure of Chinese Communist intelligence.
    • Ke Qingshi
      Ke Qingshi
      Ke Qingshi was a senior leader of the Communist Party of China in 1950s and 1960s.Born in She County, Anhui Province, Ke joined Chinese Socialist Youth League in 1920, and the Communist Party of China in 1922....

       (柯庆施) (1902-1965)
    • Zhu Guangqian
      Zhu Guangqian
      Zhu Guangqian 朱光潛 is the founder of the study of aesthetics in 20th c. China. After earning his B.A. from Hong Kong University, he went abroad to study aesthetics at the University of Edinburgh and University College, London, then to France and the University of Strasbourg where he earned his...

       (朱光潜), founder of the study of aesthetics in 20th c. China.
    • Zhao Puchu
      Zhao Puchu
      Zhao Puchu was a religious and public leader who promoted cultural progress and religious tolerance in China...

       (赵朴初) (1907-2000), religious and public leader.
    • Yu Ying-shih
      Yu Ying-shih
      Yu Ying-shih is a Chinese American historian known for his mastery of sources for Chinese history and philosophy, his ability to synthesize them on a wide range of topics, and for his advocacy for a new Confucianism...

       (余英时), Chinese American historian.
    • Yan Fengying (严凤英), performing artist of Huangmei opera
      Huangmei Opera
      Huangmei opera or Huangmei tone originated as a form of rural folksong and dance that has been in existence for the last 200 years and possibly longer. The music is performed with a pitch that hits high and stays high for the duration of the song...

      .
    • Huang Binhong
      Huang Binhong
      Huáng Bīnhóng was a Chinese art historian and literati painter born in Jinhua in Zhejiang province. His ancestral home was She County in Anhui province. He was the grandson of artist Huang Fengliu. He would later be associated with Shanghai and finally Hangzhou...

       (黄宾虹), painter.
    • Wu Zuoren
      Wu Zuoren
      Wu Zuoren was a traditional Chinese painter. A native of Jing County, Anhui, he was born in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. He practiced both traditional Chinese ink painting and European oil painting.-Chronology:...

       (吴作人), painter.
    • Deng Jiaxian
      Deng Jiaxian
      Deng Jiaxian was born on June 25, 1924, in Huaining, Anhui province, and died on July 29th, 1986 in Beijing. He was a nuclear physics expert and academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences . He was a leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs.-External links:* * * *...

       (邓稼先), leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs.
    • Chen Ning Yang (杨振宁), Chinese-American physicist who won the 1957 Nobel prize in physics.
    • Xu Haifeng
      Xu Haifeng
      Xu Haifeng is a male Chinese pistol shooter, and the first person to win a gold medal for China in the Olympic Games. He specializes in the 50 metre pistol event....

       (许海峰), first person to win a gold medal for China in the Olympic Games.
    • Jin Jing
      Jin Jing
      Jin Jing is a Chinese female Paralympic fencer. She was a torchbearer carrying the Olympic torch amid political protests during the 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay in Paris, France...

    • Hu Jintao
      Hu Jintao
      Hu Jintao is the current Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China. He has held the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the People's Republic of China since 2003, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission since 2004, succeeding Jiang...

       (胡锦涛), current General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
      General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
      The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China , officially General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China, a standing member of the Politburo and head of the Secretariat...

      , President of the People's Republic of China
      President of the People's Republic of China
      The President of the People's Republic of China is a ceremonial office and a part of State organs under the National People's Congress and it is the head of state of the People's Republic of China . The office was created by the 1982 Constitution...


    Colleges and universities


    • Anhui Agricultural University
      Anhui Agricultural University
      Anhui Agricultural University is a Chinese institution of higher learning located in the urban area of Hefei, the provincial capital of Anhui Province, China...

      , in Hefei
      Hefei
      Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

    • Anhui Normal University
      Anhui Normal University
      Anhui Normal University is an institution of higher learning in Wuhu, Anhui Province of the People's Republic of China.Approved by the State Council in 1972, it was officially renamed Anhui Normal University, and the name was written by Guo Moruo.Anhui Normal University is the only university in...

      , in Wuhu
    • Anhui University
      Anhui University
      Anhui University is located in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, China. Founded in 1928 in Anqing, named 'National Anhui University' in 1946 and moved to Hefei in 1958, Anhui University is now supported by the government under Project 211. The university currently has approximately 27,000...

      , in Hefei
      Hefei
      Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

    • Anhui University of Finance and Economics
      Anhui University of Finance and Economics
      - History :Anhui University of Finance and Economics , is an institution of higher learning in Bengbu, Anhui Province of the People's Republic of China....

      , in Bengbu
      Bengbu
      Bengbu , formerly known as P'engpu and Peng-pu, is a prefecture-level city with a population of 3,164,467 at the last census in northern Anhui Province, People's Republic of China...

    • Anhui University of Technology
      Anhui University of Technology
      The Anhui University of Technology is a university based in Ma'anshan, Anhui, China. It offers instruction in engineering, economics, management, literature, science and law...

      , in Ma'anshan
      Ma'anshan
      Ma'anshan , also written as Maanshan, is a prefecture-level city in the east of Anhui province in Eastern China. An industrial city stretching across the Yangtze River, Ma'anshan borders Hefei to the west, Wuhu to the southwest, and Nanjing to the east...

    • Hefei University of Technology
      Hefei University of Technology
      Hefei University of Technology , formerly translated as Hefei Polytechnic University, is a major university in China, with particular strength in engineering. The university is a member of Project 211 and is affiliated to the National Ministry of Education...

    • Anhui University of Technology and Science
      Anhui University of Technology and Science
      Anhui Polytechnic University is a comprehensive public university based in Wuhu prefecture level city, Anhui province, China. The university provides programmes in the fields of science and technology, engineering, management and economics....

      , in Wuhu
    • University of Science & Technology of China, located in the Southwest part of Hefei
    • Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine is a comprehensive public university based in Hefei, Anhui province, China. The university provides programmes in traditional Chinese medicine as well as in the fields of technology, engineering, management and economics.- History :The university...

    • Anhui University of Science & Technology, in Huainan
      Huainan
      Huainan is a prefecture-level city with 2,334,000 inhabitants in central Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the south, Lu’an to the southwest, Fuyang to the west, Bozhou to the northwest, Bengbu to the northeast and Chuzhou to the east.Its...

    • Wannan Medical College
      Wannan Medical College
      Wannan Medical College, also sometimes be called as Wannan Medical Academy,, is a national medical college located in Wuhu, Anhui Province, of the People's Republic of China...

      , in Wuhu
    • Huainan Institute of Technology, in Huainan
      Huainan
      Huainan is a prefecture-level city with 2,334,000 inhabitants in central Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the south, Lu’an to the southwest, Fuyang to the west, Bozhou to the northwest, Bengbu to the northeast and Chuzhou to the east.Its...

    • Correspondence College of Computer of China
    • Chizhou University, in Chizhou
      Chizhou
      Chizhou is a prefecture-level city in Anhui province, People's Republic of China. It borders Anqing to the northwest, Tongling and Wuhu to the northeast, Xuancheng to the east, Huangshan to the southeast, and the province of Jiangxi to the southwest....

    • Chuzhou Normal Academy, in Chuzhou
      Chuzhou
      Chuzhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Anhui Province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the southwest, Huainan to the west, Bengbu to the northwest, Chaohu to the south, and the province of Jiangsu to the east...

    • Anhui Sanlian College, in Hefei
      Hefei
      Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...

    • Electronic Engineering College of Hefei
    • Huaibei Coal Industry Normal College
    • Anqing Teachers College
      Anqing Teachers College
      Anqing Teachers College is an institution of higher learning, located in Anqing, Anhui Province of the People's Republic of China....

      , in Anqing
      Anqing
      Anqing is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, East China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively....

    • Hefei Normal University
      Hefei Normal University
      Hefei Normal University is located in the capital city of Anhui Province——Hefei, birthplace of Bao Zhen and one of the four national science and education base cities. Founded in 1955, HNU is a full-time normal undergraduate university under the supervision of Anhui Province.HNU attaches great...

      , in Hefei
      Hefei
      Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in Eastern China. A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural centre of Anhui...


    External links