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Crown lands of France

Crown lands of France

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The crown land
Crown land
In Commonwealth realms, Crown land is an area belonging to the monarch , the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the monarchy and could not be alienated from it....

s
, crown estate, royal domain or (in French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

) domaine royal (from demesne
Demesne
In the feudal system the demesne was all the land, not necessarily all contiguous to the manor house, which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants...

) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term eventually came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain originally referred to the network of "castles, villages and estates, forests, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, and the rights of justice, tolls and taxes" effectively held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV
Henry IV of France
Henry IV , Henri-Quatre, was King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. He was the first monarch of the Bourbon branch of the Capetian dynasty in France....

, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France
Territorial formation of France
This article describes the process by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is in 2009. The territory of the French State is spread throughout the world. Metropolitan France is that part which is in Europe....

 and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords.

In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of feudal law (and, in particular, the confiscation of fiefs from rebellious vassal
Vassal
A vassal or feudatory is a person who has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including the grant of land held...

s), conquest, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, and even by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain. By the time of Philip IV
Philip IV of France
Philip the Fair was, as Philip IV, King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.-Youth:A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of...

, the meaning of "royal domain" began to shift from a mere collection of lands and rights to a fixed territorial unit, and by the sixteenth century the "royal domain" began to coincide with the entire kingdom. However the medieval system of appanage
Appanage
An apanage or appanage or is the grant of an estate, titles, offices, or other things of value to the younger male children of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture...

 (a concession of a fief with its land rights by the sovereign to his younger sons, which reverts to the crown upon the extinction of the male line of the original holder) alienated large territories from the royal domain and sometimes created dangerous rivals (especially the Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

 from the 14th to the 15th centuries).

During the Wars of Religion
French Wars of Religion
The French Wars of Religion is the name given to a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants . The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and House of Guise...

, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the royal domain was frequently criticized. The Edict of Moulins (1566) declared that the royal domain (defined in the second article as all the land controlled by the crown for more than ten years) could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land; and to form an appanage, which must return to the crown in its original state on the extinction of the male line.

Traditionally, the king was expected to survive from the revenues generated from the royal domain, but fiscal necessity, especially in times of war, led the kings to enact "exceptional" taxes, like the taille
Taille
The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry and non-nobles in Ancien Régime France. The tax was imposed on each household and based on how much land it held.-History:Originally only an "exceptional" tax The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry and non-nobles in Ancien...

, upon the whole of the kingdom (the taille became permanent in 1439).

Chronology of the formation of the royal domain



Reign of Hugh Capet


At the beginning of Hugh Capet's reign, the crown estate was extremely small and consisted essentially of scattered possessions in the Île-de-France
Île-de-France (province)
The province of Île-de-France or Isle de France is an historical province of France, and the one at the centre of power during most of French history...

 and Orléanais
Orléanais
Orléanais is a former province of France, around the cities of Orléans, Chartres, and Blois.The name comes from Orléans, its main city and traditional capital. The province was one of those into which France was divided before the French Revolution...

 regions (Senlis
Senlis, Oise
Senlis is a French commune located in the Oise department near Paris. It has a long and rich heritage, having traversed centuries of history. This medieval town has welcomed some of the most renowned figures in French history, including Hugh Capet, Louis IX, the Marshall of France, Anne of Kiev and...

, Poissy
Poissy
Poissy is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris from the center.In 1561 it was the site of a fruitless Catholic-Huguenot conference, the Colloquy at Poissy...

, Orléans
Count of Orléans
The Count of Orléans was the ruler of an area of modern France around the city of Orléans. The title was most commonly used in the Merovingian and Carolingian eras....

), with several other isolated pockets, such as Attigny
Attigny, Ardennes
Attigny is a commune on the river Aisne in the arrondissement of Vouziers in the département of Ardennes in the Champagne-Ardenne region in northern France.-Councils of Attigny:In 765, St...

. These lands were largely the inheritance of the Robertians, the direct ancestors of the Capetians
Capetian dynasty
The Capetian dynasty , also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. Hugh Capet himself was a cognatic descendant of the Carolingians and the Merovingians, earlier rulers of France...

.
  • 988
    988
    Year 988 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* The offensive of al-Mansur against the Christian kingdoms continues. He attacks the heart of the kingdom of León...

    : Montreuil-sur-Mer
    Montreuil-sur-Mer
    Montreuil or Montreuil-sur-Mer is a sub-prefecture in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It is located on the Canche river, not far from Étaples...

    , the first port held by the Capetians, is acquired though the marriage of the crown prince Robert (future Robert II
    Robert II of France
    Robert II , called the Pious or the Wise , was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine....

     the Pious) with Rozala, the widow of the Arnulf II, Count of Flanders
    Arnulf II, Count of Flanders
    Arnulf II of Flanders was Count of Flanders from 965 until his death. He was the son of Baldwin III of Flanders and Mathilde Billung of Saxony, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony-History:...

    .

Reign of Robert II
Robert II of France
Robert II , called the Pious or the Wise , was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine....

  • 1016: acquisition of the Duchy of Burgundy
    Duchy of Burgundy
    The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

    . The king was the nephew of Duke Henry of Burgundy, who died without heirs.
  • Robert gains the counties of Paris
    Count of Paris
    Count of Paris was a title for the local magnate of the district around Paris in Carolingian times. Eventually, the count of Paris was elected to the French throne...

    , Dreux and Melun
    Melun
    Melun is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. Located in the south-eastern suburbs of Paris, Melun is the capital of the department, as the seat of an arrondissement...

    , and negotiates the ultimate acquisition (1055) of a part of Sens
    Sens
    Sens is a commune in the Yonne department in Burgundy in north-central France.Sens is a sub-prefecture of the department. It is crossed by the Yonne and the Vanne, which empties into the Yonne here.-History:...

    .

Reign of Henry I
Henry I of France
Henry I was King of France from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its smallest size during his reign, and for this reason he is often seen as emblematic of the weakness of the early Capetians...



  • 1034: the king gives the Duchy of Burgundy
    Duchy of Burgundy
    The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

     to his brother Robert  (the duchy would remain with his descendants until 1361; see Capetian House of Burgundy)
  • 1055: annexation of the County of Sens
    Sens
    Sens is a commune in the Yonne department in Burgundy in north-central France.Sens is a sub-prefecture of the department. It is crossed by the Yonne and the Vanne, which empties into the Yonne here.-History:...

    .

Reign of Philip I
Philip I of France
Philip I , called the Amorous, was King of France from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Direct Capetians, was extraordinarily long for the time...

  • 1068: acquisition of Gâtinais
    Gâtinais
    Gâtinais was a province of France, containing the area around the valley of the Loing, corresponding roughly to the northeastern part of the départment of Loiret, and the south of the present departments Seine-et-Marne. Under the Bourbons, the Gâtinais had already been divided between the...

     and Château-Landon
    Château-Landon
    Château-Landon is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.-External links:* * *...

     from Fulk IV, Count of Anjou
    Fulk IV of Anjou
    Fulk IV , called le Réchin, was the Count of Anjou from 1068 until his death. The nickname by which he is usually referred has no certain translation...

  • 1077: annexation of the French Vexin
    Vexin
    The Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France. It covers a verdant plateau on the right bank of the Seine comprising an area east-to-west between Pontoise and Romilly-sur-Andelle , and north-to-south between Auneuil and the Seine near Vernon...

  • 1081: acquisition of Moret-sur-Loing
    Moret-sur-Loing
    Moret-sur-Loing is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.The town was a source of inspiration for Monet, Renoir and Sisley.-Twin towns:...

  • 1101: acquisition of the Viscounty of Bourges
    Bourges
    Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river. It is the capital of the department of Cher and also was the capital of the former province of Berry.-History:...

     and the seigneury
    Manorialism
    Manorialism, an essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire, was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe, and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market...

    of Dun-sur-Auron
    Dun-sur-Auron
    Dun-sur-Auron is a commune in the Cher department in the Centre region of France.-Geography:A farming area comprising a small town and a couple of hamlets situated by the banks of both the Auron River and the canal de Berry some east of Bourges at the junction of the D10, D14, D28, D34 and the...

     from Odo Arpin of Bourges
    Odo Arpin of Bourges
    Odo Arpin of Bourges was a medieval viscount, crusader and monk.He inherited the lordship of Dun and became viscount of Bourges between 1092 and 1095 after marrying Matilda of Sully, whose sister Alice was the daughter-in-law of Stephen II, Count of Blois. He may have shared the viscountcy with...


Reign of Louis VI
Louis VI of France
Louis VI , called the Fat , was King of France from 1108 until his death . Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis".-Reign:...

  • the king spends much of his reign pacifying and consolidating the royal domain by battling certain feudal lords (lords of Montlhéry
    Montlhéry
    Montlhéry is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. It is located from Paris.Inhabitants of Montlhéry are known as Montlhériens.-History:...

    , of Coucy
    Coucy
    Coucy is the name or part of the name of several communes in France:* Coucy-la-Ville, in the Aisne département, very close to* Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique, in the Aisne département, location of:** Château de Coucy...

    , of Puiset
    Le Puiset
    Le Puiset is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France.-Population:-Medieval lordship:In the Middle Ages it was the site of a lordship within the County of Blois and Chartres. The lords descended from the counts of Breteuil, and often also held the position of viscount of Chartres...

    , of Crécy
    Crécy-en-Ponthieu
    Crécy-en-Ponthieu is a commune in the Somme department in Picardie in northern France, located south of Calais. It gives its name to Crécy Forest, which starts about two kilometres to the south-west of the town and which is one of the largest forests in the north of France...

    ...)
  • from Fulk, Viscount of Gâtinais
    Gâtinais
    Gâtinais was a province of France, containing the area around the valley of the Loing, corresponding roughly to the northeastern part of the départment of Loiret, and the south of the present departments Seine-et-Marne. Under the Bourbons, the Gâtinais had already been divided between the...

    , Louis bought Moret
    Moret-sur-Loing
    Moret-sur-Loing is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.The town was a source of inspiration for Monet, Renoir and Sisley.-Twin towns:...

    , Le Châtelet-en-Brie
    Le Châtelet-en-Brie
    Le Châtelet-en-Brie is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.-External links:* * *...

    , Boësses
    Boësses
    Boësses is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.-See also:*Communes of the Loiret department...

    , Yèvre-le-Châtel and Chambon
    Chambon-la-Forêt
    Chambon-la-Forêt is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.-See also:*Communes of the Loiret department...

    .
  • Other additions to the royal domain include: Montlhéry
    Montlhéry
    Montlhéry is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. It is located from Paris.Inhabitants of Montlhéry are known as Montlhériens.-History:...

     and Châteaufort
    Châteaufort, Yvelines
    Châteaufort is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.It is located south of Versailles, and southwest of Paris.Châteaufort inhabitants are named Castelfortain....

    , Chevreuse
    Chevreuse
    Chevreuse is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.-History:Chevreuse was founded in the 10th century, and celebrated its first millennium of existence in 1980...

    , Corbeil
    Corbeil-Essonnes
    Corbeil-Essonnes is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the center of Paris.Although neighboring Évry is the official seat of the Arrondissement of Évry, the sub-prefecture building and administration are located inside the commune of Corbeil-Essonnes.In the 19th...

    , Meung-sur-Loire
    Meung-sur-Loire
    Meung-sur-Loire is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.It was the site of the Battle of Meung-sur-Loire in 1429. In fiction, it has been referenced by Alexandre Dumas in The Three Musketeers as the village where d'Artagnan, en route to join the King's Musketeers in Paris,...

    , Châteaurenard
    Châteaurenard
    Châteaurenard is a commune in the Arles arrondissement, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, in southern France.-Population:-External links:*...

     and Saint-Brisson
    Saint-Brisson
    Saint-Brisson is a commune in the Nièvre department in central France.-References:*...

    .

Reign of Louis VII
Louis VII of France
Louis VII was King of France, the son and successor of Louis VI . He ruled from 1137 until his death. He was a member of the House of Capet. His reign was dominated by feudal struggles , and saw the beginning of the long rivalry between France and England...

  • 1137: marriage of Louis with Eleanor of Aquitaine
    Eleanor of Aquitaine
    Eleanor of Aquitaine was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages. As well as being Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, she was queen consort of France and of England...

    , Duchess of Aquitaine
    Duke of Aquitaine
    The Duke of Aquitaine ruled the historical region of Aquitaine under the supremacy of Frankish, English and later French kings....

     and Gascony
    Gascony
    Gascony is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined and the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear; sometimes they are considered to overlap, and sometimes Gascony is considered a...

     and Countess of Poitou. By this marriage, Louis hopes to attach most of South-West France to the royal domain.
  • 1137: Louis gives Dreux to his brother Robert
    Robert I of Dreux
    Robert I of Dreux, nicknamed the Great , was the fifth son of Louis VI of France and Adélaide de Maurienne. Through his mother he was related to the Carolingians and to the Marquess William V of Montferrat.In 1137 he received the County of Dreux as an appanage from his father...

    .
  • 1151: separation of Louis VII and of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who in 1152 weds Henry Plantagenet
    Henry II of England
    Henry II ruled as King of England , Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry, the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, was the...

    , Count of Anjou, Count of Maine and Duke of Normandy
    Duke of Normandy
    The Duke of Normandy is the title of the reigning monarch of the British Crown Dependancies of the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey. The title traces its roots to the Duchy of Normandy . Whether the reigning sovereign is a male or female, they are always titled as the "Duke of...

    , who becomes in 1154, King of England. Eleanor's lands come to Henry in her dowry.
  • 1160: gives Norman Vexin
    Vexin
    The Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France. It covers a verdant plateau on the right bank of the Seine comprising an area east-to-west between Pontoise and Romilly-sur-Andelle , and north-to-south between Auneuil and the Seine near Vernon...

     to his daughter Margaret
    Marguerite of France (born 1158)
    Margaret of France was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile....

     as a dowry. Margaret is later forced to surrender her dowry.



Reign of Philip II Augustus
Philip II of France
Philip II Augustus was the King of France from 1180 until his death. A member of the House of Capet, Philip Augustus was born at Gonesse in the Val-d'Oise, the son of Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne...



  • 1184: granted Montargis
    Montargis
    Montargis is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France. The town is located about south of Paris and east of Orléans in the Gâtinais....

    .
  • 1185: by the Treaty of Boves
    Boves, Somme
    Boves is a commune in the Somme department in Picardie in northern France.-Geography:Boves is situated on the D935 and D116 road junction, on the banks of the river Avre, some southeast of Amiens.-Population:-History:...

    , gains Amiens
    Amiens
    Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Picardy...

     and Montdidier
    Montdidier, Somme
    Montdidier is a commune in the Somme department in Picardie in northern France.-Geography:Montdidier is situated on the D935 road, some 30 km southeast of Amiens, in the region known as the ‘Santerre’.-Population:-History:...

    , Roye
    Roye, Somme
    Roye is a commune in the Somme department in Picardie in northern France.-Geography:Roye is situated at the junction of the A1 autoroute and the N17 road, on the banks of the Avre, some southeast of Amiens.-Population:-History:...

    , Choisy-au-Bac
    Choisy-au-Bac
    Choisy-au-Bac is a town in northern France. It is designated municipally as a commune within the département of Oise.-References:*...

    , and Thourotte
    Thourotte
    Thourotte is a small village in northern France. It is designated municipally as a commune within the département of Oise....

     and rights to the inheritance of Vermandois and Valois.
  • 1187: seizes Tournai
    Tournai
    Tournai is a Walloon city and municipality of Belgium located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt, in the province of Hainaut....

     from the bishop
    Roman Catholic Diocese of Tournai
    The Roman Catholic Diocese of Tournai, also called , is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Belgium. The diocese was formed in 1146, by the splitting of the diocese of Noyon and Tournai that had existed since the 7th century. It is now suffragan of the archdiocese of...

    .
  • confiscates Meulan
    Meulan
    Meulan-en-Yvelines is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It hosted part of the sailing events for the 1900 Summer Olympics held in neighboring Paris, and would do so again twenty-four years later.-People:*Mbaye Niang footballer*Ibrahim Sacko...

    , Gisors
    Gisors
    Gisors is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located northwest from the center of Paris.Gisors, together with the neighbouring communes of Trie-Château and Trie-la-Ville, form an urban area of 12,669 inhabitants...

    , and other castles.
  • 1191: at the death of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders
    Philip, Count of Flanders
    Philip of Alsace was count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. He succeeded his father Thierry of Alsace.-Count of Flanders:...

    , the County of Artois
    County of Artois
    The County of Artois was an historic province of the Kingdom of France, held by the Dukes of Burgundy from 1384 until 1477/82, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1493 until 1659....

     and its dependancies, the inheritance of the queen Isabelle of Hainaut
    Isabelle of Hainaut
    Isabella of Hainault was queen consort of France as the first wife of King Philip II of France.- Early life :...

    , are given to prince Louis
    Louis VIII of France
    Louis VIII the Lion reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois, inheriting the county from his mother, from 1190–1226...

    . These areas would not become integrated into the royal domain until 1223 when Louis becomes king.
  • 1191: the County of Vermandois
    Vermandois
    Vermandois was a French county, that appears in the Merovingian period. In the tenth century, it was organised around two castellan domains: St Quentin and Péronne . Pepin I of Vermandois, the earliest of its hereditary counts, was descended in direct male line from the emperor Charlemagne...

     is acquired by the king, after the death of Elisabeth of Vermandois, the inheritor of the County. Confirmed in 1213, by Eléonore of Vermandois sister of Elisabeth. Philip also gains Valois.
  • 1200: the Norman Vexin
    Vexin
    The Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France. It covers a verdant plateau on the right bank of the Seine comprising an area east-to-west between Pontoise and Romilly-sur-Andelle , and north-to-south between Auneuil and the Seine near Vernon...

     is annexed
  • 1200 the County of Évreux
    Évreux
    Évreux is a commune in the Eure department, of which it is the capital, in Haute Normandie in northern France.-History:In late Antiquity, the town, attested in the fourth century CE, was named Mediolanum Aulercorum, "the central town of the Aulerci", the Gallic tribe then inhabiting the area...

     and Issoudun
    Issoudun
    Issoudun is a commune in the Indre department in central France. It is also referred to as Issoundun, which is the ancient name.-History:...

     are annexed, in exchange for the king's recognition of John of England
    John of England
    John , also known as John Lackland , was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death...

     as king of England.
  • 1204: confiscation of the Duchy of Normandy
    Duchy of Normandy
    The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Norwegian, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish invasions of France in the 9th century...

    , the Touraine
    Touraine
    The Touraine is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its capital was Tours. During the political reorganization of French territory in 1790, the Touraine was divided between the departments of Indre-et-Loire, :Loir-et-Cher and Indre.-Geography:...

    , Anjou
    Anjou
    Anjou is a former county , duchy and province centred on the city of Angers in the lower Loire Valley of western France. It corresponds largely to the present-day département of Maine-et-Loire...

    , Saintonge
    Saintonge
    Saintonge is a small region on the Atlantic coast of France within the département Charente-Maritime, west and south of Charente in the administrative region of Poitou-Charentes....

     and, temporarily, of the Poitou
    Poitou
    Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.The region of Poitou was called Thifalia in the sixth century....

     from John of England.
  • 1208: Ferté-Macé confiscated from Guillaume IV of Ferté-Macé
  • 1220: the County of Alençon
    Alençon
    Alençon is a commune in Normandy, France, capital of the Orne department. It is situated west of Paris. Alençon belongs to the intercommunality of Alençon .-History:...

     is reunited to the royal domain in the absence of a male heir to Count Robert IV
    Counts and dukes of Alençon
    Several counts and then royal dukes of Alençon have figured in French history. The title has been awarded to a younger brother of the French sovereign.-History:...

     (the county is sold by the vicomtesse of Châtellerault).

Reign of Louis VIII
Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII the Lion reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois, inheriting the county from his mother, from 1190–1226...

  • 1223: Philippe Hurepel
    Philippe Hurepel
    Philip Hurepel was Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Boulogne, Mortain, Aumale, and Dammartin. He was the son of Philip II of France and his controversial third wife Agnes of Merania. Illegitimacy shadowed his birth and career....

    , half-brother of the king, received in appanage the Counties of Boulogne
    Count of Boulogne
    The county of Boulogne was a historical region in the Low Countries. It consisted of a part of the present-day French département of the Pas-de-Calais , in parts of which there is still a Dutch-speaking minority....

     (Boulogne-sur-Mer
    Boulogne-sur-Mer
    -Road:* Metropolitan bus services are operated by the TCRB* Coach services to Calais and Dunkerque* A16 motorway-Rail:* The main railway station is Gare de Boulogne-Ville and located in the south of the city....

    ), and of Clermont (Clermont-en-Beauvaisis), as well as the fiefs of Domfront
    Domfront, Orne
    Domfront is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France.Beginning from the strategically sited castle of Domfront, the dispossessed count Henry, youngest son of William the Conqueror, rallied support among local lords and eventually ruled the Anglo-Norman dominions as Henry I of...

    , Mortain and Aumale.
  • Poitou
    Poitou
    Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.The region of Poitou was called Thifalia in the sixth century....

    , Saintonge
    Saintonge
    Saintonge is a small region on the Atlantic coast of France within the département Charente-Maritime, west and south of Charente in the administrative region of Poitou-Charentes....

    , Angoumois
    Angoumois
    Angoumois was a county and province of France, nearly corresponding today to the Charente département. Its capital was Angoulême....

    , Périgord
    Périgord
    The Périgord is a former province of France, which corresponds roughly to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. It is divided into four regions, the Périgord Noir , the Périgord Blanc , the Périgord Vert and the Périgord Pourpre...

     and a part of the Bordelais
    Bordelais
    Bordelais is a French term meaning "of Bordeaux" and can refer to* an inhabitant of the city Bordeaux* the area surrounding the city Bordeaux* an inhabitant of the commune Les Bordes-sur-Lez* Bordeaux wine, or the Bordeaux wine region...

     were confiscated from the king of England.
  • following the Albigensian Crusade
    Albigensian Crusade
    The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc...

     (1209–1229) against the Cathars and the Count of Toulouse
    Counts of Toulouse
    The first Counts of Toulouse were the administrators of the city and its environs under the Merovingians. No succession of such royal appointees is known, though a few names survive to the present...

    , the king annexed the County of Toulouse the heiress of which, Joan of Toulouse, married Alfonso, Count of Poitou, son of the king, in 1237.
  • 1225: in his will, Louis grants the appanages of Artois and his mother's inheritance to his second son Robert; Poitou and Auvergne to his third son Alfonso; and Anjou and Maine to his fourth son John (due to John's death, these possession would go to Louis' seventh son Charles
    Charles I of Sicily
    Charles I , known also as Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262 and was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282...

    ).

Reign of Louis IX
Louis IX of France
Louis IX , commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. He was also styled Louis II, Count of Artois from 1226 to 1237. Born at Poissy, near Paris, he was an eighth-generation descendant of Hugh Capet, and thus a member of the House of Capet, and the son of Louis VIII and...

  • 1229: the Raymond VII of Toulouse
    Raymond VII of Toulouse
    Raymond VII of Saint-Gilles was Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Marquis of Provence from 1222 until his death. He was the son of Raymond VI of Toulouse and Joan of England...

     cedes to the king the sénéchaussées of Nîmes
    Nîmes
    Nîmes is the capital of the Gard department in the Languedoc-Roussillon region in southern France. Nîmes has a rich history, dating back to the Roman Empire, and is a popular tourist destination.-History:...

    –Beaucaire and of BézIs–Carcassonne
    Carcassonne
    Carcassonne is a fortified French town in the Aude department, of which it is the prefecture, in the former province of Languedoc.It is divided into the fortified Cité de Carcassonne and the more expansive lower city, the ville basse. Carcassone was founded by the Visigoths in the fifth century,...

     (Treaty of Paris (1229)
    Treaty of Paris (1229)
    The Treaty of Paris was signed on April 12, 1229 between Raymond VII of Toulouse and Louis IX of France. Louis was still a minor and it was his mother Blanche of Castile who had been responsible for the treaty. The agreement officially ended the Albigensian Crusade in which Raymond conceded defeat...

    )
  • 1237: the king confirms the appanage grant of the County of Artois
    County of Artois
    The County of Artois was an historic province of the Kingdom of France, held by the Dukes of Burgundy from 1384 until 1477/82, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1493 until 1659....

     for his brother Robert I of Artois
    Robert I of Artois
    Robert I , called the Good, was the first Count of Artois, the fifth son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile.-Life:...

    .
  • 1241: the king confirms the appanage grant of Poitou
    Poitou
    Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.The region of Poitou was called Thifalia in the sixth century....

     for his brother Alfonso, Count of Poitou.
  • 1249: Alfonso, Count of Poitou, by right of his wife
    Jure uxoris
    Jure uxoris is a Latin term that means "by right of his wife" or "in right of a wife". It is commonly used to refer to a title held by a man whose wife holds it in her own right. In other words, he acquired the title simply by being her husband....

     succeeds Raymond VII of Toulouse.
  • 1255: the County of Beaumont-le-Roger
    Beaumont-le-Roger
    Beaumont-le-Roger is a commune in the department of Eure in the Haute-Normandie region in northern France.-Geography:The commune is located in the valley of the Risle on the edge of the forest with which it shares its name. It is crossed by the Paris-Cherbourg railway line...

     is bought back from Raoul of Meulan.
  • 1258: the king renounces the Roussillon
    County of Roussillon
    The County of Roussillon was one of the Catalan counties in the Marca Hispanica during the Middle Ages. The rulers of the county were the Counts of Roussillon, whose interests lay both north and south of the Pyrenees.-Visigothic county:...

     and Catalonia
    Principality of Catalonia
    The Principality of Catalonia , is a historic territory in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, mostly in Spain and with an adjoining portion in southern France....

    ; in exchange the king of Aragon
    Kingdom of Aragon
    The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain...

     renounces Provence and Languedoc
    Languedoc
    Languedoc is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées. It had an area of approximately 42,700 km² .-Geographical Extent:The traditional...

      (Treaty of Corbeil (1258)
    Treaty of Corbeil (1258)
    The Treaty of Corbeil was an agreement signed on 11 May 1258, in Corbeil between Louis IX of France and James I of Aragon....

    )
  • 1259: seigneuries of Domfront
    Domfront, Orne
    Domfront is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France.Beginning from the strategically sited castle of Domfront, the dispossessed count Henry, youngest son of William the Conqueror, rallied support among local lords and eventually ruled the Anglo-Norman dominions as Henry I of...

     and of Tinchebray
    Tinchebray
    Tinchebray is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France.It was the scene of the Battle of Tinchebray fought on 28 September 1106.-Heraldry:...

     acquired.
  • 1259: the king gives to the king of England Henry III
    Henry III of England
    Henry III was the son and successor of John as King of England, reigning for 56 years from 1216 until his death. His contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of Æthelred the Unready...

     the Duchy of Aquitaine, and promises him Saintonge
    Saintonge
    Saintonge is a small region on the Atlantic coast of France within the département Charente-Maritime, west and south of Charente in the administrative region of Poitou-Charentes....

    , Charente
    Charente
    Charente is a department in southwestern France, in the Poitou-Charentes region, named after the Charente River, the most important river in the department, and also the river beside which the department's two largest towns, Angoulême and Cognac, are sited.-History:Charente is one of the original...

     and Agenais
    Agenais
    Agenais, or Agenois, was a province of France located in southwest France south of Périgord.In ancient Gaul the region was the country of the Nitiobroges with Aginnum for their capital, which in the fourth century was the Civitas Agennensium, which was a part of Aquitania Secunda and which formed...

     in the case of the death without heir of the Count of Toulouse Alfonso of Poitiers (Treaty of Paris (1259)
    Treaty of Paris (1259)
    The Treaty of Paris was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on December 4, 1259....

    )
  • 1268 the king gives the County of Alençon
    Counts and dukes of Alençon
    Several counts and then royal dukes of Alençon have figured in French history. The title has been awarded to a younger brother of the French sovereign.-History:...

     and Perche
    Perche
    Perche is a former province of northern France extending over the départements of Orne, Eure, Eure-et-Loir and Sarthe, which were created from Perche during the French Revolution.-Geography:...

     to his son Pierre I of Alençon.
  • the king grants as appanage the County of Valois to his son John Tristan and Clermont-en-Beauvaisis to his son Robert.

Reign of Philip III
Philip III of France
Philip III , called the Bold , was the King of France, succeeding his father, Louis IX, and reigning from 1270 to 1285. He was a member of the House of Capet.-Biography:...

  • 1271: reversion of the County of Toulouse, Poitou
    Poitou
    Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.The region of Poitou was called Thifalia in the sixth century....

     and Auvergne
    Auvergne (province)
    Auvergne was a historic province in south central France. It was originally the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne. It is now the geographical and cultural area that corresponds to the former province....

    , the Comtat Venaissin
    Comtat Venaissin
    The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short , is the former name of the region around the city of Avignon in what is now the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. It comprised roughly the area between the Rhône, the Durance and Mont Ventoux, with a small exclave located to the...

    , appanages of Alfonso, Count of Poitou, to the royal domain
  • 1274: purchase of the County of Nemours
    Duke of Nemours
    In the 12th and 13th centuries the Lordship of Nemours, in the Gatinais, France, was in possession of the house of Villebeon, a member of which, Gautier, was marshal of France in the middle of the 13th century...

  • 1274: the king cedes half of the Comtat Venaissin
    Comtat Venaissin
    The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short , is the former name of the region around the city of Avignon in what is now the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. It comprised roughly the area between the Rhône, the Durance and Mont Ventoux, with a small exclave located to the...

     to pope Gregory X
  • 1283: Perche
    Perche
    Perche is a former province of northern France extending over the départements of Orne, Eure, Eure-et-Loir and Sarthe, which were created from Perche during the French Revolution.-Geography:...

     and the County of Alençon
    Counts and dukes of Alençon
    Several counts and then royal dukes of Alençon have figured in French history. The title has been awarded to a younger brother of the French sovereign.-History:...

     are inherited from the king's brother Pierre I of Alençon.
  • 1284: purchase of the County of Chartres.
  • the king makes appanage grants of Valois to his second son Charles
    Charles of Valois
    Charles of Valois was the fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. His mother was a daughter of James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois...

     and Beaumont-en-Oise
    Beaumont-sur-Oise
    Beaumont-sur-Oise is a commune in the Val-d'Oise department in Île-de-France in northern France.-References:** -External links:* * *...

     to his third son Louis
    Louis d'Évreux
    Louis of France, Count of Évreux was the third son of King Philip III the Bold and his second wife Maria of Brabant, and half-brother of King Philip IV the Fair....

    .

Reigns of Philip IV, the Fair
Philip IV of France
Philip the Fair was, as Philip IV, King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.-Youth:A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of...

 and his sons

  • 1284: marriage of Philip the Fair, the future king of France, with Queen Joan I of Navarre
    Joan I of Navarre
    Joan I , the daughter of king Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois, reigned as queen regnant of Navarre and also served as queen consort of France.-Life:...

    , Countess of Champagne. The County of Champagne is reunited to the royal domain (made official in 1361)
  • 1285–1295: purchase of the County of Guînes
    Guînes
    Guînes is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.-Geography:Guînes is located on the border of the two territories of the Boulonnais and Calaisis, at the edge of the now-drained marshes, which extend from here to the coast. The Guînes canal connects with...

     from Count Arnould III who needed money to pay a ransom.
  • 1286: purchase of the County of Chartres from Jeanne of Blois-Châtillon, widow of her uncle Pierre
  • 1292: Ostrevant
  • 1295: the king gives up a part of the County of Guines.
  • as they reverted to the crown, Philip IV makes appanage grants of Alençon, Chartres and Perche
    Perche
    Perche is a former province of northern France extending over the départements of Orne, Eure, Eure-et-Loir and Sarthe, which were created from Perche during the French Revolution.-Geography:...

     to his brother Charles
    Charles of Valois
    Charles of Valois was the fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. His mother was a daughter of James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois...

     and Évreux
    Count of Évreux
    The Count of Évreux was a French noble title and was named after the town of Évreux in Normandy. It was successibly used by the Norman dynasty, the Montfort-l'Amaury family, the Capetian's as well as the House of La Tour d'Auvergne...

     to his brother Louis
    Louis d'Évreux
    Louis of France, Count of Évreux was the third son of King Philip III the Bold and his second wife Maria of Brabant, and half-brother of King Philip IV the Fair....

    . By his marriage, Charles also acquires Maine and Anjou. To his sons, Philip gives the appanages of Poitiers
    Count of Poitiers
    Among the people who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers are:*Guerin **Hatton **Renaud...

     to Philip
    Philip V of France
    Philip the Tall was King of France as Philip V and, as Philip II, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the penultimate monarch of the House of Capet. Considered a wise and politically astute ruler, Philip took the throne under questionable...

    , and La Marche and Angoulême to Charles
    Charles IV of France
    Charles IV, known as the Fair , was the King of France and of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: he was the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage....

    .
  • 1308: purchase of the County of Angoulême, of Fougères
    Fougères
    Fougères is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany, in north-western France.-Sights:Fougères' major monument is a medieval stronghold built atop a granite ledge, which was part of the ultimately unsuccessful defence system of the Duchy of Brittany against...

     and of Lusignan from Yolande of Lusignan
  • 1313: Confiscation of Tournai
    Tournai
    Tournai is a Walloon city and municipality of Belgium located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt, in the province of Hainaut....

     - which is however a land belonging to the Empire - from Marie de Mortagne.
  • 1322: the County of Bigorre
    County of Bigorre
    The County of Bigorre was a small feudatory of the Duchy of Aquitaine in the ninth through fifteenth centuries. Its capital was Tarbes.The county was constituted out of the dowry of a Faquilène, an Aquitainian princess, for her husband Donatus Lupus I, the son of Lupus III of Gascony...

     is incorporated into the royal domain at the crowning of the king Charles IV
    Charles IV of France
    Charles IV, known as the Fair , was the King of France and of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: he was the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage....

    , who held it from his mother Jeanne I of Navarre

Reign of Philip VI of Valois
Philip VI of France
Philip VI , known as the Fortunate and of Valois, was the King of France from 1328 to his death. He was also Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois from 1325 to 1328...

  • the appanages of the new king (Valois, Anjous, Maine, Chartres and Alençon) are reunited to the royal domain.
  • 1336: conquest of the County of Ponthieu, given to the king of England in 1360.
  • 1343–1349: the Dauphiné
    Dauphiné
    The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois is a former province in southeastern France, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of :Isère, :Drôme, and :Hautes-Alpes....

     is sold to the kingdom of France by the Dauphin of Viennois
  • 1349: purchase for the kingdom of France of the seigneurie of Montpellier
    Montpellier
    -Neighbourhoods:Since 2001, Montpellier has been divided into seven official neighbourhoods, themselves divided into sub-neighbourhoods. Each of them possesses a neighbourhood council....

     from James III of Majorca
    James III of Majorca
    James III , called the Rash or the Unfortunate, son of Ferdinand of Majorca and Isabelle de Sabran, heiress of Principality of Achaea, was the King of Majorca from 1324 to 1344. He was the last independent king of Majorca of the House of Barcelona.James was born at Catania...

    , the dispossessed king of Majorca, for 120 000 écu
    ECU
    ECU may refer to:Automotive terms* Electronic control unit, a generic term for any embedded system that controls one or more of the electrical systems or subsystems in a motor vehicle...

    s.

Reign of John II

  • 1350–1360: after the death of Raoul II of Brienne, Count of Guînes, and connétable of France (decapitated for treason), the County of Guînes
    Guînes
    Guînes is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.-Geography:Guînes is located on the border of the two territories of the Boulonnais and Calaisis, at the edge of the now-drained marshes, which extend from here to the coast. The Guînes canal connects with...

     is confiscated. It will be ceded to the English by the Treaty of Brétigny.
  • 1360: by the Treaty of Brétigny
    Treaty of Brétigny
    The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty signed on May 9, 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II of France. In retrospect it is seen as having marked the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War —as well as the height of English hegemony on the Continent.It was signed...

    , Aquitaine
    Aquitaine
    Aquitaine , archaic Guyenne/Guienne , is one of the 27 regions of France, in the south-western part of metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It comprises the 5 departments of Dordogne, :Lot et Garonne, :Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes...

     (1/3 of the kingdom) is given to the king of England, so as to obtain the release of the French king, prisoner since the Battle of Poitiers (1356)
    Battle of Poitiers (1356)
    The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdoms of England and France on 19 September 1356 near Poitiers, resulting in the second of the three great English victories of the Hundred Years' War: Crécy, Poitiers, and Agincourt....

    .
  • 1360: John, Duke of Berry
    John, Duke of Berry
    John of Valois or John the Magnificent was Duke of Berry and Auvergne and Count of Poitiers and Montpensier. He was the third son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxemburg; his brothers were King Charles V of France, Duke Louis I of Anjou and Duke Philip the Bold of Burgundy...

     receives the Duchy of Berry
    Duke of Berry
    The title of Duke of Berry in the French nobility was frequently created for junior members of the French royal family. The Berry region now consists of the départements of Cher, Indre and parts of Vienne. The capital of Berry is Bourges. The first creation was for John, third son of John II, King...

     as appanage. He is also made Count of Poitiers
    Count of Poitiers
    Among the people who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers are:*Guerin **Hatton **Renaud...

     (1357–1416), Count of Mâcon (c. 1360–1372), Count of Angoulême and Saintonge
    Saintonge
    Saintonge is a small region on the Atlantic coast of France within the département Charente-Maritime, west and south of Charente in the administrative region of Poitou-Charentes....

     (bef. 1372–1374) and Count of Étampes (1399–1416). At his death, these lands return to the royal domain. He is also given the Duchy of Auvergne.
  • 1361: the king gives Touraine
    Touraine
    The Touraine is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its capital was Tours. During the political reorganization of French territory in 1790, the Touraine was divided between the departments of Indre-et-Loire, :Loir-et-Cher and Indre.-Geography:...

     in appanage to his son Philip.
  • 1361: the king successfully claims the Duchy of Burgundy
    Duchy of Burgundy
    The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

     as the heir by proximity of blood.

Reign of Charles V
Charles V of France
Charles V , called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death in 1380 and a member of the House of Valois...

  • Thanks to Du Guesclin, the king recovers the Duchy of Aquitaine.
  • 27 May 1364: the city of Montivilliers
    Montivilliers
    Montivilliers is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Haute-Normandie region in northern France.-Geography:A large light industrial and farming town by the banks of the river Lézarde in the Pays de Caux, situated just north of Le Havre, at the junction of the D489, D52, D926 and D31...

     is detached from the County of Longueville
    Longueville
    Longueville may refer to:Places:*Longueville, New South Wales, suburb of Sydney, AustraliaCommunes in France:*Longueville, Calvados, in the Calvados département*Longueville, Lot-et-Garonne, in the Lot-et-Garonne département...

     and attached to the royal domain.
  • 1364: Philip the Bold
    Philip the Bold
    Philip the Bold , also Philip II, Duke of Burgundy , was the fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg. By his marriage to Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, he also became Count Philip II of Flanders, Count Philip IV of Artois and Count-Palatine Philip IV...

     receives in appanage the Duchy of Burgundy
    Duchy of Burgundy
    The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

  • 1371: purchase of the County of Auxerre
    County of Auxerre
    The County of Auxerre is a former state of current central France, with capital in Auxerre.-History:The first count attested by the sources is one Ermenaud, a companion of Charlemagne who reigned around 770. In 859 Charles the Bald handed over the county to his cousin Conrad II of Burgundy. When he...

  • 1377: Dreux returns to the royal domain

Reign of Charles VI
Charles VI of France
Charles VI , called the Beloved and the Mad , was the King of France from 1380 to 1422, as a member of the House of Valois. His bouts with madness, which seem to have begun in 1392, led to quarrels among the French royal family, which were exploited by the neighbouring powers of England and Burgundy...

  • 1392: the appanage of Orléans is given to Louis I de Valois, Duke of Orléans, brother of the king. He also becomes Count of Valois (1386?), Duke of Touraine
    Duke of Touraine
    Duke of Touraine was a title in the Peerage of France, relating to Touraine.It was first created in 1360 for Philip, youngest son of King John II of France. He returned the duchy to the Crown in 1363 on being made Duke of Burgundy and died in 1404....

     (1386), Count of Blois
    Count of Blois
    The County of Blois was originally centred on Blois, south of Paris, France. One of the chief cities, along with Blois itself, was Chartres. Blois was associated with Champagne, Châtillon , and later with the French royal family, to whom the county passed in 1391...

     (1397; the county is sold by Guy II, Count of Blois
    Guy II, Count of Blois
    Guy II of Blois-Châtillon , the youngest son of Louis I of Châtillon and Joan of Avesnes, was count of Blois and lord of Avesnes, Schoonhoven, and Gouda 1381–1397, and lord of Beaumont and Chimay....

     at the death of his only son), Angoulême
    Counts and dukes of Angoulême
    Angoulême in western France was part of the Carolingian Empire as the kingdom of Aquitaine. Under Charlemagne's successors, the local Count of Angoulême was independent and was not united with the French crown until 1307. By the terms of the Treaty of Brétigny the Angoumois, then ruled by the...

     (1404), Périgord
    Périgord
    The Périgord is a former province of France, which corresponds roughly to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. It is divided into four regions, the Périgord Noir , the Périgord Blanc , the Périgord Vert and the Périgord Pourpre...

    , Dreux
    Dreux
    Dreux is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France.-History:Dreux was known in ancient times as Durocassium, the capital of the Durocasses Celtic tribe. Despite the legend, its name was not related with Druids. The Romans established here a fortified camp known as Castrum...

     and Soissons
    Soissons
    Soissons is a commune in the Aisne department in Picardy in northern France, located on the Aisne River, about northeast of Paris. It is one of the most ancient towns of France, and is probably the ancient capital of the Suessiones...

    .
  • 1416: the appanage of the Duchy of Berry
    Duke of Berry
    The title of Duke of Berry in the French nobility was frequently created for junior members of the French royal family. The Berry region now consists of the départements of Cher, Indre and parts of Vienne. The capital of Berry is Bourges. The first creation was for John, third son of John II, King...

     comes back to the royal domain after the death of Jean, Duke of Berry, the uncle of the king.
  • 1416: the king recreates the appanage of Berry for his son Jean who dies in 1417.
  • 1417: the king gives the appanage of Berry to his son Charles VII of France
    Charles VII of France
    Charles VII , called the Victorious or the Well-Served , was King of France from 1422 to his death, though he was initially opposed by Henry VI of England, whose Regent, the Duke of Bedford, ruled much of France including the capital, Paris...

    .

Reign of Charles VII
Charles VII of France
Charles VII , called the Victorious or the Well-Served , was King of France from 1422 to his death, though he was initially opposed by Henry VI of England, whose Regent, the Duke of Bedford, ruled much of France including the capital, Paris...

  • 1424: Duchy of Touraine granted to Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, killed later that year at Verneuil.
  • 1434: Amboise
    Amboise
    Amboise is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. It lies on the banks of the Loire River, east of Tours. Today a small market town, it was once home of the French royal court...

     is confiscated from Louis of Amboise (who had plotted against Georges de la Trémoille
    Georges de la Trémoille
    Georges de la Trémoille was count of de Guînes from 1398 to 1446 and Grand Chamberlain of France to King Charles VII of France. He sought reconciliation between Philip, Duke of Burgundy and Charles VII during their estrangement in the latter part of the Hundred Years' War...

    , a favorite of the king) and reunited with the crown.
  • 1453: at the death of Mathieu of Foix, the County of Comminges is incorporated into the royal domain

Reign of Louis XI
Louis XI of France
Louis XI , called the Prudent , was the King of France from 1461 to 1483. He was the son of Charles VII of France and Mary of Anjou, a member of the House of Valois....



  • 1461–1472: the king gives the Duchy of Berry in appanage to his brother Charles of France
    Charles de Valois, Duc de Berry
    Charles de Valois, Duke of Berry was a son of Charles VII, King of France. He spent most of his life in conflict with his elder brother, King Louis XI of France.-Life:...

    . Dissatisfied, Charles joins with other feudal nobles in the League of the Public Weal
    League of the Public Weal
    The League of the Public Weal was an alliance of feudal nobles organized in 1465 in defiance of the centralized authority of King Louis XI of France...

    . At the Treaty of Conflans
    Treaty of Conflans
    The Treaty of Conflans was signed on October 1465 between King Louis XI of France and Count Charles of Charolais. This treaty was signed months after the Battle of Montlhéry where the French dukes of Alençon, Burgundy, Berri, Bourbon, and Lorraine defeated King Louis' forces...

     in 1465, Charles of France exchanges Berry for the Duchy of Normandy
    Duchy of Normandy
    The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Norwegian, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish invasions of France in the 9th century...

     (1465–1469). In 1469, Charles is forced to exchange Normandy for the Duchy of Guyenne
    Duke of Aquitaine
    The Duke of Aquitaine ruled the historical region of Aquitaine under the supremacy of Frankish, English and later French kings....

     (1486-1472).
  • 1462: the king alienates the County of Comminges from the royal domain, giving it to Jean de Lescun
    Jean de Lescun
    Jean de Lescun d'Armagnac , known as “the bastard of Armagnac”, was an ally of king Louis XI of France from before his ascension to the throne....

    .
  • 1477: the County of Ponthieu is definitively reattached to the royal domain.
  • 1478: the County of Boulogne is acquired by exchange.
  • 1481: Charles IV, Duke of Anjou
    Charles IV, Duke of Anjou
    Charles IV, Duke of Anjou, also Charles of Maine, Count of Le Maine and Guise was the son of the Angevin prince Charles of Le Maine, Count of Maine, who was the youngest son of Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon, Queen of Four Kingdoms.He succeeded his father as Count of Maine, Guise, Mortain...

    , Count of Maine, Guise
    Guise
    Guise is a commune in the Aisne department in Picardy in northern France.-Population:-Sights:The ruins of the medieval castle of Guise, seat of the Dukes of Guise, are located in the commune.-Miscellaneous:...

    , Mortain
    Mortain
    Mortain is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.-Geography:Mortain is situated on a rocky hill rising above the gorge of the Cance, a tributary of the Sélune.-Administration:Mortain is the seat of a canton...

     and Gien
    Gien
    Gien is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France.Gien is on the Loire River, from Orléans. The town was bought for the royal property by Philip II of France. The town is twinned with Malmesbury in England.-Sights:*Faience de Gien...

    , who succeeded his uncle René I of Anjou as Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence and Forcalquier
    County of Forcalquier
    The County of Forcalquier was a large medieval county in the region of Provence in the Kingdom of Burgundy, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was named after the fortress around which it grew, Forcalquier....

    , dies, bequeathing his lands to his cousin Louis XI of France.
  • 1482: by the Treaty of Arras
    Treaty of Arras (1482)
    The Treaty of Arras was signed at Arras on 23 December 1482 by King Louis XI of France and Archduke Maximilian I of Habsburg as heir of the Burgundian Netherlands in the course of the Burgundian succession crisis....

    , the Duchy of Burgundy
    Duchy of Burgundy
    The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

     and Picardy
    Picardy
    This article is about the historical French province. For other uses, see Picardy .Picardy is a historical province of France, in the north of France...

     are reattached to the domain.
  • 1482: acquisition of the viscounty of Châtellerault
    Châtellerault
    Châtellerault is a commune in the Vienne department in the Poitou-Charentes region in France.It is located to the north of Poitou, and the residents are called Châtelleraudais.-Geography:...

    .

Reign of Charles VIII
Charles VIII of France
Charles VIII, called the Affable, , was King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498. Charles was a member of the House of Valois...

  • 1483: the seigneuries of Châtel-sur-Moselle
    Châtel-sur-Moselle
    Châtel-sur-Moselle is a commune in the Vosges department in Lorraine in northeastern France.-History:With its commanding position alongside the Mosel River, located at the junction of the three main Roman roads and at the end of the Trans-Burgundy highway, Châtel played a strategic role throughout...

     and Bainville
    Bainville-aux-Saules
    Bainville-aux-Saules is a commune in the Vosges department in Lorraine in northeastern France.-References:*...

     are taken from the Duchy of Bar.
  • 1491: the marriage of the king to Duchess Anne of Brittany
    Anne of Brittany
    Anne, Duchess of Brittany , also known as Anna of Brittany , was a Breton ruler, who was to become queen to two successive French kings. She was born in Nantes, Brittany, and was the daughter of Francis II, Duke of Brittany and Margaret of Foix. Her maternal grandparents were Queen Eleanor of...

     begins the personal union
    Personal union
    A personal union is the combination by which two or more different states have the same monarch while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct. It should not be confused with a federation which is internationally considered a single state...

     of the Duchy of Brittany and the kingdom.

Reign of Louis XII
Louis XII of France
Louis proved to be a popular king. At the end of his reign the crown deficit was no greater than it had been when he succeeded Charles VIII in 1498, despite several expensive military campaigns in Italy. His fiscal reforms of 1504 and 1508 tightened and improved procedures for the collection of taxes...

  • 1498: the crowning of the new king brings his appanages Valois (alienated in 1386?) and Orléans (alienated in 1392) back to the royal domain, and the county of Blois is integrated into the royal domain for the first time.
  • 1498: the second marriage of the king with the Duchess Anne of Brittany
    Anne of Brittany
    Anne, Duchess of Brittany , also known as Anna of Brittany , was a Breton ruler, who was to become queen to two successive French kings. She was born in Nantes, Brittany, and was the daughter of Francis II, Duke of Brittany and Margaret of Foix. Her maternal grandparents were Queen Eleanor of...

     confirms the personal union
    Personal union
    A personal union is the combination by which two or more different states have the same monarch while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct. It should not be confused with a federation which is internationally considered a single state...

     of Brittany
    Brittany
    Brittany is a cultural and administrative region in the north-west of France. Previously a kingdom and then a duchy, Brittany was united to the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province. Brittany has also been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain...

     to the kingdom.
  • 1498: at the death of Odet of Aydie, the County of Comminges (alienated in 1462) returns to the crown.
  • 1499: the king gives the Duchy of Berry to his former wife Joan of France
    Joan of France, Duchess of Berry
    Joan of France was briefly Queen consort of France as wife of King Louis XII of France, in between the death of her brother, Charles VIII, and the annulment of her marriage....

    .
  • 1504–1512: the Duchy of Nemours
    Duke of Nemours
    In the 12th and 13th centuries the Lordship of Nemours, in the Gatinais, France, was in possession of the house of Villebeon, a member of which, Gautier, was marshal of France in the middle of the 13th century...

     reverts to the royal domain. In 1507, it is given to Gaston of Foix, but reverts at his death in 1512.

Reign of Francis I
Francis I of France
Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death. During his reign, huge cultural changes took place in France and he has been called France's original Renaissance monarch...

 

  • 1515: Nemours
    Duke of Nemours
    In the 12th and 13th centuries the Lordship of Nemours, in the Gatinais, France, was in possession of the house of Villebeon, a member of which, Gautier, was marshal of France in the middle of the 13th century...

     is given to Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici
    Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici
    Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici was an Italian nobleman, one of three sons of Lorenzo the Magnificent.-Biography:He was born in Florence, Italy. His brothers were Piero and Giovanni de' Medici....

    . The duchy passes in 1524 to Francis' mother, Louise of Savoy
    Louise of Savoy
    Louise of Savoy was a French noble, Duchess regnant of Auvergne and Bourbon, Duchess of Nemours, the mother of King Francis I of France...

     and will remain with the house of Savoy until 1659.
  • 1531: possessions of the disgraced Charles III, Duke of Bourbon
    Charles III, Duke of Bourbon
    Charles III, Duke of Bourbon was a French military leader, the Count of Montpensier and Dauphin of Auvergne. He commanded the Imperial troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in what became known as the Sack of Rome in 1527, where he was killed.-Biography:Charles was born at Montpensier...

     are confiscated: Bourbonnais
    Bourbonnais
    Bourbonnais was a historic province in the centre of France that corresponded to the modern département of Allier, along with part of the département of Cher. Its capital was Moulins.-History:...

    , Auvergne
    Auvergne (province)
    Auvergne was a historic province in south central France. It was originally the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne. It is now the geographical and cultural area that corresponds to the former province....

    , Counties of Montpensier
    Montpensier
    The French lordship of Montpensier , located in historical Auvergne, became a countship in the 14th century....

    , of Clermont
    Clermont-Ferrand
    Clermont-Ferrand is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne region, with a population of 140,700 . Its metropolitan area had 409,558 inhabitants at the 1999 census. It is the prefecture of the Puy-de-Dôme department...

    , of Mercœur
    Mercœur, Corrèze
    Mercœur is a commune in the Corrèze department in central France.-Population:-References:*...

     and Forez
    Forez
    Forez is a former province of France, corresponding approximately to the central part of the modern Loire département and a part of the Haute-Loire and Puy-de-Dôme départements....


From the reign of Francis I, the concept of "royal domain" begins to coincide with the French kingdom in general; the appanage of the House of Bourbon however remains alienated.
  • 1532: union of the Duchy of Brittany to France, the inheritance of Claude of France
    Claude of France
    Claude of France was a princess and queen consort of France and ruling Duchess of Brittany. She was the eldest daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne, Duchess of Brittany....

     daughter of Anne of Brittany
    Anne of Brittany
    Anne, Duchess of Brittany , also known as Anna of Brittany , was a Breton ruler, who was to become queen to two successive French kings. She was born in Nantes, Brittany, and was the daughter of Francis II, Duke of Brittany and Margaret of Foix. Her maternal grandparents were Queen Eleanor of...

    .
  • 1548: Duchy of Châtellerault
    Duke of Châtellerault
    The French noble title of Duke of Châtellerault has been created several times.The first was for François de Bourbon-Montpensier, a younger son of Gilbert, Comte de Montpensier. He received the duchy-peerage of Châtellerault in 1515, but died the same year, being succeeded by his brother Charles,...

     conferred upon James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran
    James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran
    James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault and 2nd Earl of Arran was a Scottish nobleman.-Biography:He was the eldest legitimate son of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran....

    .

Reign of Henry IV
Henry IV of France
Henry IV , Henri-Quatre, was King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. He was the first monarch of the Bourbon branch of the Capetian dynasty in France....

  • 1589: Henry III of Navarre becomes king Henry IV of France, succeeding his cousin Henry III
    Henry III of France
    Henry III was King of France from 1574 to 1589. As Henry of Valois, he was the first elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with the dual titles of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1573 to 1575.-Childhood:Henry was born at the Royal Château de Fontainebleau,...

     after his assassination. His immense appanage comes back to the French royal domain: County of Soissons
    Soissons
    Soissons is a commune in the Aisne department in Picardy in northern France, located on the Aisne River, about northeast of Paris. It is one of the most ancient towns of France, and is probably the ancient capital of the Suessiones...

    , Duchy of Alençon
    Alençon
    Alençon is a commune in Normandy, France, capital of the Orne department. It is situated west of Paris. Alençon belongs to the intercommunality of Alençon .-History:...

    , Duchy of Vendôme
    Vendôme
    Vendôme is a commune in the Centre region of France.-Administration:Vendôme is the capital of the arrondissement of Vendôme in the Loir-et-Cher department, of which it is a sub-prefecture. It has a tribunal of first instance.-Geography:...

    , Duchy of Beaumont
    House of Beaumont
    The Norman family of Beaumont was one of the great baronial Anglo-Norman families which became rooted in England after the Norman conquest.Roger de Beaumont, lord of Pont-Audemer, of Beaumont-le-Roger, of Brionne and of Vatteville, was too old to fight at Hastings, staying in Normandy to govern...

    , Viscounty of Limoges
    Limoges
    Limoges |Limousin]] dialect of Occitan) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and the administrative capital of the Limousin région in west-central France....

    , County of Périgord
    Périgord
    The Périgord is a former province of France, which corresponds roughly to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. It is divided into four regions, the Périgord Noir , the Périgord Blanc , the Périgord Vert and the Périgord Pourpre...

    , County of Rodez
    County of Rodez
    The County of Rodez was a fief of the County of Toulouse formed out of part of the old County of Rouergue in what is today Aveyron, France. Its capital was Rodez. At its height, it was a centre of troubadour culture....

    , Duchy of Albret
    Albret
    The lordship of Albret , situated in the Landes, gave its name to one of the most powerful feudal families of France in the Middle Ages...

    , Viscounty of Béarn
    Béarn
    Béarn is one of the traditional provinces of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, and Labourd, the principality of Bidache, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms in the...

    , of Lomagne, of Marsan
    Marsan
    Marsan is a commune in the Gers department in southwestern France.-Population:...

    , of Gabardan, of Tursan
    Tursan
    Tursan is a Vin délimité de qualité supérieure for wine in South West France since 1958 .-Presentation:...

    , of Fézensaguet and of Quatre-Vallées
    Quatre-Vallées
    Quatre-Vallées was a small province of France located in the southwest of France. It was made up of four constituent parts: Aure valley , Barousse valley , Magnoac valley , and Neste or Nestès valley .-General...

    , County of Gaure
    Gauré
    Gauré is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France.-Population:-References:*...

    , of County of Armagnac, of County of Foix
    County of Foix
    The County of Foix was an independent medieval fief in southern France, and later a province of France, whose territory corresponded roughly the eastern part of the modern département of Ariège ....

    , of County of Bigorre
    County of Bigorre
    The County of Bigorre was a small feudatory of the Duchy of Aquitaine in the ninth through fifteenth centuries. Its capital was Tarbes.The county was constituted out of the dowry of a Faquilène, an Aquitainian princess, for her husband Donatus Lupus I, the son of Lupus III of Gascony...

    .
  • 1589: the northern portion of the kingdom of Navarre
    Navarre
    Navarre , officially the Chartered Community of Navarre is an autonomous community in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Country, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Aquitaine in France...

     (the Basse-Navarre), of which Henry III of Navarre was king, is united to the kingdom of France in personal union.
  • With the succession of Henry IV, the royal domain encompassed the entirety of the legal territory of the Kingdom of France
    Kingdom of France
    The Kingdom of France was one of the most powerful states to exist in Europe during the second millennium.It originated from the Western portion of the Frankish empire, and consolidated significant power and influence over the next thousand years. Louis XIV, also known as the Sun King, developed a...


Reign of Louis XIII
Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1610 to 1643.Louis was only eight years old when he succeeded his father. His mother, Marie de Medici, acted as regent during Louis' minority...

  • 1620: The king issues an edict, uniting the kingdom of Navarre to the crown of France. From then on, the kingdom of Navarre was no longer a separate kingdom.

See also

  • Appanage
    Appanage
    An apanage or appanage or is the grant of an estate, titles, offices, or other things of value to the younger male children of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture...

  • Feudal system
  • Territorial formation of France
    Territorial formation of France
    This article describes the process by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is in 2009. The territory of the French State is spread throughout the world. Metropolitan France is that part which is in Europe....

  • Crown Estate
    Crown Estate
    In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a property portfolio owned by the Crown. Although still belonging to the monarch and inherent with the accession of the throne, it is no longer the private property of the reigning monarch and cannot be sold by him/her, nor do the revenues from it belong...

    - for similar holdings in the UK