Jiangxi

Jiangxi

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Encyclopedia
is a southern province in the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 in the north into hillier areas in the south, it shares a border with Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

 to the north, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

 to the northeast, Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

 to the east, Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 to the south, Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

 to the west, and Hubei
Hubei
' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

 to the northwest.

The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 in 733, Jiangnanxidao
Jiangnanxidao
Jiangnanxidao was a southern province of Tang Empire. It corresponds to part of present-day Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Anhui...

 (江南西道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan
Jiangnan
Jiangnan or Jiang Nan is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of the Yangtze Delta...

; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 , for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called "Gompotaiti" (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".

History



Jiangxi is centered on the Gan River valley, which historically provided the main north-south transport route of south China. The corridor along the Gan River is one of the few easily traveled routes through the otherwise mountainous and rugged terrain of the south-eastern mountains. This open corridor was the primary route for trade and communication between the North China Plain
North China Plain
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. The plain is bordered on the north by the Yanshan Mountains and on the west by the Taihang Mountains edge of the Shanxi plateau. To the south, it merges into the Yangtze Plain...

 and the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 valley in the north and the territory of modern Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 province in the south. As a result Jiangxi has been strategically important throughout much of China's history.

Jiangxi was outside the sphere of influence of early Chinese civilization during the Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty was, according to traditional sources, the second Chinese dynasty, after the Xia. They ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as "China proper" in the Yellow River valley...

 (16th to 11th centuries BC). It is likely that peoples collectively known as the Baiyue inhabited the region. During the Spring and Autumn Period, the northern part of modern Jiangxi formed the western frontier of the state of Wu
Wu (state)
The State of Wu , also known as Gou Wu or Gong Wu , was one of the vassal states during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period. The State of Wu was located at the mouth of the Yangtze River east of the State of Chu. Considered a semi-barbarian state by ancient Chinese...

. After Wu was conquered by the state of Yue
Yue (state)
Yue was a state in China which existed during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period , in the modern province of Zhejiang. During the Spring and Autumn Period, its capital was in Guiji , near the modern city of Shaoxing...

 (a power based in modern northern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

) in 473 BC, the state of Chu
Chu (state)
The State of Chu was a Zhou Dynasty vassal state in present-day central and southern China during the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States Period . Its ruling house had the surname Nai , and clan name Yan , later evolved to surname Mi , and clan name Xiong...

 (based in modern Hubei
Hubei
' Hupeh) is a province in Central China. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Lake Dongting...

) took over northern Jiangxi and there may have been some Yue influence in the south. Chu subjugated Yue in 333 BC. In 223 BC, when Qin
Qin (state)
The State of Qin was a Chinese feudal state that existed during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history...

 conquered Chu, majority of Jiangxi area was recorded to be put under Jiujiang Commandary situated in Shouchun
Shou County
Shou County is a county in Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of Lu'an City. It has population is 1,280,000 and its area is 2986 square kilometers...

 (寿春). However the commandary was ineffective and ended shortly when Qin falls.

Yuzhang commandery (豫章, Gan: Ì-zong) was established in Jiangxi at the beginning of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

, possibly before the death of Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu was a prominent military leader and political figure during the late Qin Dynasty. His given name was Ji while his style name was Yu ....

 in 202 BC, and it's also the very first commandery set up by Chinese dynasty in Jiangxi. It was named after the Yuzhang River (豫章江, Gan: Ì-zong Kong), the original name of Gan River. "Gan" has become the abbreviation of the province. In 201, eight counties were added to the original seven of Qin, and three more were established in later years. Throughout most of the Han Dynasty the commandery's eighteen counties covered most of the modern province of Jiangxi. The county seats of Nanchang, Gan, Yudu, Luling among others were located at the sites of modern major cities. Other counties, however, have been moved or abolished in later centuries.

Under the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

, Yuzhang Commandery was assigned to Yangzhou Province, as part of a trend to establish provinces (zhou
Zhou (political division)
Zhou were historical political divisions of China. Formally established during the Han Dynasty, zhou continued to exist until the establishment of the Republic of China — a period of over 2000 years...

) all across China. In 291 AD, during the Western Jin Dynasty, Jiangxi became its own Zhou called Jiangzhou (江州, Gan: Kong-chiu). During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Jiangxi was under the control of the southern dynasties, and the number of zhou slowly grew.

During the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty was a powerful, but short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it ended nearly four centuries of division between rival regimes. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty....

, there were seven commanderies and twenty-four counties in Jiangxi. During the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

, another commandery and fourteen counties were added. Commanderies were then abolished, becoming zhou (henceforth translated as "prefectures" rather than "provinces").

Circuits were established during the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 as a new top-level administrative division. At first Jiangxi was part of the Jiangnan Circuit
Jiangnan Circuit
Jiangnan Circuit was a circuit in China during the Tang Dynasty.Its name"South of the River"refers to its location south of the Yangtze.West Jiangnan, the future eponym of modern Jiangxi, was later separated from it.-See also:* Tang Dynasty...

 (lit. "Circuit south of the Yangtze"). In 733, this circuit was divided into western and eastern halves. Jiangxi was found in the western half, which was called Jiangnanxi Circuit (lit. "Western circuits south of the Yangtze"). This is the source of the modern name "Jiangxi".

The Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 collapsed in 907, heralding the division of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Jiangxi first belonged to Wu
Wu (Ten Kingdoms)
Wu , also referred to as Huainan , Hongnong , Southern Wu , or Yang Wu , was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China which was in existence between the years of 907 and 937. Its capital was Jiangdu Municipality...

 (吳, Gan: Ng), then to Southern Tang
Southern Tang
Southern Tang was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-975. Southern Tang replaced the Wu Kingdom when Li Bian deposed the emperor Yang Pu....

 (南唐, Gan: Nām-thóng). Both states were based in modern-day Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

, further down the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

.

During the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

, Jiangnanxi Circuit was reestablished with nine prefectures and four army districts (with sixty-eight districts).

During the Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

, the circuit was divided into thirteen different circuits, and Jiangxi Province was established for the first time. This province also included the majority of modern Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

. Jiangxi acquired (more or less) its modern borders during the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 after Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

 was separated out. There has been little change to the borders of Jiangxi since.

After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Jiangxi became one of the earliest bases for the Communists and many peasants were recruited to join the growing people's revolution. The Nanchang Uprising
Nanchang Uprising
The Nanchang Uprising was the first major Kuomintang-Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War, in order to counter the anti-communist purges by the Nationalist Party of China....

 took place in Jiangxi on August 1, 1927, during the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang , the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China , for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China and People's Republic of...

. Later the Communist leadership hid in the mountains of southern and western Jiangxi, hiding from the Kuomindang's attempts to eradicate them. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic's government was established in Ruijin
Ruijin
Ruijin is a county-level city of Ganzhou in the mountains bordering Fujian Province in south-eastern Jiangxi.The name derives from the ancient God, Rui Jin. It is most famous as one of the earliest centers of Chinese communist activity...

 (瑞金, Gan: Suì-kim), which is sometimes called the "Former Red Capital" (红色故都, Gan: Fūng-set Kū-tu), or just the "Red Capital". In 1935, after complete encirclement by the Nationalist forces, the Communists broke through and began the Long March
Long March
The Long March was a massive military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south...

 to Yan'an.

Geography


Mountains surround Jiangxi on three sides, with the Mufu Mountains
Mufu Mountains
The Mufu Mountains are a range of mountains located on the border of Jiangxi and Hubei provinces in China.Some maps label the range as 幕埠山, which would be transliterated as Mùbù Shān , but this is apparently is a typo.-References:...

, Jiuling Mountains
Jiuling Mountains
The Jiuling Mountains are a range of mountains located in northwestern Jiangxi, China....

, and Luoxiao Mountains
Luoxiao Mountains
The Luoxiao Mountains form a mountain range in the People's Republic of China, on the border between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces....

 on the west; Huaiyu Mountains and Wuyi Mountains
Wuyi Mountains
The Wuyi Mountains are a mountain range located in the prefecture of Nanping, in the northern border of Fujian province with Jiangxi province, China. The mountains cover an area of 60 km². In 1999, Mount Wuyi entered UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites, both natural and cultural...

 on the east; and the Jiulian Mountains and Dayu Mountains in the south. The southern half of the province is hilly with ranges and valleys interspersed; while the northern half is flatter and lower in altitude. The highest point in Jiangxi is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains
Wuyi Mountains
The Wuyi Mountains are a mountain range located in the prefecture of Nanping, in the northern border of Fujian province with Jiangxi province, China. The mountains cover an area of 60 km². In 1999, Mount Wuyi entered UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites, both natural and cultural...

, on the border with Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

. It has an altitude of 2157 m.

The Gan River dominates the province, flowing through the entire length of the province from south to north. It enters Lake Poyang
Lake Poyang
Poyang Lake , located in Jiangxi Province is the largest freshwater lake in China.It has a surface area of 3,585 km², a volume of 25 km³ and an average depth of eight meters. The lake provides a habitat for half a million migratory birds, and is a favorite destination for birding...

 in the north, the largest freshwater lake of China; that lake in turn empties into the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

, which forms part of the northern border of Jiangxi. Important reservoirs include the Xiushui Tuolin Reservoir in the northwest of the province on the Xiushui River
Xiushui River
The Xiushui River is a river in Jiangxi, China that runs 200 km west to the Poyang Ho....

, and the Wan'an Reservoir(zh) in the upper section of the Gan.

Jiangxi's climate
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

 is subtropical. Average temperatures are about 3 to 9°C in January and 27 to 31°C in July. Annual precipitation is 1200 to 1900 mm.

Nanchang
Nanchang
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

, the region's capital and the most densely populated city, is one of China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

's largest metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

. Nanchang is the hub of Jiangxi civilization
Culture of Jiangxi
The culture of Jiangxi refers to the culture of the people based in Jiangxi. It has changed greatly over several millenniums, from the land's prehistoric period to its contemporary hybrid culture, which originates from Baiyue, inherits Ancient China and is modernly influenced by Western...

 throughout its history, which plays a leading role in the commercial, intellectual and industrial and political fields. While Ganzhou
Ganzhou
Ganzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China. Its administrative seat is at Zhanggong .-History:...

 is the largest subdivision of Jiangxi.

Major cities:
  • Nanchang
    Nanchang
    Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

  • Jiujiang
    Jiujiang
    Jiujiang , formerly transliterated Kiukiang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, China. It is the second-largest prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province, the largest one being Nanchang...

  • Ji'an
    Ji'an
    - External links :* *...

  • Pingxiang
    Pingxiang
    Pingxiang may refer to:*Pingxiang, Jiangxi , prefecture-level city in Jiangxi, China*Pingxiang, Guangxi , county-level city in Guangxi, China*Pingxiang County , in Hebei, China...

  • Jingdezhen
    Jingdezhen
    Jingdezhen , is a prefecture-level city, previously a town, in Jiangxi Province, China, with a total population of 1,554,000 . It is known as the "Porcelain Capital" because it has been producing quality pottery for 1700 years. The city has a well-documented history that stretches back over 2000...

  • Ganzhou
    Ganzhou
    Ganzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China. Its administrative seat is at Zhanggong .-History:...

  • Yingtan
    Yingtan
    Yingtan is a prefecture-level city in the east part of China's Jiangxi province. It borders Fujian province to the east. Its location next to Fujian and its proximity to Zhejiang, have made it a strategically important city for centuries...

  • Fuzhou
    Fuzhou, Jiangxi
    Fuzhou is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.It is located to the south of the provincial capital Nanchang. Its total area is 18,800 km². Its population is 3,700,000 people...


Administrative divisions


Jiangxi is divided into eleven prefecture-level divisions, all prefecture-level cities:
Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat Population (2010
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010....

)
Prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 —
1 Nanchang
Nanchang
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites...

南昌市 Nánchāng Shì Donghu District
Donghu District
Donghu District , literally meaning "east lake district", is a district of Nanchang, the capital of Jiangxi Province, China. The district was created in the Tang Dynasty when a bridge was built across Nanchang's Taihu lake, dividing the area into the East and West Lake districts...

5,042,565
2 Fuzhou
Fuzhou, Jiangxi
Fuzhou is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.It is located to the south of the provincial capital Nanchang. Its total area is 18,800 km². Its population is 3,700,000 people...

抚州市 Fǔzhōu Shì Linchuan District
Linchuan District
Linchuan District is the only district the city of Fuzhou, Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.- External links : -...

3,912,312
3 Ganzhou
Ganzhou
Ganzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China. Its administrative seat is at Zhanggong .-History:...

赣州市 Gànzhōu Shì Zhanggong District 8,368,440
4 Ji'an 吉安市 Jí'ān Shì Jizhou District
Jizhou District
Jizhou District is a district of the city of Ji'an, Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.- External links : -...

4,810,340
5 Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen , is a prefecture-level city, previously a town, in Jiangxi Province, China, with a total population of 1,554,000 . It is known as the "Porcelain Capital" because it has been producing quality pottery for 1700 years. The city has a well-documented history that stretches back over 2000...

景德镇市 Jǐngdézhèn Shì Zhushan District
Zhushan District
Zhushan District is a district of Jiangxi, China. It is under the administration of the Jingdezhen city....

1,587,477
6 Jiujiang
Jiujiang
Jiujiang , formerly transliterated Kiukiang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, China. It is the second-largest prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province, the largest one being Nanchang...

九江市 Jiǔjiāng Shì Xunyang District
Xunyang District
Xunyang District is a district of Jiangxi, China. It is under the administration of the Jiujiang city....

4,728,763
7 Pingxiang
Pingxiang, Jiangxi
Pingxiang is a medium-sized prefecture-level city located in western Jiangxi province, China.-Geography and climate:Pingxiang is located in the remote mountainous region of the border between Jiangxi and Hunan. It is approximately 100 miles from Changsha, the capital of Hunan, and about 200 from...

萍乡市 Píngxiāng Shì Anyuan District
Anyuan District
Anyuan District is a district of the city of Pingxiang, Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.The famous Maoist propaganda painting "Chairman Mao Goes to Anyuan" is set in this location, depicting an occasion when the young Mao traveled to Anyuan to help lead a miners' strike.- External...

1,854,510
8 Shangrao
Shangrao
Shangrao is a medium-sized prefecture-level city located in the northeast of China's Jiangxi province. According to the 2010 Census, Shangrao has a population of 6,579,714 inhabitants....

上饶市 Shàngráo Shì Xinzhou District
Xinzhou District, Shangrao
The district of Xinzhou is an administrative subdivision of the province of Jiangxi in China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Shangrao.- External links : -...

6,579,714
9 Xinyu
Xinyu
-History:Xinyu has a history of more than 1,700 years. It became a county in 267 during the Three Kingdoms period.-Geography:Xinyu has an area of 3,178 km². It is located 135 km southwest of the city of Nanchang, the capital of the Jiangxi province - about two and half hours away by car via highway...

新余市 Xīnyú Shì Yushui District
Yushui District
Yushui District is a district of Jiangxi, China. It is under the administration of the Xinyu city....

1,138,873
10 Yichun
Yichun, Jiangxi
Yichun is a mountainous prefecture-level city in the Chinese province of Jiangxi. Yichun literally means "pleasant spring". It is located in the northwest of the province along a river surrouneded by mountains. Its area is 18,669 km²; 50% forested, 35% mountainous. It has a total population...

宜春市 Yíchūn Shì Yuanzhou District 5,419,575
11 Yingtan
Yingtan
Yingtan is a prefecture-level city in the east part of China's Jiangxi province. It borders Fujian province to the east. Its location next to Fujian and its proximity to Zhejiang, have made it a strategically important city for centuries...

鹰潭市 Yīngtán Shì Yuehu District
Yuehu District
Yuehu District is a district of Jiangxi, China. It is under the administration of the Jingdezhen city....

1,124,906


The eleven prefecture-level divisions of Jiangxi are subdivided into 99 county-level divisions (19 districts, ten county-level cities, and 70 counties). Those in turn are divided into 1548 township-level divisions (770 towns, 651 townships, seven ethnic townships, and 120 subdistrict
Subdistrict
Subdistrict is a low level administrative division of a country. In Thailand it may refer to the King Amphoe or to the Tambon. In England and Wales it was part of a Registration district....

s).

See List of administrative divisions of Jiangxi for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Politics



The Politics of Jiangxi is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Jiangxi is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Jiangxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Jiangxi Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

 Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Jiangxi CPC Party Chief".

Economy


Rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

 is the dominant crop in Jiangxi. Cash crops commonly grown include cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

 and rapeseed
Rapeseed
Rapeseed , also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rappi, rapaseed is a bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae...

. Jiangxi is the leading producer producer of kumquats
Kumquat production in China
China is one of the world's leading producers of kumquats. Indeed the earliest historical reference to kumquats appears in Chinese literature in the 12th century and the plant was native to China before it was spread to Japan, Taiwan and South America...

 in China, particularly Suichuan County
Suichuan County
Suichuan County is a county of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Ji'an.-Economy:Suichan County is one of the largest producers of kumquats in China....

.

Jiangxi is rich in mineral resources, leading the provinces of China in deposits of copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

, tungsten
Tungsten
Tungsten , also known as wolfram , is a chemical element with the chemical symbol W and atomic number 74.A hard, rare metal under standard conditions when uncombined, tungsten is found naturally on Earth only in chemical compounds. It was identified as a new element in 1781, and first isolated as...

, gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

, silver
Silver
Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

, uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

, thorium
Thorium
Thorium is a natural radioactive chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. It was discovered in 1828 and named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder....

, tantalum
Tantalum
Tantalum is a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. Previously known as tantalium, the name comes from Tantalus, a character in Greek mythology. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion resistant. It is part of the refractory...

, niobium
Niobium
Niobium or columbium , is a chemical element with the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. It's a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite...

, among others. Noted centers of mining include Dexing
Dexing, Jiangxi
Dexing is a city in the province of Jiangxi, China. It is a county-level city under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Shangrao.- Notes and references :...

 (copper) and Dayu County
Dayu County
Dayu County is a county in western Ganzhou Municipality, Jiangxi Province.-Administration:The county executive, legislature, judiciary are at Nanan Town , together with the CPC and PSB branches....

 (tungsten).

Jiangxi is a rather poor province when compared to its neighboring provinces. It is located in extreme proximity to some of the richest provinces of China (Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

, Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

), which are sometimes blamed for taking away talent and capital from Jiangxi.

Jiangxi has the lowest wages and third lowest property prices in all of China. Jiangxi's nominal GDP for 2009 was 765 billion yuan (112.1 billion USD) and a per capita of 17,248 RMB (2,525USD).

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Nanchang Export Processing Zone

Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone is located in NanChang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, it was approved by the State Council on May 8, 2006, and passed the national acceptance inspection on Sep 7th, 2007. It has a planning area of 1 sqkm and now has built 0.31 sqkm. It enjoys simple and convenient customs clearances,and special preferential policies both for Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone and NCHDZ.
  • Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone (NCHDZ for short hereafter) is the only national grade high-tech zoned in Jiangxi, it was established in Mar. 1991. The zone covers an area of 231 square kilometers, in which 32 square kilometers have been completed. NCHDZ possesses unique nature condition and sound industry foundation of accepting electronics industry. NCHDZ has brought 25% industrial added value and 50% industrial benefit and tax to Nanchang city by using only 0.4% land area.
  • Nanchang Economic and Technological Development Zone

Demographics


The population of Jiangxi is approximately 39.66 million. 99.73% of that is Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, predominantly Gan and Hakka
Hakka people
The Hakka , sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese who speak the Hakka language and have links to the provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan and Fujian in China....

. Ganzhou
Ganzhou
Ganzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China. Its administrative seat is at Zhanggong .-History:...

, Jiangxi's largest city, has an especially large number of Hakka. Ethnic minorities include Hui and Zhuang.

Jiangxi and Henan both have the most unbalanced gender ratios of all Chinese provinces. Based on a 2009 British Medical Journal
British Medical Journal
BMJ is a partially open-access peer-reviewed medical journal. Originally called the British Medical Journal, the title was officially shortened to BMJ in 1988. The journal is published by the BMJ Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Medical Association...

 study, the ratio is over 140 boys for every 100 girls in the 1-4 age group.http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full

Culture



Jiangxi is the main area of concentration of the Gan varieties of Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

, spoken over most of the northern two-thirds of the province. Examples include the Nanchang dialect
Nanchang dialect
Chang-Du dialect, sometimes called Nanchang dialect after its principal variety, is a dialect of the Gan language. It is named after Nanchang and Duchang, and is spoken in those areas as well as in Xinjian, Anyi, Yongxiu, De'an, Xingzi, Hukou, and bordering regions in Jiangxi province and in...

, Yichun dialect
Yichun dialect
Yi-Liu, sometimes called Yichun dialect after its principal variety, is a dialect of the Gan language. It is spoken in Yichun in Jiangxi province and in Liuyang in Hunan, after which it is named, as well as inShanggao, Qingjiang, Xingan, Xinyu City, Fen yi, Pingxiang City, Fengcheng, Wanzai in...

 and Ji'an dialect. The southern one-third of the province speaks Hakka. There are also Mandarin, Huizhou, and Wu dialects spoken along the northern border.

Ganju (Jiangxi opera) is the type of Chinese opera
Chinese opera
Chinese opera is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back as far as the third century CE...

 performed in Jiangxi.

Although little known outside of the province, Jiangxi cuisine
Jiangxi cuisine
Jiangxi cuisine is derived from the native cooking styles of the Jiangxi province of southern China. Like the cuisines of neighboring provinces, Jiangxi cuisine favors overtly spicy flavors; in many regions of the provinces, chili peppers are directly used as vegetable instead of as a flavoring,...

 is rich and distinctive. Flavors are some of the strongest in China, with heavy use of chile peppers and especially pickled
Pickling
Pickling, also known as brining or corning is the process of preserving food by anaerobic fermentation in brine to produce lactic acid, or marinating and storing it in an acid solution, usually vinegar . The resulting food is called a pickle. This procedure gives the food a salty or sour taste...

 and fermented
Fermentation (food)
Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation in simple terms is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol...

 products.

Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen , is a prefecture-level city, previously a town, in Jiangxi Province, China, with a total population of 1,554,000 . It is known as the "Porcelain Capital" because it has been producing quality pottery for 1700 years. The city has a well-documented history that stretches back over 2000...

 is widely regarded as the producer of the best porcelain
Porcelain
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between and...

 in China.

Jiangxi also was a historical center of Chan Buddhism.

Prominent examples of Hakka architecture
Hakka architecture
A Hakka walled village is a large multi-family communal living structure that is designed to be easily defensible. This building style is unique to the Hakka people found in southern China...

 can be found in Jiangxi.

Transportation


The 947-km Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

-Jiangxi Railway (浙赣铁路) connects Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 and Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou , formerly Jianning, is a city in Hunan Province, China, southeast of Changsha beside the Xiangjiang River. It is part of the "ChangZhuTan Golden Triangle"...

 (株洲), Hunan
Hunan
' is a province of South-Central China, located to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting...

.

Tourism



Near the northern port city of Jiujiang
Jiujiang
Jiujiang , formerly transliterated Kiukiang, is a prefecture-level city located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River in northwest Jiangxi Province, China. It is the second-largest prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province, the largest one being Nanchang...

 lies the well-known resort area of Mount Lushan
Mount Lushan
Mount Lu , also known as "Kuanglu" in ancient times, is situated in the northern part of Jiangxi province in southeastern China, and is one of the top ten famous mountains in the country...

. Also near the city are the Donglin (East Wood) Temple  and the Tiefo (Iron Buddha) Temple (铁佛寺), two important Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 temples.

Near the small city of Yingtan
Yingtan
Yingtan is a prefecture-level city in the east part of China's Jiangxi province. It borders Fujian province to the east. Its location next to Fujian and its proximity to Zhejiang, have made it a strategically important city for centuries...

 is the resort area of Longhushan, which purports to be the birthplace of Taoism
Taoism
Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

 and hence has great symbolic value to Taoists. The region has many temples, cave complexes, mountains and villages. It is considered by many to be the best-kept secret of Jiangxi tourism.

The Lushan National Park has been a UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 since 1996.

In 2007, Jiangxi (specifically the Zhelin Reservoir
Zhelin Reservoir
Zhelin Reservoir is a reservoir located between Yongxiu , Wuning and Xiushui county. All three counties belong to Jiujiang, a metropolis of Jiangxi province, China. It's 40 kilometers to the north of Nanchang, and 90 kilometers to the south of Mount Lushan...

, about 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) from Nanchang) was the filming location for the fifteenth series of the American TV show Survivor
Survivor: China
Survivor: China is the fifteenth season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. The premiere aired September 20, 2007. Host Jeff Probst claimed the show was the first full American TV series to be filmed entirely within China...

.

Flora and fauna


The mountainous terrain and large forest coverage of Jiangxi has made it historically one of the more wild places of central China. South China Tiger
South China Tiger
The South China tiger is a tiger subspecies that originated in southern China and northern Indochina and has been classified as critically endangered by IUCN since 1996 as it is possibly extinct in the wild....

s have been seen as recently as fifteen or twenty years ago and projects are underway to document evidence of existing tigers, if there are any. Several mountain areas along the northern border with Hunan and Hubei are potential sites for "wilderness" preserves specifically for protecting or even reintroducing tigers.

Other wildlife, though not plentiful, are more numerous in Jiangxi than in many other developed areas of China. Numerous species of birds are common, especially around the marshes of Lake Poyang in the north. Though protected, mammals such as muntjak, wild boar, civet cats, and pangolin
Pangolin
A pangolin , also scaly anteater or Trenggiling, is a mammal of the order Pholidota. There is only one extant family and one genus of pangolins, comprising eight species. There are also a number of extinct taxa. Pangolins have large keratin scales covering their skin and are the only mammals with...

s, are still common enough that they'll even occasionally be seen in markets for sale as game meat, or possibly even in a forest.

The late Paleocene
Paleocene
The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the "early recent", is a geologic epoch that lasted from about . It is the first epoch of the Palaeogene Period in the modern Cenozoic Era...

 mesonychid
Mesonychid
Mesonychia are an extinct order of medium to large-sized carnivorous mammals that were closely related to artiodactyls and to cetaceans...

, Jiangxia chaotoensis
Jiangxia chaotoensis
Jiangxia chaotoensis is a Chinese mesonychid from the Nongshanian division of the Upper Paleocene. It may be related to the genera Pachyaena and Hessolestes.J. chaotoensis was named after the province of Jiangxi, where it was found....

was found in the province, and named after it.

Colleges and universities


  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute
    Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute
    Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute is situated in Jingdezhen city in Jiangxi province in the People's Republic of China. It is the only institute of higher learning in China dedicated to the study of ceramic arts. The area of Jingdezhen is historically significant in the development and production of...

  • Jiujiang Financial and Economic College
    Jiujiang Financial and Economic College
    The Jiujiang University is a major college in Jiujiang, northern Jiangxi Province in China.-History:...

  • East China Institute of Technology
  • East China Jiaotong University
  • Nanchang University
    Nanchang University
    Nanchang University is an institution of tertiary education located in Nanchang, Jiangxi, China. Nanchang University was established in 1940 as Zhongzheng University...

  • Jiangxi Normal University
    Jiangxi Normal University
    Jiangxi Normal University is a university in Nanchang, Jiangxi.-External links:*...

  • Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University
    Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University
    Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University (JXSTNU; ) is a teacher training college located in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China, and is currently the only university in...

  • Jinggangshan University
    Jinggangshan University
    Jinggangshan University is located at the Ji'an city of Jiangxi province in China. Ji'an is located in the foot of Jinggangshan Mountains.The university has approximately 27,000 students and about 200 foreign students.-History:...

  • Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics
    Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics
    Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics is a university in Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.It is a well known university in China....

  • Jiujiang Teachers College
  • Jiangxi Institute of Education
  • Jiangxi Agricultural University
    Jiangxi Agricultural University
    Jiangxi Agricultural University is located in the northern suburbs of Nanchang city. Nanchang is the capital city of Jiangxi province. JXAU is a key province-run university and is one of the first universities in China to confer Bachelor's and Master's degrees...

  • Nanchang Institute of Technology
    Nanchang Institute of Technology
    Nanchang Institute of Technology is a university in Nanchang, Jiangxi, China....


External links