Architecture of Denmark

Architecture of Denmark

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The architecture of Denmark has its origins in the Viking
Viking
The term Viking is customarily used to refer to the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century.These Norsemen used their famed longships to...

 period, richly revealed by archaeological finds. It became firmly established in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 when first Romanesque, then Gothic churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country. It was during this period that, in a country with little access to stone, brick became the construction material of choice, not just for churches but also for fortifications and castles.

Under the influence of Frederick II
Frederick II of Denmark
Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.-King of Denmark:Frederick II was the son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg. Frederick II stands as the typical renaissance ruler of Denmark. Unlike his father, he...

 and Christian IV
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV was the king of Denmark-Norway from 1588 until his death. With a reign of more than 59 years, he is the longest-reigning monarch of Denmark, and he is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects...

, both of whom had been inspired by the castles of France
Château
A château is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions...

, Dutch and Flemish designers were brought to Denmark, initially to improve the country's fortifications, but increasingly to build magnificent royal castles and palaces in the Renaissance
Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance...

 style. In parallel, the half-timbered style became popular for ordinary dwellings in towns and villages across the country.

Late in his reign, Christian IV also became an early proponent of Baroque
Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

 which was to continue for a considerable time with many impressive buildings both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 came initially from France but was slowly adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism
Historicism (art)
Historicism refers to artistic styles that draw their inspiration from copying historic styles or artisans. After neo-classicism, which could itself be considered a historicist movement, the 19th century saw a new historicist phase marked by a return to a more ancient classicism, in particular in...

 ultimately merged into the 19th century National Romantic style
National Romantic Style
The National Romantic style was a Nordic architectural style that was part of the national romantic movement during the late 19th and early 20th century. Designers turned to early Medieval and even prehistoric precedents to construct a style appropriate to the perceived character of a people...

.

It was not, however, until the 1960s that Danish architects entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalism. This, in turn, has evolved into more recent world-class masterpieces such as the Sydney Opera House
Sydney Opera House
The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in the Australian city of Sydney. It was conceived and largely built by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, finally opening in 1973 after a long gestation starting with his competition-winning design in 1957...

 and the Great Belt Bridge
Great Belt Fixed Link
The Great Belt Fixed Link is the fixed link between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen across the Great Belt. It consists of a road suspension bridge and railway tunnel between Zealand and the island Sprogø, as well as a box girder bridge between Sprogø and Funen...

 paving the way for a number of Danish designers to be rewarded for excellence both at home and abroad.

The Vikings



Archaeological excavations in various parts of Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 have revealed much about the way the Vikings lived. One of the most notable sites is Hedeby
Hedeby
Hedeby |heath]]land, and býr = yard, thus "heath yard"), mentioned by Alfred the Great as aet Haethe , in German Haddeby and Haithabu, a modern spelling of the runic Heiðabý was an important trading settlement in the Danish-northern German borderland during the Viking Age...

. Located some 45 km south of the Danish border near the German town of Schleswig, it probably dates back to the end of the 8th century. The houses are deemed to be among the most sophisticated dwellings of their time. Oak frames
Framing (construction)
Framing, in construction known as light-frame construction, is a building technique based around structural members, usually called studs, which provide a stable frame to which interior and exterior wall coverings are attached, and covered by a roof comprising horizontal ceiling joists and sloping...

 were used for the walls and the roofs were probably thatched.

Viking ring houses, such as those at Trelleborg
Trelleborg (Slagelse)
The Trelleborg near Slagelse on the Danish island of Zealand is one of the Viking ring castles of which five or six have been found until now . It lies to the northwest of Slagelse. At the time the fortress was built it was situated on a peninsula that jutted into the swampy area between two rivers...

, near Slagelse on the Danish island of Zealand, have a rather different, ship-like shape, the long walls bulging outwards. Each house consisted of a large central hall (18 x 8 m) and two smaller rooms, one at each end. Those at Fyrkat
Fyrkat
Fyrkat might be the oldest of Denmark's former Viking ring castles. It is located near the town of Hobro some distance from the end of the Mariager Fjord in North Jutland. It is built on a narrow piece of land with a river on one side and swampy area on the others. It could have controlled the...

 (c. 980) in the north of Jutland
Jutland
Jutland , historically also called Cimbria, is the name of the peninsula that juts out in Northern Europe toward the rest of Scandinavia, forming the mainland part of Denmark. It has the North Sea to its west, Kattegat and Skagerrak to its north, the Baltic Sea to its east, and the Danish–German...

 were 28.5 m long, 5 m wide at the ends and 7.5 m in the middle, the long walls curving slightly outwards. The walls consisted of double rows of posts with planks wedged horizontally between them. A series of outer posts slanted towards the wall were possibly used to support the building like buttresses.

Romanesque style



Denmark's first churches from the 9th century were built of timber and have not survived. Hundreds of stone churches in the Romanesque style were built in the 12th and 13th centuries. They had a flat-ceilinged nave
Nave
In Romanesque and Gothic Christian abbey, cathedral basilica and church architecture, the nave is the central approach to the high altar, the main body of the church. "Nave" was probably suggested by the keel shape of its vaulting...

 and chancel
Chancel
In church architecture, the chancel is the space around the altar in the sanctuary at the liturgical east end of a traditional Christian church building...

 with small rounded windows and round arches. Granite boulders and limestone were initially the preferred building materials but after brick production reached Denmark in the middle of the 12th century, brick quickly became the material of choice. Among the finest examples of brick Romanesque
Brick Romanesque
Brick Romanesque is an architectural style and chronological phase of architectural history. The term described Romanesque buildings built of brick; like the subsequent Brick Gothic, it is geographically limited to Northern Germany and the Baltic region...

 buildings are St. Bendt's Church
St. Bendt's Church
St. Bendt's is a church in Ringsted, Denmark, which was originally part of a Benedictine monastery that burnt down in the 18th century. Built in the Romanesque style, it is the oldest brick church in Scandinavia, dating back to about 1170 when it replaced a travertine church from about 1080. It is...

 in Ringsted
Ringsted
Ringsted, a city in Ringsted municipality, is in the middle of the Danish island of Zealand. The municipal population is about 31,000 and the city population is 21,151 .Ringsted is approximately 60 km from Copenhagen.-Modern hotspot:...

 (c. 1170) and the unique Church of Our Lady
Church of Our Lady, Kalundborg
The Church of Our Lady is a historical building in Kalundborg, northwestern Sealand, Denmark. The precise date of construction is not known with any certainty, though its architecture indicates the early part of the 13th century...

 in Kalundborg
Kalundborg
Kalundborg is a city with a population of 16,434 in Kalundborg municipality in Denmark and the site of its municipal council. Kalundborg is on the main island Zealand, with Copenhagen, but opposite on the far western edge....

 (c. 1200) with its five tall towers.

The church at Østerlars
Østerlars Church
Østerlars Church is a historical building located 5 km south of Gudhjem on the Danish island of Bornholm. It is the largest and oldest of the island's four round churches. Built in about 1160, it was dedicated to St. Lawrence. It consists of an apse, an oval chancel, a large round nave and...

 on the island of Bornholm
Bornholm
Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea located to the east of the rest of Denmark, the south of Sweden, and the north of Poland. The main industries on the island include fishing, arts and crafts like glass making and pottery using locally worked clay, and dairy farming. Tourism is...

 was built around 1150. Like three other churches on the island, it is a round church
Round church
A round church is a special type of church construction, having a completely circular plan. Round churches are often found in Sweden and Denmark and were popular church constructions in Scandinavia in the 11th and early 12th centuries.Round churches should not be confused with the older types of...

. The three-storeyed building is supported by a circular outer wall and an exceptionally wide, hollow central column.

Construction of Lund Cathedral
Lund Cathedral
The Lund Cathedral is the Lutheran cathedral in Lund, Scania, Sweden. It is the seat of the bishop of Lund of the Church of Sweden.- History :...

 in Scania
Scania
Scania is the southernmost of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, constituting a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, and some adjacent islands. The modern administrative subdivision Skåne County is almost, but not totally, congruent with the...

 started in about 1103 when the region was part of the Kingdom of Denmark. It was the first of great Danish Romanesque cathedrals in the shape of a three-aisled basilica with transepts. It seems to have been related to earlier German buildings, though there are also traces of Anglo-Norman
Norman architecture
About|Romanesque architecture, primarily English|other buildings in Normandy|Architecture of Normandy.File:Durham Cathedral. Nave by James Valentine c.1890.jpg|thumb|200px|The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the...

 and Lombard
Lombardy
Lombardy is one of the 20 regions of Italy. The capital is Milan. One-sixth of Italy's population lives in Lombardy and about one fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in this region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest in the whole of Europe...

 influences. Ribe
Ribe Cathedral
Our Lady Maria Cathedral is located in the ancient city of Ribe on the western coast of southern Jutland, Denmark- History :Ribe is Denmark's oldest surviving city. Ribe began as an open trading market on the north bank of the Ribe River where it runs into the ocean...

, which followed with its great cathedral (1150–1250), had close trade contacts with the Rhine region of Germany. Both the materials, sandstone and tufa
Tufa
Tufa is a variety of limestone, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from ambient temperature water bodies. Geothermally heated hot-springs sometimes produce similar carbonate deposits known as travertine...

, and the models were taken from there.

Gothic style



Towards the end of the 13th century and until about 1500, the Gothic style became the norm with the result that most of the older Romanesque churches were rebuilt or adapted to the Gothic style. The flat ceilings were replaced by high cross vaults, windows were enlarged with pointed arches, chapels and towers were added and the interiors were decorated with murals. Red brick was the material of choice as can be seen in St. Canute's Cathedral, Odense
Odense
The city of Odense is the third largest city in Denmark.Odense City has a population of 167,615 and is the main city of the island of Funen...

, (1300–1499) and St. Peter's Church, Næstved
St. Peter's Church, Næstved
St. Peter's Church in Næstved on the Danish island of Sealand is first mentioned in a monasterial letter from 1135. Built of red brick, it is one of Denmark's largest and finest Gothic buildings, scarcely altered since 1375. The chancel, with its five tall windows, is particularly impressive...

. St. Canute's presents all the features of Gothic architecture: pointed arch, buttresses, ribbed vaulting
Rib vault
The intersection of two or three barrel vaults produces a rib vault or ribbed vault when they are edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns; compare groin vault, an older form of vault construction...

, increased light and the spatial combination of nave and chancel.

Although most Gothic architecture in Denmark is to be found in churches and monasteries, there are examples in the secular field too. Glimmingehus
Glimmingehus
Glimmingehus, located in Simrishamn Municipality, Scania, in southern Sweden, is the best preserved medieval stronghold in Scandinavia. It was built 1499-1506, during an era when Scania formed a vital part of Denmark, and contains many defensive arrangements of the era, such as parapets, false...

 (1499–1506), a rectangular castle in Scania, clearly presents Gothic features. It was commissioned by the Danish nobleman Jens Holgersen Ulfstand who called on the services of Adam van Düren, a North German master who also worked on Lund Cathedral
Lund Cathedral
The Lund Cathedral is the Lutheran cathedral in Lund, Scania, Sweden. It is the seat of the bishop of Lund of the Church of Sweden.- History :...

. The building contains many defensive features of the times, including parapets, false doors, dead-end corridors, murder-holes for pouring boiling pitch over the attackers, moats, drawbridges and various other death traps to protect the nobles against peasant uprisings.

Half-timbered buildings



During the late Middle Ages, a slow transition began from the traditional wooden houses in towns and villages towards half-timbered properties. One of the oldest in Denmark is Anne Hvides Gård, a two-storeyed townhouse in Svendborg
Svendborg
Svendborg is a town on the island of Funen in south-central Denmark. The town is in Svendborg municipality . Svendborg is the second-largest city on Funen and has a population of 27,009 ....

 on the island of Funen
Funen
Funen , with a size of 2,984 km² , is the third-largest island of Denmark following Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy, and the 163rd largest island of the world. Funen is located in the central part of the country and has a population of 454,358 inhabitants . The main city is Odense, connected to the...

, which was constructed in 1560. The building now forms part of the Svendborg Museum.

Ystad
Ystad
Ystad is a "locality", or town, and the seat of Ystad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden, with 17,286 inhabitants .Settlement dates back to the 11th century and the town has become a busy ferryport, local administrative centre and tourist attraction...

 in the southern Swedish region of Scania
Scania
Scania is the southernmost of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, constituting a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, and some adjacent islands. The modern administrative subdivision Skåne County is almost, but not totally, congruent with the...

 which was formerly part of Denmark still has some 300 half-timbered houses, several of them of historic importance. The oldest surviving half-timbered house in Denmark, built in 1527, is located in Køge
Køge
Køge Municipality is a municipality in Region Sjælland on the east coast of the island of Zealand approx. 40 km. southwest of Copenhagen. The municipality covers an area of 255 km² , and has a total population of 56,637...

 on the east coast of Sealand.

The Old Town in Aarhus
The Old Town, Aarhus
The Old Town in Aarhus, Denmark , is an open-air village museum consisting of 75 historical buildings collected from 20 townships in all parts of the country. In 1914 the museum opened for the first time as the world's first open-air museum of its kind and to this day it remains one of just a few...

, Jutland, is an open-air village museum consisting of 75 historical buildings collected from all parts of the country. They include a variety of half-timbered houses, some dating back to the middle of the 16th century.


Renaissance


Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance...

 thrived during the reigns of Frederick II
Frederick II of Denmark
Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.-King of Denmark:Frederick II was the son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg. Frederick II stands as the typical renaissance ruler of Denmark. Unlike his father, he...

 and especially Christian IV
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV was the king of Denmark-Norway from 1588 until his death. With a reign of more than 59 years, he is the longest-reigning monarch of Denmark, and he is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects...

. Inspired by the French castles
Château
A château is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions...

 of the times, Flemish architects designed masterpieces such as Kronborg Castle
Kronborg Castle
Kronborg is a star fortress situated near the town of Helsingør on the extreme northeastern tip of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund, the sound between Denmark and Sweden...

 in Helsingør and Frederiksborg Palace
Frederiksborg Palace
Frederiksborg castle is a castle in Hillerød, Denmark. It was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV, and is now known as The Museum of National History. The current building replaced a previous castle erected by Frederick II, and is the largest Renaissance palace in Scandinavia...

 in Hillerød
Hillerød
Hillerød Kommune is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden . The municipality covers an area of 191 km² , and has a total population of 46,568...

. In Copenhagen, Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle is a renaissance castle located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. The castle was originally built as a country summerhouse in 1606 and is an example of Christian IV's many architectural projects...

 (1606–1624) and Børsen
Børsen
Børsen is a building on Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is built by Christian IV in 1619–1640 and is the oldest stock exchange in Denmark...

 or the former stock exchange (1640) are perhaps the city's most remarkable Renaissance buildings.

During the reign of Frederick II
Frederick II of Denmark
Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.-King of Denmark:Frederick II was the son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg. Frederick II stands as the typical renaissance ruler of Denmark. Unlike his father, he...

, Kronborg Castle was designed by two Flemish architects, Hans Hendrik van Paesschen
Hans Hendrik van Paesschen
Hans Hendrik van Paesschen was a Flemish architect, based in Antwerp, who designed high-style classical buildings in many countries of northern Europe.-Life and Times:...

 who started the work in 1574 and Anthonis van Obbergen
Anthonis van Obbergen
Anthonis van Obbergen was a Flemish architect and fortifications engineer...

 who finished it in 1585. Modelled on a three-winged French castle, it was finally completed as a full four-winged building. The castle burnt down in 1629 but, under orders from Christian IV, was quickly rebuilt under the leadership of Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger
Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger
Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger was a Flemish-Danish architect who specialised in the Dutch Renaissance style, typical of prestigious Danish buildings from the first half of the 17th century...

, son of the famous Flemish artist. It is widely recognized as one of Europe's most outstanding Renaissance castles and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

.

Frederiksborg Palace
Frederiksborg Palace
Frederiksborg castle is a castle in Hillerød, Denmark. It was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV, and is now known as The Museum of National History. The current building replaced a previous castle erected by Frederick II, and is the largest Renaissance palace in Scandinavia...

 (1602–1620) in Hillerød is the largest Renaissance palace in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

. Christian IV had most of Frederick II's original building pulled down in order to have van Steenwinckel complete a three-winged French-styled castle with a low terrace wing around a courtyard. The architectural expression and the decorative finish clearly reflect Dutch Renaissance preferences as evidenced by the ornamental portals and windows and especially in sweeping Italianate gables.
Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle
Rosenborg Castle is a renaissance castle located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. The castle was originally built as a country summerhouse in 1606 and is an example of Christian IV's many architectural projects...

 in Copenhagen, also built by Christian IV, is another example of the Dutch Renaissance style. In 1606, the king first had a two-storey summerhouse built on a site he used as a park for relaxation. He then decided to start work on a much more ambitious building, the castle, which developed in stages until a Dutch Renaissance masterpiece was completed in 1624. Predating the castle, the Renaissance-style park, is Denmark's oldest royal garden.

Sponsored by Christian IV, Børsen, one of the first commodity exchanges in Europe, was built from 1618 to 1624. It was designed to emphasize Copenhagen's position as a commercial metropolis. Although inspired by the Dutch Renaissance style, the distinctive towers and garrets on the roof reflect the taste of Christian IV. The characteristic spire of the building with four intertwinded dragon tails topped by three crowns, symbolises the then Kingdom of Denmark, which included Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 and Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

.

In 1614, Christian IV began work on the construction of the then Danish Kristianstad
Kristianstad
Kristianstad is a city and the seat of Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 35,711 inhabitants in 2010.-History:The city was founded in 1614 by King Christian IV of Denmark, the city's name literally means 'Town of Christian', as a planned city after the burning of the town of Vä...

 in Scania, now in the south of Sweden, completing many of its buildings in the Renaissance style. Particularly impressive is the Church of the Trinity
Trinity Church, Kristianstad
Trinity Church is a religious building in Kristianstad, Sweden, built between 1617 and 1628 by Christian IV of Denmark. He had founded the city of Kristianstad in 1614 at a time when Scania was part of the Kingdom of Denmark...

 (1618–1628) designed by Flemish-Danish architect Lorenz van Steenwinckel
Lorenz van Steenwinckel
Lorenz van Steenwinckel was a Flemish-Danish architect and sculptor, son of Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder and brother of Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger. From 1613, he was responsible for numerous projects commissioned by Christian IV...

. It is said to be Scandinavia's finest example of a Renaissance church.

Christian IV also initiated a number of projects in Norway that were largely based on Renaissance architecture He established mining operations in Kongsberg
Kongsberg
is a town and municipality in Buskerud county, Norway. It is located at the southern end of the traditional region of Numedal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Kongsberg....

 and Røros
Røros
is a town and municipality in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the Gauldalen region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Røros. Other villages include Brekken, Glåmos, Feragen, Galåa, and Hitterdalen....

, now a World Heritage Site. After a devastating fire in 1624, the town of Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

 was moved to a new location and rebuilt as a fortified city with an orthogonal layout
Grid plan
The grid plan, grid street plan or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid...

 surrounded by ramparts, and renamed Christiania. King Christian also founded the trading city of Kristiansand
Kristiansand
-History:As indicated by archeological findings in the city, the Kristiansand area has been settled at least since 400 AD. A royal farm is known to have been situated on Oddernes as early as 800, and the first church was built around 1040...

, once again naming it after himself.
While stone buildings became more and more common as town houses, farms continued to be half-timbered, sometimes in conjunction with a single stone house. Ordinary people continued to live in half-timbered houses.

Holbæk
Holbæk
Holbæk is a town in Denmark and the seat of Holbæk municipality with a population of 27,055 . The city is located in the northeastern part of Region Sjælland, Denmark....

 in northwestern Sealand began to develop towards the end of the Middle Ages. Prosperity peaked in the 17th century as corn grown locally was traded with Germany and the Netherlands. The half-timbered houses which now form the museum date back to that period, providing an insight into how the town functioned at the time.

Danish country vicarages
Rectory
A rectory is the residence, or former residence, of a rector, most often a Christian cleric, but in some cases an academic rector or other person with that title...

 from this period tended to be built in the same style as farmhouses, though usually rather larger. A fine example is Kølstrup Vicarage near Kerteminde
Kerteminde
Kerteminde , is a town in central Denmark, located in Kerteminde Municipality on the island of Funen. The town has a population of 5,698 . It is a small harbor town surrounded by farms...

 in north-eastern Funen. The house itself is a thatched half-timbered building with a large rectangular courtyard flanked by outhouses.


Baroque



As during the Renaissance period, it was again principally Dutch influence which predominated in Baroque architecture, although many of the features originated in Italy and France. Symmetry and regularity were primary concerns, often enhanced by a projecting central section on the main façade.

Copenhagen's Round Tower
Rundetårn
The Rundetårn is a 17th-century tower located in central Copenhagen, Denmark. One of the many architectural projects of Christian IV, it was built as an astronomical observatory...

 was also one of Christian IV's projects after he provided funding for an observatory as proposed by the astronomer Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe , born Tyge Ottesen Brahe, was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations...

. Under the initial leadership of Hans van Steenwinckel
Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger
Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger was a Flemish-Danish architect who specialised in the Dutch Renaissance style, typical of prestigious Danish buildings from the first half of the 17th century...

 who surprisingly adapted the design to Dutch Baroque, the Tower was completed in 1642 with a height of almost 40 m. The bricks, specially ordered from the Netherlands, were of a hard-burned, slender type, known as muffer or mopper. A 210-meter-long spiral ramp leads to the top, providing panoramic views over Copenhagen. The Round Tower is the oldest functioning observatory in Europe. Until 1861 it was used by the University of Copenhagen, but today, anyone can observe the night sky through the tower's astronomical telescope during the winter.

Nysø Manor
Nysø Manor
Nysø Manor, located near Præstø in the southeast of the Danish island of Sealand, was built in 1673 for Jens Lauridsen, a local functionary.-Architecture:...

 (1673) near Præstø
Præstø
Præstø is a town with a population of 3,884 and a former municipality in Vordingborg Municipality in Region Sjælland on the east coast of the island of Zealand near its southwestern tip in south Denmark. The former Præstø municipality included the islands of Maderne, Storeholm, and Lilleholm...

, Sealand, was built for the local functionary Jens Lauridsen. It was the first Baroque country house in Denmark, replacing the earlier Renaissance style. The inspiration came from Holland and the architect was probably Ewert Janssen
Ewert Janssen
Ewert Janssen or Evert Janssen was a Danish architect who became a royal masterbuilder in 1668. His greatest achievement was Charlottenborg Palace in Copenhagen.-Life and achievements:...

.

One of the foremost designers of the times was the Danish architect Lambert van Haven
Lambert van Haven
Lambert van Haven was a Danish architect, master builder and painter. He was born in Bergen, the son of the artist Solomon van Haven who had already succeeded in winning the favour of the Danish monarchy....

 whose masterpiece was the Church of Our Savior in Copenhagen (1682–1696) which relies on the Greek cross for its basic layout. The façade is segmented by Tuscan pilasters extending up to the full height of the building. Other features such as the distinctive corkscrew spire were however not undertaken until the reign of Frederick V
Frederick V of Denmark
Frederick V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1746, son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalen of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.-Early life:...

. It was Lauritz de Thurah
Lauritz de Thurah
Laurids Lauridsen de Thurah, known as Lauritz de Thurah , was a Danish architect and architectural writer. He became the most important Danish architect of the late baroque period...

 who finally completed the building in 1752.
Charlottenborg
Charlottenborg Palace
Charlottenborg Palace is a large town mansion located on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and Nyhavn in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built as a residence for Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, it has served as the base of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts since its foundation in 1754...

 (1672–1683), on Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, Denmark, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The finest and largest square of the city, it was laid out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city, and has an equestrian statue of...

 in the centre of Copenhagen, is said to be the most important pure Baroque building remaining in Denmark. Van Haven may have been involved in its design although Ewert Janssen
Ewert Janssen
Ewert Janssen or Evert Janssen was a Danish architect who became a royal masterbuilder in 1668. His greatest achievement was Charlottenborg Palace in Copenhagen.-Life and achievements:...

 is usually credited with the work. Several other mansion houses in Denmark have been based on its design.

It was Henrik Ruse
Henrik Ruse
Henrik Ruse , later Baron Henrik Rysensteen , was a Dutch officer and fortification engineer...

, a Dutch building engineer, who was charged by Frederick III to develop the area around Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, Denmark, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The finest and largest square of the city, it was laid out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city, and has an equestrian statue of...

, especially in connection with the Nyhavn Canal
Nyhavn
Nyhavn is a 17th century waterfront, canal and entertainment district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Stretching from Kongens Nytorv to the harbour front just south of the Royal Playhouse, it is lined by brightly coloured 17th and early 18th century townhouses and bars, cafes and restaurants...

 which was designed to become Copenhagen's new harbour. It was not, however, until Christian V
Christian V of Denmark
Christian V , was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 to 1699, the son of Frederick III of Denmark and Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg...

 became king in 1670 that Niels Rosenkrantz completed the work. Over the next few years, numerous town houses were built along the northern or sunny side of the canal. The oldest, Number 9, was completed in 1681, probably by Christen Christensen, the harbour master.

Clausholm Castle
Clausholm Castle
Clausholm Castle is a large Danish country house located some 12 km southeast of Randers in eastern Jutland. It is one of Denmark's finest Baroque buildings.-History:...

 (1693–1694) near Randers
Randers
Randers is a city in Randers municipality on the Jutland peninsula in central Denmark. It is Denmark's sixth-largest city, with a population of 60,656 . Randers city is the main town of the municipality and the site of its municipal council.-Overview:Randers municipality has 94,750 inhabitants...

 was designed by the Danish architect Ernst Brandenburger with assistance of the Swede Nicodemus Tessin
Nicodemus Tessin the Younger
Count Nicodemus Tessin the Younger was a Swedish Baroque architect, city planner, and administrator.The son of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and the father of Carl Gustaf Tessin, Tessin the Younger was the middle-most generation of the brief Tessin dynasty, which have had a lasting influence on...

 who was invited to decorate the facade. The more sophisticated first-floor apartments with their higher ceilings were designed for use by royalty.

The first Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, designed by Elias David Häusser
Elias David Häusser
Elias David Häusser was a German-Danish architect working in the Baroque and Rococo styles. He is most known for designing the first Christiansborg Palace which was almost completely destroyed in a fire in 1794...

 and completed in the 1740s, was certainly one of the most impressive Baroque buildings of its day. Although the palace itself was destroyed by fire in 1794, the extensive showgrounds and riding arena completed by Niels Eigtved have survived undamaged and can be visited today. Fredensborg Palace
Fredensborg Palace
Fredensborg Palace, , is a palace located on the eastern shore of Lake Esrum in Fredensborg on the island of Zealand in Denmark. It is the Danish Royal Family’s spring and autumn residence, and is often the site of important state visits and events in the Royal Family...

 (1731), the royal residence on the shore of Sealand's Lake Esrum, with its exquisite Chancellery House, is the work of Johan Cornelius Krieger who was the court gardener at Rosenborg Castle. The park at Fredensborg is one of Denmark's largest and best preserved Baroque gardens.

After the turn of the 19th century, architecture developed into the late Baroque style. Among the major proponents were Johan Conrad Ernst
Johan Conrad Ernst
Johan Conrad Ernst was a Danish architect and royal master builder. He was the son of Johan Adolf Ernst, a successful linen merchant who had immigrated from Nuremberg and had a luxurious residence on Amagertorv in Copenhagen....

 who built the Chancery Building or Kancellibygningen (1721) on Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen
Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark, and part of Copenhagen Inner City. Bishop Absalon constructed the city's first castle on the island in 1166-67 at the site where Christiansborg Palace, the seat of the Danish Parliament lies today...

 and Lauritz de Thurah
Lauritz de Thurah
Laurids Lauridsen de Thurah, known as Lauritz de Thurah , was a Danish architect and architectural writer. He became the most important Danish architect of the late baroque period...

 who designed the Eremitage Palace
Eremitage Palace
The Eremitage Palace or Eremitage Hunting Lodge is located in Dyrehaven north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The palace was built by architect Lauritz de Thurah in Baroque style from 1734 to 1736 for Christian VI of Denmark in order to host royal banquets during royal hunts in Dyrehaven.- Name :Never...

 (1734) in Dyrehaven, just north of Copenhagen. Even more ambitious was de Thurah's work at Ledreborg near Roskilde
Roskilde
Roskilde is the main city in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark on the island of Zealand. It is an ancient city, dating from the Viking Age and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network....

, where he succeeded in working the components into a well-balanced and cohesive Baroque palace.

Rococo


Following on closely from the Baroque period, Rococo
Rococo
Rococo , also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful...

 came into fashion in the 1740s under the leadership of Niels Eigtved
Nicolai Eigtved
Nicolai Eigtved, also known as Niels Eigtved, , Danish architect, introduced and was the leading proponent of the French rococo style in Danish architecture during the 1730s-1740s. He designed and built some of the most prominent buildings of his time, a number of which still stand to this day...

. Originally a gardner, Eigtved spent many years abroad where he became increasingly interested in architecture, especially the French Rococo style. On his return to Denmark, he built Prinsens Palæ (1743–1744) in Copenhagen as a residence for Crown Prince Frederick (later Frederick V). It is now the National Museum
National Museum of Denmark
The National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen is Denmark’s largest museum of cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures, alike. The museum's main domicile is located a short distance from Strøget at the center of Copenhagen. It contains exhibits from around the world,...

.

Soon afterwards, he was given prestige assignments including the overall architectural design for the Frederiksstaden
Frederiksstaden
Frederiksstaden is a district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Constructed during the reign of Frederick V in the second half of the 18th century and it is considered to be one of the most important rococo complexes in Europe....

 district of Copenhagen 1749, planned around the strictly octagonal square containing the four Amalienborg Palaces and considered to be one of Europe's most important Rococo complexes. Adam Gottlob Moltke
Adam Gottlob Moltke
Count Adam Gottlob Moltke , Danish courtier, statesman and diplomat, born at Riesenhof in Mecklenburg.-Early life:...

 who, as Frederick V's overhofmarskal or lord chamberlain, was in charge of the project gave Eigtved a free hand, not only to design the principal buildings but also to provide the area with straight broad streets and the mansions which lined them. Frederick V had wanted to emulate the grand building achievements of the French monarchs. Not surprisingly, therefore, the palace square is inspired by the Place de la Concorde
Place de la Concorde
The Place de la Concorde in area, it is the largest square in the French capital. It is located in the city's eighth arrondissement, at the eastern end of the Champs-Élysées.- History :...

 in Paris from the same period. Although Eigtved died before the work was completed, other architects including Lauritz de Thurah faithfully continued to execute his plans. Perhaps the finest outcomes are the Amalienborg Palace complex
Amalienborg Palace
Amalienborg Palace is the winter home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. It consists of four identical classicizing palace façades with rococo interiors around an octagonal courtyard ; in the centre of the square is a monumental equestrian statue of Amalienborg's...

, Frederik's Church
Frederik's Church
Frederick's Church , popularly known as The Marble Church is a church in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just north of Amalienborg Palace....

 in its immediate vicinity and Frederik's Hospital
Frederiks Hospital
The royal Frederiks Hospital was Denmark's first hospital in the present-day meaning of the word. It was founded by king Frederik V and financed by the earnings from the Norwegian Postal Service....

.

Philip de Lange
Philip de Lange
Philip de Lange was a leading Dutch-Danish architect who designed many different types of building in various styles including Dutch Baroque and Rococo.-Early life and family:...

, although influenced by Eigtved, developed his own rather strict style during this period. His ornamental facade can be seen on the Kunstforeningen building (1750) on Gammel Strand in Copenhagen. The top storey with a gable was added later. De Lange also designed the small but well proportioned Damsholte Church
Damsholte Church
Damsholte Church, located in the village of Damsholte on the island of Møn in southeastern Denmark, is the only village church in the country built in the Rococo style. It is considered to be one of Denmark's finest Rococo buildings.-History:...

 on Møn, the only Rococo village church in Denmark.


Neoclassical


Neoclassicism
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 which relied on inspiration from ancient Greece and Rome, was brought to Denmark by the French architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin
Nicolas-Henri Jardin
Nicolas-Henri Jardin , neoclassical architect, was born in St. Germain des Noyers, Dept. Seine-et-Marne, France, and worked seventeen years in Denmark as an architect to the royal court...

. His countryman, the sculptor Jacques Saly
Jacques Saly
Jacques François Joseph Saly, also known as Jacques Saly , French-born sculptor who worked in France, Denmark, and Italy, was born in Valenciennes to Francois Marie Saly and wife Marie Michelle....

, who was already well established in Denmark, persuaded Frederick V that Jardin could complete Frederik's Church after Eigtved's death. Although Jardin did not succeed in this, he was successful in designing several prestige Neoclassical buildings such as Bernstorff Palace
Bernstorff Palace
Bernstorff Palace, Danish: Bernstorff Slot, in Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark, was built in the middle of the 18th century for Foreign Minister Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count von Bernstorff. It remained in the possession of the Bernstorff family until 1812. In 1842 it was bought by Christian VIII...

 (1759–1765) in Gentofte
Gentofte
Gentofte Kommune is a municipality in the Capital Region of Denmark on the east coast of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of , and has a total population of 68,913...

 and Marienlyst Palace
Marienlyst Castle
Marienlyst Castle, Danish Marienlyst Slot, is a palacial residence located in Helsingør, Denmark. It was named after King Frederik V of Denmark's second wife, Juliana Maria the queen consort of Denmark and Norway. The building formerly served as a royal pavilion of Kronborg Castle and was mostly...

 near Helsingør.

One of Jardin's pupils, Caspar Frederik Harsdorff
Caspar Frederik Harsdorff
Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, also known as C.F. Harsdorff, , Danish neoclassical architect is considered to be Denmark’s leading architect in the late 18th century, and is referred to as “The Father of Danish Classicism”.- Early life and training :He was born Caspar Frederik Harsdørffer in...

, turned out to be Denmark's most prominent 18th century architect and is known as the Father of Danish Classicism. He undertook a considerable amount of redesign work, both for interiors and exteriors, including work on the Royal Theatre
Royal Danish Theatre
The Royal Danish Theatre is both the national Danish performing arts institution and a name used to refer to its old purpose-built venue from 1874 located on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen. The theatre was founded in 1748, first serving as the theatre of the king, and then as the theatre of the...

 (1774) where he introduced a classical temple style with a wide entrance and large hall. He also carried out work on the Amalienborg
Amalienborg Palace
Amalienborg Palace is the winter home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. It consists of four identical classicizing palace façades with rococo interiors around an octagonal courtyard ; in the centre of the square is a monumental equestrian statue of Amalienborg's...

 complex including the colonnade, with its eight Ionic wooden columns, linking the crown prince's residence (Schacks Palæ) with the king's (Moltkes Palæ).

Another remarkable example of neoclassicism is Liselund
Liselund
Liselund is an 18th-century aesthetically landscaped park, complete with several exotic buildings and monuments. Located close to Møns Klint on the north-eastern corner of the Danish island of Møn, it is deemed to be one of the finest examples in Scandinavia of Romantic English gardening...

 on the island of Møn
Møn
-Location:Møn is located just off the south-eastern tip of Zealand from which it is separated by the waters of the Hølen strait between Kalvehave and the island of Nyord, at the northern end of Møn. Further south is Stege Bugt...

 in south-eastern Denmark. This rather small country home built in the French Neoclassical style
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...

 in the 1790s is exceptional in that it has a thatched roof. Like the surrounding Romantic park, the house was the work of Andreas Kirkerup, one of the foremost landscape architects of the times. It was designed as a summer retreat for Antoine de la Calmette, the island's governor, and his wife, Lise. The building is T-shaped with the main rooms on the ground floor, the first floor consisting of nine bedrooms. The interior was probably decorated by the leading decorator of the day, Joseph Christian Lillie
Joseph Christian Lillie
Joseph Christian Lillie , also known as J.C. Lillie, was a Danish neoclassical architect andinterior designer. His early career was in Denmark, where he is mainly known for his interior designs and furniture production...

.

Classicism



After Hardorff's death, the main proponent of Classicism was Christian Frederik Hansen
Christian Frederik Hansen
Christian Frederik Hansen , known as C.F. Hansen, was the leading Danish architect between the late 18th century and the mid 19th century, and on account of his position at the Royal Danish Academy of Art the most powerful person in artistic circles for many years...

 who developed a more severe style with clean, simple forms and large, unbroken surfaces. From 1800, he was in charge of all major building projects in Copenhagen where he designed the Copenhagen City Hall & Courthouse
Copenhagen Court House
The Copenhagen Court House is a historic building located on Nytorv in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built as a combuined city hall and courthouse, it now serves as the seat of the District Court of Copenhagen...

 (1805–1815) on Nytorv
Nytorv
Nytorv is a public square in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjoining Gammeltorv it forms a common space, today part of the Strøget pedestrian zone...

. He was also responsible for rebuilding Church of Our Lady
Church of Our Lady (Copenhagen)
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen and the National Cathedral of Denmark. It is situated on Vor Frue Plads and next to the main building of the University of Copenhagen....

 (Vor Frue Kirke) and designing the surrounding square (1811–1829).

In 1800, Hansen was also charged with rebuilding Christiansborg Palace which had burnt down in 1794. Unfortunately, it burnt down once again in 1884. All that remains is the magnificent chapel which, with its Ionic columns, conveys a sense of antiquity.

Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll
Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll
Michael Gottlieb Birckner Bindesbøll was a Danish architect active during the Danish Golden Age in the first half of the 19th century. Most known for his design of Thorvaldsens Museum in Copenhagen, he was a key figure in the stylistic shift in Danish architecture from late classicism to Historicism...

 is remembered above all for designing Thorvaldsens Museum
Thorvaldsens Museum
The Thorvaldsen Museum is a single-artist museum in Copenhagen, Denmark, dedicated to the art of Danish neoclassicistic sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen , who lived and worked in Rome for most of his life . The museum is located on the small island of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen next to...

. In 1822, as a young man, he had experienced Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings.-Biography:Schinkel was born in Neuruppin, Margraviate of...

's classicism in Germany and France and had met the German-born architect and archaeologist Franz Gau who introduced him to the colourful architecture of antiquity. His uncle, Jonas Collin, who was an active art and culture official under Frederick VI, awakened the King's interest in a museum for Bertel Thorvaldsen
Bertel Thorvaldsen
Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish-Icelandic sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life in Italy . Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, and was accepted to the Royal Academy of Arts when he was eleven years old...

, the Danish-Icelandic sculptor, and asked Bindesbøll to make some sketches for the building. As Bindensbøll's designs stood out from those of other architects, he was given a commission to transform the Royal Carriage Depot and Theatre Scenery Painting Building into a museum. Emulating the construction of the Erechtheion and the Parthenon
Parthenon
The Parthenon is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their virgin patron. Its construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. It was completed in 438 BC, although...

 as freestanding buildings released from the traditional urban plan of closed streets, he completed the work in 1848. He also incorporated aspects of ancient Egyptian architecture into his design, though "the plan as a whole ..... is neither Egyptian nor Greek, but Bindesbøll's own."

Historicism



With the arrival of Historicism
Historicism (art)
Historicism refers to artistic styles that draw their inspiration from copying historic styles or artisans. After neo-classicism, which could itself be considered a historicist movement, the 19th century saw a new historicist phase marked by a return to a more ancient classicism, in particular in...

 in the second half of the century, special importance was attached to high standards of craftsmanship and proper use of materials. This can be seen in Copenhagen's University Library
Copenhagen University Library
Copenhagen University Library in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the main research library of the University of Copenhagen. Founded in 1582, it is the oldest library in Denmark....

 (1861) designed by Johan Daniel Herholdt
Johan Daniel Herholdt
Johan Daniel Herholdt was a Danish architect, professor and royal building inspector. He worked in the Historicist style and had a significant influence on Danish architecture during the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century...

 and inspired by St Fermo's Church in Verona
Verona
Verona ; German Bern, Dietrichsbern or Welschbern) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, with approx. 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven chef-lieus of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third of North-Eastern Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona...

.

Vilhelm Dahlerup
Vilhelm Dahlerup
Jens Vilhelm Dahlerup was a Danish architect who specialized in the Historicist style. One of the most productive and noted Danish architects of the 19th century, he is behind many of the most known buildings and landmarks of his time and has more than any other single architect contributed to the...

 was one of the most productive 19th century architects. Perhaps more than anyone else, he contributed to the way Copenhagen appears today. His most important buildings include Copenhagen's Hotel D’Angleterre
Hotel D’Angleterre
Hotel d'Angleterre is one of the first deluxe hotels in the world. Situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located on Kongens Nytorv opposite Charlottenborg, the Royal Opera and Nyhavn. Tracing its history back to 1755, the current building was built 1873-75, the work of leading Danish architect...

 (1875) and the Danish National Gallery
Statens Museum for Kunst
Statens Museum for Kunst is the Danish national gallery located in Copenhagen....

 (1891). With the support of the Carlsberg company, he designed the Ny Carlsberg Glyptoteque
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark...

 (1897) and a number of lavishly decorated buildings at the Carlsberg Brewery site
Carlsberg (district)
Carlsberg is an area straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 33 hectares and is the former industrial site of the Carlsberg Breweries, which decommissioned their Valby brewery at the end of 2008, concentrating their production of...

, now under redevelopment as a new district in Copenhagen.
Ferdinand Meldahl, also a proponent of Historicism, completed the reconstruction of Frederiksborg Palace
Frederiksborg Palace
Frederiksborg castle is a castle in Hillerød, Denmark. It was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV, and is now known as The Museum of National History. The current building replaced a previous castle erected by Frederick II, and is the largest Renaissance palace in Scandinavia...

 after the fire in 1859 and designed the Parliament Building
Alþingishúsið
Alþingishúsið is a classical 19th century structure which stands by Austurvöllur in central Reykjavík, Iceland. It houses Alþingi, the Icelandic parliament...

 in Reykjavík
Reykjavík
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city in Iceland.Its latitude at 64°08' N makes it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxaflói Bay...

, Iceland, at that time a Danish colony. His greatest achievement was, however, the completion of Frederik's Church
Frederik's Church
Frederick's Church , popularly known as The Marble Church is a church in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just north of Amalienborg Palace....

 in Copenhagen. The site had become a ruin after work was stopped on Jardin's original design in 1770. Meldahl's plans differed significantly from Jardin's in that the lateral towers were eliminated, the dome was lower and the columns were reduced from six to four before the main entrance. Nevertheless, the overall height almost matched Jardin's, thanks to the lantern and the taller spire. The building, commonly known as the Marble Church, was completed in 1894, more than 150 years after Eigtved had drawn up his original plans.

National Romanticism


Martin Nyrop
Martin Nyrop
Martin Nyrop was a Danish architect who designed the Copenhagen City Hall, the Vallekilde Højskole, and the majority of the buildings for the Nordic Industrial, Agricultural and Art Exhibition.-Selected buildings:...

 was one of the main proponents of the National Romantic style
National Romantic Style
The National Romantic style was a Nordic architectural style that was part of the national romantic movement during the late 19th and early 20th century. Designers turned to early Medieval and even prehistoric precedents to construct a style appropriate to the perceived character of a people...

. The main aim was to use distinctive Nordic
Nordic countries
The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland...

 motifs from the distant past, as is clearly demonstrated in Copenhagen City Hall
Copenhagen City Hall
Copenhagen City Hall is the headquarters of the Municipal Council as well as the Lord mayor of the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. The building is situated on The City Hall Square in central Copenhagen....

 which was completed in 1905. The City Hall is certainly Copenhagen's most monumental and most original building from the last quarter of the 19th century with its impressive facade, the golden statue of Absalon
Absalon
Absalon was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death. He was the foremost politician and churchfather of Denmark in the second half of the 12th century, and was the closest advisor of King Valdemar I of...

 just above the balcony and its tall, slim clock tower. It was inspired by the Siena City Hall
Palazzo Pubblico
The Palazzo Pubblico is a palace in Siena, Tuscany, central Italy. Construction began in 1297 and its original purpose was to house the republican government, consisting of the Podestà and Council of Nine....

.

Another participant in the National Romanticism movement was Hack Kampmann
Hack Kampmann
Hack Kampmann was a Danish architect. His parents were the priest Christian Peter Georg Kampmann and Johanne Marie Schmidt...

 who designed the Aarhus Theatre
Aarhus Theatre
The Aarhus Theatre in Aarhus is the largest provincial theatre in Denmark.The present theatre house constructed in the late 19th century as a replacement for the old theatre, nicknamed "Svedekassen". Since Aarhus had grown to be Jutland's biggest city during the 19th century, the old theatre had...

 in the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

 style at the very end of the century.

Urban development


The harbour town of Svendborg
Svendborg
Svendborg is a town on the island of Funen in south-central Denmark. The town is in Svendborg municipality . Svendborg is the second-largest city on Funen and has a population of 27,009 ....

 in the south east of Funen dates back to the 13th century. Real prosperity emerged in the 19th century when shipbuilding and trade became important drivers. The town subsequently underwent a period of renovation with new brick and stone buildings lining its narrow streets. The old town has now become an important tourist attraction.

The fine architectural style of Skagen
Skagen
Skagen is a projection of land and a town, with a population of 8,515 , in Region Nordjylland on the northernmost tip of Vendsyssel-Thy, a part of the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark...

 on the northern tip of Jutland is quite distinctive. From the 19th century on, the houses were whitewashed and had red-tiled roofs. Yellow and red tones dominated, backed by white chimneys and roof decorations. These traditions are not only to be found in the town's old districts but are maintained in the newer residential areas. Several of the town's more imposing buildings from the beginning of the 20th century were designed by the Ulrik Plesner, others were designed by well-known architects such as Thorvald Bindesbøll
Thorvald Bindesbøll
Thorvald Bindesbøll was a Danish architect. He was one of Denmark's most important architects at the turn of the twentieth century....

.

20th century



Nordic Classicism


Neoclassicism or increasingly Nordic Classicism
Nordic Classicism
Nordic Classicism was a style of architecture that briefly blossomed in the Nordic countries between 1910 and 1930....

 continued to thrive at the beginning of the century until about 1930 as can be seen in Kay Fisker
Kay Fisker
Kay Otto Fisker was a Danish architect, designer and educator. He is most known for his many housing projects, mainly in the Copenhagen area, and is considered a leading exponent of the Danish Functionalism....

's Hornbækhus apartment buildings (1923) and Hack Kampmann
Hack Kampmann
Hack Kampmann was a Danish architect. His parents were the priest Christian Peter Georg Kampmann and Johanne Marie Schmidt...

's police headquarters (1924). Its development was no isolated phenomenon, drawing on existing classical
Classical architecture
Classical architecture is a mode of architecture employing vocabulary derived in part from the Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, enriched by classicizing architectural practice in Europe since the Renaissance...

 traditions in the Nordic countries, and from new ideas being pursued in German-speaking cultures. It can thus be characterised as a combination of direct and indirect influences from vernacular
Vernacular
A vernacular is the native language or native dialect of a specific population, as opposed to a language of wider communication that is not native to the population, such as a national language or lingua franca.- Etymology :The term is not a recent one...

 architecture (Nordic, Italian and German) and Neoclassicism
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

.

While the movement had its greatest level of success in Sweden, there were a number of other important Danish proponents including Ivar Bentsen
Ivar Bentsen
Ivar Bentsen was a Danish architect.-External links:*...

, Kaare Klint, Arne Jacobsen
Arne Jacobsen
Arne Emil Jacobsen, usually known as Arne Jacobsen, was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for contributing so much to architectural Functionalism as well as for the worldwide success he enjoyed with simple but effective chair designs.-Early life and education:Arne Jacobsen was born...

, Carl Petersen and Steen Eiler Rasmussen
Steen Eiler Rasmussen
Steen Eiler Rasmussen was a Danish architect and urban planner who was a professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, and a prolific writer of books and poetry...

. Bentsen, with the assistance of Thorkild Henningsen, designed Denmark's first terraced house
Terraced house
In architecture and city planning, a terrace house, terrace, row house, linked house or townhouse is a style of medium-density housing that originated in Great Britain in the late 17th century, where a row of identical or mirror-image houses share side walls...

s in the Bellahøj district of Copenhagen. Very appropriately, Klint, working with Bentsen, adapted the design of Frederik's Hospital
Frederiks Hospital
The royal Frederiks Hospital was Denmark's first hospital in the present-day meaning of the word. It was founded by king Frederik V and financed by the earnings from the Norwegian Postal Service....

 to serve as the Danish Museum of Art & Design. Carl Petersen's main achievement was the Faaborg
Faaborg
Faaborg or Fåborg is a Danish town with a population of 7,178 , located in Faaborg-Midtfyn municipality on the island of Funen. It was formerly the seat of Faaborg municipality. The seat of the new municipality is Ringe...

 Museum built for collections of art from Funen. Steen Rasmussen is remembered above all for his town planning activities and for his contributions to the Dansk Byplanlaboratorium (Danish town planning laboratory).

Expressionism


Grundtvig's Church
Grundtvig's Church
Grundtvig's Church is located in the Bispebjerg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a rare example of expressionist church architecture. Due to its unusual appearance, it is one of the best known churches in the city.- History :...

 in Bispebjerg
Bispebjerg
Bispebjerg is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It lies on the north border of the municipality. It covers an area of 5.39 km², has a population of 40,033, and a population density of 7,389 per km²....

, Copenhagen, is named after the Danish philosopher and pastor Nikolai Grundtvig, remembered by most Danes for his resounding hymns, now an integral part of the national culture. As a result of its unusual appearance, it is Denmark's most famous expressionist
Expressionist architecture
Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts....

 church. Designed by Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint
Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint
Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint was a Danish architect, designer, painter and architectural theorist, best known for designing Grundtvig's Church in Copenhagen, generally considered to be one of the most important Danish architectural works of the time...

, it relied heavily on Scandinavian brick gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 traditions, especially Danish village churches with stepped gable
Crow-stepped gable
A Stepped gable, Crow-stepped gable, or Corbie step is a stair-step type of design at the top of the triangular gable-end of a building...

s. Jensen-Klint combined the modern geometric forms of Brick Expressionism
Brick Expressionism
The term Brick Expressionism describes a specific variant of expressionist architecture that uses bricks, tiles or clinker bricks as the main visible building material...

 with the classical vertical of Gothic architecture. Construction began in 1921 but was only completed by his son Kaare Klint in 1940 after Jensen-Klint's death. The most striking feature of the building is its west facade, reminiscent of a westwork
Westwork
A westwork is the monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque church. The exterior consists of multiple stories between two towers. The interior includes an entrance vestibule, a chapel, and a series of galleries overlooking the nave...

 or of the exterior of a church organ.

Functionalism



Functionalism
Functionalism (architecture)
Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. This statement is less self-evident than it first appears, and is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to modern...

, which began in the 1930s, relied on rational architecture making use of concrete, iron and glass, preferably to meet social needs. Its main proponents in Denmark were Frits Schlegel
Frits Schlegel
Frits Schlegel was a Functionalist Danish architect active during the transition from traditional craftsmanship to industrialized construction methods in the building industry. He was among the first architects in Denmark to experiment with poured-in-place concrete.-Biography:Schlegel was born in...

, Mogens Lassen
Mogens Lassen
Mogens Lassen was a Modernist Danish architect and designer, working within the idiom of the International Style. He mainly designed residential buildings, both in the form of single-family houses and apartment blocks...

, Vilhelm Lauritzen
Vilhelm Lauritzen
Vilhelm Lauritzen was a leading Danish modernist architect, founder of the still active architectural firm Vilhelm Lauritzen Arkitekter.-Biography:...

 and, especially Arne Jacobsen
Arne Jacobsen
Arne Emil Jacobsen, usually known as Arne Jacobsen, was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for contributing so much to architectural Functionalism as well as for the worldwide success he enjoyed with simple but effective chair designs.-Early life and education:Arne Jacobsen was born...

 with his Bellavista developments
Bellavista housing estate
The Bellavista housing estate designed by Arne Jacobsen is the clearest example of Bauhaus architecture in Denmark. Completed in 1934, the estate is located just north of Copenhagen, in Klampenborg, Gentofte Municipality, next to Jacobsen's Bellevue Beach, which had been completed a couple of years...

 north of Copenhagen. Another of Jacobsen's masterpieces was the Aarhus City Hall which he designed together with Erik Møller
Erik Møller
Svend Erik Møller was a Danish architect.Møller used to work with the famous Danish architect and designer Arne Jacobsen. Together they won the competition to build the new City Hall in Aarhus, which was built from 1938 to 1942. At the same time they built another town hall in Søllerød. From 1955...

 in 1937 and completed in 1948. The tower is 60 meters tall and the tower clock face has a diameter of 7 meters. The building is made of concrete plated with marble from Porsgrunn
Porsgrunn
is a town and municipality in Telemark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Grenland. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Porsgrunn....

 in Norway.

A more traditional approach was taken by Kay Fisker
Kay Fisker
Kay Otto Fisker was a Danish architect, designer and educator. He is most known for his many housing projects, mainly in the Copenhagen area, and is considered a leading exponent of the Danish Functionalism....

 who, together with C.F. Møller
C.F. Møller
Christian Frederik Møller , generally referred to as C. F. Møller, was a Danish architect, professor and, from 1965 to 1969, the first rector of the Aarhus School of Architecture. His former practice, Arkitektfirmaet C. F. Møller, which he founded in 1924, still exists and bears his name...

, designed buildings for Aarhus University in 1931.

Modernism



After World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Functionalism drew on trends in American Modernism
American modernism
American modernism like modernism in general is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, and is thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic...

 with its irregular ground plans, flat roofs, open plan
Open plan
Open plan is the generic term used in architectural and interior design for any floor plan which makes use of large, open spaces and minimizes the use of small, enclosed rooms such as private offices...

 interiors and glass facades. Good examples are Jørn Utzon's own family house
Utzon's House in Hellebæk
Utzon's House in Hellebæk is a one-storey private home in Hellebæk, not far from Helsingør, in Denmark's northern Zealand. Built by the world-famous architect Jørn Utzon for his family and himself in 1952, its innovative design was welcomed by the world of architecture.-History:Apart from a...

 (1952) on the outskirts of Hellebæk near Helsingør where good use is made of reasonably cheap materials for post-war housing; and the Kingo Houses
Kingo Houses
Kingo Houses is a housing development designed by architect Jørn Utzon in Helsingor, Denmark. The development consists of 63 L-shaped houses based upon the design of traditional Danish farmhouses with central courtyards and that of Chinese and Islamic dwellings....

 (1956–1958) in Helsingør which consist of 63 L-shaped houses based upon the design of traditional Danish farmhouses. Another project, noted for the synthesis it creates between architecture and landscape, was the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located directly on the shore of the Øresund Sound in Humlebæk, north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the most visited art museum in Denmark with an extensive permanent collection of modern and contemporary art, dating from World War II and up...

 (1958) in Humlebæk, designed by Jørgen Bo and Vilhelm Wohlert
Vilhelm Wohlert
Vilhelm Wohlert was a Danish architect.Wohlert was educated at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts' School of Architecture, where one of his teachers was Kaare Klint. In 1958 he and his partner Jørgen Bo started work on the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, a project on which they would work for...

.

During this period, Arne Jacobsen became the country’s leading Modernist
Modern architecture
Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely...

 with the design of the SAS Hotel
Radisson SAS Royal Hotel, Copenhagen
The Radisson Blu Royal Hotel is a hotel in Copenhagen, that was designed by Danish architect and designer Arne Jacobsen for the airline Scandinavian Airlines System between 1956 and 1960. At its completion the hotel was the largest in Denmark, at 69.60 meters in height, the first skyscraper in...

 in Copenhagen (1960). Rødovre Town Hall, completed in 1956, shows how well Jacobsen combined the use of different materials: sandstone, two types of glass, painted metalwork and stainless steel.

Following in Jacobsen's footsteps, Denmark had some outstanding successes in 20th century architecture. Most notably, Jørn Utzon
Jørn Utzon
Jørn Oberg Utzon, , AC was a Danish architect, most notable for designing the Sydney Opera House in Australia. When it was declared a World Heritage Site on 28 June 2007, Utzon became only the second person to have received such recognition for one of his works during his lifetime...

's iconic Sydney Opera House
Sydney Opera House
The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in the Australian city of Sydney. It was conceived and largely built by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, finally opening in 1973 after a long gestation starting with his competition-winning design in 1957...

 earned him the distinction of becoming only the second person to have his work recognized as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 while still alive. His Bagsværd Church
Bagsværd Church
Bagsværd Church is a Lutheran church in Bagsværd on the northern outskirts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed in 1968 by Jørn Utzon, it was completed in 1976...

 (1968–1976) in Copenhagen has been considered an outstanding example of critical regionalism
Critical regionalism
Critical Regionalism is an approach to architecture that strives to counter placelessness and lack of identity in Modern Architecture by utilizing the building's geographical context...

, for the synthesis created between universal civilisation and regional culture.

Winning the international competition
Architectural design competition
An architectural design competition is a special type of competition in which an organization or government body that plans to build a new building asks for architects to submit a proposed design for a building. The winning design is usually chosen by an independent panel of design professionals...

 for the Grande Arche
Grande Arche
La Grande Arche de la Défense is a monument and building in the business district of La Défense and in the commune of Puteaux, to the west of Paris, France...

 at La Défense
La Défense
La Défense is a major business district of the Paris aire urbaine. With a population of 20,000, it is centered in an orbital motorway straddling the Hauts-de-Seine département municipalities of Nanterre, Courbevoie and Puteaux...

 in Paris with a design based on simple geometrical forms brought Johann Otto von Spreckelsen
Johann Otto von Spreckelsen
Johann Otto von Spreckelsen was a Danish architect.He was born in Viborg and studied at the Viborg Katedralskole and Royal Academy of Arts in Copenhagen, and later served as director up to his death....

 international fame. Prolific Henning Larsen
Henning Larsen
Henning Larsen is a Danish architect.He is internationally known for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs building in Riyadhand the Copenhagen Opera House...

 designed the Foreign Ministry building in Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

, as well as a variety of prestige buildings throughout Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

 including the Copenhagen Opera House.

From the success of the Strøget
Strøget
Strøget is a carfree zone in Copenhagen, Denmark. This popular tourist attraction in the centre of town is the longest pedestrian shopping area in Europe....

's transformation into a pedestrian zone in Copenhagen in the 1960s and his influential book Life Between Buildings, Jan Gehl
Jan Gehl
Jan Gehl is a Danish architect and urban design consultant based in Copenhagen and whose career has focused on improving the quality of urban life by re-orienting city design towards the pedestrian and cyclist.-Biography:...

 earned an international reputation in urban design
Urban design
Urban design concerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality of towns and cities, and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public space. It has traditionally been regarded as a disciplinary subset of urban planning, landscape architecture, or architecture and in more recent times has...

. He has advised on numerous city planning developments including those for Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 and New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

. His work has often drawn on Copenhagen and its bicycle culture
Cycling in Copenhagen
Cycling in Copenhagen is - as with most bicycling in Denmark - an important means of transportation and a dominating feature of the cityscape, often noticed by visitors. The city offers a variety of favorable cycling conditions — dense urban proximities, short distances and flat terrain...

, to improve the quality of public space
Public space
A public space is a social space such as a town square that is open and accessible to all, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socio-economic level. One of the earliest examples of public spaces are commons. For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry, nor are the entrants...

 in city centres.


Contemporary period



Since the turn of the millennium, Danish architecture has flourished both at home and abroad. Two important areas of Greater Copenhagen have provided substantial opportunities for architectural developments on the domestic front while a number of firms have gained international recognition, winning important commissions abroad. For some, overseas assignments have become as important as those in Denmark itself.

Recent years have also seen the emergence of several new architectural firms operating both in Denmark and internationally.

Recent urban developments



Ørestad
Ørestad
Ørestad is a developing city area in Copenhagen, Denmark, on the island of Amager. It is expected that 20,000 people will live in Ørestad, 20,000 will study, and 80,000 people will be employed in the area...

 is a contemporary urban development to the south-east of the Copenhagen's city centre. Its origin is connected with the building of the Øresund Bridge
Oresund Bridge
The Øresund or Öresund Bridge is a combined twin-track railway and dual carriageway bridge-tunnel across the Øresund strait.The bridge connects Sweden and Denmark, and it is the longest road and rail bridge in Europe. The Øresund Bridge also connects two major Metropolitan Areas: those of the...

 linking Copenhagen to Malmö
Malmö
Malmö , in the southernmost province of Scania, is the third most populous city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg.Malmö is the seat of Malmö Municipality and the capital of Skåne County...

 in Sweden, completed in 2000. After initial planning stages in the 1990s, the first office building was realised in 2001. Today the constantly expanding area has more than 3,000 apartments and 192,100 m² of office space.

Copenhagen itself has also been undergoing significant transformations in recent years with the encouragement of various projects along the waterfront. Based on initial planning work in the 1980s, the area has already seen the appearance of several prestige buildings including the Black Diamond
Black Diamond (library)
The Black Diamond is a modern waterfront extension to the Royal Danish Library's old building on Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. Its quasi-official nickname is a reference to its polished black granite cladding and irregular angles...

 national library extension (1999), the Opera House (2000) and the Royal Danish Playhouse
Royal Danish Playhouse
The Royal Danish Playhouse is a theatre building for the Royal Danish Theatre, situated on the harbour front in the Frederiksstaden neighbourhood of central Copenhagen, Denmark...

 (2004).

International presence



Henning Larsen Architects
Henning Larsen Architects
Henning Larsen Architects is an international architecture firm based in Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded in 1959 by noted Danish architect and namesake Henning Larsen, it has around 150 employees...

, well established in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland...

, are now active outside Denmark, particularly in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

. They have a number of projects in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 and Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, including the Massar Discovery Centre in Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

. Another interesting project is a new building for Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg. It is one of Europe's largest publications of its kind, with a weekly circulation of more than one million.-Overview:...

 on the waterfront in Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

.

3XN
3XN
3XN is a Danish architectural practice with head office in Copenhagen.-History:The company was founded in Århus in 1986 as Nielsen, Nielsen & Nielsen by Kim Herforth Nielsen, Lars Frank Nielsen og Hans Peter Svendler Nielsen. The latter left the company, which is today led by a partner group of...

 have designed the award-winning Muziekgebouw Concert Hall
Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ
Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ is a concert hall for contemporary classical music on the IJ in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The building opened in 2005 and is located above the IJtunnel, a ten-minute walk from Amsterdam Centraal station.The building was designed by Danish architects 3XN...

 in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

 and the new Museum of Liverpool
Museum of Liverpool
The Museum of Liverpool in Liverpool, England, opened on 19 July 2011 and is part of the National Museums Liverpool group....

. In 2007, they won a competition for the design of a new headquarters for Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

 ahead of firms such as Foster + Partners
Foster and Partners
Foster + Partners is an architectural firm based in London. The practice is led by its founder and Chairman, Norman Foster, and has constructed many high-profile glass-and-steel buildings....

 of the UK and Dominique Perrault
Dominique Perrault
Dominique Perrault is a French architect. He became world known for the design of the French National Library, distinguished with the Mies van der Rohe Prize in 1996....

 of France.

Schmidt Hammer Lassen
Schmidt hammer lassen
Schmidt hammer lassen architects is an international architectural practice founded in 1986 in Aarhus, Denmark. It currently has four offices in Aarhus, Copenhagen, Oslo and London....

 have opened offices in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 and Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

. In addition to numerous projects in the Nordic countries, their international work includes Westminster College
City of Westminster College
City of Westminster College is a further education college located in the borough of Westminster, central London. The College has two centres located in Paddington and Queen's Park...

 in London and a new library for the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

.
Among the most notable international projects of C.F. Møller Architects
Arkitektfirmaet C. F. Møller
Arkitektfirmaet C. F. Møller, internationally also known as C. F. Møller Architects, is an architectural firm based in Århus, Denmark. Founded in 1924 by C. F. Møller, it is today the largest architectural firm in Denmark based on number of employed architects. About half the revenue is earned...

 are extensions to the Natural History
Natural History Museum
The Natural History Museum is one of three large museums on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, England . Its main frontage is on Cromwell Road...

 and the National Maritime
National Maritime Museum
The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, England is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom and may be the largest museum of its kind in the world. The historic buildings forming part of the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site, it also incorporates the Royal Observatory, Greenwich,...

 museums in London (2009–2011). They were also successful in being commissioned to build the Akershus University Hospital in Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

.

Dissing+Weitling are widely recognized as bridge architects after completing some 220 such projects worldwide. These include the Great Belt Bridge
Great Belt Fixed Link
The Great Belt Fixed Link is the fixed link between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen across the Great Belt. It consists of a road suspension bridge and railway tunnel between Zealand and the island Sprogø, as well as a box girder bridge between Sprogø and Funen...

 between Sealand and Funen
Funen
Funen , with a size of 2,984 km² , is the third-largest island of Denmark following Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy, and the 163rd largest island of the world. Funen is located in the central part of the country and has a population of 454,358 inhabitants . The main city is Odense, connected to the...

, the New Forth Crossing bridge in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, the Nelson Mandela Bridge
Nelson Mandela Bridge
The Nelson Mandela Bridge is a bridge in Johannesburg, South Africa. It was completed in 2003 with a R38 million price tag. The proposal for the bridge was to link up two main business areas of Braamfontein and Newtown as well as to rejuvenate and to a certain level modernize the inner city, which...

 in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 and the Stonecutters Bridge
Stonecutters Bridge
Stonecutters Bridge is a high level cable-stayed bridge which spans the Rambler Channel in Hong Kong, connecting Nam Wan Kok, Tsing Yi Island and Stonecutters Island...

 in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

. The Great Belt suspension bridge
Great Belt Fixed Link
The Great Belt Fixed Link is the fixed link between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen across the Great Belt. It consists of a road suspension bridge and railway tunnel between Zealand and the island Sprogø, as well as a box girder bridge between Sprogø and Funen...

, completed in 1998, is the world's third largest. With a length of 6790 metres (22,277 ft) and a free span of 1624 metres (5,328 ft), the vertical clearance for ships is 65 metres (213 ft).

Lundgaard & Tranberg
Lundgaard & Tranberg
Lundgaard & Tranberg Arkitekter is a Danish architectural firm, based in Copenhagen Denmark. It is most noted for the Tietgenkollegiet student housing in Ørestad from 2006 and the Royal Danish Playhouse on the Copenhagen harbourfront from 2008...

 are the designers of the Royal Danish Playhouse
Royal Danish Playhouse
The Royal Danish Playhouse is a theatre building for the Royal Danish Theatre, situated on the harbour front in the Frederiksstaden neighbourhood of central Copenhagen, Denmark...

 and the Tietgenkollegiet
Tietgenkollegiet
Tietgenkollegiet , named for Danish financier C. F. Tietgen , is a student residence built in new district Ørestad close to the centre of Copenhagen....

 student housing complex, both considered to be among Copenhagen's most successful new buildings in recent years.

Emerging practices


Another trend in contemporary Danish architecture is the emergence of a new generation of successful young practices, inspired more by international trends than by the modernist tradition in Scandinavia. The generation is spearheaded by Bjarke Ingels
Bjarke Ingels
Bjarke Ingels is a Danish architect. He heads the architectural practice Bjarke Ingels Group which he founded in 2006. In 2009 he co-founded the design consultancy KiBiSi...

 whose firm BIG (Bjarke Ingels Group) founded in 2006 has made an unusually rapid transition into a well-established firm.

From the beginning, BIG received international recognition for a number of projects, including Mountain Dwellings
Mountain Dwellings
Mountain Dwellings is an award-winning building in the Ørestad district of Copenhagen, Denmark, consisting of apartments above a multi-storey car park. The building is designed by Danish architectural practice Bjarke Ingels Group...

 in Ørestad
Ørestad
Ørestad is a developing city area in Copenhagen, Denmark, on the island of Amager. It is expected that 20,000 people will live in Ørestad, 20,000 will study, and 80,000 people will be employed in the area...

. Ideologically and conceptually, the practice is more closely related to Dutch firms such as OMA
Office for Metropolitan Architecture
OMA , is a Rotterdam based architecture firm of Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas.The firm was founded in 1975 by Rem Koolhaas and Elia Zenghelis with Madelon Vriesendorp and Zoe Zenghelis.-History:...

 – where Ingels worked from 1998 to 2001 – and MVRDV
MVRDV
MVRDV is a Rotterdam, Netherlands-based architecture and urban design practice founded in 1991. The name is an acronym for the founding members: Winy Maas , Jacob van Rijs and Nathalie de Vries...

 than to the work of Danish architects. BIG's major international breakthrough came in 2009 when the firm won six international competitions and gained several large commissions. These include an art museum on a cliffside overlooking Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, a canalside neighbourhood in Hamburg, a new city hall for Tallinn
Tallinn
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It occupies an area of with a population of 414,940. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the banks of the Gulf of Finland, south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg. Tallinn's Old Town is in the list...

, Estonia, a new national library for Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

, a low-energy highrise project in Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Shenzhen is a major city in the south of Southern China's Guangdong Province, situated immediately north of Hong Kong. The area became China's first—and one of the most successful—Special Economic Zones...

, China, and a World Village for Women's Sports in Malmö

Four young practices, CEBRA
CEBRA
CEBRA is a Danish architectural practice founded in Århus in 2001 by the architects Mikkel Frost, Carsten Primdahl and Kolja Nielsen. The practice is primarily occupied with building design but over the last few years an increasing number of planning projects has been developed in the office as...

, COBE, Transform and Effekt, won the main Golden Lion
Golden Lion
Il Leone d’Oro is the highest prize given to a film at the Venice Film Festival. The prize was introduced in 1949 by the organizing committee and is now regarded as one of the film industry's most distinguished prizes...

 award at the 2006 Venice Biennale of Architecture
10th International Architecture Exhibition
The 10th International Architecture Exhibition at the 2006 Venice Biennale of Architecture, Cities, architecture and society, lasted from September 10 to November 19 and was directed by Richard Burdett. The collateral section City-Port was held in Palermo until January 14, 2007...

 for their CO-EVOLUTION project, featuring proposals for sustainable urban development in four major Chinese cities. All four practices later went on to win high-profile competitions in Denmark and abroad. Effekt has won the competition for a new building for the Estonian Art Academy in Tallinn, Transform has a project on the City Hall Square in Copenhagen and COBE has won first prize in a competition for Scandinavia's largest sustainable district in Nordhavnen
Nordhavnen
Nordhavnen, or Nordhavn, is a harbour area at the coast of Øresund founded at the end of the 19th century in Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of more than 2 km²....

, Copenhagen.

Other notable emerging Danish architectural practices include Aart, Dorthe Mandrup Architects and NORD Architects.


Further reading

  • Danish Ministry of Culture: A nation of architecture – Denmark. 2007. 52p.
  • Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kim; Keiding, Martin; Amundsen, Marianne; Smidt, Claus M.: Danish architecture since 1754. Danish Architectural Press, 2007. 400p.
  • Faber, Tobias: A history of Danish architecture. Det Danske Selskab, Copenhagen, 1978. 316p.
  • Gehl, Jan: Life between buildings: using public space. New York Wokingham: Van Nostrand Reinhold , c1987. ISBN 0442230117. 202p.
  • Lind, Olaf: Architecture guide Danish islands. Copenhagen: Danish Architectural Press, 2007. 336p.
  • Sestoft, Jørgen; Hegner, Christiansen Jørgen; Guide to Danish architecture, 2 vols. Arkitektens Forlag, 1995. 272p.
  • Ørum-Nielsen, Jørn: Dwelling. Danish Architectural Press (Copenhagen). 1966. 261p.

External links

  • Architecture in Denmark. The Astoft Collection of Buildings of Denmark providing details of some 70 architecturally interesting buildings, mainly in Copenhagen, Sealand and Funen.
  • Danmarks Kirker/Churches in Denmark. From the National Museum of Denmark, the major basic reference series about Danish churches and their murals, furnishings and monuments.
  • Copenhagen X. Official website on modern architecture and urban development in Copenhagen