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Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem

Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem

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The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop
Bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

 of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarch
Patriarch
Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. This is a Greek word, a compound of πατριά , "lineage, descent", esp...

s in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

. Since 2005, the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem has been Theophilos III
Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem
Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem is the current Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem...

. The Patriarch
Patriarch
Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. This is a Greek word, a compound of πατριά , "lineage, descent", esp...

 is styled "Patriarch of the Holy City of Jerusalem and all Palestine
Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

, Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, beyond the Jordan River, Cana
Cana
In the Christian New Testament, the Gospel of John refers a number of times to a town called Cana of Galilee.-The marriage at Cana:Among Christians and other students of the New Testament, Cana is best known as the place where, according to the Fourth Gospel, Jesus performed his first public...

 of Galilee
Galilee
Galilee , is a large region in northern Israel which overlaps with much of the administrative North District of the country. Traditionally divided into Upper Galilee , Lower Galilee , and Western Galilee , extending from Dan to the north, at the base of Mount Hermon, along Mount Lebanon to the...

, and Holy Zion
Zion
Zion is a place name often used as a synonym for Jerusalem. The word is first found in Samuel II, 5:7 dating to c.630-540 BCE...

." The Patriarch is the head of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre
The Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, or The Holy Community of the All-Holy Sepulchre, is the Orthodox monastic fraternity that for centuries has guarded and protected the Christian Holy places in the Holy Land...

, and the religious leader of about 130,000 Orthodox Christians in the Holy Land
Holy Land
The Holy Land is a term which in Judaism refers to the Kingdom of Israel as defined in the Tanakh. For Jews, the Land's identifiction of being Holy is defined in Judaism by its differentiation from other lands by virtue of the practice of Judaism often possible only in the Land of Israel...

, most of them Palestinian
Palestinian people
The Palestinian people, also referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs , are an Arabic-speaking people with origins in Palestine. Despite various wars and exoduses, roughly one third of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza...

s.

The Patriarchate traces its line of succession to the first Christian bishops of Jerusalem, the first being James the Just
James the Just
James , first Bishop of Jerusalem, who died in 62 AD, was an important figure in Early Christianity...

 in the 1st century AD. Jerusalem was recognized as a patriarchate at the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from 8 October to 1 November, 451 AD, at Chalcedon , on the Asian side of the Bosporus. The council marked a significant turning point in the Christological debates that led to the separation of the church of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 5th...

 in 451.

On the importance of Jerusalem
Jerusalem in Christianity
For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.-Jerusalem in the New Testament and early Christianity:...

, the Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index...

 reads:
"During the first Christian centuries
Early Christianity
Early Christianity is generally considered as Christianity before 325. The New Testament's Book of Acts and Epistle to the Galatians records that the first Christian community was centered in Jerusalem and its leaders included James, Peter and John....

 the church at this place was the centre of Christianity in Jerusalem, 'Holy and glorious Sion, mother of all churches.' Certainly no spot in Christendom
Christendom
Christendom, or the Christian world, has several meanings. In a cultural sense it refers to the worldwide community of Christians, adherents of Christianity...

 can be more venerable than the place of the Last Supper
Last Supper
The Last Supper is the final meal that, according to Christian belief, Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "communion" or "the Lord's Supper".The First Epistle to the Corinthians is...

, which became the first Christian church."

History


In the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Crucifixion of Jesus and the Great Commission in Jerusalem until the death of John the Apostle in Anatolia...

 the Christian Church was organized as an indefinite number of local Churches that in the initial years looked to that at Jerusalem as its main centre and point of reference, see also Jerusalem in Christianity
Jerusalem in Christianity
For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.-Jerusalem in the New Testament and early Christianity:...

. James the Just
James the Just
James , first Bishop of Jerusalem, who died in 62 AD, was an important figure in Early Christianity...

, who was martyred around 62, is described as the first Bishop of Jerusalem. Roman persecutions following the Jewish revolts against Rome in the later 1st and 2nd centuries also impacted the city's Christian community, and led to Jerusalem gradually being eclipsed in prominence by other sees, particularly those of Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome
Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

. However, increased pilgrimage
Christian pilgrimage
Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the ministry of Jesus. Surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land and Jerusalem date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers like Saint Jerome and established by Helena, the mother of...

 during and after the reign of Constantine the Great increased the fortunes of the see of Jerusalem, and in 325 the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325...

 attributed special honor, but not Metropolitan
Metropolitan bishop
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

 status (then the highest rank in the Church), to the bishop of Jerusalem. Jerusalem continued to be a bishopric until 451, when it was raised to the status of patriarchate
Patriarchate
A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. A patriarch, as the term is used here, is either* one of the highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, earlier, the five that were included in the Pentarchy: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, but now nine,...

 by the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from 8 October to 1 November, 451 AD, at Chalcedon , on the Asian side of the Bosporus. The council marked a significant turning point in the Christological debates that led to the separation of the church of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 5th...

. After that it was considered one of the Pentarchy
Pentarchy
Pentarchy is a term in the history of Christianity for the idea of universal rule over all Christendom by the heads of five major episcopal sees, or patriarchates, of the Roman Empire: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem...

 – the five most prominent sees in Christendom.

After the Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 conquest in the 7th century, Muslims
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 recognized Jerusalem as the seat of Christianity and the Patriarch as its leader. When the Great Schism
East-West Schism
The East–West Schism of 1054, sometimes known as the Great Schism, formally divided the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively...

 took place in 1054 the Patriarch of Jerusalem and the other three Eastern Patriarchs formed the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

, and the Patriarch of Rome (i.e. the Pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

) formed the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

. The Patriarch lived in Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

 until 1187.

In 1099 the Crusaders
First Crusade
The First Crusade was a military expedition by Western Christianity to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem...

 appointed a Latin Patriarch
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title possessed by the Latin Rite Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. The Archdiocese of Jerusalem has jurisdiction for all Latin Rite Catholics in Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Jordan and Cyprus...

.

Current position


Today, the headquarters of the patriarchate is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, also called the Church of the Resurrection by Eastern Christians, is a church within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. It is a few steps away from the Muristan....

 in Jerusalem.

The number of Orthodox Christians in the Holy Land
Holy Land
The Holy Land is a term which in Judaism refers to the Kingdom of Israel as defined in the Tanakh. For Jews, the Land's identifiction of being Holy is defined in Judaism by its differentiation from other lands by virtue of the practice of Judaism often possible only in the Land of Israel...

 is estimated to be about 200,000 people. A majority of Church members are Palestinian
Palestinian people
The Palestinian people, also referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs , are an Arabic-speaking people with origins in Palestine. Despite various wars and exoduses, roughly one third of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza...

 Arabs, and there are also small numbers Russians
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

, Romanians
Romanians
The Romanians are an ethnic group native to Romania, who speak Romanian; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania....

, and Georgians
Georgian people
The Georgians are an ethnic group that have originated in Georgia, where they constitute a majority of the population. Large Georgian communities are also present throughout Russia, European Union, United States, and South America....

.

The patriarchate was recently involved in a significant controversy. Patriarch Irenaios
Patriarch Irenaios
Irenaios Skopelitis was the 140th patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem from 2001 to 2005, though the dismissal was disputed...

, elected in 2001, was deposed, on decisions of the Holy Synod of Jerusalem
Holy Synod of Jerusalem
The Holy Synod of Jerusalem is the senior ruling body of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem and the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulcher.The Synod consists of 18 members nominated by the Patriarch in a session of the Holy Synod itself...

, in the aftermath of a scandal involving the sale of church land in East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem refer to the parts of Jerusalem captured and annexed by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and then captured and annexed by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War...

 to Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

i investors. The move enraged many Orthodox Palestinian members, since the land was in an area that most Palestinians hoped would someday become part of a Palestinian state. On May 24, 2005 a special Pan-Orthodox Synod
Synod
A synod historically is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. In modern usage, the word often refers to the governing body of a particular church, whether its members are meeting or not...

 was convened in Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

 (İstanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

) to review the decisions of the Holy Synod of Jerusalem. The Pan-Orthodox Synod under the presidency of the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I, voted overwhelmingly to confirm the decision of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre
The Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, or The Holy Community of the All-Holy Sepulchre, is the Orthodox monastic fraternity that for centuries has guarded and protected the Christian Holy places in the Holy Land...

 and to strike Irenaios' name from the diptych
Diptych
A diptych di "two" + ptychē "fold") is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge. Devices of this form were quite popular in the ancient world, wax tablets being coated with wax on inner faces, for recording notes and for measuring time and direction.In Late Antiquity, ivory diptychs with...

s, and on May 30, Jerusalem's Holy Synod chose Metropolitan Cornelius
Metropolitan Cornelius
Metropolitan Cornelius of Petra is a senior bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem. He was locum tenens of the Church in 2001, following the death of Patriarch Diodoros I...

 of Petra to serve as locum tenens pending the election of a replacement for Irenaios. On August 22, 2005, the Holy Synod of the Church of Jerusalem unanimously elected Theophilos
Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem
Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem is the current Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem...

, the former Archbishop of Tabor
Tabor
-Places:* Mount Tabor * Tábor, Czech Republic** Taborite, member of a 15th century Czech religious group considered heretical by the Roman Catholic Church* Tabor, Slovenia, town and municipality...

, as the 141st Patriarch of Jerusalem.

Jewish Bishops of Jerusalem



The early Christian community of Jerusalem was led by a Council of Elders
Elder (Christianity)
An elder in Christianity is a person valued for his wisdom who accordingly holds a particular position of responsibility in a Christian group. In some Christian traditions an elder is a clergy person who usually serves a local church or churches and who has been ordained to a ministry of Word,...

, and considered itself part of the wider Jewish community. This collegiate system of government in Jerusalem is seen in and .

Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea also called Eusebius Pamphili, was a Roman historian, exegete and Christian polemicist. He became the Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine about the year 314. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon...

 provides the names of an unbroken succession of thirty-six Bishops of Jerusalem up to the year 324. The first sixteen of these bishops were of Jewish origin Christians—from James the Just
James the Just
James , first Bishop of Jerusalem, who died in 62 AD, was an important figure in Early Christianity...

 through Judas
Judah Kyriakos
Judah Kyriakos, also known popularly as Judas of Jerusalem, was the great grandson of Jude, brother of Jesus, and the last Jewish Bishop of Jerusalem, according to Epiphanius of Salamis and Eusebius of Caesarea....

 († 135)—the remainder were Gentiles:
"But since the bishops of the circumcision
Circumcision controversy in early Christianity
There is evidence of a controversy over religious male circumcision in Early Christianity. A Council of Jerusalem, possibly held in approximately 50 AD, decreed that male circumcision was not a requirement for Gentile converts. This became known as the "Apostolic Decree" and may be one of the...

 ceased at this time [after Bar Kokhba's revolt
Bar Kokhba's revolt
The Bar Kokhba revolt 132–136 CE; or mered bar kokhba) against the Roman Empire, was the third major rebellion by the Jews of Judaea Province being the last of the Jewish-Roman Wars. Simon bar Kokhba, the commander of the revolt, was acclaimed as a Messiah, a heroic figure who could restore Israel...

], it is proper to give here a list of their names from the beginning. The first, then, was James, the so-called brother of the Lord; the second, Symeon; the third, Justus; the fourth, Zacchaeus; the fifth, Tobias; the sixth, Benjamin; the seventh, John; the eighth, Matthias; the ninth, Philip; the tenth, Seneca; the eleventh, Justus; the twelfth, Levi; the thirteenth, Ephres; the fourteenth, Joseph; and finally, the fifteenth, Judas. These are the bishops of Jerusalem that lived between the age of the apostles
Apostolic Age
The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Crucifixion of Jesus and the Great Commission in Jerusalem until the death of John the Apostle in Anatolia...

 and the time referred to, all of them belonging to the circumcision."


  1. James the Just
    James the Just
    James , first Bishop of Jerusalem, who died in 62 AD, was an important figure in Early Christianity...

     (until 62)
  2. Simeon I
    Simeon of Jerusalem
    Saint Simeon of Jerusalem, son of Clopas, was a Jewish Christian leader and according to most Christian traditions the second Bishop of Jerusalem .-Life:Eusebius of Caesarea gives the list of these bishops...

     (62-107)
  3. Justus I (107-113)
  4. Zaccheus (113-???)
  5. Tobias (???-???)
  6. Benjamin I (???-117)
  7. John I (117-???)
  8. Matthias I
    Matthias of Jerusalem
    Saint Matthias of Jerusalem is a 2nd century Christian saint and a Bishop of Jerusalem. During his governance, he dealt with a troubled political situation due to Roman persecution of Christians and a Jewish uprising.-Notes:...

     (???-120)
  9. Philip (???-124)
  10. Senecas (???-???)
  11. Justus II (???-???)
  12. Levis (???-???)
  13. Ephram (???-???)
  14. Joseph I (???-???)
  15. Judas (???-135)

Bishops of Aelia Capitolina



As a result of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135, Hadrian
Hadrian
Hadrian , was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. In Rome, he re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in...

 was determined to erase Judaism
Anti-Judaism
Religious antisemitism is a form of antisemitism, which is the prejudice against, or hostility toward, the Jewish people based on hostility to Judaism and to Jews as a religious group...

 from Iudaea Province
Iudaea Province
Judaea or Iudaea are terms used by historians to refer to the Roman province that extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel...

. The province was renamed Syria Palaestina
Syria Palaestina
Syria Palæstina was a Roman province between 135CE and 390CE. It had been established by the merge of Roman Syria and Roman Judaea, following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba Revolt in 135 CE. In 193 Syria-Coele was split to form a separate provincial locality...

. Jerusalem was left in total ruin, and a new city built nearby called Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins since 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136.-Politics:...

. These gentile bishops (Jews were excluded from the city except for the day of Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
|Av]],") is an annual fast day in Judaism, named for the ninth day of the month of Av in the Hebrew calendar. The fast commemorates the destruction of both the First Temple and Second Temple in Jerusalem, which occurred about 655 years apart, but on the same Hebrew calendar date...

), were appointed under the authority of the Metropolitan
Metropolitan bishop
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

s of Caesarea. Until the setting up of the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. A patriarch, as the term is used here, is either* one of the highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, earlier, the five that were included in the Pentarchy: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, but now nine,...

s in 325, Metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank
Episcopal polity
Episcopal polity is a form of church governance that is hierarchical in structure with the chief authority over a local Christian church resting in a bishop...

 in the Christian church.
  1. Marcus (135-???)
  2. Cassianus (???-???)
  3. Poplius (???-???)
  4. Maximus I (???-???)
  5. Julian I (???-???)
  6. Gaius I (???-???)
  7. Symmachus (???)
  8. Gaius II (???-162)
  9. Julian II (162-???)
  10. Capion (???-???)
  11. Maximus II (???-???)
  12. Antoninus (???-???)
  13. Valens (???-???)
  14. Dolichianus (???-185)
  15. Narcissus
    Narcissus of Jerusalem
    Saint Narcissus of Jerusalem was an early patriarch of Jerusalem. He is venerated as a saint by both the Western and Eastern Churches...

     (185-???)
  16. Dius (???-???)
  17. Germanion  (???-???)
  18. Gordius  (???-211)
Narcissus (restored) (???-231)
  1. Alexander (231-249)
  2. Mazabanis (249-260)
  3. Imeneus (260-276)
  4. Zamudas
    Zamudas of Jerusalem
    Zamudas of Jerusalem was the thirty-seventh patriarch of Jerusalem. His patriarchate lasted from 276 to 283. He is venerated as a saint and is connected with the legend of the Theban Legion.-External links:*...

     (276-283)
  5. Ermon (283-314)
  6. Macarius I
    Macarius of Jerusalem
    Saint Macarius of Jerusalem was Bishop of Jerusalem from 312 to shortly before 335, according to Sozomen.St. Athanasius, in one of his orations against Arianism, refers to St. Macarius as an example of "the honest and simple style of apostolical men." The date 312 for Macarius's accession to the...

     (314-333), since 325 Bishop of Jerusalem

Bishops of Jerusalem


Jerusalem received special recognition in Canon VII of First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325...

 in 325, without yet becoming a metropolitan see. Also, the Council for the first time established the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. A patriarch, as the term is used here, is either* one of the highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, earlier, the five that were included in the Pentarchy: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, but now nine,...

s. The Bishops of Jerusalem were appointed by the Patriarchs of Antioch
Patriarch of Antioch
Patriarch of Antioch is a traditional title held by the Bishop of Antioch. As the traditional "overseer" of the first gentile Christian community, the position has been of prime importance in the church from its earliest period...

.
  • Macarius I
    Macarius of Jerusalem
    Saint Macarius of Jerusalem was Bishop of Jerusalem from 312 to shortly before 335, according to Sozomen.St. Athanasius, in one of his orations against Arianism, refers to St. Macarius as an example of "the honest and simple style of apostolical men." The date 312 for Macarius's accession to the...

     (325-333)
  • Maximus III
    Maximus of Jerusalem
    Saint Maximus of Jerusalem was an early Christian saint and bishop of Jerusalem from roughly 333 AD to his death in roughly 350 AD...

     (333-348)
  • Cyril I
    Cyril of Jerusalem
    Cyril of Jerusalem was a distinguished theologian of the early Church . He is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. In 1883, Cyril was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII...

     (350-386)
  • John II
    Bishop John II of Jerusalem
    John II was bishop of Jerusalem from AD 387 to AD 417. John II succeeded to the episcopal throne of Jerusalem on the death of Saint Cyril in 386...

     (386-417)
  • Praulius
    Praulius of Jerusalem
    St. Praulius was a bishop of Jerusalem from 417 to 422. He succeeded John II. According to Theodoret, Praulius' disposition and bearing suited the bishop’s name, which is derived from the Greek word for "meek-spirited."...

     (417-422)
  • Juvenal
    Juvenal of Jerusalem
    Saint Juvenal was a bishop of Jerusalem from about 422. In 451, on the see of Jerusalem being recognised as a Patriarchate by the Council of Chalcedon, he became the first Patriarch of Jerusalem, an office he occupied until his death in 458....

     (422-458), since 451 Patriarch

Patriarchs of Jerusalem


The Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from 8 October to 1 November, 451 AD, at Chalcedon , on the Asian side of the Bosporus. The council marked a significant turning point in the Christological debates that led to the separation of the church of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 5th...

 in 451 raised the bishop of Jerusalem to the rank of patriarch
Patriarch
Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. This is a Greek word, a compound of πατριά , "lineage, descent", esp...

. (See Pentarchy
Pentarchy
Pentarchy is a term in the history of Christianity for the idea of universal rule over all Christendom by the heads of five major episcopal sees, or patriarchates, of the Roman Empire: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem...

) However, Byzantine
Byzantine
Byzantine usually refers to the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.Byzantine may also refer to:* A citizen of the Byzantine Empire, or native Greek during the Middle Ages...

 politics meant that Jerusalem passed from the jurisdiction of Patriarch of Antioch to the Greek authorities in Constantinople. For centuries, Orthodox clergy, such as the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulcher, dominated the Jerusalem church. At the same time, the Roman church claimed primacy. (See Papal supremacy
Papal supremacy
Papal supremacy refers to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the pope, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ and as pastor of the entire Christian Church, has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered: that, in brief,...

)
  • Juvenal
    Juvenal of Jerusalem
    Saint Juvenal was a bishop of Jerusalem from about 422. In 451, on the see of Jerusalem being recognised as a Patriarchate by the Council of Chalcedon, he became the first Patriarch of Jerusalem, an office he occupied until his death in 458....

     (451-458)
  • Anastasius I (458-478)
  • Martyrius (478-486)
  • Sallustius (486-494)
  • Elias I
    Elias of Jerusalem
    Elias of Jerusalem was a bishop and Patriarch of Jerusalem from 494 until being deposed by Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I in 516 for supporting the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon. He was the main opponent of the monophysites in the Synod of Tyre....

     (494-516)
  • John III (516-524)
  • Peter (524-552)
  • Macarius II (552, 564-575)
  • Eustochius (552-564)
  • John IV (575-594)
  • Amos (594-601)
  • Isaac (601-609)
  • Zacharias (609-632)
  • Modestus
    Modestus of Jerusalem
    Modestus of Jerusalem was a Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, who is commemorated as a saint by the Orthodox church, on May 17, March 29 or December 17 in the Palestinian-Georgian calendar venerates him or December 16 and October 19 in the Acta Sanctorum.He was born in Cappadocian Sebasteia...

     (632-634)
  • Sophronius I (634-638)
    • vacant (638-???)
  • Anastasius II (???-706)
  • John V (706-735)
  • Theodore (745-770)
  • Elias II (770-797)
  • George (797-807)
  • Thomas I (807-820)
  • Basileus (820-838)
  • John VI (838-842)
  • Sergius I (842-844)
    • vacant (844-855)
  • Solomon (855-860)
    • vacant (860-862)
  • Theodosius (862-878)
  • Elias III
    Elias III of Jerusalem
    Elias III was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from the dates 878 AD to 907 AD....

     (878-907)
  • Sergius II (908-911)
  • Leontius I (912-929)
  • Athanasius I (929-937)
  • Christodolus (937-950)
  • Agathon (950-964)
  • John VII
    John VII of Jerusalem
    John VII was Patriarch of Jerusalem from 964 to 966. He was burned at the stake by a Muslim mob after writing to the Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas, pleading with him to hasten to Palestine and retake it from the Fatimid Caliphs....

     (964-966)
  • Christodolus II (966-969)
  • Thomas II (969-978)
    • vacant (978-980)
  • Joseph II (980-983)
  • Orestes (983-1005)
    • vacant (1005–1012)
  • Theophilus I (1012–1020)
  • Nicephorus I (1020-???)
  • Joannichius (???-???)
  • Sophronius II (???-1084)
  • Euthemius I (1084)
  • Simon II (1084–1106)


Patriarchs of Jerusalem in exile


As a result of the First Crusade
First Crusade
The First Crusade was a military expedition by Western Christianity to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem...

 in 1099, a Latin Patriarchate
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title possessed by the Latin Rite Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. The Archdiocese of Jerusalem has jurisdiction for all Latin Rite Catholics in Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Jordan and Cyprus...

 was created, with residence in Jerusalem from 1099 to 1187. Orthodox Patriarchs continued to be appointed, but resided in Constantinople.
  • Savvas (1106–1156)
  • John VIII (1106–1156)
  • John IX (1156–1166)
  • Nicephorus II (1166–1170)
  • Leontius II (1170–1190)

Return of Patriarchs of Jerusalem


In 1187, the Latin Patriarch was forced to flee the region. The office of Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title possessed by the Latin Rite Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. The Archdiocese of Jerusalem has jurisdiction for all Latin Rite Catholics in Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Jordan and Cyprus...

 remained and appointments continued to be made by the Catholic Church, with the Latin Patriarch residing in Rome until modern times. The Orthodox Patriarch returned to Jerusalem.
  • Dositheos I (1190–1191)
  • Marcus II (1191-???)
    • vacant (???-1223)
  • Euthemius II (1223)
  • Athanasius II (1224–1236)
  • Sophronius III (1236-???)
  • Gregory I (???-1298)
  • Thaddaeus (1298)
    • vacant (1298–1313)
  • Athanasius III (1313–1314)
    • vacant (1314–1322)
  • Gregory II (1322)
    • vacant (1322–1334)
  • Lazarus (1334–1368)
    • vacant (1368–1376)
  • Dorotheus I (1376–1417)
  • Theophilus II (1417–1424)
  • Theophanes I (1424–1431)
  • Joachim (1431-???)
    • vacant (???-1450)
  • Theophanes II (1450)
    • vacant (1450–1452)
  • Athanasius IV (1452-???)
    • vacant (???-1460)
  • Jacob II (1460)
    • vacant (1460–1468)
  • Abraham I (1468)
  • Gregory III (1468–1493)
    • vacant (1493–1503)
  • Marcus III (1503)
    • vacant (1503–1505)
  • Dorotheus II (1505–1537)
  • Germanus (1537–1579)
  • Sophronius IV (1579–1608)
  • Theophanes III (1608–1644)
  • Paiseus (1645–1660)
  • Nectarius I (1660–1669)
  • Dositheos II (1669–1707)
  • Chrysanthus (1707–1731)
  • Meletius (1731–1737)
  • Parthenius
    Parthenius
    Parthenius may refer to:* Parthenius of Nicaea , Greek grammarian and poet* Saint Parthenius , Armenian saint and martyr from Rome, who suffered martyrdom during the reign of Decius....

     (1737–1766)
  • Ephram II (1766–1771)
  • Sophronius V (1771–1775)
  • Abraham II
    Abraham II
    Abraham II was Patriarch of the Church of the East from 837 to 850.- Sources :Brief accounts of Abraham's patriarchate are given in the Ecclesiastical Chronicle of the Jacobite writer Bar Hebraeus and in the ecclesiastical histories of the Nestorian writers Mari , Amr and Sliba .- Abraham's...

     (1775–1787)
  • Procopius I (1787–1788)
  • Anthemus (1788–1808)
  • Polycarpus (1808–1827)
  • Athanasius V (1827–1845)
  • Cyril II
    Patriarch Cyril II of Jerusalem
    Cyril II of Jerusalem was born in 1792 in the island of Samos. In 1816 he was ordained a deacon, then a presbyter, was abbot of the monastery. In 1835 he became Archbishop of Sebasteia and in 1838 of Lydia...

     (1845–1872)
  • Procopius II (1872–1875)
  • Jerotheus (1875–1882)
  • Nicodemus I (1883–1890)
  • Gerasimus I (1891–1897)
  • Damianus I (1897–1931)
  • Timotheus I (1935–1955)
    • vacant (1955–1957)
  • Benedict I
    Benedict I of Jerusalem
    His Beatitude Benedict of Jerusalem was the Patriarch of Jerusalem of the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem from 1957 to 1980....

     (1957–1980)
  • Diodoros I
    Patriarch Diodoros of Jerusalem
    Diodoros or Diodorus ; Damianos G. Karivalis was the Patriarch of Jerusalem in the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem from 1981 to 2000....

     (1981–2000)
  • Irenaios I
    Patriarch Irenaios
    Irenaios Skopelitis was the 140th patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem from 2001 to 2005, though the dismissal was disputed...

     (2001–2005)
  • Theophilos III
    Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem
    Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem is the current Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem...

     (2005–Present)


Hierarchy of the Throne

  • Metropolitan of Caesaria : Vasilios (Christos Blatsos)
  • Metropolitan of Scythopolis : Iakovos (George Kapenekas)
  • Metropolitan of Petra
    Petra
    Petra is a historical and archaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma'an that is famous for its rock cut architecture and water conduits system. Established sometime around the 6th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans, it is a symbol of Jordan as well as its most visited...

     : Cornelios (Emmanuel Rodousakis)
  • Metropolitan of Ptolemais : Palladios (Vasilios Antoniou)
  • Metropolitan of Nazareth
    Nazareth
    Nazareth is the largest city in the North District of Israel. Known as "the Arab capital of Israel," the population is made up predominantly of Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel...

     : Kyriakos (Andreas Georgopetris)
  • Metropolitan of Neapolis
    Nablus
    Nablus is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, with a population of 126,132. Located in a strategic position between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim, it is the capital of the Nablus Governorate and a Palestinian commercial and cultural center.Founded by the...

     : Amvrosios (Nikolaos Antonopoulos)
  • Metropolitan of Capitolias : Isyhios (Elias Condogiannis)
  • Metropolitan of Botsra
    Bozrah
    Botsra, Botzrah, Bozrah is an ancient biblical city in southern modern-day Jordan, now Bouseira 20 Km to the south of Tafilah,between Tafilah and Shoubak.-History:...

     : Timotheos (Theodoros Margaritis)
  • Metropolitan of Eleutheropolis
    Eleutheropolis
    Eleutheropolis was the Greek name of a Roman city in Israel, some 53 km southwest of Jerusalem. Its remains still straddle the ancient road to Gaza. The site— already rendered as Baitogabra in Ptolemy's Geography— was called Beit Guvrin and Bet Gubrin in the Talmud...

     : Christodoulos (Christos Saridakis)
  • Metropolitan of Philadelphia
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

     : Benediktos (George Tsekouras)
  • Archbishop of Gerasa : Theophanis (Theodosios Hasapakis)
  • Archbishop of Tiberias : Alexios (Alexios Moschonas)
  • Archbishop of Abila
    Abila (Peraea)
    Abila – also, Biblical: Abel-Shittim or Ha-Shittim – was an ancient city east of the Jordan River in Moab, later Peraea, near Livias, about twelve km northeast of the north shore of the Dead Sea; the site is now that of Abil-ez-Zeit, Jordan. Abel-Shittim , is found only in Num...

     : Dorotheos (Demetrios Leovaris)
  • Archbishop of Joppa
    Jaffa
    Jaffa is an ancient port city believed to be one of the oldest in the world. Jaffa was incorporated with Tel Aviv creating the city of Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. Jaffa is famous for its association with the biblical story of the prophet Jonah.-Etymology:...

     : Damaskinos (Anastasios Gaganiaras)
  • Archbishop of Constantina
    Constantina
    Constantina , and later known as Saint Constance, was the eldest daughter of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta, daughter of Emperor Maximian...

     : Aristarchos (Antonios Peristeris)
  • Archbishop of Mount Thabor : Methodios (Nikolaos Liveris)
  • Archbishop of Jordan
    Jordan
    Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

     : Theophylactos (Theodosios Georgiadis)
  • Archbishop of Sebastia : Theodosios (Nizar Hanna)
  • Archbishop of Askalon : Nicephoros (Nikolaos Baltadgis)
  • Archbishop of Diocaesarea : Vacant

See also

  • Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem
  • Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem
    Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem
    The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem also known as the Armenian Patriarchate of St. James is located in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem. The Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem remains under the authority of the Catholicos of Armenia and of all Armenians of the Armenian Apostolic Church...

  • Palestinian Christians
    Palestinian Christians
    Palestinian Christians are Arabic-speaking Christians descended from the people of the geographical area of Palestine. Within Palestine, there are churches and believers from many Christian denominations, including Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholic , Protestant, and others...

  • Timeline of Jerusalem
    Timeline of Jerusalem
    This is a timeline of major events in the History of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times....


External links