Amman

Amman

Overview
Amman is the capital of Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost 6.5 million by 2025 due to constant and rapid immigration. The recent economic growth experienced in Amman is unmatched by any other Arab city except those located in the Gulf.
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Encyclopedia
Amman is the capital of Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost 6.5 million by 2025 due to constant and rapid immigration. The recent economic growth experienced in Amman is unmatched by any other Arab city except those located in the Gulf. Amman is also the administrative seat of the homonymous governorate
Amman Governorate
Officially known as Muhafazat al-Asima , Amman Governorate is one of the governorates - locally known as muhafazat - in Jordan. This governorate's capital is the City of Amman, It is also Jordan's capital...

. Amman is also ranked a Gamma global city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 on the World city index.

Amman was named one of the MENA
MENA
The term MENA, for "Middle East and North Africa", is an acronym often used in academic, military planning and business writing.The term covers an extensive region, extending from Morocco to Iran, including the majority of both the Middle Eastern and Maghreb countries...

's best cities according to economic, labour, environmental, and socio-cultural factors. It is a major tourist destination in the region and the capital is especially popular among Gulf tourists. Amman is considered one of the richest and most Western-oriented cities in the Middle East.

History


During its long history, Amman has been inhabited by several civilizations. The first civilization on record is during the Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 period, around 10050 BC, when archaeological discoveries in 'Ain Ghazal
'Ain Ghazal
Ain Ghazal is a Neolithic site located in North-Western Jordan, on the outskirts of Amman. It dates as far back as 7250 BC, and was inhabited until 5000 BC...

, located in eastern Amman, showed evidence of not only a settled life but also the growth of artistic work, which suggests that a well-developed civilization inhabited the city at that time.
In the 13th century BC Amman was called Rabbath Ammon or Rabat Amon by the Ammon
Ammon
Ammon , also referred to as the Ammonites and children of Ammon, was an ancient nation located east of the Jordan River, Gilead, and the Dead Sea, in present-day Jordan. The chief city of the country was Rabbah or Rabbath Ammon, site of the modern city of Amman, Jordan's capital...

ites. In the Hebrew Bible, it is referred to as Rabbat ʿAmmon (Tiberian Hebrew
Tiberian vocalization
The Tiberian vocalization is a system of diacritics devised by the Masoretes to add to the consonantal Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible; this system soon became used to vocalize other texts as well...

 Rabbaṯ ʿAmmôn). It was later conquered by the Assyrians
Assyrian people
The Assyrian people are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia...

, followed by the Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, and then the Macedonians
Ancient Macedonians
The Macedonians originated from inhabitants of the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, in the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios...

. Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BCE to 246 BCE. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice, and was educated by Philitas of Cos...

, the Macedonian ruler of Egypt, renamed it Philadelphia. The city became part of the Nabataean
Nabataeans
Thamudi3.jpgThe Nabataeans, also Nabateans , were ancient peoples of southern Canaan and the northern part of Arabia, whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus , gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea...

 kingdom until 106 AD when Philadelphia came under Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 control and joined the Decapolis
Decapolis
The Decapolis was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Judea and Syria. The ten cities were not an official league or political unit, but they were grouped together because of their language, culture, location, and political status...

.

Philadelphia became the seat of a bishopric
Diocese
A diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a bishop. It is divided into parishes.An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or had importance due to size or historical significance...

 during the beginning of the Byzantine
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 era. One of the churches of this period can be seen on the city's Citadel.
Philadelphia was renamed Amman during the Ghassanian
Ghassanids
The Ghassanids were a group of South Arabian Christian tribes that emigrated in the early 3rd century from Yemen to Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and the Holy Land....

 era, and flourished under the Caliphate
Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...

s (with nearby capital) of the Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

s (in Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

) and the Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

s (in Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

).

It was then destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters and remained a small village and a pile of ruins until the Circassians settlement in 1887. The tide changed when the Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 Sultan
Sultan
Sultan is a title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who...

 decided to build the Hejaz railway, linking Damascus and Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

, facilitating both the annual hajj
Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

 pilgrimage and permanent trade, putting Amman, a major station, back on the commercial map.

In 1921, Abdullah I
Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan [‘Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn] عبد الله الأول بن الحسين born in Mecca, Second Saudi State, was the second of three sons of Sherif Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah...

 chose Amman instead of As-Salt as seat of government for his newly created state, the Emirate
Emirate
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Muslim monarch styled emir.-Etymology:Etymologically emirate or amirate is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir ....

 of Transjordan
Transjordan
The Emirate of Transjordan was a former Ottoman territory in the Southern Levant that was part of the British Mandate of Palestine...

, and later as the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. As there was no palatial building, he started his reign from the station, with his office in a train car. Amman remained a small city until 1949,and 1963, when the population expanded considerably due to an influx of Palestinian refugee
Palestinian refugee
Palestinian refugees or Palestine refugees are the people and their descendants, predominantly Palestinian Arabic-speakers, who fled or were expelled from their homes during and after the 1948 Palestine War, within that part of the British Mandate of Palestine, that after that war became the...

s from what is now Occupied Territories
Israeli-occupied territories
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories which have been designated as occupied territory by the United Nations and other international organizations, governments and others to refer to the territory seized by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967 from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria...

. Amman has experienced exceptionally rapid development since 2010 under the leadership of two Hashemite Kings, Hussein of Jordan
Hussein of Jordan
Hussein bin Talal was the third King of Jordan from the abdication of his father, King Talal, in 1952, until his death. Hussein's rule extended through the Cold War and four decades of Arab-Israeli conflict...

 and Abdullah II of Jordan
Abdullah II of Jordan
Abdullah II ibn al-Hussein is the reigning King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. He ascended the throne on 7 February 1999 after the death of his father King Hussein. King Abdullah, whose mother is Princess Muna al-Hussein, is a member of the Hashemite family...

.

In 1970, Amman was the site of major clashes between the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
The Palestine Liberation Organization is a political and paramilitary organization which was created in 1964. It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by the United Nations and over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations, and has enjoyed...

 (PLO) and the Jordanian army
Royal Jordanian Land Force
The Royal Jordanian Land Force is part of the Jordanian Armed Forces . It draws its origins from units first formed in the British Mandate of Transjordan in the 1920s. It has seen combat against Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973...

. Everything around the Royal Palace sustained heavy damage from shelling. The city's population continues to expand at a dizzying pace (fueled by refugees escaping the wartime events in the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

 and Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

). The city received refugees from these countries on a number of occasions. The first wave of Palestinian
Palestinian people
The Palestinian people, also referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs , are an Arabic-speaking people with origins in Palestine. Despite various wars and exoduses, roughly one third of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza...

 refugees arrived from Palestine in 1948.

A second wave arrived after the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
The Six-Day War , also known as the June War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, or Third Arab-Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt , Jordan, and Syria...

 in 1967. A third wave of Palestinian and Jordanian and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

ns, working as domestic worker
Domestic worker
A domestic worker is a man, woman or child who works within the employer's household. Domestic workers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to cleaning and household maintenance, known as housekeeping...

s, refugees arrived in Amman from Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

 after the Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

 of 1991. The first wave of Iraqi refugees settled in the city after the first Gulf War, with a second wave also arriving after the 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
The 2003 invasion of Iraq , was the start of the conflict known as the Iraq War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq and toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in 21 days of major combat operations...

. During the last 10 years the number of new buildings within the city has increased dramatically with new districts of the city being founded at a very rapid pace (particularly so in West Amman), straining the very scarce water supplies of Jordan as a whole, and exposing Amman to the hazards of rapid expansion in the absence of careful municipal planning.

On November 9, 2005, coordinated explosions
2005 Amman bombings
The 2005 Amman bombings were a series of coordinated bomb attacks on three hotels in Amman, Jordan, on 9 November 2005. The attacks killed 60 people and injured 115 others. The explosions—at the Grand Hyatt Hotel, the Radisson SAS Hotel, and the Days Inn—started at around 20:50 local time at the...

 rocked three hotels in Amman, resulting in the death of 60 people and the injury of 115 others. Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist organization founded by Osama bin Laden sometime between August 1988 and late 1989. It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless army and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad...

 claimed responsibility for the act, which was carried out despite the fact that the birthplace of since-killed Al Qaeda terrorist leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi ; October 30, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh was a Jordanian militant Islamist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan...

, is the town of Zarqa
Zarqa
Az-Zarqāʔ is a city in Jordan located to the northeast of Amman. With a population of more than one million 1000,000. It is the country's second largest city after Amman. Zarqa is the capital of Zarqa Governorate . Its name means "the blue one".- Overview :Zarqa is Jordan's industrial centre, home...

, less than 30 km (18.6 mi) from Amman. The sheer brutality of the attacks, which targeted, among other things, a wedding party being held at one of the hotels, caused widespread revulsion across the widest range of Jordanians. Large protests and vigils
Vigils
Vigils is a term for night prayer in ancient Christianity. See Vespers, Compline, Nocturns, Matins, and Lauds for more information. A Vigil is a night spent in prayer....

 followed in the wake of the attacks.

Geography



Amman is situated on hilly area of north-western Jordan. The city was originally built on seven hills, but it now spans over an area of nineteen hills (each known as a Jabal, Tál, Mount or Mountain). The main areas of Amman gain their names from the hills and mountains on whose slopes they lie.
The city's elevation changes from mountain to mountain. They range from 740 to 1400 m (2035–3610 feet).

Climate


Amman has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk) with long, hot and dry summers and wet and cool winters with a mediterranean
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (dry-summer) rainfall pattern. It also has an influence of the continental climate
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

 because of its inland location and highland climate because of its high elevation. Amman's location and altitude has a profound effect on its climate. Spring is brief, mild and lasts a little less than a month, from April to May, with rain during the morning and the afternoons. High temperatures are around 14 °C (57 °F) and lows are a little less than 7 °C (45 °F) and several times going near 0 °C (32 °F) causing several freezes. Snow is known to fall on the city during the spring, sometimes with severe storms happening during the season.

Amman has moderate summers starting from mid June to mid September. Summer's high temperatures range from 25 °C (77 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F), usually with low humidity and frequent cool breezes. Most summers are rain-free with cloudless skies during the noon period and a brief shower or fog during the night-time. The summer's pleasant temperatures can be disturbed by heatwaves that suddenly raise the city's temperatures to around 35 °C (95 °F) and in some rare but recorded cases to as high as 41 °C (106 °F) such as during the summer of 1999. A much more common weather inconvenience is the sudden drop in temperatures, which occurs during many summer nights accompanied by moderate winds and in many cases fog
Fog
Fog is a collection of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. While fog is a type of stratus cloud, the term "fog" is typically distinguished from the more generic term "cloud" in that fog is low-lying, and the moisture in the fog is often generated...

. It should also be noted that throughout most of the summer, haze
Haze
Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky. The World Meteorological Organization manual of codes includes a classification of horizontal obscuration into categories of fog, ice fog, steam fog, mist, haze, smoke, volcanic...

 and smog
Smog
Smog is a type of air pollution; the word "smog" is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Modern smog is a type of air pollution derived from vehicular emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine...

 are evident.

Autumn is usually mild and lasts from September to late November or mid-December. Autumn acts as a transition semester combining with either summer or winter, usually with both; it can range from being very rainy and even snowy, to arid dry. In either cases, autumn has pleasant temperatures that are between 10 °C (50 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F), 25 °C (77 °F) being the max.

Winter usually starts in late November or early December and continues to late April. Temperatures are usually near or below 0 °C (32 °F), with snow usually falling a few times each year. Due to its high altitude above sea level, winter in Amman is usually one of the coldest in any major city in the Levant
Levant
The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

 or south-east of Europe and the surrounding countries; winters are usually foggy with at least 120 days of heavy fog per year, they are also quite rainy with many rain storms occurring during the season, a few of them accompanied by moderate to severe lightning storms – after a rainy afternoon with temperatures around 4 °C (39 °F) the night temperatures fall below 0 °C (32 °F) freezing any rainwater that had accumulated.

Sleet is very common, and dew in the dry winter mornings is usually found frozen until 10 am. Snowy winter storms occur several times around the city. Due to the difference in elevation, snow may accumulate in the western parts of Amman (an average altitude of 1200 m above sea level) when at the same time it would be raining in the city centre (776 metre elevation). On average at least one severe snow storm every couple of years will accumulate up to 15 or 20 inches of snow (40 to 50 centimetres) in any given place.

Districts



The city is administered as the Greater Amman Municipality (GAM), and covers 27 districts which include:
District Name
1 Âbdali
Abdali
Abdali may refer to:* Abdali Urban Regeneration Project, district in Amman, Jordan* Durrani, one of the two largest Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and Pakistan* Ahmed Shah Abdali, founder of the Durrani Empire...

2 Abu Nsér
3 Um-Ožayna
4 Qwésmé, Jwaydé, Abu Âlanda and Raqim
5 Yarmuk
6 Jizah
7 Müwaqar
8 Mqabalayen
9 Bader
10 New Bader (Bader è Jadida)
11 Basmān
12 Hüsbān
13 Jbeyha
14 Xraybet è Suq
15 Marj ıl Hamām
Marj Al-hamam
Marj Al-hamam Literally "Meadow of Doves" in arabic language, is the District No. of Metropolitan Amman – Greater Amman Municipality ; it is situated to the western part of GAM. It comprises 16 neighborhoods and population gatherings ; it is 53 Km2 of space; its population counts for 50000 capita...

16 Mārka
Marka
Marka may refer to:* Marka people, a people of Mali in Western Africa** Marka language, the language of the Marka people* Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark , the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

17 Médina
18 Nawur (Naûr)
Naour
Naour Na’our is region number 26 in Greater Amman Municipality , located at the west side of the Capital, with 26 neighborhoods or residential concentrations. The land space of Na’our amounts to 87 KM2, i.e.5,19% of the total landscape of GAM. Its population is 100,000 inhabitants, and it is...

19 Ohod
20 Rās ıl Êyn
21 Sahāb
Sahab
Sahab is a city in the Kingdom of Jordan, south east of the capital Amman. Sahab is well-known for its Industrial Estate, the Islamic Cemetery, and Kahf of Raqeem site mentioned in the Qur'an ....

22 Şafa Badran
23 Swéyleh
24 Tariq
25 Tlaâ’l Âli
26 Valley of Orchards (Vādi'l Sér)
Wadi Al Seer
Valley of the Orchads , is a municipality approximately Northwest of the Jordanian capital's centre, on the outskirts of Ammān.-Wadi'è Sér City:...

27 Zahrān

Transportation


The city's largest airport, Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport is Jordan's largest airport that is situated in Zizya area, 20 miles south of Amman. The airport has three terminals: two passenger terminals and one cargo terminal. It is the home hub of Royal Jordanian Airlines, the national flag carrier, as well as being a...

, situated about 30 km (18.64 mi) south of Amman, is the major international airport
International airport
An international airport is any airport that can accommodate flights from other countries and are typically equipped with customs and immigration facilities to handle these flights to and from other countries...

 in Jordan and the hub
Airline hub
An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations...

 for Royal Jordanian
Royal Jordanian
Royal Jordanian Airlines is the flag carrier of Jordan with its head office in Amman, Jordan, operating scheduled international services over four continents from its main base at Queen Alia International Airport at Amman Jordan. Royal Jordanian is a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization...

, the flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

. The airport has three terminals
Airport terminal
An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft....

, two passenger and one cargo, and in 2010 handled between 5.8 million passengers despite the airport's capacity to only handle 3.5 million visitors. The airport is undergoing expansion, including a new terminal costing $700M, that will allow the airport to handle over 12 million passengers. Marka International Airport
Marka International Airport
Amman Civil Airport at Marka, is a one-terminal airport situated in East Amman, Jordan. It was the home hub of Royal Jordanian Airlines, the national flag carrier, until Queen Alia International Airport was opened in 1983....

 is a one-terminal airport that serves primarily domestic and nearby international routes and the military.

The recently constructed Abdoun Bridge
Abdoun Bridge
Wadi Abdoun Bridge is a bridge in Amman, Jordan. The only cable-stayed bridge in the country, it crosses the Wadi Abdoun. The building of the bridge commenced on 14 December 2002 and it was opened on 14 December 2006...

 spans Wadi Abdoun
Wadi Abdoun
Wadi Abdoun is a 'wadi' in Amman, Jordan. The wadi separates the two neighbourhoods of Jabal Amman and Abdoun. The Abdoun Bridge spans the valley, connecting the 4th Circle and Abdoun Circle on either side. Wadi Abdoun is 40 meters deep with a small artery road running under the bridge along the...

, and connects the 4th Circle to Âbdoun Circle. It is considered one of Amman's many landmarks. It is the first curved suspended bridge to be built.

The Hijaz railway
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

, built in the early 20th century, was used primarily for pilgrim
Pilgrim
A pilgrim is a traveler who is on a journey to a holy place. Typically, this is a physical journeying to some place of special significance to the adherent of a particular religious belief system...

s to reach the holy cities of Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 and Medina, but now the rail line is basically used by tourists
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

.

Currently under construction are dedicated lanes for bus services which will operate as part of the new urban rapid transit network. The Bus Rapid Transit project is expected to be completed by 2012. The BRT service entails premium, high-capacity buses running on exclusive and completely segregated lanes that can carry more than 120 passengers and run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman’s busiest corridors. The system includes high-quality stations and stops; express buses that can carry more than 120 passengers and will run on a three-minute frequency during peak hours along Amman’s busiest corridors; terminals and park-n-ride facilities, and an integrated fare collection system allowing passengers to pay the fare at stations before embarking on the bus. The BRT is planned to run along three major corridors. The first corridor connects Sweileh with Mahatta via Sport City with major service to the University of Jordan. The second corridor connects Sport City with downtown at Ras El-Ain. The third corridor connects Customs Square with Mahatta.

There are also plans to construct a three-line metro system in Amman. The first phase consists of two lines, the red and green lines, connecting East, Central, and West Amman with an interchange station (linking the two lines) at Amman Plaza with connections to the Northern and Southern suburbs. The second phase consists of the yellow line, connecting North and South Amman with an interchange to the red and green lines at the Abdali and City Hall stations. The project would cost more than half a billion dollars.

Amman will be connected by the Kingdom's national rail project that will link Amman with the rest of the Kingdom and the region. It should be completed by 2013.

Amman has an extensive highway
Highway
A highway is any public road. In American English, the term is common and almost always designates major roads. In British English, the term designates any road open to the public. Any interconnected set of highways can be variously referred to as a "highway system", a "highway network", or a...

 system that links every part of the city to one another. Its highways also link nearby cities such as Zarqa and Madaba
Madaba
Madaba , is the capital city of Madaba Governorate of Jordan, which has a population of about 60,000. Madaba is the fifth most populous town in Jordan. It is best known for its Byzantine and Umayyad mosaics, especially a large Byzantine-era mosaic map of The Holy Land...

. The Amman–Zarqa highway becomes very congested with commuters
Commuting
Commuting is regular travel between one's place of residence and place of work or full time study. It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between locations when not work related.- History :...

 at rush hour
Rush hour
A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. Normally, this happens twice a day—once in the morning and once in the evening, the times during when the most people commute...

 which is why a new commuter rail line is being constructed. Amman also has an extensive bus system. There are pedestrian tunnels that bring pedestrians from one side of a highway to another.

There are eight circles, or roundabout
Roundabout
A roundabout is the name for a road junction in which traffic moves in one direction around a central island. The word dates from the early 20th century. Roundabouts are common in many countries around the world...

s, that span and connect West Amman. However, the city lacks an operable rail or metro system
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 which causes severe congestion
Traffic congestion
Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction...

, especially in old Amman. To add to the congestion, all the Kingdom's highways pass through Amman, further increasing traffic in the capital.

By land, the city has frequent bus connections to other cities in Jordan, as well as to major cities in neighboring countries; the latter are also served by service taxis. Internal transport is served by a number of bus routes and taxis. Service taxis, which most often operate on fixed routes, are readily available and inexpensive. The two main bus and taxi stations are Abdali (near the King Abdullah Mosque
King Abdullah I Mosque
The King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989 in Amman, Jordan.It is capped by a magnificent blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer.-External links:* Jordan-Wiki:...

, the Parliament
Parliament of Jordan
The Parliament of Jordan is the bicameral Jordanian National Assembly: "Majlis al-Umma". Established by the 1952 Constitution, the legislature consists of two houses: the Assembly of Senators and the Chamber of Deputies .The Assembly of Senators has 60 members, all of whom are directly appointed...

 and Palace of Justice) and the newly built Rağadan Central Bus Station (near the Roman Amphitheatre in downtown). The city can suffer from considerable traffic congestion at peak hours, especially during the summer months when affluent holidaymakers from the Persian Gulf region
Arabian Gulf
Arabian Gulf may refer to:*Persian Gulf, a body of water sometimes controversially referred to as the Arabian Gulf or The Gulf by some Arab countries...

 spend the summer in Amman to take advantage of its comparatively mild weather.

Economy





Amman is a regional hub in communications, transportation, medical tourism
Medical tourism
Medical tourism is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of travelling across international borders to obtain health care...

, education, and investment. Amman is aggressively positioning itself as a hub for business, and new projects are continually transforming the city's skyline. Following the 2003 Iraq War, all business dealings with Iraq flow through Amman in some way. Its airport, Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport is Jordan's largest airport that is situated in Zizya area, 20 miles south of Amman. The airport has three terminals: two passenger terminals and one cargo terminal. It is the home hub of Royal Jordanian Airlines, the national flag carrier, as well as being a...

, is the hub of the national carrier, Royal Jordanian
Royal Jordanian
Royal Jordanian Airlines is the flag carrier of Jordan with its head office in Amman, Jordan, operating scheduled international services over four continents from its main base at Queen Alia International Airport at Amman Jordan. Royal Jordanian is a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization...

, which is a major airline in the region. The airline is headquartered in central Amman. Amman is a major tourist gateway in the country because most of the country's foreign tourists arrive in Jordan through Amman. Amman is currently experiencing rapid growth in many different areas, with large growth seen in the real estate
Real estate
In general use, esp. North American, 'real estate' is taken to mean "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; an item of real property; buildings or...

, construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

, banking, finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

 and business
Business
A business is an organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and administered to earn profit to increase the wealth of their owners. Businesses may also be not-for-profit...

 sectors. Numerous skyscrapers are under construction as the city municipality recently lifted the ban of buildings taller than 4 stories and allocated designated areas for high rises.

Amman is already being called the business capital of the Levant
Levant
The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

. Construction projects like the Abdali
Al Abdali
Al Abdali is one of the five districts of the Municipality of Greater Amman. It covers an area of in the heart of Amman. A population of 120,000 includes the neighborhoods of Shmeisani, Sports City district, Jabal al Hussein, and Jabal Luweibdeh...

 Urban Regeneration Project, the Jordan Gate Towers
Jordan Gate Towers
Jordan Gate Towers is a high class commercial and residential project currently under construction in Amman, Jordan.They are located in west Amman, close to the 6th Circle. The towers are one of the best known skyscrapers in the city, and will become the tallest structures in Amman upon completion,...

 and TAJ Mall will just solidify Amman's claim to this title. With Jordan becoming known as the gateway to Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 and the Palestinian territories and for its free trade policies, Amman has the potential to monopolize business and trade in the Levant
Levant
The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

.

The Greater Amman Municipality's heavy investment in its infrastructure, such as the expansion of Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport
Queen Alia International Airport is Jordan's largest airport that is situated in Zizya area, 20 miles south of Amman. The airport has three terminals: two passenger terminals and one cargo terminal. It is the home hub of Royal Jordanian Airlines, the national flag carrier, as well as being a...

, the construction of a state of the art public transportation system, a national railway, and expansion of road works, will ease the arrival of millions of new visitors and tonnes of cargo through this soon to be regional hub. Amman's increasing importance to the reconstruction of Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 and the developing economy of the Palestinian territories make these investments unavoidable.

Amman has both a modern and historic touch. East Amman is the older part of the capital where single family dwellings on the hill side and small shops and bazaars in the wadis, or valleys, dominate East Amman's layout. Old Amman is filled with souk
Souk
A souq is a commercial quarter in an Arab, Berber, and increasingly European city. The term is often used to designate the market in any Arabized or Muslim city, but in modern times it appears in Western cities too...

s, or bazaar
Bazaar
A bazaar , Cypriot Greek: pantopoula) is a permanent merchandising area, marketplace, or street of shops where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchants, bankers and craftsmen" who work that area...

s, small shops, and single family dwellings all.

Several industrial cities are being developed near Amman, most important being Mushatta.

West Amman, however, is less densely populated and more scenic. It is also the more prosperous part of Amman, with much of the city's economic activity being centered in West Amman. Most of the city's 5-star
Star (classification)
Stars are often used as symbols for classification purposes. They are used by reviewers for ranking things such as movies, TV shows, restaurants, and hotels. For example, one to five stars is commonly employed to categorize hotels.-Restaurant ratings:...

 and 4-star hotels are located in West Amman. Important districts include Shmeisani and Abdali, the main economic centres of Amman, Abdoun, the up-scale residential district, and Jabal Amman
Jabal Amman
Jabal Amman is one of the seven hills that originally made up Amman, Jordan. Today, Jabal Amman is near the old downtown area.-History:Along with the rest of old Amman, Jabal Amman was first settled during the Neolithic period. But unlike nearby hills, particularly Jabal al-Qal'a, Jabal Amman was...

, one of Amman's historic districts. A large contrast exists between the more affluent districts of West Amman and the lower class districts of East Amman.

Amman has a very large expatriate population, finding itself a haven for refugees seeking political asylum. Iraqis, Palestinians, Lebanese, and Armenians are among the many different expatriate populations currently residing in Amman. most guest workers are Egyptians, Syrians, and South East Asians. Many Westerners currently reside in Amman as many international organizations and diplomatic missions have regional offices in Amman.

New developments


New projects and proposals in and around the city include:
  • TAJ Mall is envisioned to primarily be an up-scale retail and lifestyle development consisting of a multi purpose facility.
  • The Abdali Downtown project: this new development in the heart of Amman is among the largest projects under construction in the kingdom, and is a mixed-use development consisting of retail, outdoor shopping and restaurants, residential and office buildings. The master plan includes a large public green park, along with an outdoor pedestrian strip. The $5 billion project will contain some of Jordan's tallest buildings and most prominent real estate. Jordan's largest skyscraper Capital Tower
    Capital Tower
    Capital Tower is the fourth tallest skyscraper in the city of Singapore, reaching a height of 254 metres. Formally planned as the POSBank's headquarters building, it was transferred to the ownership of CapitaLand. It became the company's flagship building and was then named after the company...

    , Rotana Hotel-Amman, W Hotel-Amman, Business Heights, and the Abdali Central Market Place, Jordan's soon to be largest mall and shopping center, are located in this mammoth redevelopment. The first phase of the project is expected to be completed by the end of 2011 or early 2012. The entire project should be completed by 2015.
  • The construction of the Jordan Gate Towers
    Jordan Gate Towers
    Jordan Gate Towers is a high class commercial and residential project currently under construction in Amman, Jordan.They are located in west Amman, close to the 6th Circle. The towers are one of the best known skyscrapers in the city, and will become the tallest structures in Amman upon completion,...

     near the 6th Circle, which is nearly completed, is being funded by Bahrain
    Bahrain
    ' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

    i and Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. The two identical skyscrapers will house office buildings and a five star hotel.
  • Amman Financial Tower, consisting of around 60 floors, is under construction.
  • Betina City consists of 3 central skyscrapers, a mega-mall, a suspended river, and 3 additional towers.
  • Sanaya Amman, two identical 65 floor buildings connected by a pedestrian walkway that will house the world's highest swimming pool. This residential twin tower project is being built in Abdoun by Limitless.
  • The Abdoun suspended bridge, which spans Wadi Abdoun. This recently completed project reduces congestion in Wadi Abdoun
    Wadi Abdoun
    Wadi Abdoun is a 'wadi' in Amman, Jordan. The wadi separates the two neighbourhoods of Jabal Amman and Abdoun. The Abdoun Bridge spans the valley, connecting the 4th Circle and Abdoun Circle on either side. Wadi Abdoun is 40 meters deep with a small artery road running under the bridge along the...

     and creates a new highway link between West and South Amman..
  • The St. Regis Amman in the Abdoun area worth about $300 million which will be completed in 2014.
  • Multi-billion dollar Wadi Amman Regeneration Project. This project will completely revamp the old downtown and restore it to its previous prominence. It will also revitalise the entire area by attracting affluent Ammanis to settle and shop here.
  • Al Andalucia
    Andalucia (Jordan)
    Andalucia is a town project by Taameer Jordan Holdings located 20 km away from Amman, Jordan. It is named for the former Muslim kingdom of Al-Andalus in Spain. It is the first Gated Community project to be launched and completed in Jordan...

    , being constructed near Amman. This project will include over 600 villas, and consists of many facilities such as spas, fitness and health centres, swimming pools, and a recreation area which should be completed by 2011.
  • A proposed Amman World Trade Centre, which will consist of 33 floors.
  • Ähl Al Âzm, a $1 billion city near Queen Alia International Airport, will be built in several phases with a total of about 16,000 residential units and 800 offices. The city will be connected by rail to Amman. The residential city will mostly be inhabited by low and middle income families.
  • A massive new Royal Jordanian headquarters.

.
East Amman is the historic city centre. Eastern Amman is more traditional and older than the newer West. Small shops and single family houses are dominant in East Amman's landscape. East Amman is the hub for the capital's historic sites and cultural activities.

West Amman is the current economic city centre, and is the modern, stylish extension of Amman. Malls, shopping centres, expensive hotels, bars and international restaurants are part of West Amman's development.

Education


In 2010, there were as many as 14 universities in Amman. University of Jordan
University of Jordan
The University of Jordan , is a government-supported University located in Amman, Jordan...

 is the largest university in Amman, Philadelphia University
Philadelphia University (Jordan)
Philadelphia University is a university in Amman, Jordan.Philadelphia Private University was established in 1989 as a national higher educational institution. The university is located 20-km out of Amman, on the road linking between Amman and Jerash....

 was ranked as the largest private university,
  • Balqa Applied University - Polytechnic Faculty of Engineering Technology
  • Balqa Applied University - Amman University College for Economic and Banking Sciences
  • Amman Arab University
    Amman Arab University
    Amman Arab University is a university in Amman, Jordan. It is mainly for graduate studies.-Colleges:* College of Education* College of Information Technology* College of Business* College of Law...

  • Applied Science Private University
    Applied Science Private University
    The Applied Science Private University is a private Jordanian university located in the District of University in Amman and falls within the Greater Amman Municipality in Jordan. Its campus is built over a 356 Dunam plot of land, making it the biggest privately owned university in the kingdom by...

  • Middle East University
    Middle East University
    Middle East University is a national education research consulting non-profit organization, owned by the Company Middle East University for Graduate Studies...

  • Arab Open University
    Arab Open University
    Arab Open University is a non-profit private Pan-Arab university founded in 2002 in Kuwait, Jordan, and Lebanon. One year later it opened in Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Oman. The AOU is affiliated with the UK Open University...

  • Arab Academy for Banking & Financial Sciences, Amman
  • Al-Isra University
    Al-Isra University
    Al-Isra University is a private university in Amman, Jordan. It was established in 1989, the first scholastic year started in fall 1991. The university offers the Bachelor of Science degree in eight majors, and graduate degrees in Law, Pharmacutical sciences, and Engineering management...

  • Columbia University
    Columbia University
    Columbia University in the City of New York is a private, Ivy League university in Manhattan, New York City. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the...

    : Amman Center
  • DePaul University
    DePaul University
    DePaul University is a private institution of higher education and research in Chicago, Illinois. Founded by the Vincentians in 1898, the university takes its name from the 17th century French priest Saint Vincent de Paul...

    : Amman Center
  • German-Jordanian University
    German-Jordanian University
    The German-Jordanian University , often abbreviated GJU, is a state-supported university located in Amman at Ahmad Il Tarawneh Street...

  • Jordan Academy of Music
  • New York Institute of Technology
    New York Institute of Technology
    New York Institute of Technology is a private, non-sectarian, co-educational research university in New York City. NYIT has five schools and two colleges, all with a strong emphasis on technology and applied scientific research...

    , Jordan
    Jordan
    Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

  • Institute of Banking Studies: Amman Branch
  • Princess Sumaya University for Technology
    Princess Sumaya University for Technology
    Princess Sumaya University for Technology , established in 1991, is a specialized, nongovernmental, nonprofit, Jordanian university, owned by the leading applied research centre in Jordan, the Royal Scientific Society . PSUT’s area of specialization is IT, Communications and Electronics...

  • Petra University
    Petra University
    Petra University is a university in Amman, Jordan. Its president is Professor Adnan Badran-Programs:The university offers a variety of programs at its five faculties. Arabic is used for teaching of humanities, and English is used for most of other courses...

  • Queen Noor Civil Aviation Technical College
  • Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan
    Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan
    Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan , founded in 1993, is a private university in Jordan.- Academics :The university offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in seven disciplines:* Faculty of Engineering...

  • Al Quds College
  • Jordan Academy for Maritime Studies

Culture



Due to its stability and openness, Jordan—especially Amman—is home to many different artists, writers, and musicians, many of whom are expatriates from troubled areas like Iraq or the Palestinian territories.
Amman is home to many diverse religious sects making up the two primary religions of Jordan, Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 and Christianity. Numerous mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

s and churches dot the capital. The most famous mosque of Amman is the King Abduallah I Mosque which can house almost 3,000 people.

Numerous cultural centers can be found throughout Amman, most notably the Al Hussein Cultural Centre which contains over 30,000 books. Numerous IT and library centres can be found throughout the city.

Sports


Amman-based football clubs Al-Wahdat and Al-Faisaly  have won the national league championship several times.

The 2007 Asian Championships in Athletics
2007 Asian Championships in Athletics
The 17th Asian Athletics Championships were held on the Amman International Stadium in Amman, Jordan between 25 July and 29 July 2007. It was moved in the last minute from original host country Lebanon due to the unrest in that country....

 and 2009 IAAF World Cross Country Championships
2009 IAAF World Cross Country Championships
The 37th IAAF World Cross Country Championships were held in the Al Bisharat Golf Course at Amman, Jordan on 28 March 2009. Four races took place, one for men, women, junior men and junior women respectively. All races encompassed both individual and team competition...

 were held in the city.

Amman hosts the Jordan Rally
Jordan Rally
The Jordan Rally is a rallying competition held in Jordan. It was a new addition to the FIA World Rally Championship calendar for the 2008 season, and the first occurrence of a WRC event in the Middle East. The rally was previously part of the Middle East Rally Championship...

, which form part of the FIA World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. The driver's world championship and manufacturer's world championship are separate championships, but based on the same point system. The series currently consists of 13...

, becoming the biggest sporting event held in Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 ever.
Amman also hosts the Sama Tournament which is a part of the Trillium Championship.

Media


Most Jordanian newspapers and news stations are situated in Amman. Most Jordanian daily newspapers are published in Amman such as Alghad
Alghad
The Alghad is an independent Arabic daily national newspaper, founded in 2003, issued and published in Jordan, and headquartered in Amman.-Content:The newspaper is organized into five sections:* AlGhad Al-Urduni : for local news of Jordan...

, Alrai, Ad-Dustour
Ad-Dustour
The Ad-Dustour ) is an Arabic daily newspaper published in Jordan. Its headquarters is in Amman, Jordan. It is owned by the Jordan Press and Publishing Company. The first issue of the newspaper was published on Tuesday 28 March 1967...

, and the The Jordan Times. In 2010, Alghad
Alghad
The Alghad is an independent Arabic daily national newspaper, founded in 2003, issued and published in Jordan, and headquartered in Amman.-Content:The newspaper is organized into five sections:* AlGhad Al-Urduni : for local news of Jordan...

 newspaper was ranked as 10th most popular newspaper in the Arab World by Forbes Middle-East magazine. Al-Arab Al-Yawm
Al-Arab Al-Yawm (newspaper)
-External links:*...

 is the only daily pan-Arab newspaper in Jordan. Amman is also a popular entry point for journalists entering the region to broadcast breaking news from volatile nations like Iraq and the Palestinian territories.

The Jordan Media City, established in 2001, is the first of its kind in the region and plans to make Jordan the regional hub of communications. It now transmits over 120 channels and still grows. Most channels are not Jordanian based, and the government still possess restrictions on Jordanian based channels which makes it hard to open new Jordanian television channels. Although not as popular as Beirut
Beirut
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon, with a population ranging from 1 million to more than 2 million . Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coastline, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan...

 or Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, many Jordanian singers work out of Amman.

Main sights



Much of Amman's tourism is focused in the older downtown area, which is centered around the old souk (a colorful traditional market) and the King Hussein Mosque. The main touristic sites in the city are:
  • The downtown area (known locally as al-Balad) has been completely dwarfed by the sprawling urban area that surrounds it. Despite the changes, much remains of its old character. Jabal Amman
    Jabal Amman
    Jabal Amman is one of the seven hills that originally made up Amman, Jordan. Today, Jabal Amman is near the old downtown area.-History:Along with the rest of old Amman, Jabal Amman was first settled during the Neolithic period. But unlike nearby hills, particularly Jabal al-Qal'a, Jabal Amman was...

     is a known touristic attraction in old Amman, the capital's greatest souks, fine museums, ancient constructions, monuments, and cultural sites are found in Jabal Amman.
  • The Citadel hill of Amman, known as Jabal al-Qal'a, is home to the Temple of Hercules which is said to have been constructed under the Roman Emperor
    Roman Emperor
    The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period . The Romans had no single term for the office although at any given time, a given title was associated with the emperor...

     Marcus Aurelius who reigned from 161 to 180 AD, is similar to the Temple of Artemis
    Temple of Artemis
    The Temple of Artemis , also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to a goddess Greeks identified as Artemis and was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was situated at Ephesus , and was completely rebuilt three times before its eventual destruction...

     in Ephesus
    Ephesus
    Ephesus was an ancient Greek city, and later a major Roman city, on the west coast of Asia Minor, near present-day Selçuk, Izmir Province, Turkey. It was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League during the Classical Greek era...

    . It has been inhabited for centuries, important as a military and religious site. It dates back to Roman and Byzantine times, and later work was carried out in the early Islamic era. Remains unearthed at the northern and eastern ends of the Citadel, possibly date back to the Bronze Age
    Bronze Age
    The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

    .
  • The Roman forum
    Forum (Roman)
    A forum was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls...

     and the Roman theatre
    Roman theater (Jordan)
    The Roman Theatre is an ancient Roman theater in Amman, Jordan.-History:The theatre was built during the reign of Antonius Pius . The large and steeply raked structure could seat about 6,000 people: built into the hillside, it was oriented north to keep the sun off the spectators.It was divided...

     — the largest theatre in Jordan — with room for 6,000 spectators. Thought to have been built between 138 and 161 AD by the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius
    Antoninus Pius
    Antoninus Pius , also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii. He did not possess the sobriquet "Pius" until after his accession to the throne...

    , it is constructed into the side of the mountain and is still used for sports displays and cultural events.


The Jordan Archaeological Museum is home to ancient findings from the whole country.

Amman is also home to some of the grandest mosques in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, although they compare less favorably to the ones to be found in Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. The newest of these is the enormous King Abdullah I Mosque
King Abdullah I Mosque
The King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989 in Amman, Jordan.It is capped by a magnificent blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer.-External links:* Jordan-Wiki:...

, built between 1982 and 1989. It is capped by a magnificent blue mosaic dome
Dome
A dome is a structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. Dome structures made of various materials have a long architectural lineage extending into prehistory....

 beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer. The most unusual mosque in Amman is the Abu Darweesh Mosque atop Jabal Ashrafieh (the highest point in the city). It is covered with black and white checkered pattern and is unique to Jordan. It is visible from quite some distance. In contrast, the interior is totally free of the black and white scheme. Instead, there are light colored walls and Persian carpets. This religious building was erected by one of Amman's Circassians minority.

Tourism and lifestyle


Amman is considered to be one of the most "westernized" and cosmopolitan cities in the Arab World
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

. Amman has become one of the most popular destinations for "Western" expats and college students who seek to live, study, or work in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 or the Arab World
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

 in general. The city's culinary scene has expanded from its shwarma stands and falafel joints to embrace many popular American restaurants and fast-food outlets like McDonald's
McDonald's
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

 and T.G.I. Friday's
T.G.I. Friday's
T.G.I. Friday's is an American restaurant chain focusing on casual dining. The company is a unit of the Carlson Companies. Its name is taken from the expression TGIF...

, swank Asian fusion restaurants, French bistros such as La Maison Verte and Italian trattorias. The city has become famous for its cosmopolitan fine dining scene among Western expats and Persian Gulf tourists.

There are numerous nightclubs and bars across the city especially in West Amman. Modesty in dress for men and women is greatly relaxed and low-cut shirts, tank tops and short skirts are becoming commonplace. Abdoun Circle (not one of the eight) is a major center of the city’s night life where the chicest clubs maintain a strict “couples only” policy, meaning no unescorted men. Sweifieh
Sweifieh
Swéfiéh is a district located in the western area of the Jordanian Capital Ammān. Even though the district is large enough to qualify for becoming a city itself, it's considered officially part of the Valley of The Orchards area.-Life:Swéfiéh is notorious for its night-life and its shopping...

 is considered to be the unofficial red-light district of Amman as it holds most of the city's nightclubs, bars, strip-clubs, massage parlors, and other adult entertainment venues. The night-life scene is known to evolve so quickly that hot spots open and close almost before they can be published in magazines and tourist guide books.
Discothèques, music bars and shisha lounges have sprouted across Amman, changing the city's old image as the conservative capital of the kingdom. Jordan's young population is helping shape this new burgeoning nightlife scene. Amman has developed one of the Middle East's very few homosexual partying scenes that is mostly concentrated around liberal, affluent hangouts like Books@Cafe and Club Fame. The city is also infamously known to hold a significant population of Eastern European and East Asian female migrant workers that serve in the city's nightclub, bar, and restaurant industry. However, they are believed to form a significant part of the city's underground sex industry that has mushroomed in the past few years due to the War in Iraq and the tourism boom.

As well as the wide range of drinking and dancing venues on the social circuit of the city's affluent crowd, Amman has much cultural entertainment to indulge in like the annual Amman Summer Festival and Souk Jara.

Valued at more than US $5 Billion, the Abdali project is planned to create a new visible center for Amman and act as the major business district. The entire project is expected to be finished by 2015.

Amman is a hub for Persian Gulf vacationers who come to take advantage of the mild weather and liberal atmosphere during the summer. The summer of 2009 brought 2.5 million Arab tourists to the Jordanian capital.
Large malls
Shopping mall
A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping arcade, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version...

 were built during the 2000s in Amman, including the Mecca Mall
Mecca Mall
Mecca Mall is one of the biggest shopping malls in the Jordanian capital, Amman. It is located on Mecca Street, and this is the reason the mall was named Mecca Mall...

, Abdoun Mall
Abdoun Mall
Abdoun Mall is a commercial building Abdoun, Amman, Jordan. Opened in 2001, it has an area of 25,000m²....

, Amman Mall, City Mall
City Mall, Jordan
City Mall is one of the biggest shopping malls in the Jordanian capital, Amman. It has a total floor area of 160,000m², of which 55,000m² is leasable. Distributed over four floors are a range of international fashion brands, restaurants, coffee shops, a ten screen Cineplex, a large family...

, Plaza Mall, Al Baraka Mall
Al Baraka Mall
Al Baraka Mall was opened on March 24, 2008 and it is positioned as medium to high end fashion destination in Jordan with 40,000 sqm of buildable area and 18,000 sqm of GLA....

, Istikal Mall, Zara Shopping Center, Sweifieh Avenue Mall, and Mukhtar Mall. Furthermore, two new malls are currently under development: Taj Mall in the affluent neighbourhood Abdoun
Abdoun (Amman)
Abdoun is a residential area of Amman, Jordan. Abdoun is considered by many to be the most affluent district of the city, and is located towards the south of the city. Some of Jordan's most expensive real estate is located in the district....

, and Abdali Mall in Al Abdali. The Wakalat Street
Wakalat Street
Wakalat Street sometimes spelled as Al-Wakalat Street, is a street in Amman, Jordan, in the district of Sweifieh. The street was rehabilitated in 2007. The project included paving the street, planting trees, and regulating commercial signs...

 (English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

: "Agencies Street") is Amman's first pedestrian-only street and carries a lot of label name clothes. The Sweifieh
Sweifieh
Swéfiéh is a district located in the western area of the Jordanian Capital Ammān. Even though the district is large enough to qualify for becoming a city itself, it's considered officially part of the Valley of The Orchards area.-Life:Swéfiéh is notorious for its night-life and its shopping...

 area in general is considered to be the main shopping district of Amman.

Twin towns — sister cities


Amman is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Muscat
Muscat, Oman
Muscat is the capital of Oman. It is also the seat of government and largest city in the Governorate of Muscat. As of 2008, the population of the Muscat metropolitan area was 1,090,797. The metropolitan area spans approximately and includes six provinces called wilayats...

, Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

 (1986) Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

 Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 (1988) Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 (1988) Rabat
Rabat
Rabat , is the capital and third largest city of the Kingdom of Morocco with a population of approximately 650,000...

, Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 (1988) Sylhet
Sylhet
Sylhet , is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh. It is the main city of Sylhet Division and Sylhet District, and was granted metropolitan city status in March 2009. Sylhet is located on the banks of the Surma Valley and is surrounded by the Jaintia, Khasi and Tripura hills...

, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

 San‘a’, Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

 (1989) Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 (1989) Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 (1990) Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 (1992) Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran"...

, Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

 (1993)
Miami
Miami, Florida
Miami is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and the county seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States with a population of 2,500,625...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 (1995) Doha
Doha
Doha is the capital city of the state of Qatar. Located on the Persian Gulf, it had a population of 998,651 in 2008, and is also one of the municipalities of Qatar...

, Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

 (1995) Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 (1997) São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

, Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, (1997) Algiers
Algiers
' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

, Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

 (1998) Bucharest
Bucharest
Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

, Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 (1999) Nouakchott
Nouakchott
-Government:The town was first divided into districts in 1973. First it was divided into four. From 1986, the city has been split into nine districts.* Arafat* Dar Naim* El Mina* Ksar* Riad* Sebkha* Tevragh-Zeina* Teyarett* Toujounine...

, Mauritania
Mauritania
Mauritania is a country in the Maghreb and West Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, by Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest...

 (1999) Tunis
Tunis
Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia's largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants....

, Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

 (1999) Sofia
Sofia
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the 12th largest city in the European Union with a population of 1.27 million people. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of Mount Vitosha and approximately at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.Prehistoric settlements were excavated...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

 (2000) Beirut
Beirut
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon, with a population ranging from 1 million to more than 2 million . Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coastline, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan...

, Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 (2000)
Pretoria
Pretoria
Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital.Pretoria is...

, South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 (2002) Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa , and commonly referred as Tegus , is the capital of Honduras and seat of government of the Republic, along with its twin sister Comayagüela. Founded on September 29, 1578 by the Spanish, it became the country's capital on October 30, 1880 under President Marco Aurelio Soto...

, Honduras
Honduras
Honduras is a republic in Central America. It was previously known as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became the modern-day state of Belize...

 (2002) Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 (2004) Genève, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 (2005) Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 (2005) Calabria
Calabria
Calabria , in antiquity known as Bruttium, is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula. The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro....

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 (2005) Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Sarajevo |Bosnia]], surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans....

, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 (2005) Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (2005) Central Governorate
Central Governorate
The Central Governorate is one of the five governorates of Bahrain. It includes parts of the former municipalities of Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Madinat 'Isa, Sitrah and A'ali....

, Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

 (2006) Bishkek
Bishkek
Bishkek , formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and the largest city of Kyrgyzstan.Bishkek is also the administrative centre of Chuy Province which surrounds the city, even though the city itself is not part of the province but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan.The name is thought to...

, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan , officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the world's six independent Turkic states . Located in Central Asia, landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east...

 (2006) San Francisco, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 (2010) Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, starting 3 August 2011

External links